• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Sources and method of study
 Production of tomatoes in...
 Labor and material requirement...
 Costs and returns
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 474
Title: Labor and material requirements, costs of production and returns on Florida tomatoes
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026707/00001
 Material Information
Title: Labor and material requirements, costs of production and returns on Florida tomatoes
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 34 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Spurlock, A. H
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1950
 Subjects
Subject: Tomato industry -- Costs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Tomatoes -- Florida -- Marketing   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Donald L. Brooke and A.H. Spurlock.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026707
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925728
oclc - 18264802
notis - AEN6384

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Sources and method of study
        Page 5
        Labor and materials
            Page 6
        Costs and returns
            Page 6
    Production of tomatoes in Florida
        Page 7
        Acreage
            Page 8
        Yields and production
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Prices and value
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Competition
            Page 15
    Labor and material requirements
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Costs and returns
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Summary
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text




September, 1950


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Labor and Material Requirements, Costs

of Production and Returns on

Florida Tomatoes


By DONALD L. BROOKE and A. H. SPURLOCK


Legend:
AREA
1. North Central Florida
2. Plant City-Wauchula
3. Manatee-Ruskin
4. Immokalee-Fort Myers
5. Fort Pierce
6. Lower East Coast
7. Everglades


SEASONS OF PRODUCTION
Spring
Fall, Spring
Fall, Winter, Spring
Fall, Winter, Spring
Fall, Spring
Fall, Winter, Spring
Spring


Fig. 1.-Principal Commercial Tomato Producing
Areas in Florida.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 474









BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Peters-
* burg
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President3
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.'
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
Geo. F. Baughman, M.S., Business Mgr.'
Rogers- L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.8
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant'

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Econo-
mist' 3
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr.
Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statisticians
J. F. Steffens, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician2
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer'1
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Eng.'
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Engr.'
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Eng.2 '
AGRONOMY
Fred. H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist'
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomists
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist' 4
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
arrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell B.S.A.E, A.Assistant
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
M. N. Gist, Collaborator2

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND
NUTRITION
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husb.'
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionists
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
J. E. Pace, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
DAIRY HIUSBANDRY AND MIFS.
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.''
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy
Husb.'
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husb.'
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
Howard Wilkowski, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy
Tech.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editors

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant

IIOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist'
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. M. Reed, B.S., Chem., Veg. Processing
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Patholo-
gist'
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and
Botanist
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.' '
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Husb.3

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist'
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technolo-
gist'
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils
Chemist
R. A. Carrigan, Ph.D., Biochemist'
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asso. Soil
Surveyor'
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso.
Microbiologist'
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor
W. J. Friedmann, M.S.A., Asst.
Biochemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Asst. Biochemist

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso.
Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
E. G. Batte, D.V.M., Asso. Parasitologist









BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoads, M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An.
Husb.
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate
Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate
Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate
Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso.
Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant
Path.4
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso.
Horticulturist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Biochemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R N. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
J. C. Bowers, M.S., Asst. Chemi.t
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst.
Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Supervisory
Chem.
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. D. Merwin, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
L. W. Faville, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
W. T. Long, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathol-
ogist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
J. R. King, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
E. J. Desyck, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.

EVERGLADES STATION,
BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Egr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomolo-
gist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
D. W. Smith, B.S., Asst. Chemist


WV. D. Hogan, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
D. W. Beardsley, B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
K. A. Harris, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Engr.
David B. Gibb, M.E., Fiber Technologist

SUB-TROPICAL STATION,
HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in
Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Milton Cobin, B.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Robt. A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils
Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

V. CENT. FLA. STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal
Husbandman in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil
Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in
Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate
Agronomist


FIELD LABORATORIES

Leesburg
G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in
Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in
Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Bradenton
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Gladioli Hort.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., MeterologistV



1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
8 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave.























CONTENTS


Introduction ......-----------------------


Sources and Method of Study .-----------------------..


Labor and Materials ..... .............-------------------------


Costs and Returns..............------------- -------.. --.....---


Production of Tomatoes in Florida -------............... ----


Acreage --------------


Yields and Production ..--_-...------------------


Prices and Value -.-----....---------------


Competition ---...._..------.--.......-----


Labor and Material Requirements ......-..-.......------.... ---


Costs and Returns ..--....- .---...-........... ---


Summary -------


-5
.---.....--5


-----------------. 5


6--.- 6


----- 6


------------------ 7


..----------------- 8


.------------ 8


.----- 13


---- 15


----- 16


----- 27


------32










Labor and Material Requirements, Costs
of Production and Returns on
Florida Tomatoes1

By DONALD L. BROOKE and A. H. SPURLOCK

Introduction
This material is presented for growers who wish to compare
their individual operations with the average of their own or other
areas in Florida and for commodity groups and others who need
factual information as background material for formulation of
policies on labor, price, tariff and transportation problems as
related to the tomato industry of Florida.
Early commercial production of tomatoes in Florida was
started sometime before 1890 but statistics on the crop at that
time are lacking. The United States Department of Agriculture
Yearbook of Agriculture for 19002 makes reference to experi-
mental carload lots of Florida tomatoes being shipped under
refrigeration to England on the steamer Majestic, April 27, 1892.
The first reference to statistics on tomato production is contained
in the Yearbook of Agriculture, 19153, quoting the census of 1909
which reported 12,338 acres of tomatoes in Florida. In 1917 the
acreage of Florida tomatoes had increased to 25,850. During 8
of the past 10 seasons tomatoes have ranked first in value of pro-
duction among Florida's commercial vegetable crops.

Sources and Method of Study
Data on acreages, yields, production, prices and farm value
were taken from published reports of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and the
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Data on domes-
tic and foreign competition were taken from annual supplements

1 Acknowledgments: The authors wish to express their appreciation
to the many tomato growers who supplied data which made this study
possible; to the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, USDA,
and Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Orlando, for their excellent
cooperation; and to Dr. R. E. L. Greene for many helpful suggestions.
Much credit is due Dr. C. V. Noble, under whose direction this study was
conducted.
2 The Yearbook of Agriculture, USDA, 1900, p. 579.
3 The Yearbook of Agriculture, USDA, 1915, p. 379.










Labor and Material Requirements, Costs
of Production and Returns on
Florida Tomatoes1

By DONALD L. BROOKE and A. H. SPURLOCK

Introduction
This material is presented for growers who wish to compare
their individual operations with the average of their own or other
areas in Florida and for commodity groups and others who need
factual information as background material for formulation of
policies on labor, price, tariff and transportation problems as
related to the tomato industry of Florida.
Early commercial production of tomatoes in Florida was
started sometime before 1890 but statistics on the crop at that
time are lacking. The United States Department of Agriculture
Yearbook of Agriculture for 19002 makes reference to experi-
mental carload lots of Florida tomatoes being shipped under
refrigeration to England on the steamer Majestic, April 27, 1892.
The first reference to statistics on tomato production is contained
in the Yearbook of Agriculture, 19153, quoting the census of 1909
which reported 12,338 acres of tomatoes in Florida. In 1917 the
acreage of Florida tomatoes had increased to 25,850. During 8
of the past 10 seasons tomatoes have ranked first in value of pro-
duction among Florida's commercial vegetable crops.

Sources and Method of Study
Data on acreages, yields, production, prices and farm value
were taken from published reports of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, and the
Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Data on domes-
tic and foreign competition were taken from annual supplements

1 Acknowledgments: The authors wish to express their appreciation
to the many tomato growers who supplied data which made this study
possible; to the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, USDA,
and Florida Fruit and Vegetable Association, Orlando, for their excellent
cooperation; and to Dr. R. E. L. Greene for many helpful suggestions.
Much credit is due Dr. C. V. Noble, under whose direction this study was
conducted.
2 The Yearbook of Agriculture, USDA, 1900, p. 579.
3 The Yearbook of Agriculture, USDA, 1915, p. 379.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224, Florida
Truck Crop Competition, by C. V. Noble and M. A. Brooker.
Labor and Materials.-Data on labor and materials require-
ments were obtained by personal interview with growers in four
major producing areas. Growers were asked to estimate the
usual labor required for each operation in the production and har-
vesting of tomatoes. The actual dates for performing the vari-
ous jobs were recorded. They were also asked the kind and
amount of seed, fertilizer and insecticide or fungicide ordinarily
used in production. Their average yield per acre was obtained.
The data were summarized according to the most common prac-
tices in each area. The hours of labor for man and horse and
hours of tractor use are averages of estimates of time required by
farmers following the most usual practice in an area.
Costs and Returns.-Data on costs of production, harvesting
and net returns were obtained also by personal interview with
growers. These data differ slightly from labor and materials
above, in that they represent the average of actual expenses in-
curred in production rather than the most common practices in
an area. Records of actual costs and returns were used when
available and estimates taken when records were not kept. A
breakdown of the various items of cost as complete as possible
was obtained from each grower. In so far as possible, growing
and harvesting costs were separated and labor items excluded
from cost of materials. The data was summarized by converting
to a per-acre basis and computing a simple average of the sum
of all records obtained in each area for a particular season. In
the interest of uniformity, land rent was charged on all acreages
at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the area. This was
done to avoid difficulties of determination of normal valuation,
interest charge for use of land, and prorating of land taxes in a
period of fluctuating values and prices.
Costs for materials such as seed, fertilizer, spray, dust, feed,
fuels and containers represent estimates or actual costs of sup-
plies used. Labor and machine costs of application were not
included with materials.
Labor cost included man labor, whether hired or family, re-
quired to handle the crop from ground preparation through har-
vest. Separate items were made of cultural and harvest labor.
Labor cost does not include supervision by the operator, since
his compensation is to a great extent dependent upon returns
from the sale of the crop.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 224, Florida
Truck Crop Competition, by C. V. Noble and M. A. Brooker.
Labor and Materials.-Data on labor and materials require-
ments were obtained by personal interview with growers in four
major producing areas. Growers were asked to estimate the
usual labor required for each operation in the production and har-
vesting of tomatoes. The actual dates for performing the vari-
ous jobs were recorded. They were also asked the kind and
amount of seed, fertilizer and insecticide or fungicide ordinarily
used in production. Their average yield per acre was obtained.
The data were summarized according to the most common prac-
tices in each area. The hours of labor for man and horse and
hours of tractor use are averages of estimates of time required by
farmers following the most usual practice in an area.
Costs and Returns.-Data on costs of production, harvesting
and net returns were obtained also by personal interview with
growers. These data differ slightly from labor and materials
above, in that they represent the average of actual expenses in-
curred in production rather than the most common practices in
an area. Records of actual costs and returns were used when
available and estimates taken when records were not kept. A
breakdown of the various items of cost as complete as possible
was obtained from each grower. In so far as possible, growing
and harvesting costs were separated and labor items excluded
from cost of materials. The data was summarized by converting
to a per-acre basis and computing a simple average of the sum
of all records obtained in each area for a particular season. In
the interest of uniformity, land rent was charged on all acreages
at the prevailing rate reported by growers in the area. This was
done to avoid difficulties of determination of normal valuation,
interest charge for use of land, and prorating of land taxes in a
period of fluctuating values and prices.
Costs for materials such as seed, fertilizer, spray, dust, feed,
fuels and containers represent estimates or actual costs of sup-
plies used. Labor and machine costs of application were not
included with materials.
Labor cost included man labor, whether hired or family, re-
quired to handle the crop from ground preparation through har-
vest. Separate items were made of cultural and harvest labor.
Labor cost does not include supervision by the operator, since
his compensation is to a great extent dependent upon returns
from the sale of the crop.






Returns on Florida Tomatoes


Depreciation represents the .annual per acre charge for de-
preciation and obsolescence of equipment to allow for replace-
ment. When actual depreciation charges could not be obtained
from records, they were computed by assuming a 10-year life use
on all equipment on the basis of replacement value as indicated
by the grower.
Interest on production capital was charged at the rate of 6
percent on all cash costs for the period normally required to
grow and market the crop. This percentage was used because
it is believed to be a normal interest rate.
Interest on machinery and equipment also was computed at 6
percent. Since it was impossible to find enough growers who had
set up a depreciation schedule on capital invested in machinery
and equipment to make a fair interest charge for its use, com-
putations were made by assuming:
1. A 10-year life use on all equipment.
2. All equipment one-half depreciated.
Crop sales were the gross per-acre returns to the grower before
the deduction of any of the cost items, viz. f. o. b. returns. Net
return was then computed as the difference between total crop
cost and crop sales.

Production of Tomatoes in Florida
In the 1945 Census of Agriculture some tomatoes were re-
ported in 66 of Florida's 67 counties. However, commercial pro-
duction is limited to some 23 counties in the central and southern
portions of the state. Because of differences in cultural practices
and for reporting purposes, seven major producing areas have
been designated, Fig. 1. Fall, winter and spring crops are pro-
duced in the Immokalee-Fort Myers, Manatee-Ruskin and Lower
East Coast areas, a fall and spring crop in the Fort Pierce and
Plant City-Wauchula areas, and a spring crop in the North Cen-
tral Florida and Everglades areas.
Soil types in the areas of production vary from the muck of
the Everglades and Perrine Marl and Rockdale series of the
Lower East Coast area to the red and yellow sandy soils of the
North Central Florida a an the ground-water odz and
haf-bog soils of the mmokalee-Fort Myers, Fort Pierce, Mana-
tee-Ruskin, and Plant City-Wauchula areas. Most of the soils
are poorly drained and facilities for proper drainage must be
provided. In particularly dry seasons irrigation is necessary in
most areas in order to produce a crop.







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Acreage.-Acreage of tomatoes harvested for fresh consump-
tion in Florida over the past 32 years has varied from 15,390
acres in 1917-18 to 42,500 acres in 1923-24. Since the 1923-24
season the trend in total acreage harvested has been erratic,
ranging from 17,400 acres in 1925-26 to 41,300 acres in 1937-38,
Table 1 and Fig. 2.

Thousand Acres Million Bushels
Harvested Harvested
Legends
U Aoreage
B Production 6.0















1929-30 193 -35 1939-40 19 45 196-349

Seasons -
Fig. 2.-Harvested Acreage and Production of Fresh Tomatoes in
Florida, Seasons 1929-30 to 1948-49.
The acreage of fall tomatoes has increased slightly over the
last 20 years. A peak of 7,800 acres was reached in the 1946-47
season. The trend in winter acreage, while fluctuating from
year to year, has averaged about 11,000 acres per year during
the last 10 seasons. Spring acreage has decreased in all but four
seasons since 1939-40.
Yields and Production.-Yield of tomatoes for fresh consump-
tion has been advancing slightly during the past 10 years, Table
1 and Fig. 3. The state average of 190 bushels per acre in
1948-49 is the highest average yield on record thus far. Better
cultural methods, insect and disease control and improved varie-
ties are largely responsible for this increase. Weather conditions
are, of course, a most important factor in determining yield and
total production. In years of high prices a larger percentage of
the production is harvested for fresh market consumption. By







8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Acreage.-Acreage of tomatoes harvested for fresh consump-
tion in Florida over the past 32 years has varied from 15,390
acres in 1917-18 to 42,500 acres in 1923-24. Since the 1923-24
season the trend in total acreage harvested has been erratic,
ranging from 17,400 acres in 1925-26 to 41,300 acres in 1937-38,
Table 1 and Fig. 2.

Thousand Acres Million Bushels
Harvested Harvested
Legends
U Aoreage
B Production 6.0















1929-30 193 -35 1939-40 19 45 196-349

Seasons -
Fig. 2.-Harvested Acreage and Production of Fresh Tomatoes in
Florida, Seasons 1929-30 to 1948-49.
The acreage of fall tomatoes has increased slightly over the
last 20 years. A peak of 7,800 acres was reached in the 1946-47
season. The trend in winter acreage, while fluctuating from
year to year, has averaged about 11,000 acres per year during
the last 10 seasons. Spring acreage has decreased in all but four
seasons since 1939-40.
Yields and Production.-Yield of tomatoes for fresh consump-
tion has been advancing slightly during the past 10 years, Table
1 and Fig. 3. The state average of 190 bushels per acre in
1948-49 is the highest average yield on record thus far. Better
cultural methods, insect and disease control and improved varie-
ties are largely responsible for this increase. Weather conditions
are, of course, a most important factor in determining yield and
total production. In years of high prices a larger percentage of
the production is harvested for fresh market consumption. By







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


TABLE 1.-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND UNIT VALUE OF FRESH TOMATOES,

FLORIDA, 1917-18 TO 1948-49, AND 5-SEASON AVERAGES, 1919-20 TO 1948-49:

Fall

Year Acreage Yield Production Unit Value Total Value

(bu.) (000) (per bu.) (000)


1917-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34

1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

5-Season Averages:

1919-20 to 1923-24
1924-25 to 1928-29
1929-30 to 1933-34
1934-35 to 1938-39
1939-40 to 1943-44
1944-45 to 1948-49


2,000
4,000

460
3,100
1,700
2,000
2,000

4,500
2,800
4,500
4,000
2,800

4,000
4,000
6,500
4,000
3,600
2,100
3,850
7,800
2,500
6,300




1,852
3,720
4,420
4,510


120
240

28
232
167
192
180

270
3752
243
220
336

640
560
488
500
666

252
674
1,076
538
1,102


$3.75
3.85

4.40
3.00
3.30
2.30
2.90
2.35
3.00
2.65
3.20
3.00

2.85
2.60
3.45
5.60
5.25

5.75
5.20
5.00
6.60
4.90


$ 450
924

123
696
551
442
522

634
900
S644
704
1,008

1,824
1,456
1,684
2,800
3,496

1,449
3,505
5,380
3,551
5,402


160 2.92 467
2892 3.64 778
571 3.94 2,252
728 5.30 3,857


I Seasonal data unavailable.
2 See footnote at end of table.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 1.-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND UNIT VALUE OF FRESH TOMATOES,
FLORIDA, 1917-18 TO 1948-49, AND 5-SEASON AVERAGES, 1919-20 TO 1948-49
(CONTINUED).

Winter

Year Acreage Yield Production Unit Value Total Value

(bu.) (000) (per bu.) (000)
1917-18 8,440 110 928 $1.80 $ 1,670
1918-19 11,190 130 1,455 1.95 2,837
1919-20 9,000 118 1,062 2.00 2,124
1920-21 6,500 145 942 2.50 2,355
1921-22 11,700 144 1,685 2.75 4,634
1922-23 12,500 130 1,625 3.50 5,688
1923-24 12,500 118 1,475 2.40 3,540

1924-25 10,600 100 1,060 3.55 3,763
1925-26 5,100 130 663 4.65 3,083
1926-27 12,500 160 2,000 2.00 4,000
1927-28 11,640 115 1,339 3.00 4,017
1928-29 14,700 95 1,396 2.80 3,909
1929-30 11,800 110 1,298 3.60 4,673
1930-31 8,300 93 772 2.15 1,660
1931-32 8,500 192 1,632 1.80 2,938
1932-33 12,900 158 2,038 1.50 3,057
1933-34 16,000 154 2,464 2.20 5,421
1934-35 15,500 142 2,201 2.00 4,402
1935-36 11,000 108 1,188 2.90 3,445
1936-37 17,200 94 1,617 2.65 4,285
1937-38 15,500 190 2,945 1.70 5,006
1938-39 18,000 165 2,970 2.40 7,128
1939-40 5,500 170 935 3.15 2,945
1940-41 7,000 125 875 3.20 2,800
.1941-42 14;200 116 1,647 4.00 6,588
1942-43 5,900 140 826 6.15 5,080
1943-44 16,900 125 2,112 5.95 12,566

1944-45 17,700 150 2,6552 4.95 11,692
1945-46 12,200 161 1,9642 5.70 10,391
1946-47 10,100 94 949 5.75 5,457
1947-48 8,850 100 885 7.20 6,372
1948-49 12,500 190 2,375 6.10 14,488
5-Season Averages:
1919-20 to 1923-24 10,440 130 1,358 2.70 3,668
1924-25 to 1928-29 10,908 118 1,292 2.91 3,754
1929-30 to 1933-34 11,500 143 1,641 2.16 3,550
1934-35 to 1938-39 15,440 141 2,184 2.22 4,853
1939-40 to 1943-44 9,900 129 1,279 4.69 5,996
1944-45 to 1948-49 12,270 144 1,7662 5.77 9,680


2 See footnote at end of table.







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


TABLE 1.-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND UNIT VALUE OF FRESH TOMATOES,
FLORIDA, 1917-18 TO 1948-49, AND 5-SEASON AVERAGES, 1919-20 TO 1948-49
(CONTINUED).

Spring

Year Acreage Yield Production Unit Value Total Value


1917-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34

1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

5-Season Averages:
1919-20 to 1923-24
1924-25 to 1928-29
1929-30 to 1933-34
1934-35 to 1938-39
1939-40 to 1943-44
1944-45 to 1948-49


6,950
9,460

10,260
11,000
20,500
19,000
30,000

20,500
12,300
14,400
17,240
20,000

19,000
15,400
13,500
10,000
12,500

11,000
18,800
10,800
21,800
17,600

22,000
14,000
13,300
11,600
11,200

10,500
13,000
9,450
14,700
16,800


18,152
16,888
14,080
16,000
14,420
12,890


(bu.)
100
95

80
120
100
110
62

76
81
101
93
70

55
66
67
57
60

72
74
82
82
110

80
110
96
77
56

120
140
109
165
195


90
83
61
85
85
152


(000)
695
899

821
1,320
2,050
2,090
1,860

1,558
996
1,454
1,603
1,400

1,045
1,016
904
570
750

792
1,391
886
1,788
1,936

1,760
1,540
1,277
893
627

1,2602
1,8202
1,030
2,426
3,276


1,628
1,402
857
1,359
1,219
1,9622


(per bu.) (000)
$1.60 $ 1,112
1.80 1,618

1.80 1,478
2.10 2,772
2.35 4,818
3.00 6,270
2.55 4,743

2.90 4,518
3.75 3,735
2.05 2,981
2.65 4,248
-3.00 4,200

4.00 4,180
1.40 1,422
2.50 2,260
1.50 855
2.90 2,175

2.05 1,624
2.65 3,686
3.00 2,658
1.60 2,861
2.50 4,840

2.05 3,608
3.25 5,005
4.00 5,108
4.35 3,885
5.45 3,417

5.80 7,024
4.80 8.352
6.00 6,180
5.50 13,343
4.60 15,070


2.47 4,016
2.81 3,936
2.54 2,178
2.31 3,134
3.45 4,205
5.16 9,994


2 See footnote at end of table.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 1.-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND UNIT VALUE OF FRESH TOMATOES,
FLORIDA, 1917-18 TO 1948-49, AND 5-SEASON AVERAGES, 1919-20 TO 1948-49
(CONCLUDED).
All Seasons


Year Acreage Yield


1917-18
1918-19

1919-20
1920-21
1921-22
1922-23
1923-24

1924-25
1925-26
1926-27
1927-28
1928-29

1929-30
1930-31
1931-32
1932-33
1933-34

1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1937-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

5-Season Averages:
1919-20 to 1923-24
1924-25 to 1928-29
1929-30 to 1933-34
1934-35 to 1938-39
1939-40 to 1943-44
1944-45 to 1948-49


15,390
20,650

19,260
17,500
32,200
31,500
42,500

31,100
17,400
26,900
30,880
38,700

31,260
26,800
23,700
24,900
30,500

31,000
32,600
32,500
41,300
38,400

31,500
25,000
34,000
21,500
31,700

30,300
29,050
27,350
26,050
35,600


28,592
28,996
27,432
35,160
28,740
29,670


(bu.)
105
114

98
129
116
118
78

84
95
128
109
78

76
75
114
112
111

105
91
84
120
137

106
119
100
103
107

138
153
112
148
190


Production
(000)
1,623
2,354

1,883
2,262
3,735
3,715
3,335

2,618
1,659
3,454
3,062
3,036

2,371
2,020
2,703
2,800
3,394

3,263
2,9542
2,746
4,953
5,242'

3,335
2,975
3,412
2,219
3,405

4,1672
4,4582
3,055
3,849
6,753


2,986
2,766
2,658
3,8322
3,069
4,4562


7,684
7,966
6,195
8,765
12,452
23,531


2 Includes some quantities not harvested and excluded in computing
value-75,000 bushels in 1935-36; 293,000 bushels Winter crop and
49,000 bushels Spring crop in 1944-45; 141,000 bushels Winter crop and
80,000 bushels Spring crop in 1945-46.
Source: Estimates of Acreage, Production and Value of Commercial Truck
Crops, USDA, BAE, October 1943 and February 1944; and Vegetable
Crops in Florida, Volumes I through V.


Unit Value Total Value
(per bu.) (000)
$1.71 $ 2,782
1.89 4,455

1.91 3,602
2.27 5,127
2.53 9,452
3.22 11,958
2.48 8,283

3.16 8,281
4.11 6,818
2.02 6,981
2.85 8,715
2.98 9,033

3.79 8,976
1.87 3,778
2.13 5,749
1.56 4,354
2.39 8,118

2.04 6,660
2.79 8,031
2.76 7,587
1.73 8,571
2.48 12,976

2.51 8,377
3.11 9,261
3.92 13,380
5.30. 11,765
5.72 19,479

5.27 20,165
5.25 22,248
5.57 17,017
6.04 23,266
5.18 34,960







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


five-year averages, fall yield has shown the most marked in-
crease, winter yield has increased very little in 30 years, while
yield of spring tomatoes has increased only during the last five
years.
In 1948-49 production of 6,753,000 bushels for fresh market
consumption is the largest crop on record for Florida to date,
Table 1 and Fig. 2. Previously, yearly production had ranged


1919-20 19214-25 1929-30 193L-35 1939-4Q 194 W45
Seasons -
Fig. 3.-Per-Acre Yield of All Fresh Tomatoes in Florida, Seasons
1917-18 to 1948-49.
between two and five million bushels. Production of Florida
tomatoes for processing has never been more than 25,200 tons or
951,000 bushels, Table 2. As a general rule the only Florida
tomatoes sold to processors are the "pinks," "ripes" and "cat-
faces" which cannot be sold on the fresh market.
Prices and Value.-F. O. B. prices received by Florida tomato
producers advanced rapidly from the 1938-39 season to the
1943-44 season, Tables 1 and 2 and Fig. 4. Peak season average
price of $6.04 per bushel was reached during the 1947-48 season.
This high price was probably a major factor influencing increased
plantings in the 1948-49 season. The price received for the
winter crop has averaged slightly higher per bushel than for
the fall or spring crop since the 1938-39 season. The price per







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 2.-ACREAGE, YIELD, PRODUCTION AND VALUE OF TOMATOES FOR PROCESSING
AND TOTAL ALL TOMATOES, FLORIDA, 1934-35 TO 1938-39, AND
5-SEASON AVERAGES.

For Processing
Year Acreage Yield Production Unit Value Total Value
(tons) (tons) (per ton) (000)
1934-35 5,000 3.6 18,000 $14.50 $ 261
1935-36 4,500 2.2 9,900 10.00 99
1936-37 3,200 2.8 8,960 12.80 115
1937-38 4,000 3.5 14,000 10.00 140
1938-39 2,300 3.8 8,700 10.00 87

1939-40 2,000 2.6 5,200 10.00 52
1940-41 2,000 2.8 5,600 10.00 56
1941-42 9,000 2.8 25,200 17.50 441
1942-43 3,300 2.1 6,970 19.50 136
1943-44 3,200 3.2 10,390 22.40 233

1944-45 2,200 3.5 7,640 27.50 210
1945-46 1,350 4.4 5,900 26.80 158
1946-47 3,350 3.1 10,300 37.00 381
1947-48 2,300 4.0 9,260 23.80 220
1948-49 3,200 4.9 15,800 25.00 395

5-Season Averages:
1934-35 to 1938-39 3,800 3.1 11,912 11.75 140
1939-40 to 1943-44 3,900 2.7 10,672 17.24 184
1944-45 to 1948-49 2,480 3.9 9,780 28.02 273
All Fresh and Processing


1934-35
1935-36
1936-37
1927-38
1938-39

1939-40
1940-41
1941-42
1942-43
1943-44

1944-45
1945-46
1946-47
1947-48
1948-49

5-Season Averages:
1934-35 to 1938-39
1939-40 to 1943-44
1944-45 to 1948-49


36,000
37,100
35,700
45,300
40,700

33,500
27,000
43,000
24,800
34,900

32,500
30,400
30,700
28,350
38,800


38,960
32,640
32,150


(bu.) (000 bu.) (per
110 3,943 $1.7
90 3,3271 2.5
86 3,084 2.5
121 5,481 1.5
137 5,570 2.3

105 3,532 2.'
118 3,186 2.1
101 4,363 3.1
100 2,482 4.,
109 3,797 5.1

137 4,456' 4.J
154 4,680' 5.(
112 3,443 5.(
148 4,197 5.(
189 7,349 4.J


4,281'
3,472
4,8251


bu.)
76
50
50
59
5


(000)
$ 6,921
8,130
7,702
8,711
13,063
8.429
9,317
13,821
11,901
19,712

20,375
22,406
17,398
23,486
35,355


2.09 8,905
3.64 12,636
5.05 23,804


SIncludes some quantities not harvested and excluded in computing
value-75,000 bushels in 1935-36; 342,000 bushels in 1944-45; and
221,000 bushels in 1945-46.
Source: Estimates of Acreage, Production and Value of Commercial Truck
Crops, USDA, BAE, October 1943 and February 1944; and Vegetable
Crops in Florida Volumes I through V.







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


bushel of winter tomatoes averaged $7.20 in the 1947-48 season
and $6.10 in the 1948-49 season. The fall crop price averaged
$6.60 per bushel in 1947-48 and spring crop price $6.00 in 1946-47.
Competing production, both domestic and foreign, and the general
price level contribute to the rise or fall of the seasonal and
yearly price received by growers.
The value of Florida's tomatoes for fresh market consumption
has ranged from $2,782,000 in 1917-18 to $34,960,000 in the
Dollars Per
Bushel


*A
7.00 i "





i -Spring
6.00






2.00-
1..









1.00


1929-30 1934-35 1939-o0 19h4-h5 1948-49
Seasons -
Fig. 4.-Value Per Bushel of Fresh Tomatoes Harvested in Florida,
Seasons 1929-30 to 1948-49.
1948-49 season. By five-year periods the most recent average
annual value (1944-45 to 1948-49) was nearly four times higher
th n the average annual value for the period 1929-30 to 1933-34.
j/Competition.-Florida's competitors in the tomato market are
California and Texas domestically, with Cuba and Mexico supply-
ing most of the imports, Table 3 and Fig. 5. Competing ship-
in- from Uaaornia averaged 910 cars per season for the
period 1939-40 to 1948-49. The bulk of this movement is made
in the months of October, November and June of each season.
Texas competes with Florida to a greater extent than California
by shipping an average of 7,600 cars per season. These ship-
ments are made in November, December, April, May and June.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Imports from Cuba and Mexico are heavy from December to
May of each season, averaging 7,117 carlots per season by rail
and boat from 1939-40 to 1948-49. Imports from Mexico in-
creased materially during the war period, while those from Cuba
declined. During 1948-49 6,361 carlots were admitted from
Carlot
Shipments


6000


Sooo

looo


3000

2000


1000


0


Oct. Nov Dec Jan Feb. Mar. Apr. May June


Months -
Fig. 5.-Monthly Carlot Shipments of Tomatoes from Florida' and
Competing Areas During the Florida Season, 10-Year Average 1939-40 to
1948-49.
'Includes truck shipments from Florida in carlot equivalents.
Mexico and 1,366 carlots from Cuba. The Bahama Islands and
Puerto Rico ship in a few cars of tomatoes each year but their
total is not yet significant.

vLabor and Material Requirements
Data on labor and material requirements contained herein re-
flect the most common practices in an area at the time this study
was made. Labor requirements may change considerably over
a period of years where new methods of operation are introduced.
Changes in the kinds and amounts of-insecticides and fungicides
used have been rapid since World War II. Growers should con-


/ r''-'" l^'I';








Returns on Florida Tomatoes


TABLE 3.-MONTHLY CARLOT SHIPMENTS OF TOMATOES DURING THE FLORIDA
SEASON FROM FLORIDA AND COMPETING STATES, 1939-40 TO 1948-49, INCLUSIVE.

Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total


Florida'
1939-40 228 622 603 133 152 570 5028 1558 8894
1940-41 359 981 1049 708 425 451 2829 873 7675
1941-42 5 462 731 728 938 1056 1293 2461 171 7845
1942-43 1 262 596 442 762 392 400 1419 100 4374
1943-44 9 292 895 999 1053 2655 1174 701 75 7853

1944-45 77 233 844 1700 2177 2260 789 75 81552
1945-46 355 737 599 1240 1991 2240 1572 102 8836
1946-47 49 1346 560 1137 454 221 232 1409 363 5771
1947-48 72 829 693 363 670 1609 3068 254 75582
1948-49 558 1533 724 1329 3172 4171 2132 72 13691

Average 6 401 772 782 868 1291 1440 2141 364 80652


California
1939-40 158 2 12 1 63 215 435 886
1940-41 381 1 202 160 167 911
1941-42 877 21 16 12 193 65 1184
1942-43 337 721 14 19 12 2 9 77 1191
1943-44 743 1001 26 15 9 13 77 1884

1944-45 292 35 24 12 5 368
1945-46 746 3 2 1 752
1946-47 1083 101 2 1 80 74 166 1507
1947-48 80 5 15 1 29 10 140
1948-49 237 17 1 19 1 275

Average 216 459 11 10 6 36 72 100 910


Texas
1939-40 743 455 129 526 3456 5309
1940-41 335 22 6 1358 2864 4585
1941-42 257 194 4 190 2390 3095 6130
1942-43 14 506 191 234 3638 2872 7455
1943-44 459 222 862 6791 1996 10330
1944-45 556 235 5 3 1839 7934 10572
1945-46 1087 442 1316 7859 1703 12407
1946-47 6 1048 590 29 397 4006 2623 8699
1947-48 940 .393 88 4 2000 1443 4868
1948-49 841 119 3 3298 1676 5937

Average 2 677 286 26 485 3980 2173 7629

SIncludes Florida truck shipments except for 1942-43 when data were
unavailable. Conversion factor for 1939-40 to 1948-49 500 packages.
2 Five carlots moved in July.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 3.-MONTHLY CARLOT SHIPMENTS OF TOMATOES DURING THE FLORIDA
SEASON FROM FLORIDA AND COMPETING STATES, 1939-40 TO
1948-49, INCLUSIVE (CONCLUDED).
Year Oct. Nov. Dec. Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June Total
Other States
1939-40 2 2 905 909
1940-41 8 1037 1045
1941-42 3 2 1249 1254
1942-43 5 5 1019 1029
1943-44 1 1 2 586 590
1944-45 63 63
1945-46 1 2 118 283 404
1946-47 2 2 78 82
1947-48 2 6 8
1948-49 11 5 19 35
Average 1 2 20 519 542

Imports
1939-40 80 371 683 878 1102 610 73 3797
1940-41 89 515 996 1199 1824 1887 80 6590
1941-42 81 91 485 1811 2686 51 5205
1942-43 20 514 887 848 2934 2252 242 7697
1943-44 2 101 600 1014 724 1843 2292 532 7108
1944-45 198 1329 1596 1689 1573 1831 110 8326
1945-46 140 582 1415 1489 1222 1877 71 6796
1946-47 7 144 744 2314 1810 2015 1670 55 8759
1947-48 162 721 1119 1788 2538 2330 333 8991
1948-49 59 728 1107 1467 1592 2093 843 12 7901
Average 1 107 620 1113 1238 1845 1953 239 1 7117

Source: Noble, C. V. and Brooker, M. A., Florida Truck Crop Competition,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bul. 224, 1931 and Annual Supplements.
Vegetable Crops in Florida, Volume IV. Dec., 1948.

suit their County Agents or other qualified individuals concern-
ing current recommendations.
Production practices vary considerably between areas in the
state. Season of production, soil type, drainage and irrigation
facilities, availability of labor and location with respect to local
markets and shipping facilities are all factors affecting produc-
tion and marketing practices in an area. In Tables 4, 5, 6 and 7
are shown the usual labor requirements per acre for producing
and harvesting tomatoes in the various areas. Labor require-
ments were highest in the Manatee-Ruskin area, where the stak-
ing of tomatoes is practiced. Staking and tying require more
man labor per acre than was required to produce the entire crop
in the Fort Pierce area, Dade, Marion or Sumter counties.
Except for Marion, Sumter and Manatee-Ruskin tomatoes, har-







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


vesting required as much or more labor per acre than was re-
quired to produce the crop. Labor requirements for harvesting
in the various areas are based on reported average yield as shown
on the bottom of each table. More labor would be required for
a larger yield and less labor for a smaller yield. Labor require-
ment is not directly proportionate to yield, but nearly so.
Material requirements and usual season of -operations are
shown in Tables 8 and 9. Rutgers and Grothen Globe were the
most important varieties of tomatoes planted. From 0.2 to 1
pound of seed was required per acre, depending upon whether
seed was drilled in the field or plants were raised in a seedbed
and reset to the field. Where plants were raised in a seedbed and
reset to the field, as in the Manatee-Ruskin and South Dade areas,
from 3,000 to 6,400 plants were required, depending upon width

TABLE 4.-TOMATOES: USUAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
MANATEE-RUSKIN AREA.
Times Unstaked Staked
Operation Over Hours per Acre Hours per Acre
Man Horse Tractor MNn Honrp Trartnr


Seedbed preparation and care 19.6 .7 26.1 .9
Field:
Preparing land ------- -1 21.9 15.0 5.0 25.7 15.7 7.4
Setting plants and fertil-
izing' .-...-.-------...--_____.---- 1 36.3 54.0 -
Fertilizing and cultivating 3 31.2 28.8 37.4 26.3 -
Hoeing ---............................. 2 22.8 33.3 -
Insect and disease control 9 33.0 23.3 -
Staking and tying -----........ 4 124.0 -
Pruning and topping ......... 2 61.0 89.3 -
Irrigating --...__------........ 24.0 31.6 -
Removing stakes after
harvest ------------------------..... 1 26.6 -
Leveling land after harvest 1 1.5 1.5 2.2 2.2
Total' ...---.--.-...... ------.- ........ 231.7 43.8 6.5 447.4 42.0 9.6
Harvesting:
Pick and lug-greens..... 5 119.5 130.6 -
Pick and lug-ripes -..---. 5 14.9 21.7 -
Total pick and lug ---------...-._. 134.4 152.3 -
Total All Operations (Except
Hauling) --- -------- --.. 385.7 44.5 6.5 625.8 42.9 9.6
Fall Spring Fall Spring
Estimated average yield .. greens 200 bu. 210 bu. 240 bu. 275 bu.
ripes 25 bu. 25 bu. 40 bu. 30 bu.
Total 225 bu. 235 bu. 280 bu. 305 bu.
Row width -----------------.----------- 5 feet 4% feet
Distance of plants __---------______. 24 inches 18 inches
1 Includes time for resetting.
2 Two times over unstaked, and four times staked.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 5.-TOMATOES: USUAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
MARION AND SUMTER COUNTIES.
Times Hours per Acre
Operation Over Man Horse Tractor
Preharvest:
Chopping weeds ...............- _--------..... 1 .5 -. .5
Breaking land ..---...... ..----------- --. 1 1.5 -. 1.5
Disking ----------------- --- 1 .8 ..- .8
Lay off and open furrow ------- 1 1.1 1.1
Haul and apply fertilizer _...- 1 2.9 2.4
Bed-up and cover fertilizer --------.. 1 1.8 1.8
Open furrow to plant ---- 1 .9 .9
Planting ....------......---------------. 1 1.1 1.1 -
Applying poison bait .--....-----------. 1 1.3
Cultivate with scooter -----....----------.. 1 2.2 2.2
Bar-off ....---------- ......... 1 2.1 2.1 -
Hoe and thin ....-------------. 1 9.7
Apply side dressing ....-------.--- 1 2.3 2.3
Side and run middles -1 12.0 12.0
Sweep middles ....---.. -----....---- 1 2.0 2.0
Apply top dressing .........------.. --- 1 3.2
Spraying ...___...-------..---- ------------ 3 6.0 3.0 .
Total preharvest ......--------------..... 51.4 30.9 2.8
Harvesting:
Picking ---------------- 8 37.8
Lugging -----.....------ --.............---- 8 6.2
Other -------..... ------------..-------- -. 8 2.8 ...
Total harvest --------------------- __ 46.8 .
Hauling to packinghouse ------_---____. 4.7 ..
Total Growing-Harvesting and Hauling 102.9 30.9 2.8
Estimated average yield: 100 bushels per acre.
Row width: Average 5/2 feet.
Distance of plants: Average 38 inches (1 plant per hill, unstaked).

of rows and spacing in the row. In general, from 600 to 4,000
pounds of fertilizer were required per acre, depending upon soil
types and intensity of cultivation. From two to three applications
of fertilizer were made during the growth of the crop. In some.
areas, particularly during a wet season, growers may use 4,500
to 6,000 pounds of fertilizer in making a crop. In the South Dade
area growers used compost when setting plants to the field. This
required around one cubic yard per acre.
Most growers were using nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid
parzate) as a spray in the control of late blight of tomatoes. This
disease has been a serious threat to the tomato crop in Florida
since the 1945-46 season. It is caused by a fungus, (Phytophthora
infestans (Mont.) DBy), which thrives in moist weather when
the nights are cool and the days only moderately warm.4 Where

4Ruehle, George D. Control of Late Blight of Tomatoes. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta., Press Bul. 632, 1947.







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


spray was used it was applied at the rate of 20 to 120 gallons per
acre per application. A complete spray program required an
application every five to seven days when late blight was present
or infestation was expected.
Growers in the Manatee-Ruskin area begin preparing land for
fall tomatoes about the first of July. Seedbeds are planted and
cared for in July and August. Plants are set out and fertilized
in August and September and cultivation and additional fertili-
zations are done as required from September to Noveimber.
Harvest of the fall crop usually begins soon after the first of
November and continues into January.
Work on the spring crop begins with land preparation in

TABLE 6.-TOMATOES: USUAL LABOH REQUIREMENTS PER ACHE,
SOUTH DADE COUNTY.
Times Hours per Acre
Operation Over Man Horse Tractor
Seedbed:
Preparation and planting ---- 3.7 1.2
Seedbed care __.-------------------- 1.1 -
Total seedbed .......... --- -- 4.8 1.2 -
Field:
Leveling land after preceding crop ---- 1 1.8 1.8
Mowing __.---------- --...- 1 2.0 1.0
Raking -- --------------------- 1 1.6 .8
Burning ..-- --------..-----. 1 1.2 -
Disking ---------- 2 1.8 1.8
Marking off rows --...-------...- ...--------- 1 2.1 2.1
Setting plants, and applying compost
and fertilizer -.........-------------------. 1 22.7 -
Resetting skips ------ 1 2.7
Fertilizing _----.....-.----------- 3 7.4 .
Hoeing ....----. ....----------------- 2 36.9 -
Cultivating _.....-----...... ------.- 3 8.3 8.3
Spraying and dusting .--- 6 14.7 2.5
Applying poison bait ------- 3 4.5 ---- --
Total preharvest, field .-----.....-------- ---- 107.7 12.9 5.4
Total preharvest, including seedbed --..-- .112.5 14.1 5.4
Harvesting: (165 bu. greens)l
Picking, greens ......-_.... .......-----------.. 4 82.5 -
Lugging ... .----------------. 4 13.2
Checking __ ............----------------- 4 6.6
Hauling __----........-.---------------- 4 6.6..
Total harvesting --------------- 108.9 -
Total-All Operations ...-------221.4 14.1 5.4
Estimated Average Yield: 165 bu. Greens (40 bu. ripes per acre).
Row width: Average 6 feet.
Distance of plants: Average 26 inches.
If ripes are picked about 20.2 hours man labor will be required for
40 bushels.




TABLE 7.-TOMATOES: USUAL LABOR REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE FORT PIERCE AREA (FALL AND SPRING CROP)
Times Tractor Operation Horse Operation
Operation Over Man Horse Tractor Man Horse Tractor
Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours Hours
Preharvest:
-lDititch and dike (dragline) ...-----.......----------------. 1 2.9 -- -- 2.9
SInstall water control pumps .--.....--- ... .------_--------- 1 2... 2.1 -- --- 2.1
Drill wells (irrigation) _.---_........-_ --------------. --- 1 contract contract
SCut roads (road machine) --.. -----...---------------.. --- 1 1.4 .7 1.4 .- .7
S Install bridges (palmetto logs) ...- ------.-......-. 1 3.0 -- -.- 3.0
SMow or chop (or burn) --_---- ----------------.---.- 1 .5 -- .5 .5 .-- .5
-; -Lay off rows (turf furrows) --...-------. 1 11.1 1.1 1.7 1.7
Apply fertilizer .---...----.- ---..---.-.------.---------- -- I -1.8 3.2
Cover fertilizer (sand furrows) .....------------....------- ----1 .9 .9 2.2 2.2
Plant (Cole Planter)' _---------- 1 .9 1.0 1.0
Open ditches (shovel) ---....-- ------- --..- .. 1 1.2 1.2 -
SThin and reset ------ ---------------- 1 6.8 -- -- 6.8
Cultivating and fertilizing:
Turf furrow .- __..... .. --- -------._--- ----- 3 2.4 .. 2.4 4.5 4.5
Applying fertilizer ...----------- ......----- ---- 3 4.6 9.8
Covering fertilizer ---------------------- --------- f 5 2.5
(sand furrow) -...----------- -----. 3 2.5 5.4 5.4
Raking ....._-.....-------- ---------.---.---. 1 '22.7 .. 22.7
-Opening ditches --...--.___..-- ____.--- --.... 5 6.7 6.7
Scraping roads and ditches _--------- --_--------- 5 3.1 1.6 3.1 1.6
Applying top dressing ...- ---- -- ......-------. 2 1.8 -- 1.8
Breaking out middles .--- ...-----. -------.. 1 .8 .8 1.8 1.8
Spraying, hand2 -------------- -. 2 1.8 .. 1.8
Spraying, machine2 .--------..-_..-_---- _____ 6 5.9 3.0 5.9 ___ 3.0
Total preharvest .--.. -----------------. ----.--- 74.9 13.5 89.5 16.6 5.8
--Harvest:
Picking .----_---------------- .---------. 5 72.9 72.9
Lugging ---------- ---------- ----------- 5 19.5 -- 19.5
Washing and handling boxes ._..-_..--_.....-------------. 5 4.2 -- 4.2 --.
Field grading ...---. ----.... ..-_- .--- 5 7.7 7.7
Ticket man (piece work) ..---------------.-----------------.. 2.8 -- 2.8
Foreman -- ----------.--.--------- 3.5 ..- 3.5 -
Loading and hauling to market --_--..-__ ....__ .- ----.-5. 5 11.0 ..- ... 11.0--
Total harvest ..__--- _--_ ..---... ...... ..---- ---- -.. -------121.6 ..- 121.6
Total-All Operations --------------- ---- --------------- 196.5 .- 13.5 211.1 16.6 5.8
Estimated average yield: 200 bushels per acre. Distance of plants: Average 30 inches.
Row width: Average 7 feet.
1Some growers operate the planter as a separate operation. If done by a tractor this requires .9 hours per acre addi-
tional man and tractor.
2Not all growers use a hand sprayer when plants are small. Dust is applied by planes, as is poison bait if used.
1\




TABLE 8.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE FOR SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA.
Amount Required
Item Kind Unstaked Staked
Manatee-Ruskin Area
Seedbed:
Seed Rutgers, Grothen Globe .4 lb. .5 lb.
Fertilizer 4-7-5 40 lb. 50 lb.
Spray Bordeaux 8 gal. 10 gal.
Field:
Plants (from seedbed) Rutgers, Grothen Globe 4300 6400
Fertilizer 4-7-5; 4-8-8 2200 lb. 2500 lb.
Top dressing NaNOs; KNO,; 8-0-12 180 lb. 220 lb.
Spray Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid
parzate), DDT, Parathion, fixed
coppers, cryolite (Kryocide) 1000 gal. 1000 gal.

Poison bait Chlorinated or bran bait 75 lb. 75 lb.
Stakes Cypress 6000
Amount Required
Item Kind Range Usual
Marion and Sumter Counties
Initial fertilizer 4-7-5; 5-7-5; (30-40% organic) 500-800 lb. 600 lb.
Seed Rutgers, Grothen Globe .5- 1 lb. 1 lb.
Poison bait Ready mixed, or shorts, bran
Paris Green, and Syrup 0- 20 lb. 20 lb.
Fertilizer (side dress) 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-7-5; 3-8-8 400-700 lb. 550 lb.
Fertilizer (top dress) Nitrate of potash 50-200 lb. 150 lb.
Spray Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate),
DDT, Nicotine, fixed coppers 45-120 gal. 60 gal.
South Dade County
Seedbed:
Seed Rutgers, Grothen Globe .1- .3 lb. .2 lb.
Fertilizer 4-7-5 (plus Mn) 20- 80 lb. 40 lb.
Dust Copper-arsenic-lime (20-20-60) 0- 10 lb. 4 lb.
Field:
Plants (from seedbed) Rutgers, Grothen Globe 3000-4000 3350
Compost 1 cu. yd.
Fertilizer 4-7-5 1800-2700 lb. 2000 lb.
Top dressing 8-0-12; Nitrate of potash 0- 300 lb. 200 lb.
Spray Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate),
fixed coppers 300 gal.
Poison bait Chlordane, Toxaphene, or DDT spray 100 gal.
Note: Field boxes of 1 to 1-3/5 bushel capacity are used for transporting tomatoes and other crops to market. They are
usually grower owned and the annual loss is estimated at 15 per cent.















TABLE 8.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE FOR SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA (CONCLUDED).


Item Kind Amount Required
Range Usual
(Fall and Spring Crop)
Fort Pierce Area
Seed Grothen Globe .20- .67 lb. .33 Ib.
Seed (seedbed if used Spring only) Grothen Globe .05- .15 lb. .08 lb.
Fertilizer, before planting 4-8-8; 4-8-6 400-1000 lb. 650 lb.
Fertilizer, (side applications) 4-8-8; 4-8-6 2000-3000 lb. 2350 lb.
Fertilizer, (top dressing) KNO; 8-0-8; 10-0-10 150- 500 lb. 275 lb.
Spray Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate),
Sulfur, fixed coppers 500-1200 gal. 700 gal.
Dust' Copper-lime, DDT, Sulfur 135 lb.
Dust1 Benzine hexachloride (Gamtox) 45 lb.
Field boxes, (1 bu.) owned per acre 10-30 25
Field boxes, annual loss per acre 10-33% 15%

SMost growers sprayed until the plants were large, and then used dust, applied by planes for control. Copper dusts
were used for blight with DDT added for insects. Gamtox dust was applied for aphids. When dust was used ex-
clusively, instead of spraying, it required about 400 pounds per acre.







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


TABLE 9.-TOMIATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS FOR
SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA.


Manatee-Ruskin Area
Season of Operation
Operation Fall Spring
Seedbed preparation and care .July 10 Aug. 31 Dec. 15 Feb. 10
Prepare land ..-- ....------------- July 1 Sept. 15 Nov. 1 Feb. 10
Set out and fertilize .------------Aug. 10 Sept. 15 Jan. 10 Feb. 10
Fertilize and cultivate ...----- Aug. 20 Nov. 15 Jan. 15 Apr. 20
Hoe ..-_ e.... c__n..------ .. ----- Sept. 1 Oct. 31 Feb. 1 Mar. 15
Insect and disease control -.. Aug. 10 Jan. 10 Jan. 10 May 20
Stake and tie ------ Sept. 15 Nov. 15 Feb. 15 Mar. 31
Prune and top -------------Sept. 15 Nov. 15 "Feb. 1 Apr. 15
Irrigate ... -------Aug. 10 Dec. 31 Jan. 10 Apr. 30
Harvest ----------- Nov. 10 Jan. 10 Apr. 10 May 20
Remove stakes --- .---- Dec. 15 Jan. 31 May 1 May 31
Level land ___- ---- .Jan. 15 Feb. 28 June 1 June 15
Marion and Sumter Counties
Season of Operation
Operation Range Most Work


Chopping weeds ------ Oct.
Breaking land .....--------..... Oct.
Disking .... ----------. Oct.
Lay off rows and open furrowsDec.
Haul and apply fertilizer --.. Dec.
Bed-up and cover fertilizer -..-Dec.
Open furrow to plant ...-.---..Jan.
Planting ___ ------------- Jan.
Apply poison bait -.....---.. .. Feb.
Cultivate with scooter ------... Feb.
Bar off -- ------------- Feb.
Hoe and thin ------- -- Feb.
Apply side dressing --- ----Mar.
Side and run middles ----------- Mar.
Sweep middles -------------Apr.
Apply top dressing ---- Mar.
Spraying ......-----.... Mar.
Harvesting -. -- ---Apr.


1 Nov. 30
1 Dec. 31
20 Jan. 5
15 Jan. 15
15 Jan. 15
15 Jan. 15
1 Mar. 20
1 Mar. 20
1 Mar. 5
15 Mar. 15
20 Mar. 15
15 Mar. 15
1 Apr. 10
5 -Apr. 30
1 Apr. 30
15 May 15
15 May 15
25 June 30


Oct. 15 Nov.
Nov. 1 Nov.
Nov. 15 Dec.
Dec. 20 Jan.
Dec. 20 Jan.
Dec. 20 Jan.
Jan. 5 Jan.
Jan. 5 Jan.
Feb. 15 Feb.
Feb. 25 Mar.
Feb. 25 Mar.
Feb. 20 Mar.
Mar. 15 Mar.
Mar. 15 Apr.
Apr. 15 Apr.
Apr. 1 Apr.
Apr. 1 Apr.
May 5 June


November. The seedbed may be planted from December to
February and plants are reset to the field in January and
February. Harvest of the spring crop takes place in April and
May in the Manatee-Ruskin area.
In Marion and Sumter Counties land preparation is begun in
October and November. From then until January rows are
laid-off, furrows opened, fertilizer applied and land bedded-up.
Most seeding is completed by the end of the third week in Janu-
ary. From the first of February until the crop is ready for
harvest it is cultivated and fertilized regularly. Harvest usually
begins the last week in April and is completed before the last of
June.


1
1
20
20
25
5
10
5
31
15
30
30
30
15







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 9.-TOMATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS FOR
SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA (CONCLUDED).


South Dade County
Operation Season of Operation
Leveling land after preceding crop ..----- __----------... Apr. 1 Apr. 30
Seedbed preparation and planting --....------------ Aug. 20 Jan. 15
Mowing ---......-.--- ......--- ...- .-- Sept. 1 Oct. 15
Raking .------.---.-----.----- --------------.---.... Sept. 1 Oct. 15
Burning --..--.-....-.---------- -.....----........-.-....--.-....- Sept. 10 Oct. 31
Disking ---------- -- ....--. Sept. 10 Jan. 15
Marking off rows -----------. Sept. 20 Feb. 10
Setting plants and applying compost and fertilizer .. Sept. 20 Feb. 10
Resetting skips ..._......-------........._..__- -. Oct. 1 Feb. 15
Fertilizing ..-- -.-Oc....... ........ ........ Oct. 1 Mar. 31
Hoeing ---- --- .... ......... Sept. 20 Mar. 15
Cultivating ----.-- ......- ... Sept. 25 Mar. 31
Spraying and dusting --.--..-.-.. .........------- ... Oct. 1 Apr. 15
Applying poison bait ..-------...-.------.------....-- Sept. 20 Nov. 30
Harvesting ......---.------ .. Dec. 1 Apr. 15
Fort Pierce Area
Op n Season of Operation
OperatioFall Crop Spring Crop
Ditch and dike land (dragline)t Apr. 1 July 31 Jan. 1 Dec. 31
Prepare roads and bridges1 July November
Install water control pumps .- July 1 Aug. 5 Nov. 1 Dec. 1
Drill wells ....--------.. ...........- July August Nov. Dec.
Mow, chop or burn --- July 1 Aug. 10 Nov. 1 Dec. 1
Prepare beds and plants --.-- Aug. 5 Aug. 25 Dec., 7 Jan. 5
Thin plants ..-.--------........- Sept. 1 Sept. 25 Jan. 10 Feb. 15
Cultivate and fertilize --------- Sept. 5 Oct. 15 Jan. 10 Mar. 10
Raking ...--. ----------------.... Sept. 5 Sept. 30 Jan. ,10 Feb. 20
Spraying -------- --...-......... Sept. 1 Oct. 15 Jan. 10 Mar. 10
Dusting ......-----.--------. Oct. 1 Nov. 1 Feb. 20 Mar. 31
Irrigating and draining ........ Aug. 5 Dec. 20 Dec. 7 May 15
Harvesting ..--.................._...... Nov. 1 Dec. 25 Mar. 25 May 25
SMay be done at any time of the year in advance of preparing land and planting.

Tomatoes in the Fort Pierce area are planted on land that must
be ditched, diked, and in many cases drained. Ditching and
diking may be done by dragline at any time of year in advance of
planting. Roads and bridges are put in, wells drilled, and water
control pumps installed in July and August for the fall crop.
Beds are prepared and seed sown directly in the field in August.
Plants are thinned in September and the tomatoes are fertilized
and cultivated as needed. Fields are sprayed from September
first to the middle of October and dusted thereafter until the crop
is ready for harvest. Growers try to begin harvesting in early
November and finish by the third week in December. Prepara-
tions for the spring crop begin in November. Planting takes
place in December and January. The tomatoes are harvested
from late March to the last of May.






Returns on Florida Tomatoes


Land preparation for the winter crop in South Dade County
is begun around the first of September, weather permitting.
Seedbed preparation and planting may be done from August to
January. Plants are set to the field and compost and fertilizer
applied from the last of September to the first week in February.
The crop may be harvested from December to April.

Costs and Returns

Per-acre and per-unit costs and returns by areas for the
1946-47, 1947-48 and 1948-49 seasons are shown in Tables 10
through 13. The highest cost per acre for producing and harvest-
ing tomatoes was found in the Manatee-Ruskin area for the
staked crop each season. Staked tomatoes required a larger
amount of hand labor for staking, pruning and tying than was
required for the unstaked crop in this and most other areas of the
state. Per-acre cost for seed and fertilizer was also highest each
season for the staked crop in the Manatee-Ruskin area and spray
and dust costs were higher in two of the three seasons studied.
Production costs in 1946-47 ranged from $228.02 per acre in
the Wauchula area to $544.04 in the Manatee-Ruskin area. The
range in cost between areas was not so great in the past two
seasons and yields per acre were more uniform.
The per-acre cost of producing tomatoes may vary from one
year to another because of disaster in the form of floods, freezes
or insects and diseases. It was, however, less variable than per-
bushel cost, which was almost inversely proportional to yield per
acre. This can readily be seen in the case of Wauchula and the
South Dade areas, Tables 10, 11 and 12. In the Wauchula area
in 1946-47 the yield was 65 bushels per acre and growing cost
averaged $3.51 per bushel. Late blight and cold were largely
responsible for low yields that season and, as a result, per-bushel
cost was high. In 1947-48 and 1948-49 Wauchula growers had a
fair to good season, yield was average or above and cost was
lowered to $1.60 and $1.71 per bushel, respectively.
In South Dade County in 1948-49 the yield was 213 bushels per
acre and the cost $1.41 per bushel. Ii 1947-48, late blight cut
the yield to 90 bushels per acre and cost per bushel increased to
$3.38. With a yield of 125 bushels per acre in 1946-47 cost per
bushel averaged $1.93.
Cost per bushel in the 1946-47 and 1948-49 season was highest
for the staked crop in the Manatee-Ruskin area. South Dade









TABLE 10.-TOM ATOES

Item
Number of growers ..................-
Number of acres ----------------..
Average acres per grower -_......-
Average yield per acre (bushels)
Growing costs:
Land rent .----.--_.------------
Seed -----..._._._.. ......__-._._
Fertilizer ----- .. .. .
SSide dressing or lime --__-.--_
Spray and dust-_... --_
Airplane application---------- ___.
Cultural labor --.--.. -----.. _..
Machine hire --- ----
Mule feed -----___
Gas, oil and grease------..--_ _
Repair and maintenance.........-
Depreciation -------------
Licenses and insurance.....---.
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.)-----
Interest on capital invested .
(other than land)__--
Miscellaneous expense -.._.......
Total growing cost ---.. ._
Harvesting costs:
Picking labor ---- ....
Grade and pack labor----- -__
Containers ........------...........------
Hauling -........................... ..-...-
Commission ...............
Total harvesting cost-.........-_
Total crop cost- -. ..--- ___...
Crop sales --... ------------_-------.-.........
Net return ......-- ........ .


:PER-ACRE COSTS AND RETURNS IN SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA, SEASON 1946-47.
Fort South Manatee-Ruskin Fort South Manatee-Ruskin
Wauchula Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked Wauchula Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked


12
37.0
3.1
65.0

$ 10.04
11.00
48.41
12.00
20.12
80.21
6.50
11.10
6.81
6.74
7.27
1.55

5.36

.91
$228.02


29 14 11
3236.5 1997.0 498.0
111.6 143.0 45.3
139.2 124.7 160.8
Average per acre
S11.51 $ 18.24 $ 31.14
4.52 2.82 11.44
73.37 65.55 97.84
5.32
42.07 26.94 33.75
8.77 1.35 1.56
97.94 78.25 271.48
19.18 .17 5.85
2.14 .64 6.91
15.18 9.04 16.49
16.15 13.43 15.54
20.65 9.93 21.30
3.58 3.49 3.52

7.47 5.60 12.68


1.24
4.19
$240.88

$ 34.84
72.81
65.56
9.27
16.43
$198.91
$439.79
$587.89
$148.10


2.66
6.56
$544.04

$ 58.61
84.52
78.88
12.75
34.34
$269.10
$813.14
$932.47
$119.33


2.58
4.20
$329.31


$ 23.11 $ 79.17


4.37
2.60
$ 30.08
$258.10
$244.50
$-13.60


18.09
7.96
$105.22
$434.53
$586.42
$151.89


9
83.0
9.2
145.9

$ 25.28
8.94
53.05
8.36
46.22

157.78
1.56
9.21
13.41
15.76
16.67
2.74

8.57

2.08
.56
$370.19

$ 53.82
20.34
17.15
10.88
10.33
$112.52
$482.71
$709.69
$226.98


Average per bushel
).154 $0.083 $0.146 $0.194 $0.173 3.
.169 .032 .023 .071 .061
.745 .527 .526 .608 .364
.185 .033 .057
.310 .302 .216 .210 .317
.063 .011 .010
1.234 .704 .627 1.688 1.081
.100 .138 .001 .036 .011
.171 .015 .005 .043 .063
.105 .109 .072 .103 .092
.103 .116 .108 .097 .108
.112 .148 .080 .132 .114
.024 .026 .028 .022 .019 '

.082 .054 .045 .079 .059
.014 .019 .010 .016 .014
.030 .034 .041 .004
.508 $2.366 $1.932 $3.383 $2.537

).356 $0.569 $0.279 $0.364 $0.369 .
.584 .526 .139
.526 .491 .118 G


.079
.214
$1.674
$5.057
$5.799
$0.742


.074
.071
$0.771
$3.308
$4.864
$1.556


.067 .130 .074
.040 .057 .132
$0.463 $0.756 $1.595
$3.971 $3.122 $3.527
$3.762 $4.213 $4.714
$-.209 $1.091 $1.187


$(















$0

$(








TABLE 11.-TOMATOES: PER-ACRE COSTS AND RETURNS IN SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA, SEASON 1947-48.


Item
Number of growers__...--
Number of acres____ -------
Average acres per grower -__.--
Average yield per acre (bushels)
Growing costs:
Land rent ----------...
Seed .....-- ---.... ------------...
Fertilizer ___ ---_-
Side dressing or lime ------...
Spray and dust_.. ---
Airplane application ...---
Cultural labor ------..........
Machine hire -------
Mule feed -- -------
Gas, oil and grease ..-------.--
Repair and maintenance __-
Depreciation -..-. --
Licenses and insurance ...----.
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.) -
Interest on capital invested
(other than land)_.---
Miscellaneous expense ------
Total growing cost....-----------.
Harvesting costs:
Picking labor ......-.. .....
Grade and pack labor _-..-...
Containers -
Hauling --------
Commission ---- --------
Total harvesting cost-..---
Total crop cost -__- -..... .........
Crop sales ...--_____.___----------
Net return -.---- -----.


Fort South Manatee-Ruskin Fort South Manatee-Ruskin
Wauchula Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked Wauchula Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked


$


1.22
.06
$258.14


2.63
6.10
$376.13


$ 81.46 $ 96.03


19.81
6.46
$107.73
$365.87
$648.06
$282.19


23.34
6.83
$126.20
$502.33
$743.30
$240.97


2.25
9.32
$305.90


2.96
4.84
$499.70


20 22 11 12 ,
58.2 3678.0 3857.0 1447.0
2.9 167.0 350.6 120.6
161.0 178.5 90.4 280.2
Average per acre
9.68 $ 13.39 $ 24.64 $ 30.62
7.78 4.36 2.62 12.90
57.71 83.29 72.07 97.17
5.01
37.27 39.69 30.45 56.57
6.04 .24
84.19 112.51 100.27 197.40
7.61 29.61 1.24 8.15
12.72 2.34 1.43 6.44
8.49 20.02 13.17 23.96
7.24 22.75 17.94 18.89
9.75 21.06 18.01 23.72
3.38 3.74 5.28 4.54

6.03 8.60 6.97 11.54


$ 33.51 $107.32 $ 46.83
63.36 183.88
56.47 140.98
8.32 31.82 5.77
14.06 38.71 7.03
$175.72 $502.71 $ 59.63
$481.62 $1002.41 $371.30
$525.62 $1282.03 $505.39
$ 44.00 $ 279.62 $134.09


$0.060


9
58.5
6.5
140.6

$ 19.44
9.77
60.59

38.21

114.44
6.12
10.89
11.22
15.67
14.46
1.84

7.21

1.81

$311.67


Average per bushel
$0.075 $0.273 $0.109


$0.138


.u~o .uzL .u/Z .u0o .ulu
.390 .467 .797 .347 .431

.231 .222 .337 .202 .272
.034 .003
.523 .630 1.109 .704 .814
.047 .166 .014 .029 .044
.079 .013 .016 .023 .077
.053 .112 .146 .086 .080
.045 .128 .198 .067 .111
.061 .118 .199 .085 .103 "
.021 .021 .058 .016 .013

.037 .048 .077 .041 .051

.008 .015 .025 .011 .013
.034 .103 .017 o
.603 $2.107 $3.384 $1.783 $2.217


$0.506 $0.538 $0.371
.701
.625
.123 .131 .092
.040 .038 .155
$0.669 $0.707 $1.944
$2.272 $2.814 $5.328
$4.025 $4.164 $5.815
$1.753 $1.350 $0.487


$0.383
.656
.503
.114
.138
$1.794
$3.577
$4.575
$0.998


$0.333

.041
.050
$0.424
$2.641
$3.595
$0.954


$1


""^ """ "^"









TABLE 12.-TOMATOES: PER-ACRE COSTS AND RETURNS IN SELECTED AREAS IN FLORIDA, SEASON 1948-49.
Fort South Manatee-Ruskin Fort South Manatee-Ruskin


Item
Number of growers -----------.......-
Number of acres----_____--..........--
Average acres per grower--......
Average yield per acre (bushels)
Growing costs:
Land rent ----_------.------------.
Seed --_--___-----------------.
Fertilizer -..-..__.__.........--- __..__
Spray and dust-_---....------- -
Airplane application ---- -......
Cultural labor _______.....___
Machine hire --------.......__.-_
Mule feed ------_____-- __-- .....
Gas, oil and grease --.....-----
Repair and maintenance --_._
Depreciation --.-........__-------
Licenses and insurance ....-._
Interest on production capital
(6% 5 mos.)--- .----------.-
Interest on capital invested
(other than land)------.--..
Miscellaneous expense ....._..
Total growing cost .-------______.
Harvesting costs:
Picking labor -___--__--------_. -
Grading and packing labor -..
Containers ---...
Hauling ____--.__----._.__-........
Commission --........-....__.._....
Total harvesting cost---------_
Total crop cost--- ..__--- ___.- ...
Crop sales ---___-_._. ........ ... -
Net return --_-----.------...__ -......


Wauchula
21
57.0
2.7
169.9

$ 11.29
7.80
63.64
22.48

84.76
8.66
14.93
24.75
16.16
21.30
4.68

6.50

2.66
.86
$290.47

$ 72.96

16.86
6.80
$ 96.62
$387.09
$391.82
$ 4.73


Unstaked Wauchula Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked
6
94.0
15.7
170.8


Pierce Dade Co. Staked
24 18 23
5912.0 5208.5 1779.0
246.3 289.4 77.3
208.8 212.8 209.4
Average per acre
$ 14.54 $ 29.88 $ 29.02
4.21 3.96 10.28
81.32 73.64 87.12
29.74 29.35 34.40
1.66
96.09 95.59 183.35
23.99 2.78 7.71
.63 6.63
19.28 13.80 25.47
22.59 18.90 29.09
18.64 13.07 21.34
2.65 3.87 3.97

7.57 6.96 10.51

2.33 1.63 2.67
6.10 6.61 3.25
$331.34 $300.04 $454.81

$105.59 $ 88.78 $ 81.30
15.38 46.96 113.24
15.67 46.36 130.24
27.32 16.35 12.30
18.87 21.71 40.4&
$182.83 $220.16 $377.56
$514.17 $520.20 $832.37
$702.32 $928.96 $865.06
$188.15 $408.76 $ 32.69


$0.066
.046
.375
.132

.499
.051
.088
.146
.095
.125
.028

.038

.016
.005
$1.710

$0.429

.099
.040
$0.568
$2.278
$2.306
$0.028


Average per bushel
$0.070 $0.140 $0.138


.020
.390
.143
.008
.460
.115
.003
.092
.108
.089
.013

.036

.011
.029
$1.587

$0.506
.074
.075
.131
.090
$0.876
$2.463
$3.364
$0.901


.019
.346
.138

.449
.013

.065
.089
.061
.018

.033

.008
.031
$1.410

$0.417
.221
.218
.077
.102
$1.035
$2.445
$4.366
$1.921


.049
.416
.164

.876
.037
.032
.122
.139
.102
.019

.050

.013
.015
$2.172

$0.388
.541
.622
.059
.193
$1.803
$3.975
$4.131
$0.156


$0.137
.058
.361
.181

.502
.057
.039
.123
.115
.056
.010

.040

.007
.001
$1.687

$0.525

.045
.082
$0.652
$2.339
$3.248
$0.909.


$ 23.33
10.00
61.65
30.90

85.83
9.71
6.67
21.02
19.63
9.58
1.77

6.77

1.20
.17
$288.23

$ 89.62

7.75
13.96
$111.33
$399.56
$554.79
$155.23







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


TABLE 13.-TOMATOES: SUMMARY OF PER UNIT COSTS AND RETURNS IN SELECTED
AREAS IN FLORIDA, SEASONS 1946-47, 1947-48, AND 1948-49.


Item and Season Wauchula
Average yield per acre:
1946-47 ....-------.. --- 65.0
1947-48 --------- 161.0
1948-49 __-- .-- 169.9
Total growing cost:
1946-47 ----- $ 3.508
1947-48 ----------- 1.603
1948-49 ------ 1.710
Total harvesting cost:
1946-47 ---- $ 0.463
1947-48 ---..----.---... --- .669
1948-49 .. ---- .568
Total crop cost:
1946-47 __--- $ 3.971
1947-48 ---- -- 2.272
1948-49 ---- 2.278
Crop sales:
1946-47 ------- -- ------- $ 3.762
1947-48 __ -- 4.025
1948-49 --- -- ------- 2.306
Net return:
1946-47 ----- $ -.209
1947-48 --.---.. ------ 1.753
1948-49 ------- .028


Fort South Manatee-Ruskin
Pierce Dade Co. Staked Unstaked


Bushels
139.2 124.7 160.8
178.5 90.4 280.2
208.8 212.8 209.4
Average per Bushel
$ 2.366 $ 1.932 $ 3.383
2.107 3.384 1.783
1.587 1.410 2.172


$ 0.756
.707
.876


$ 1.595
1.944
1.035


$ 3.122 $ 3.527
2.814 5.328
2.463 2.445


$ 4.213
4.164
3.364

$ 1.091
1.350
.901


145.9
140.6
170.8

$ 2.537
2.217
1.687


$ 1.674 $ 0.771
1.794 .424
1.803 .652


$ 5.057
3.577
3.975


$ 3.308
2.641
2.339


$ 4.714 $ 5.799 $ 4.864
5.815 4.575 3.595
4.366 4.131 3.248

$ 1.187 $ 0.742 $ 1.556
.487 .998 .954
1.921 .156 .909


County's per-bushel cost was highest in
1946-47 and 1948-49.


1947-48 and lowest in


Harvesting cost per acre is nearly directly proportional to
yield per acre. Such items of cost as packing, containers and
commission vary directly with yield. Labor and machine cost
will be somewhat less for a large crop than a small one.
Growers with a high yield per acre usually can harvest at a
cost per unit slightly below the area average and realize a larger
net profit than those growers with an average or low yield. Too,
those growers with a product of above-average quality who can
harvest at average or less than average per-unit cost will realize
a larger net profit per unit. Marketing a quality product usually
pays off in better returns to the grower.
Per-unit cost of harvesting ranged from $0.46 per bushel in the
Wauchula area in 1946-47 to $1.94 per bushel in South Dade
County in 1947-48. In Wauchula the tomatoes are sold in field
boxes at the State Farmer's Market, and packing and containers
are not included. In Manatee-Ruskin, harvesting cost for the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


staked crop included picking labor, grading and packing and
containers as well as a selling charge. Both methods were fol-
lowed in the Fort Pierce and South Dade County areas.
The average grower in the Wauchula area lost money on toma-
toes in the 1946-47 season and showed a slight profit in 1948-49.
The other areas averaged fair to good profits per acre and per
bushel in all three seasons. It is notable that according to these
data, profits were higher for the unstaked crop than for the
staked crop in the Manatee-Ruskin area for two of the three
seasons. It appears that the differential in prices received for
the staked crop, which is normally packed and shipped, and the
unstaked crop, which is normally sold in bulk over the local auc-
tion market, was not sufficient to offset packing costs in the
1946-47 and 1948-49 seasons.

Summary
Tomatoes are Florida's most important commercial vegetable
crop in value of production. They are produced commercially in
23 counties of the central and southern portions of the state
during the fall, winter and spring months. Because of differences
in cultural practices and for reporting purposes, seven major
producing areas have been designated. In order of acreage
harvested in the 1948-49 season these areas are: Lower East
Coast, Fort Pierce, Manatee-Ruskin, North Central Florida,
Plant City-Wauchula, Immokalee-Fort Myers and Everglades.
Fall, winter and spring crops are produced in the Immokalee-
Fort Myers, Manatee-Ruskin and Lower East Coast areas, a fall
and spring crop in the Fort Pierce and Plant City-Wauchula
areas, and a spring crop in the North Central Florida and Ever-
glades areas.
The acreage of tomatoes harvested for fresh consumption in
Florida has averaged 30,250 acres per year over the past 20
years. Of this amount approximately 12 percent has been fall,
41 percent winter and 47 percent spring harvest.
Per-acre yield of tomatoes for fresh consumption has advanced
slightly during the past 10 years. Better cultural methods, insect
and disease control and improved varieties were largely respon-
sible for this increase. Weather conditions are a most important
factor. Favorable growing conditions in the 1948-49 season re-
sulted in a yield of 190 bushels per acre, and a total production
of 6,753,000 bushels for fresh consumption. Both average yield
and total production were the highest on record for Florida.







Returns on Florida Tomatoes


F. O. B. price of Florida tomatoes has averaged slightly higher
per bushel for the winter crop than for the fall or spring crop.
Peak season average price of $6.04 per bushel was reached for
the 1947-48 season. The winter crop price averaged $7.20 per
bushel in 1947-48.
The average annual value of the fresh tomato crop for the past
20 years has been $12,736,000 per year. The average annual
value for the five-year period 1944-45 to 1948-49 was $23,531,000,
nearly twice the amount of the 20-year average.
Florida competes mainly with California, Texas, Mexico and
Cuba in the fresh tomato market. Texas ships more tomatoes
than California during Florida's shipping season. Imports from
Cuba and Mexico have averaged 7,117 carlots per year since
1939-40.
From 51 to 232 man hours were required to produce an acre
of unstaked tomatoes in Florida. Staked tomato production re-
quired over 400 man hours per acre. Harvesting required from
47 to 152 man hours per acre, depending upon average yield
reported.
Seed requirement ranged from 0.2 to 1 pounds per acre,
depending upon whether seed was drilled in the field or plants
were raised in a seedbed and reset to the field. From 600 to
4,000 pounds of fertilizer were used depending upon soil types
and intensity of cultivation.
Late blight is one of the most serious diseases affecting the
production of tomatoes in Florida. Late blight was generally
controlled by the application of nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid
parzate), zinc sulfate and lime spray at regular intervals.
Cost of production varies between areas according to the
materials used and amount of labor required in producing the
crop. The highest cost of production per acre was found in the
Manatee-Ruskin area for the staked crop in each of the three
seasons studied.
Harvesting cost varies almost directly with the harvested
yield per acre in an area. Per unit cost between areas varied as
much as $1.21 to $1.27 per bushel for the three seasons 1946-47
to 1948-49. Differences in methods of harvesting, packing, selling
and prices of various containers, when used, was responsible for
most of the variation. There was some difference in wages paid
to labor between areas.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Except in the Wauchula area in the 1946-47 and 1948-49 sea-
sons, most growers averaged fair to good profits in the three
seasons studied. Net returns were highest in South Dade County
in 1948-49.


































6>7*




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