• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Procedure
 Results
 Discussion
 Summary
 Acknowledgments
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 482
Title: Levels of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in Florida-produced foods
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026713/00001
 Material Information
Title: Levels of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in Florida-produced foods
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: French, R. B ( Rowland Barnes )
Abbott, O. D ( Ouida Davis ), b. 1892
Townsend, Ruth O
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1951
 Subjects
Subject: Food -- Vitamin content   ( lcsh )
Niacin   ( lcsh )
Vitamin B2   ( lcsh )
Vitamin B1   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 19.
Statement of Responsibility: by R.B. French, O.D. Abbott and Ruth O. Townsend.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026713
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925739
oclc - 18266127
notis - AEN6395

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Procedure
        Page 6
        Collection and preparation of samples
            Page 6
        Analytical
            Page 6
    Results
        Page 7
        Average values
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Variation among varieties
            Page 12
        Effects of feeding corn, citrus or cane molasses on the vitamin content of pork
            Page 12
        Analyses on fish
            Page 13
        Thiamine, riboflavin and niacin in the white, the yolk and the whole egg
            Page 14
        Effect of pasteurization and homogenization on milk
            Page 14
        Effect of roasting on peanuts
            Page 15
    Discussion
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Summary
        Page 18
    Acknowledgments
        Page 18
    Literature cited
        Page 19
Full Text



August, 1951


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and

Niacin in Florida-Produced Foods

By R. B. FRENCH, O. D. ABBOTT and RUTH O. TOWNSEND






















Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 482










BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
Geo. F. Baughman, M.S., Business Mgr.3
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr."
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant8

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant4
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
A. L. Larson, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
9. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer13
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Eng.3
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Eng.2 3

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist3
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Hush.1
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist3
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist3
J. E. Pace, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.3
S. John Folks, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.4
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John D. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace Ph.D., .Asst. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.13
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.2
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.


EDITORIAL


J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor3
L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editors
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3 4

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist 1
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist3
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. D. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1s
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. 3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 's
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist3
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Biochemist3
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor3
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist 4
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst: Chemist3s
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
G. E. Batte, D.V.M., Asso. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoads, M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.

Motile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Slewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. W. Faville, Ph.D., Asst. Bacteriologist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist4
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
I. Stewart, M.S., Asst. Biochemist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist


EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugar Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
R. H. Webster, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hart.

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D'. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Pen. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION; JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge

GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.Y., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.



FIELD LABORATORIES
Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist

Strawterry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Vegetables--Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist 2

1 Head of Department
2In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SOn leave.















Contents

Page

INTRODUCTION .................... .. ................... 5

PROCEDURE ......................................................... 6

Collection and Preparation of Samples ................... ...................... 6

A analytical ............................................ ........................ ....................... 6

RESULTS .................. .................................. 7

Average Values .................... .................... .... ......... 7

Variation Among Varieties ..................................... .................. 12

Effects of Feeding Corn, Citrus or Cane Molasses on the Vitamin
Content of Pork ............................................................ 12

A analyses on F ish ......................................................... ............................. 13

Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin in the White, the Yolk and the
Whole Egg ..................... ................................................ .... 14

Effect of Pasteurization and Homogenization on Milk ..................... 14

Effect of Roasting on Peanuts .......................................... ........... 15

DISCUSSION ................. .................................... ...................... 15

SUMMARY ..................... ........................................................... 18


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ........................................................................ 18

LITERATURE CITED .. .................................... ......... ................................... 19










Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and

Niacin in Florida-Produced Foods

R. B. FRENCH, O. D. ABBOTT and RUTH O. TOWNSEND 1

Food habits in this country are changing and in the process are
becoming more varied. It is, therefore, important to have infor-
mation on the composition and nutritional values of foods in
order to be able to recognize and assess the principal sources of
the major dietary essentials. With this information on the com-
ponents of diets, together with knowledge on trends in food
habits as revealed by dietary surveys, faults in nutrition may be
identified even before symptoms due to malnutrition become
evident.
The immediate sources of information on nutritive essentials
are general tables compiled from data scattered through the
literature. These data usually represent an average of values
from several laboratories and may occasionally be those from one.
Not only have these data resulted from general analyses on foods
but also frequently they have been obtained from experiments
in which environment, genetic background, soil fertility and fer-
tilization have been variables. Results with soil fertility and
fertilization suggest that abnormal levels of nutrient elements
will only now and then affect vitamin level significantly. Both
genetic background and environment frequently have been shown
to be back of very significant changes in vitamin content (1, 5,
7, 8).2 More data on all of these points are needed.
The report presented herein gives the thiamine, riboflavin and
niacin contents of the more common fruits and vegetables grown
in Florida. In addition, values are reported on some important
subtropical products; on several fruits and vegetables to show
effect of variety on level of the vitamins; oh pork loin to indicate
the effect of feeding either citrus or cane molasses as compared
with corn-fed pork; on 10 of the commonly eaten fish and shell-
fish; on milk to show the effect of processing; on eggs to indicate
the distribution of the vitamins; and on peanuts to show the
losses occurred in roasting.

SProfessional Assistant.
SItalic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Procedure
Collection and Preparation of Samples.-Samples of foods were
collected and prepared by the same procedures that were de-
scribed in a previous bulletin (1), in which the levels of carotene
and ascorbic acid in a similar series of foods were given. In
general, these procedures involved compositing large samples of
uniformly high quality fruits and vegetables and then removing
convenient aliquots for analysis.
Analytical.-The microbiological procedure used for thiamine
was based on that of Kline and Friedman (6). In this procedure
thiamine was estimated by its effect on the:rate of fermentation
of baker's yeast and by measuring the amount of gas resulting.
The procedure for riboflavin was that of Strong (13) and in-
volved the electrometric titration of acid produced by Lactoba-
cillus casei, which shows sensitivity to different levels of ribo-
flavin. The procedure for niacin was that of Snell (12) .and was
similar in principle to that of riboflavin except that the organism
used was Lactobacillus arabinosus.
Dry matter determinations were made by placing the sample
in a current of air in an infra-red oven (4) and drying to con-
stant weight at a temperature of 80C. The following modifica-
tions have been introduced into the procedures.
A constant temperature bath containing a bottle shaking device
similar in design to that of Schultz, Atkin and Frey (11) was
constructed for the gasometric determination of thiamine. Syn-
thetic rubber connections cut down gas losses. One leveling bulb
for all stopcocked gasometers instead of one for each simplified
and speeded volume measurement. Fresh baker's yeast was
shipped weekly by special delivery from the Georgetown labora-
tories and upon receipt was immediately placed in a cool place.
These measures were necessary since yeast loses its sensitivity
to thiamine easily. Toward the end of the experiment (spring,
summer 1950) yeast was responding critically to lower levels of
thiamine in the blank than is given in the procedure, namely
from 0.5-1.5, instead of 1.0 to 2.0 micrograms.
Nutrient solution and agar to carry stock bacterial, cultures
were made up in tubes, sterilized and stored in wide mouth,
plastic capped quart jars. This method prevents evaporation and
serves as a double check against contamination of the tubes.
Lactobacillus casei had to be transferred occasionally through a
riboflavin-containing medium in order to maintain its sensitivity.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Procedure
Collection and Preparation of Samples.-Samples of foods were
collected and prepared by the same procedures that were de-
scribed in a previous bulletin (1), in which the levels of carotene
and ascorbic acid in a similar series of foods were given. In
general, these procedures involved compositing large samples of
uniformly high quality fruits and vegetables and then removing
convenient aliquots for analysis.
Analytical.-The microbiological procedure used for thiamine
was based on that of Kline and Friedman (6). In this procedure
thiamine was estimated by its effect on the:rate of fermentation
of baker's yeast and by measuring the amount of gas resulting.
The procedure for riboflavin was that of Strong (13) and in-
volved the electrometric titration of acid produced by Lactoba-
cillus casei, which shows sensitivity to different levels of ribo-
flavin. The procedure for niacin was that of Snell (12) .and was
similar in principle to that of riboflavin except that the organism
used was Lactobacillus arabinosus.
Dry matter determinations were made by placing the sample
in a current of air in an infra-red oven (4) and drying to con-
stant weight at a temperature of 80C. The following modifica-
tions have been introduced into the procedures.
A constant temperature bath containing a bottle shaking device
similar in design to that of Schultz, Atkin and Frey (11) was
constructed for the gasometric determination of thiamine. Syn-
thetic rubber connections cut down gas losses. One leveling bulb
for all stopcocked gasometers instead of one for each simplified
and speeded volume measurement. Fresh baker's yeast was
shipped weekly by special delivery from the Georgetown labora-
tories and upon receipt was immediately placed in a cool place.
These measures were necessary since yeast loses its sensitivity
to thiamine easily. Toward the end of the experiment (spring,
summer 1950) yeast was responding critically to lower levels of
thiamine in the blank than is given in the procedure, namely
from 0.5-1.5, instead of 1.0 to 2.0 micrograms.
Nutrient solution and agar to carry stock bacterial, cultures
were made up in tubes, sterilized and stored in wide mouth,
plastic capped quart jars. This method prevents evaporation and
serves as a double check against contamination of the tubes.
Lactobacillus casei had to be transferred occasionally through a
riboflavin-containing medium in order to maintain its sensitivity.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Procedure
Collection and Preparation of Samples.-Samples of foods were
collected and prepared by the same procedures that were de-
scribed in a previous bulletin (1), in which the levels of carotene
and ascorbic acid in a similar series of foods were given. In
general, these procedures involved compositing large samples of
uniformly high quality fruits and vegetables and then removing
convenient aliquots for analysis.
Analytical.-The microbiological procedure used for thiamine
was based on that of Kline and Friedman (6). In this procedure
thiamine was estimated by its effect on the:rate of fermentation
of baker's yeast and by measuring the amount of gas resulting.
The procedure for riboflavin was that of Strong (13) and in-
volved the electrometric titration of acid produced by Lactoba-
cillus casei, which shows sensitivity to different levels of ribo-
flavin. The procedure for niacin was that of Snell (12) .and was
similar in principle to that of riboflavin except that the organism
used was Lactobacillus arabinosus.
Dry matter determinations were made by placing the sample
in a current of air in an infra-red oven (4) and drying to con-
stant weight at a temperature of 80C. The following modifica-
tions have been introduced into the procedures.
A constant temperature bath containing a bottle shaking device
similar in design to that of Schultz, Atkin and Frey (11) was
constructed for the gasometric determination of thiamine. Syn-
thetic rubber connections cut down gas losses. One leveling bulb
for all stopcocked gasometers instead of one for each simplified
and speeded volume measurement. Fresh baker's yeast was
shipped weekly by special delivery from the Georgetown labora-
tories and upon receipt was immediately placed in a cool place.
These measures were necessary since yeast loses its sensitivity
to thiamine easily. Toward the end of the experiment (spring,
summer 1950) yeast was responding critically to lower levels of
thiamine in the blank than is given in the procedure, namely
from 0.5-1.5, instead of 1.0 to 2.0 micrograms.
Nutrient solution and agar to carry stock bacterial, cultures
were made up in tubes, sterilized and stored in wide mouth,
plastic capped quart jars. This method prevents evaporation and
serves as a double check against contamination of the tubes.
Lactobacillus casei had to be transferred occasionally through a
riboflavin-containing medium in order to maintain its sensitivity.







Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


A simple and useful method of inoculating culture tubes was
employed. The bevel of an 11/2-inch 22-guage needle was cut off
square and pushed in reverse fashion through a skirt-type rubber
stopper used in serum bottles. This cap, sterilized, was then
attached to the top of the test tube containing the organism in
suspension. Upon inverting the tube and applying upward pres-
sure on the rubber cap, the inoculum was forced through the
needle and let dropwise into the tube to be inoculated. One hun-
dred tubes can be inoculated aseptically in 15 minutes.
Digestion of the samples in a pressure cooker (standard size
for canning) proved to be more satisfactory and convenient than
in the autoclave.
The indicator, bromthymol blue, was used with a pH meter for
electrometric titration in conjunction with sensitivity curves.
Stirring with motion obtained by an air jet against a turbine
wheel constructed of a cork fitted with vanes made from film
proved highly satisfactory. The low inertia of this system is
convenient. Such procedure is not only rapid but also highly
precise.

Results
Average Values.-Table 1 contains the results of averaged
analyses for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and dry matter in Flor-
ida-grown foods. These results represent the nutritive value of

TABLE 1.-THIAMINE, RIBOFLAyIN AND NIACIN CONTENT OF A 100-GRAM
EDIBLE PORTION OF FLORIDA-PRODUCED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Dry I i
Name I Matter I Thiamine Riboflavin Niain
Fruit Percent Mg. Mg. Mg.
'Antidesma bunius ............ 6.3 0.031 0.072 0.53
Avocado ............................. 11.2 0.025 0.080 1.48
Banana .............................. 27.3 I 0.033 0.068 1.10
Canistel ............................ 37.0 0 0.036 2.20
Sweet carambolas ............ 6.9 0.011 0.031 0.53
Grapefruit, seedling ........ 10.8 0.015 0.008 0.15
Guava, pink .................. 18.9 0.015 0.052 1.22
Guava, white ............ 19.4 0.016 0.052 1.26
Lemons ....................... 10.7 0 0.014 0.06
Lime, Persian .................. 0.004 0.024 0.11
Lime, key .......................... 13.8 0 0.016 0.13
Litchi .................................. 40.8 0 0.050 0.74
Mango:
Anderson ........................ 8.2 0.026 0.066 0.65
Brooks ............................ 9.5 0.015 0.055 0.55
Cambodiana .................. ...... 0 0.045 0.66
Edward .......................... 16.3 0.042 0.085 1.92
Haden ............................ 6.6 0.025 0.066 0.61







Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


A simple and useful method of inoculating culture tubes was
employed. The bevel of an 11/2-inch 22-guage needle was cut off
square and pushed in reverse fashion through a skirt-type rubber
stopper used in serum bottles. This cap, sterilized, was then
attached to the top of the test tube containing the organism in
suspension. Upon inverting the tube and applying upward pres-
sure on the rubber cap, the inoculum was forced through the
needle and let dropwise into the tube to be inoculated. One hun-
dred tubes can be inoculated aseptically in 15 minutes.
Digestion of the samples in a pressure cooker (standard size
for canning) proved to be more satisfactory and convenient than
in the autoclave.
The indicator, bromthymol blue, was used with a pH meter for
electrometric titration in conjunction with sensitivity curves.
Stirring with motion obtained by an air jet against a turbine
wheel constructed of a cork fitted with vanes made from film
proved highly satisfactory. The low inertia of this system is
convenient. Such procedure is not only rapid but also highly
precise.

Results
Average Values.-Table 1 contains the results of averaged
analyses for thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and dry matter in Flor-
ida-grown foods. These results represent the nutritive value of

TABLE 1.-THIAMINE, RIBOFLAyIN AND NIACIN CONTENT OF A 100-GRAM
EDIBLE PORTION OF FLORIDA-PRODUCED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.
Dry I i
Name I Matter I Thiamine Riboflavin Niain
Fruit Percent Mg. Mg. Mg.
'Antidesma bunius ............ 6.3 0.031 0.072 0.53
Avocado ............................. 11.2 0.025 0.080 1.48
Banana .............................. 27.3 I 0.033 0.068 1.10
Canistel ............................ 37.0 0 0.036 2.20
Sweet carambolas ............ 6.9 0.011 0.031 0.53
Grapefruit, seedling ........ 10.8 0.015 0.008 0.15
Guava, pink .................. 18.9 0.015 0.052 1.22
Guava, white ............ 19.4 0.016 0.052 1.26
Lemons ....................... 10.7 0 0.014 0.06
Lime, Persian .................. 0.004 0.024 0.11
Lime, key .......................... 13.8 0 0.016 0.13
Litchi .................................. 40.8 0 0.050 0.74
Mango:
Anderson ........................ 8.2 0.026 0.066 0.65
Brooks ............................ 9.5 0.015 0.055 0.55
Cambodiana .................. ...... 0 0.045 0.66
Edward .......................... 16.3 0.042 0.085 1.92
Haden ............................ 6.6 0.025 0.066 0.61








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 1.-THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN CONTENT OF A 100-GRAM
EDIBLE PORTION OF FLORIDA-PRODUCED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (CON-
TINUED).
S Dry
Name Matter Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
Percent Mg. Mg. Mg.
Liver .............................. ...... 0.049 0.042 0.43
Peach .............................. ...... 0.087 0.044 0.63
Tallant No. 1 ................ 18.7 0.010 0.073 0.50
Tallant No. 2 ................ 12.6 0.011 0.073 0.73
Zill .................................. 10.0 0.041 0.073 0.90
Orange ................................ 12.8 0.008-- 0.015- 0.09-
Papaya .............................. 12.3 0.032 0.026 0.25
Passion fruit .................... 27.6 0 0.175 1.88
Plum, governor's .............. 34.8 0 0.033 0.38
Plum, scarlet (a) ............ 13.5 0 0.036 0.66
Sapodilla ............................ 19.2 0 0.008 0.32
Sapote, white .................... 31.3 0.017 0.050 0.57
Strawberries .................... 10.0 0 0.005 0.53
Tamarind .......................... 76.0 0 0.049 1.94
Tangerines ........................ 12.7 0.008 0.016 0.13
Watermelon ...................... 9.5 0.017 0.025 0.18-
Watermelon seeds .......... 98.0 0 0.181 0.97
Vegetables
Bean, lima, green ............ 26.1 0.292 0.268 2.27
Bean, Bountiful ................ 9.5 0.068 0.271 0.82
Bean, Tender green .......... 11.5 0.057 0.180 0.96
Bean, Kentucky
Wonder, seeds .......... 24.0 0.174 0.232 1.81
Bean, Kentucky
Wonder, pods ............ ...... 0.050 0.048 1.05
Beets .................................. 12.0 0.035 0.037 0.28
Beet greens ........................ 9.5 0.136 0.160 0.64
Broccoli .............................. 10.1 0.134 0.368 1.15
Cabbage .............................. 8.1 0.033 0.040 0.26
Cabbage, red .................... 10.3 0.044 0.052 0.27
Carrot ................................ 12.7 0.061 0.105 1.33
Cauliflower ........................ 8.9 0.120 0.064 0.81
Celery, bleached --................ 6.8 0.006 0.024 0.38
Celery, Pascal .................. 6.6 0.006 0.026 0.43
Chayotes ............................ 5.1 0.080 0.029 0.36
Collards .............................. 15.4 0.139 0.564 2.78
Corn, sweet, yellow .......... 24.6 0.126 0.152 1.94
Cucumber .......................... 3.7 0.040 0.092 0.43
Egg plant .......................... 10.1 0.064 0.068 0.85
Lettuce, Iceberg .............. 5.2 0.082 0.025 0.24
Lettuce, Bibb .................... 5.7 0.090 0.134 0.51
Mushroom .......................... 10.3 0.100 0.400 3.15
Mustard greens ................ 13.7 0.141 0.250 0.86
Okra .................................. 11.1 0.113 0.120 0.95
Onion .................................. 12.3 0.025 0.050 0.15
Parsley .............................. 14.2 0.123 0.375 1.58
Peas, English .................. 22.3 0.354 0.140 2.74
Peas, blackeyed (b) ........ 24.3 0.262 0.238 1.90
Peas, blackeyed, seeds .... ...... 0.404 0.268 0.96
Peas, blackeyed, pods ...... 10.2 0.102 0.174 2.45
Peas, Sugar
Crowder (b) .............. 27.9 0.124 0.139 1.48
Peas, Sugar
Crowder, seed ......... ...... 0.163 0.156 1.62
Peas, Sugar
Crowder, pods .......... 10.5 0.070 0.102 1.11
Peppers, bell .................... 5.1 0.036 0.092 1.17








Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


TABLE 1.-THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN CONTENT OF A 100-GRAM
EDIBLE PORTION OF FLORIDA-PRODUCED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES (CON-
CLUDED).
Dry I
Name Matter Thiamine I Riboflavin Niacin
Percent Mg. Mg. Mg.
Vegetables, Cont'd
Potatoes, white ................ 22.8 0.168 0.029 1.21
Potatoes, Red Bliss .......... 22.2 0.018 0.004 0.86
Potatoes, sweet ................ 31.4 0.111 0.051 0.88
Pumpkin ............................ 8.7 0.040 0.037 0.41
Radish .............................. 5.9 0.023 0.021 0.27
Rutabagas .......................... 12.8 0.080 0.048 1.31
Spinach, New Zealand .... 8.0 0.134 0.304 0.64
Squash, winter ................ 12.8 0.044 0.042 0.60
Squash, summer ............. 6.0 0 0.044 5.10
Squash, African ............. 8.2 0.027 0.018 0.63
Squash, seed, ..............
African (c) .............. 98.0 0.122 0.114 2.40
Squash, acorn .................. 5.6 0.040 0.036 0.31
Tomato .............................. 6.4 0.066 0.050 0.80
Turnip ...-.......................... 8.9 0.035 0.066 0.75
Turnip greens .................. 10.7 0.087 0.230 0.94
Nuts
Coconut .............................. 54.5 0.019 0.026 0.27
Coconut milk .................... ...... 0.002 0.004 trace
Peanut ............................... 97.4 0.981 0.094 17.50
Pecan .................................. 95.4 0.159 2.285 -8.30
Wild greens
Chickweed (d)
Stellaria media ........ 8.4 0.016 0.136 0.51
White Dutch clover (e)
Trifolium repens ...... 15.1 0.212 1.360 0.95
Sweet clover (e)
Melilotus hubam ...... 20.9 0.104 1.444 0.56
Sweet clover (e)
Melilotus indica ........ 14.5 0.078 1.440 0.66
Trefoil
Lotus uliginosus ...... 24.4 0.190 0.960 4.60
Crotalaria striata ............ 19.0 0.346 0.960 2.50
Lambsquarters
Chenopodium album.. 14.5 0.110 0.468 1.18
Peppergrass
Lepidium virginicum 21.9 0.045 0.623 2.54
Pokeweed (f)
Phytolacca rigida .... 14.2 0.080 0.328 1.19
Spiderwort .
Tradescantia flu-
minensis .................... 10.0 0.042 0.131 0.24
Miscellaneous
Acorns, water oak (g) .... 92.9 0 0.173 4.15
Notes:
a) Purple mombin, red mombin, Spanish plum, scarlet plum: Spondias purpurea L.
b) As usually prepared some younger pods are included. The pods in this case
amounted to about 10% by weight.
c) 32.6 percent fat; Ref. I. 1.4718 at 26oC.; C.S.R. = 18.7.
d) Each wild green sample consisted of leaves and young stems with a modicum
of woody stems.
e) Ratio of leaves and young shoots to old stems approximately 50-50.
f) Roots of pokeweed are classed as poisonous. Berries and old leaves have
been spoken of as possibly toxic. White rats will eat both berries and leaves
without apparent harm.
g) Carotene value: 15,650 microgms/100 gm.








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


edible portions of various foods expressed in terms of milligrams
of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin per hundred grams of the fresh
material.


TABLE 2.-PERCENTAGE CONTRIBUTED TO THE DAILY REQUIREMENT OF
THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN BY A SERVING OF SOME FLORIDA-
PRODUCED FOODS.


Name


Fruit
A vocado ................ ...............

Banana ......................................
Canistel ....................................
Guava ....................................
Passion fruit ...........................
Tam arind ................................
Greens
Beet ..........................................
Broccoli ......................................
Cauliflower ..............................
Collards ...................................
Lettuce .....................................
M ustard ..................................
Spinach ............................
Turnip ......................................
Wild Greens
Clover, White Dutch ..............
Clover, Trefoil .........................
Lam bsquarters ...................
Peppergrass ............................
Pokew eed .................................
Root Crops and Tubers
Carrots ............................
Potatoes, w hite ........................
Potatoes, sw eet .......................
Rutabagas ...............................
Seeds and Nuts
Beans, green limas ................
Corn, sweet .............................
Peanut .......................................
Peas, English ........................
Peas, field ................................
Pecans .......................................
Other Vegetables
Beans, snap ............................
M ushroom s ................................
Bell peppers ..............................
Sum m er squash ........................
Other Foods
Eggs ........ ............... .................
SM ilk .........................................
Fish ........................................
Pork .....................................


Average
Serving



2 pared and
seeded
1 small, peeled
1 cup
1 pared, seeded
1 cup
1 cup

1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
2 cup
14 head
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup

1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup
1 cup

1 large, scraped
1 pared
1 pared
% cup, scraped

2 cup, shelled
2 cup
16 nuts, skinned
% cup
% cup
12 meats

1 cup
7
1
1 cup

1
1 glass
filet
2 chops


Wt.


Gms.


100
100
100
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
75
100
100
100

100
100
100
100
100

100
120
145
100

100
115
14
100
100
14

100
100
100
100

52
210
113
113


Contribution to
Daily Require-
ment* in Percent
Thia- Ribo- Nia-
mine flavin cin
**

.... .... 10
8


* Based on 1.5 mg. for thiamine, 2.0 mg. for riboflavin and 15 mg. for niacin.
** Dashes indicate a less than 5 percent contribution.







Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


In an attempt to correlate the data of Table 1 and facilitate its
use the computations of Table 2 have been made. The figures of
Table 2 are the percentages that an average serving of a food
item furnishes toward the satisfaction of the daily requirement
for thiamine, riboflavin and niacin. The daily vitamin require-
ment is liberally estimated at 1.5 milligrams of thiamine, 2 milli-
grams of riboflavin and 15 milligrams of niacin (9).
Fruits.-Fruit in general is low or lacking in thiamine, poor in
riboflavin and varies from a trace to significant levels in niacin.
The fruits highest in niacin are the avocado, banana, canistel,
guava, tamarind and passion fruit. Passion fruit also contains a
fair level of riboflavin.
Vegetables.-Among the vegetables the green leafy ones stand
out as carriers of the three vitamins. Attention is directed to the
high worth of collards, a green widely eaten throughout the South.
The wild greens likewise show good values, with clovers, grown in
the flatwoods as stock food, among the highest.
The root crops, rutabaga, carrot and both white and sweet
potato, show medium values for both thiamine and niacin, while
turnips are somewhat lower.
The seed crops show better balance in distribution of the vita-
mins than most of the other vegetables. Green lima beans and
English peas are outstanding in their content of thiamine and
niacin.
The summer squash stands out for its unusual level of niacin,
namely over a five milligram value. The variety tested was the
Early Prolific Straight Neck.
Nuts.-The pecan and peanut, like many seeds, are high in
certain of the B vitamins. The thiamine and niacin levels of the
peanut and the riboflavin and niacin contents of the pecan should
be particularly noted. The data suggest that the pecan and pea-
nut are, for these essentials, dietary complements. Nuts, because
of their high dry matter and very high energy values, are not
eaten in quantities comparable to the other items of the tables
and as a result contribute less to requirement satisfaction than
their high vitamin values might lead one to expect. The coco-
nut (higher in carbohydrate and lower in protein), with its low
vitamin values, stands out as an exception among the nuts.
Acorns of the water oak, precursors of some of the vitamins in
pork, are highly regarded as food for hogs and-the analyses







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


show-are excellent sources of niacin and carotene and a fair
source of riboflavin.
Other Foods.-Other foods that are mentioned in Table 2 are
eggs and milk which contribute mainly to the riboflavin quota of
the diet, fish which shows a high niacin contribution, and pork,
high in niacin and thiamine.
Variation Among Varieties.-A group of analyses in Table 1
gives the dry matter, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents of
10 varieties of mangos grown in 1949. The dry matter shows
wide variation. The B vitamin level shows considerable uni-
formity. Thiamine and riboflavin are quite low and niacin, with
the exception of that in the Edward, is only fair in all varieties.
A repetition of analysis of the 1950 crop confirmed the higher
level of the Edward variety in niacin.
Other analyses on different varieties or on related types given
in Table 1 are for cabbage, celery, guava and limes, which are poor
sources of these vitamins, lettuce, which shows an appreciable
spread of values in riboflavin, squash, showing a spread in niacin,
and the varieties or types which are better sources of the vita-
mins, beans, field peas and potatoes showing large variations.
Effect of Feeding Corn and Citrus or Cane Molasses on the
Vitamin Content of Pork.-Analyses are given in Table 3 on dry
matter, fat, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin content of samples of
fresh pork from pigs that had been fed a basal ration of 70 per-
cent corn and rations in which 40 percent of the corn was replaced
by either cane or citrus molasses (2).
TABLE 3.-ANALYSIS OF 100-GRAM EDIBLE PORTION OF FRESH PORK FOR
DRY MATTER, FAT, THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN.
Dry
Diet Matter Fat Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
I Percent Percent Mg. I Mg. Mg.
Corn (basal) 27.50.66 17.55.44 1.125.140 0.226.033 6.92_.23
Cane Molasses 28.8+1.18 17.64.43 .717.191 .230.027 6.35.57
Citrus Molasses 29.8+0.65 19.52.96 .630-.041 .188..008 7.25.25

The vitamin levels were approximately the same in all diets
and averaged for the three feeds, in milligrams per 100 grams,
0.095 for thiamine, 0.395 for riboflavin and 10.30 for niacin.
Analyses were made on aliquots of a composite sample com-
posed of equal parts by weight of portion of the eye muscle just
anterior to the last rib and the lean muscles of the butt end of the
picnic and the butt end of the ham. The pork had been roasted
in a 350F. oven to an internal temperature of 1850F.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


show-are excellent sources of niacin and carotene and a fair
source of riboflavin.
Other Foods.-Other foods that are mentioned in Table 2 are
eggs and milk which contribute mainly to the riboflavin quota of
the diet, fish which shows a high niacin contribution, and pork,
high in niacin and thiamine.
Variation Among Varieties.-A group of analyses in Table 1
gives the dry matter, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin contents of
10 varieties of mangos grown in 1949. The dry matter shows
wide variation. The B vitamin level shows considerable uni-
formity. Thiamine and riboflavin are quite low and niacin, with
the exception of that in the Edward, is only fair in all varieties.
A repetition of analysis of the 1950 crop confirmed the higher
level of the Edward variety in niacin.
Other analyses on different varieties or on related types given
in Table 1 are for cabbage, celery, guava and limes, which are poor
sources of these vitamins, lettuce, which shows an appreciable
spread of values in riboflavin, squash, showing a spread in niacin,
and the varieties or types which are better sources of the vita-
mins, beans, field peas and potatoes showing large variations.
Effect of Feeding Corn and Citrus or Cane Molasses on the
Vitamin Content of Pork.-Analyses are given in Table 3 on dry
matter, fat, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin content of samples of
fresh pork from pigs that had been fed a basal ration of 70 per-
cent corn and rations in which 40 percent of the corn was replaced
by either cane or citrus molasses (2).
TABLE 3.-ANALYSIS OF 100-GRAM EDIBLE PORTION OF FRESH PORK FOR
DRY MATTER, FAT, THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN.
Dry
Diet Matter Fat Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
I Percent Percent Mg. I Mg. Mg.
Corn (basal) 27.50.66 17.55.44 1.125.140 0.226.033 6.92_.23
Cane Molasses 28.8+1.18 17.64.43 .717.191 .230.027 6.35.57
Citrus Molasses 29.8+0.65 19.52.96 .630-.041 .188..008 7.25.25

The vitamin levels were approximately the same in all diets
and averaged for the three feeds, in milligrams per 100 grams,
0.095 for thiamine, 0.395 for riboflavin and 10.30 for niacin.
Analyses were made on aliquots of a composite sample com-
posed of equal parts by weight of portion of the eye muscle just
anterior to the last rib and the lean muscles of the butt end of the
picnic and the butt end of the ham. The pork had been roasted
in a 350F. oven to an internal temperature of 1850F.







Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


The figures in the table are averages with their standard
deviations for the four animals fed each diet. The large vari-
ability in the fat percentage of the lean muscles showed no corre-
lation with any other variable, such as dry matter. The thiamine
content of the pork showed considerable variation in individual
samples but was significantly higher for the basal ration than
for the other two. The variability in individual riboflavin analy-
ses was about one-half that for the thiamine and in averages
was not significant, although there was a trend for the citrus
molasses ration to show lower riboflavin values in pork than the
other two. The variability of individual values for niacin was
least, with the citrus molasses producing significantly higher
values than the cane and with the corn ration intermediate.
Unlike plants which synthesize their own vitamins, the level
of vitamins in animal tissues or animal products, like milk or
eggs, depends upon the level of vitamin in the food eaten, except
in a case like the following: The synthesis of thiamine-in milli-
grams/100 grams-by bacteria in the alimentary tract is sug-
gested by a comparison of the level of thiamine in the food
(0.095) of the corn-fed hogs with .that (1.125) of the fresh pork
and that (2.300) in the dry matter of the feces. The feces analy-
ses are not presented in detail because of lack of an adequate
collection and sampling technique but they suggest that the diets
produce an intestinal flora favoring thiamine synthesis in the
following order: Corn (2.300), cane (1.780) and citrus molasses
(0.533), which is likewise the order of the levels of thiamine in
the three lots of pork.
Analyses of Fish.-Table 4 contains analyses for the B vita-
mins on 10 of the commonly eaten fish and shellfish. The deter-

TABLE 4.-LEVELS OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN IN 100-GRAM
PORTIONS OF FREQUENTLY EATEN FISH AND SHELLFISH.
Dry Ribo-
Name Matter Thiamine flavin Niacin
Percent Mg. Mg. Mg.
Fresh Water Fish
Catfish .................................. 16.1 0.040 0.028 1.69
Large mouth bass ............ 20.2 0.101 0.028 2.12
Speckled perch .................... 18.3 trace 0.028 1.38
Salt Water Fish
Mullet .................................... 25.8 0.076 0.080 5.16
Redfish ................................ 23.5 0.148 0.048 3.51
Speckled trout .................... 20.8 0.090 0.060 2.73
Spanish mackerel ................ 20.8 0.090 0.104 2.71
Crayfish (Florida lobster) 18.3 0.010 0.041 1.93
Oysters ................................. 19.7 0.105 0.079 1.42
Shrimp .................................. 20.5 0.032 0.038 2.41







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


minations were made on samples of the fish as prepared for
eating. Catfish, large mouth bass and speckled perch (crappie)
are representatives of the fresh water varieties. Redfish, speck-
led sea trout weakfishh), Spanish mackerel, and the shellfish-
crayfish, oysters and shrimp (pink, from Key West) are from
salt water.
These analyses reveal that fish range from poor to medium in
value as sources of thiamine and riboflavin, to good as sources
of niacin. There is a suggestion in the data that the fish of high
fat content, namely speckled trout, mackerel and mullet, are
among the better sources of niacin. There is also a similar sug-
gestion in the data of Table 1 that food with a high fat content
is apt to be a good source of niacin: e.g. avocado, peanut, pecan.
Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin in the White, the Yolk and
the Whole Egg.-Table 5 gives the level of thiamine, riboflavin
and niacin in the white, the yolk and the whole egg. The eggs
were produced by a flock running together, getting the same
treatment and eating the same commercially prepared feed. The
flock consisted of New Hampshires, producing brown-shelled
eggs, and Leghorns, producing the white.

TABLE 5.-LEVEL OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN IN 100-GRAM
PORTION OF EGGS.
Name Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Egg whites (Leghorn) .................... 0.002 0.475 0.10
Egg yolks (Leghorn) .................. 0.286 0.650 0.05
Whole egg (Leghorn) .................... 0.097 0.533 0.06
Egg whites (New Hampshire) .... 0.002 0.380 0.10
Egg yolks (New Hampshire) ...... 0.234 0.710 0.04
Whole egg (New Hampshire) ...... 0.080 0.490 0.06

While differences are observed in the analytical values, they
are in fairly good agreement. There is practically no thiamine in
the white nor niacin in either the white or yolk." Levels of thia-
mine and riboflavin in the yolk and of riboflavin in the white
show the egg to be a fair. source of thiamine and an excellent
source of riboflavin. The small variations between eggs produced
by the two breeds of hens suggest again that the vitamin level
of the animal product is dependent upon the level of the vitamin
in the food.
Effect of Pasteurization and Homogenization on Milk.-Analy-
ses were run on the same lot of milk before and after short-time
pasteurization and after homogenization (Table 6).







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


minations were made on samples of the fish as prepared for
eating. Catfish, large mouth bass and speckled perch (crappie)
are representatives of the fresh water varieties. Redfish, speck-
led sea trout weakfishh), Spanish mackerel, and the shellfish-
crayfish, oysters and shrimp (pink, from Key West) are from
salt water.
These analyses reveal that fish range from poor to medium in
value as sources of thiamine and riboflavin, to good as sources
of niacin. There is a suggestion in the data that the fish of high
fat content, namely speckled trout, mackerel and mullet, are
among the better sources of niacin. There is also a similar sug-
gestion in the data of Table 1 that food with a high fat content
is apt to be a good source of niacin: e.g. avocado, peanut, pecan.
Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin in the White, the Yolk and
the Whole Egg.-Table 5 gives the level of thiamine, riboflavin
and niacin in the white, the yolk and the whole egg. The eggs
were produced by a flock running together, getting the same
treatment and eating the same commercially prepared feed. The
flock consisted of New Hampshires, producing brown-shelled
eggs, and Leghorns, producing the white.

TABLE 5.-LEVEL OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN IN 100-GRAM
PORTION OF EGGS.
Name Thiamine Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Egg whites (Leghorn) .................... 0.002 0.475 0.10
Egg yolks (Leghorn) .................. 0.286 0.650 0.05
Whole egg (Leghorn) .................... 0.097 0.533 0.06
Egg whites (New Hampshire) .... 0.002 0.380 0.10
Egg yolks (New Hampshire) ...... 0.234 0.710 0.04
Whole egg (New Hampshire) ...... 0.080 0.490 0.06

While differences are observed in the analytical values, they
are in fairly good agreement. There is practically no thiamine in
the white nor niacin in either the white or yolk." Levels of thia-
mine and riboflavin in the yolk and of riboflavin in the white
show the egg to be a fair. source of thiamine and an excellent
source of riboflavin. The small variations between eggs produced
by the two breeds of hens suggest again that the vitamin level
of the animal product is dependent upon the level of the vitamin
in the food.
Effect of Pasteurization and Homogenization on Milk.-Analy-
ses were run on the same lot of milk before and after short-time
pasteurization and after homogenization (Table 6).








Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


TABLE 6.-LEVELS OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN IN 100 GRAMS
OF RAW, PASTEURIZED AND HOMOGENIZED MILK.
Name Thiamine I Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Milk, raw ....................................... 0.023 0.244 0.15
Milk, pasteurized ......................... 0.026 0.248 0.17
Milk, homogenized .......................... 0.026 0.248 0.13

The levels of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin were almost identi-
cal in the treated milks with those in the raw milk.
Effect of Roasting.on Peanuts.-Peanuts, high in components
of the B complex, were oven-roasted for 20 minutes at 350 F.
Comparative analyses (Table 7) of the roasted with the raw
peanut showed that about three-quarters of the thiamine was
destroyed by the air heating, even though they were protected
by their skins during roasting. The roasting had little effect
on the riboflavin or niacin level, a fact that is emphasized by the
levels of the vitamins in the peanut butter which was made from
the same lot of peanuts. The peanuts used in the roasting tests
were of the Dixie Runner variety.
A sample of commercial peanut meal used in-making up the
rations for the hog feeding experiment is included in this table
to suggest that different varieties of peanuts vary widely in their
vitamin content and on this account would be good material to
use to demonstrate effects of cross-breeding and variety on the
vitamin concentration.

TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF ROASTING ON LEVEL OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND
NIACIN IN 100-GRAM PORTIONS OF PEANUTS.
Name Thiamine I Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Peanuts, raw, without skins .......... 0.967 0.090 19.1
Peanuts roasted at 3500 for 20 ....
minutes and skinned .............. 0.246 0.089 17.8
Peanut skins after roasting ......... 0.600 0.338 7.2
Peanut butter .................................. 0.240 0.086 19.0
Peanut meal ..................................... 0.252 0.710 35.8

Discussion
Three types of methods are available for determination of
vitamins, namely chemical, biological and microbiological. They
all have their difficulties and limitations. In general, the first
is precise when dealing with purified vitamins but when handling
different samples may suffer from interference from other com-
pounds that are present. The second measures response of
laboratory animals to critical levels of the one nutrient varied in








Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


TABLE 6.-LEVELS OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND NIACIN IN 100 GRAMS
OF RAW, PASTEURIZED AND HOMOGENIZED MILK.
Name Thiamine I Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Milk, raw ....................................... 0.023 0.244 0.15
Milk, pasteurized ......................... 0.026 0.248 0.17
Milk, homogenized .......................... 0.026 0.248 0.13

The levels of thiamine, riboflavin and niacin were almost identi-
cal in the treated milks with those in the raw milk.
Effect of Roasting.on Peanuts.-Peanuts, high in components
of the B complex, were oven-roasted for 20 minutes at 350 F.
Comparative analyses (Table 7) of the roasted with the raw
peanut showed that about three-quarters of the thiamine was
destroyed by the air heating, even though they were protected
by their skins during roasting. The roasting had little effect
on the riboflavin or niacin level, a fact that is emphasized by the
levels of the vitamins in the peanut butter which was made from
the same lot of peanuts. The peanuts used in the roasting tests
were of the Dixie Runner variety.
A sample of commercial peanut meal used in-making up the
rations for the hog feeding experiment is included in this table
to suggest that different varieties of peanuts vary widely in their
vitamin content and on this account would be good material to
use to demonstrate effects of cross-breeding and variety on the
vitamin concentration.

TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF ROASTING ON LEVEL OF THIAMINE, RIBOFLAVIN AND
NIACIN IN 100-GRAM PORTIONS OF PEANUTS.
Name Thiamine I Riboflavin Niacin
Mg. Mg. Mg.
Peanuts, raw, without skins .......... 0.967 0.090 19.1
Peanuts roasted at 3500 for 20 ....
minutes and skinned .............. 0.246 0.089 17.8
Peanut skins after roasting ......... 0.600 0.338 7.2
Peanut butter .................................. 0.240 0.086 19.0
Peanut meal ..................................... 0.252 0.710 35.8

Discussion
Three types of methods are available for determination of
vitamins, namely chemical, biological and microbiological. They
all have their difficulties and limitations. In general, the first
is precise when dealing with purified vitamins but when handling
different samples may suffer from interference from other com-
pounds that are present. The second measures response of
laboratory animals to critical levels of the one nutrient varied in







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the food. The third is like the second method except that micro-
organisms are the "laboratory animals." The response of the
animal is due to the amount of the nutrient or vitamin that gets
into its blood stream and so the factor of digestibility is also
included in results from the second method and possibly also
to some extent in the third. In working with factors that affect
level of vitamins in the food the chemical method would be chosen
if the procedure has been worked out for the type of sample to
be investigated. In working with factors that concern the
amount of vitamin that is netted to the organism, the second or
biological procedure is preferable. However, since this method
is elaborate and time-consuming and requires large numbers of
animals to obtain results of comparative preciseness, recourse to
microbiological methods has proved advantageous. Large popu-
lations of organisms are used in the latter method and check
results show suitable preciseness. Comparison (3) of analytical
results on identical samples using the three types of methods
show wide variability. They suggest that variation through per-
sonal bias and from applying unmodified techniques to different
kinds of samples may result in serious error.
Methods of vitamin analysis are still in process of development
and improvement. A comparison of selected averages (items of
Table 2) with a 1946 compilation (9) shows the thiamine values
(Table 1) to be somewhat lower, riboflavin about the same and
niacin values not complete enough to compare. A similar com-
parison with a 1950 compilation (14) shows thiamine values
about the same, riboflavin values likewise or slightly higher and
niacin values slightly higher. It should be emphasized that the
general rating one would give the individual food as a source of
vitamins from either these data or the 1950 compilation would
be the same with only few exceptions. For example, these data
present a value for riboflavin for collards that is double, while
the corresponding value for turnip greens is half that of the
1950 compilation. Part of, such variation in foods like greens
might come from differing ages of leaf when gathered and the
variable proportion of leaf tissue and woody material in the
sample, and part could come from other factors such as environ-
ment. The values for pecans offer another example: Both ribo-
flavin and niacin values are almost 10 times those given in the
compared data. These data were obtained on the Elliott variety
and suggest that varietal differences in levels of riboflavin and
niacin in pecans may be large.







Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


The trend of the niacin values to be slightly higher should be
kept in mind as a possible environmental difference. Such a
fact could be confirmed only by experimental work designed to
ascertain that end.
These data suggest that the old answer to the question as to
where one can get his vitamins-"in a varied diet"-is still quite
proper. Obviously the concentration of vitamins in various
plants or even in different varieties of the same species varies
and one plant or one variety may be an excellent source of one
vitamin and another plant or different variety an excellent source
of another vitamin. Greens and seeds are the best all-around
plant sources. Greens, particularly the wild varieties, are also
excellent sources of carotene and ascorbic acid (1).
The clovers were grown in the flatwoods and show the high
values that are found in leaves of deep green color. As stock
feed their vitamin content comes to us in animal products, but a
wider use of them as greens would make a valuable addition to
the human dietary.
Plants with the higher values would be the best materials to
use to study effects of fertilization, environment and breeding
upon levels of the vitamins.
Other important sources of these vitamins in the average
dietary are the cereal grains.
When this work was started it was a moot question as to why
the people of the South should suffer from pellagra when niacin
was known to be high in major items of the Southern diet such
as peanuts, field peas and pork. The association of pellagra and
high corn intake had long been recognized. Recent work (10,
15) suggests that the essential amino acid tryptophane is a pre-
cursor of niacin. Feeding of corn which is low in tryptophane
allows an amino acid imbalance and also causes an increased
requirement of niacin. So these three factors, at least, are tied
in with the genesis of pellagra and emphasize the need in the
diet not only of an adequate level of niacin but also proteins of
high biological value such as are found in animal products. In
this connection it is interesting to note that while milk and eggs
hold only traces of niacin, both rate well as sources of the anti-
pellagra factor. Probably the reason for this finding is that
both are good sources of tryptophane.
Milk in the daily dietary when consumed in quantities such
as a quart (946 grams) is not only a good source of the anti-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


pellagra factor but also an important source for thiamine and
the most important single source of riboflavin.


Summary
SSeveral suggestions are made for facilitating the technical
operations of the gasometer, titrations, and carrying and inocu-
lating cultures.
Dry matter, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin analyses are re-
ported on most of the common foods produced in Florida. These
include analyses on 25 different fruits, five nuts, 45 vegetables
and 10 wild greens. Analytical values are given for all items
in a general table and also are classified in kind, with each item
valued according to its contribution toward the satisfaction of
the daily requirement of the vitamins. The data show that no
single fruit or vegetable can be classed as an excellent source
of all three vitamins. The greens and seeds are the best all-
around sources. Comparisons of the data of this paper with
that obtained from foods grown in other sections show about the
same general average for thiamine and riboflavin and slightly
higher for niacin.
Analyses are given for 10 varieties of mangos and for two or
more varieties of cabbage, celery, guava, limes, lettuce, squash,
beans, field peas and potatoes.
The level of the vitamins in pork from hogs fed either corn,
cane or citrus molasses is given. Corn produced an alimentary
flora favoring thiamine synthesis, which resulted in pork with
the highest thiamine content, with cane and citrus molasses pro-
ducing pork following in order.
Analyses of 10 commonly eaten fish and shellfish are given.
Processing milk by short-time pasteurization or homogeniza-
tion caused no loss in vitamin content. Vitamin analyses on
eggs produced by two breeds of hens on the same diet showed
little difference. Analyses of peanuts showed roasting caused
major loss of thiamine but had little effect on riboflavin or
niacin.

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments are due to Mrs. Norma Howard and Mrs. Virginia,
Schmidt for, technical assistance; to Standard Brands, Inc., for furnishing
yeast for he thiamine determination; to Dr. G. D. Ruehle of the Sub-
tropical Experiment Station for the subtropical fruits and vegetables; to







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


pellagra factor but also an important source for thiamine and
the most important single source of riboflavin.


Summary
SSeveral suggestions are made for facilitating the technical
operations of the gasometer, titrations, and carrying and inocu-
lating cultures.
Dry matter, thiamine, riboflavin and niacin analyses are re-
ported on most of the common foods produced in Florida. These
include analyses on 25 different fruits, five nuts, 45 vegetables
and 10 wild greens. Analytical values are given for all items
in a general table and also are classified in kind, with each item
valued according to its contribution toward the satisfaction of
the daily requirement of the vitamins. The data show that no
single fruit or vegetable can be classed as an excellent source
of all three vitamins. The greens and seeds are the best all-
around sources. Comparisons of the data of this paper with
that obtained from foods grown in other sections show about the
same general average for thiamine and riboflavin and slightly
higher for niacin.
Analyses are given for 10 varieties of mangos and for two or
more varieties of cabbage, celery, guava, limes, lettuce, squash,
beans, field peas and potatoes.
The level of the vitamins in pork from hogs fed either corn,
cane or citrus molasses is given. Corn produced an alimentary
flora favoring thiamine synthesis, which resulted in pork with
the highest thiamine content, with cane and citrus molasses pro-
ducing pork following in order.
Analyses of 10 commonly eaten fish and shellfish are given.
Processing milk by short-time pasteurization or homogeniza-
tion caused no loss in vitamin content. Vitamin analyses on
eggs produced by two breeds of hens on the same diet showed
little difference. Analyses of peanuts showed roasting caused
major loss of thiamine but had little effect on riboflavin or
niacin.

Acknowledgments
Acknowledgments are due to Mrs. Norma Howard and Mrs. Virginia,
Schmidt for, technical assistance; to Standard Brands, Inc., for furnishing
yeast for he thiamine determination; to Dr. G. D. Ruehle of the Sub-
tropical Experiment Station for the subtropical fruits and vegetables; to








Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin and Niacin


Mrs. Carrie Zill for some of the mangos; to Mr. B. F. Williamson for the
flatwoods clovers; and to Drs. A. M. Pearson and T. J. Cunha of the De-
partment of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition for supplying the pork.


Literature Cited
1. FRENCH, R. B., and 0. B. ABBOTT. Levels of carotene and ascorbic acid
in Florida-grown foods. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 444: 1 32. 1948.
2. FRENCH, R. B., A. M. PEARSON, T. J. CUNHA, V. SCHMIDT, O. D. ABBOTT,
C. L. ANDERSON and R. S. GLASSCOCK. Effect of feeding citrus or
cane molasses on carcass quality and the content of certain vitamins
in pork. Jour. Animal Sci. 8: 612. 1949.
3. GUERRANT, N. B., M. G. VAVICH and 0. B. FARDIG. Nutritive value of
canned foods. Comparison of vitamin values obtained by different
methods of assay. Indus. and Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 17: 710-13.
1945.
4. HEWSTON, ELIZABETH M., and JANE B. GREENWOOD. A simple and
rapid method for moisture determination using infra-red lamps.
Progress Notes. Bureau of Human Nutrition and Home Economics.
Agr. Res. Administration. U.S.D.A. April, 1946.
5. JANES, BYRON E. Composition of Florida-grown vegetables. II. Ef.
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the organic composition of cabbage, beans, tomatoes, collards, broc-
coli and carrots. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 455: 1-44. 1949.
6. KLINE, 0. L., and L. FRIEDMAN. Microbiological assay methods for
thiamine. Biol. Symposia 12: 78-83. 1947.
7. MAHONEY, C. H. Do chemical fertilizers adversely affect the nutritive
value of fruits and vegetables? Food Packer: 27. Dec. 1950.
8. MAYNARD, L. A. Soils and health. Jour. Am. Med. Assoc. 143: 807-
812. 1950.
9. HEINZ, H. J. Co. Nutritional Charts: 1 47. 12th ed. 1946.
10. SARETT, H. P., and G. A. GOLDSMITH. Tryptophan and nicotinic acid
studies in man. Jour. Biol. Chem. 177: 461-75. 1949.
11. SCHULTZ, ALFRED S., LAURENCE ATKIN and CHARLES N. FREY. Deter-
mination of vitamin B1 by yeast fermentation method. Improvements
related to use of sulfite cleavage and a new fermentometer. Indus.
and Engin. Chem., Analyt. Ed. 14: 35-9. 1942.
12. SNELL, E. E. The microbiological determination of nicotinic acid.
Biol. Symposia 12: 188-93. 1947.
13. STRONG, F. M. The microbiological determination of riboflavin. Ibid.
12: 144-50. 1947.
14. WATT, BERNICE K., and ANNABEL C. MERRILL et al. Composition of
foods-raw, processed, prepared. U.S.D.A. Agr. Handbook No. 8:
1 147. 1950.
15. WOOLEY, D. W. The occurrence of a "pellagragenic agent" in corn.
Jour. Biol. Chem. 163: 773-74. 1946.




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