• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Source of information
 Limitations of data
 Labor and material requirements...
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 489
Title: Labor and material requirements for crops and livestock
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026706/00001
 Material Information
Title: Labor and material requirements for crops and livestock
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 80 p. : maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spurlock, A. H
Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Greene, R. E. L ( Robert Edward Lee ), 1910-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
 Subjects
Subject: Truck farming -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural laborers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agricultural costs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.H. Spurlock, Donald L. Brooke and R.E.L. Greene.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026706
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925752
oclc - 18266347
notis - AEN6408

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Source of information
        Page 7
    Limitations of data
        Page 8
    Labor and material requirements for truck crops
        Page 9
        Tomatoes
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Snap beans
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Celery
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Irish potatoes
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
        Green peppers
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Cucumbers
            Page 39
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
        Watermelons
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
            Page 48
        Cabbage
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Sweet corn
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
        Strawberries
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Squash
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
        Eggplant
            Page 67
            Page 68
        Lettuce, escarole, romaine
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
        Lima beans
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Okra
            Page 77
        Southern peas
            Page 78
    Summary
        Page 79
        Page 80
Full Text





UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



Labor and Material Requirements

For Crops and Livestock


II. Truck Crops

By A. H. SPURLOCK, DONALD L. BROOKE aid R.


E. L. GREENE


Fig. 1.-Principal truck crop-producing areas of Florida
(excluding watermelons).


Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 489


January 1952










BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink. Jacksonville
George J. White. Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.8
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beekenbach,r Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir.,
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.s
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M: A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
U. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant'
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Agr. Economist
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Eng.8
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Eng.2 3
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist '
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomists
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant 4
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
E. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Assistant
E. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.13
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionists
J. E. Pace. M.S.. Asst. An. Husb.3
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Husb. 4
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D.. Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace. Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.8
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech. 3


P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.'
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.
EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors
L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor'
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor s

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. D. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant PathologistIs
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.'
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.i3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist1
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist3
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 3
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist$
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist 4
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist 3
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor a
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue. Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
H. F. Ross, B.S., Soils Microbiologist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist 3

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS


NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoads, Jr., M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path.
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
I. Stewart, M.S., Asst. Biochemist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
E. J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Hush.
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson. M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
R. H. Webster, Ph.D., Asst. Agronoraist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge

GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entqmologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.



FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist 4
L. H. Stover, Asst. in Hort.

Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologists
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist


1Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions. U. of F
On leave.


















Contents
Page

PURPOSE OF STUDY ............................................................ ... .. .... 5

SOURCE OF INFORMATION ..-.............---------------.. ... ......... 7

LIMITATIONS OF DATA .................---------------........... --..... 8

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR TRUCK CROPS .............................. 9
Tom atoes ................. ....... .......... ..... ................ ...... 10
Snap Beans ...........................................--- -------... 16
C elery .......................... ......... ... ......... ........................................... 20
Irish Potatoes ....--- .....--..---------................--- --- .....------- 24
G reen P peppers ....................... ................................................... .......... 33
Cucumbers .......... ..........------------......... ........... .. 39
W term elons .....................................-- ... .. .................................. 45
Cabbage ........................................................................................ 49
Sw eet Corn ...................................................... ................ .. .. ........ 54
Straw berries ... ............................................................................. 57
Squash ................... ........... ....................... ........ ............. 61
E eggplant ....... ........... ...... ............................ ............................... 67
Lettuce, Escarole, Romaine....................................... ......................... 69
Lim a Beans ..... .. ......... .........- ............. .................. 73
O kra ..................... ................................................. ................... 77
Southern Peas ...........--.... .. .........-........-......... ............ 78

SUM M ARY ............................................................-----...................... 79










Labor and Material Requirements

For Crops and Livestock

II. Truck Crops

By A. H. SPURLOCK, DONALD L. BROOKE and R. E. L. GREENE

Introduction
Truck crops constitute an important segment of Florida's agri-
culture. In 1950 sales of commercial truck crops, including Irish
potatoes, strawberries and watermelons, amounted to $89,156,000,
or 20 percent of the cash receipts from sales of all agricultural
products. For the preceding 10 years (1941-50) this proportion
averaged 27 percent of farm marketings1
Total acreage devoted to various truck crops in Florida and
value of the harvested production of each for the five seasons
1945-46 to 1949-50 are shown in Table 1. Tomatoes led all crops
in value and, together with celery, snap beans and Irish potatoes,
accounted for 64 percent of the value of all truck crops listed.
The values given for the amount of sales and total acreage do
not include okra, cowpe'as, collards, radishes, greens, broccoli,
etc. These values are for crops reported by the USDA.
Areas of production of truck crops in the state are shown
in Fig. 1. While most vegetable areas are rather concentrated,
the areas themselves are sometimes widely scattered, so a given
crop may be grown in many places in the state. Most truck
crops are produced in the peninsular section. Exceptions are
watermelons in Jackson, Madison and Suwannee counties, cucum-
bers in Jackson and Irish potatoes in Escambia County. Grow-
ing practices for the same crop differ between areas, and there
is wide variation in climate and growing season.

Purpose of Study
The purpose of this study is to provide information by areas
on the usual amount of labor required by operations, approxi-
Acknowledgments.-The authors express their appreciation to the many
vegetable growers who supplied data which made this study possible; and
to members and former members of the Department of Agricultural Eco-
nomics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, for assistance with field
work.
1 Data from Farm Income Situation Reports, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics, USDA.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 1.-TOTAL ACREAGE AND VALUE OF HARVESTED PRODUCTION OF
IMPORTANT TRUCK CROPS, FLORIDA, 1945-46 TO 1949-50 SEASONS.

Five-
Truck Crop 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48 1948-49 1949-50* Season
______ __ Average
Acreage-Acres

Tomatoes ....... 30,400 30,700 28,350 38,800 42,200 34,090
Beans, snap ...... 80,200 80,400 74,500 78,000 77,600 78,140
Celery ....-......... 13,450 11,400 11,600 9,400 9,650 11,100
Potatoes, Irish
comm.** ........ 35,300 23,100 20,700 20,600 23,600 24,660
Peppers, green.. 11,080 10,600 11,200 10,750 14,300 11,586
Cucumbers ........ 11,150 14,700 14,650 12,850 14,300 13,530

Watermelons .... 47,000 47,000 45,000 59,000 68,000 53,200
Cabbage ............ 13,200 12,200 16,700 16,000 17,700 15,160
Corn, sweet ...... 6,000 14,700 28,500 16,400t
Strawberries .... 2,800 4,750 4,200 4,000 5,400 4,230
Squash .............. 7,900 9,000 10,800 9,233t
Eggplant ......... 3,900 3,500 3,330 3,300 2,550 3,316
Escarole ............ 2,500 2,700 3,100 3,000 3,600 2,980
Beans, lima ...... 6,300 4,900 3,850 3,050 3,000 4,220
Lettuce .............. 1,850 2,200 1,750 1,500 2,400 1,940
Cauliflower ........ 500 600 400 600 800 580
Peas, green ...... 1,600 1,350 600 400 300 850
Other$ .............. 1,700 1,300 1,600 1,700 1,400 1,540

Value-Thousand Dollars

Tomatoes ......... $22,406 $17,398 $23,492 $35,355 $31,270 $25,984
Beans, snap ...... 18,360 15,941 14,772 17,181 17,116 16,674
Celery ................ 14,260 17,332 9,319 15,894 12,445 13,850
Potatoes, Irish,
comm.** ........ 11,744 4,809 8,772 12,064 9,215 9,321
Peppers, green.. 6,545 8,178 5,782 9,379 6,380 7,253
Cucumbers ........ 5,377 5,135 6,149 5,836 6,485. 5,796

Watermelons .... 5,552 5,072 6,382 6,018 5,870 5,779
Cabbage ............ 5,571 2,762 6,536 5,575 3,855 4,860
Corn, sweet ...... 1,320 4,478 6,373 4,057t
Strawberries .... 2,363 3,569 2,003 2,453 3,888 2,855
Squash .......... 1,839 2,255 2,185 2,093t
Eggplant .......... 1,805 1,461 1,195 1,276 1,241 1,396
Escarole ............ 875 1,293 1,285 1,705 1,414 1,314
Beans, lima ...... 1,533 1,112 839 900 742 1,025
Lettuce .............. 1,072 754 490 533 755 721
Cauliflower ........ 333 210 180 360 525 322
Peas, green ...... 339 135 92 46 62 135
OtherS ................ 250 244 522 249 189 291

Preliminary.
** Comm. = Commercial.
t Three-year average.
Cantaloupes and carrots only.
Source: Vegetable Crops in Florida, Vol. VI, February 1951, Fla. Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service, USDA, Orlando, Florida.







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


mate dates of performance and amounts of materials used in
production of truck crops. Such data are useful to new or pros-
pective farmers, agricultural students and teachers and public
agencies. They may be used to arrive at a suitable combination
of truck crops or to indicate the aggregate size of a farm oper-
ation. While not a substitute for farm accounts, general esti-
mates of the cost of production and harvesting of truck crops
may be made by applying current rates to the respective quan-
tities of labor and materials required. Such an estimate omits
certain items of cost as indirect labor, repairs and overhead
costs, as land rent, depreciation, interest, taxes and insurance.2

Source of Information
Estimates of usual labor and material requirements were ob-
tained by personal interview with farmers in the various areas
of production. Each farmer was asked to estimate the usual
time required for each operation in producing and harvesting
a crop and the approximate dates when such operations were
performed. Materials normally used were also estimated by
the growers, together with normal yield. In a few cases data
on labor and materials from cost account records were added
in with growers' estimates. No systematic sampling procedure
was used but an attempt was made to get representative, suc-
cessful growers. Therefore, it is believed the data show the
practices of the better farmers.
As summarized the results show the most common practice
for the majority of growers. Unusual operations or methods
were omitted. For example, if most farmers sprayed with a
tractor and power sprayer the records of farmers using a mule-
drawn sprayer were excluded in calculating the time required
for spraying. Labor and power requirements as shown include
the hours of man labor, mule labor and tractor use, but truck
use was omitted because of difficulty in calculating the hours
used. On some crops trucks were used in a number of operations
but on others they were used merely to go to and from the field
morning and night. Even though idle most of the day, they were
still tied up with the operations in progress.
It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor're-
quired in operating a farm including the truck crops shown

2 Costs per acre for growing and harvesting most truck crops in Florida
have been calculated each season since 1945-46 and are available in mimeo-
graphed form.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cannot be obtained exclusively from the data given in the fol-
lowing tables. A great deal of labor is required for jobs not
directly related to any individual crop or enterprise. Work on
roads, bridges, fences, repairs to equipment and buildings and
all daily farm chores come in this classification. If all labor
performed on a farm were prorated to various enterprises the
amount used would be higher than that shown in the tables of
requirements.

Limitations of Data
These data were obtained for different crops and areas at
various times over the five-year period 1943 to 1948. Since the
earliest data were taken changes have taken place in methods
used in growing most crops. The most important of these was
due to an increase in mechanization. This has been gradual
for the most part, but in a few instances has made rather sudden
changes in techniques used. Following the war, as tractors be-
came available many farmers who had not previously owned
tractors bought them. Meanwhile, tractor equipment was im-
proved to make for greater efficiency and more use with less
labor being required.
Labor requirements per acre or per unit of production tend
to decrease over a long period with increases in efficiency, but
such changes are gradual. Labor required for hand operations,
as in picking beans, does not change as much as in the case of
operations which can be mechanized. Perhaps the most rapidly
changing aspect of farming has been in insect and disease con-
trol measure. Many new materials have become available since
the war which often have resulted in great changes in spraying
and dusting practices. In many instances the quantity require-
ment has not changed as much as the material used. The tables
on material requirements are not to be taken as recommenda-
tions, but represent average usages in actual practice at the
time studied. It is suggested that proposed control measures
be checked with qualified persons before using, in order to get
the latest recommended practice.
The yield of most truck crops fluctuates widely from year to
year, even on the same farm. It was often difficult for a grower
to give a good estimate of his normal yield, since yields are
frequently much higher in some seasons. However, hazards of
flood and frost are very high, especially in one or two of the
areas, reducing the average yield over a period of. years.








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


In Table 2 are shown the five-season average yields of most
truck crops. These are state averages rather than averages for
any section or area, and include fall, winter and spring crops.

TABLE 2.-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE YIELD PER ACRE OF IMPORTANT TRUCK
CROPS IN FLORIDA, SEASON 1945-46 TO 1949-50.*
Five-
Truck Crop Unit Season
Average

Tomatoes .................... ........................ I.. bu. 159
Beans, snap ......... ......... ....................... bu. 97
Celery ............................ ............ crates 525
Potatoes, Irish, comm. .................................. bu. 192
Peppers, green ................... .................. ......... bu. 268
Cucumbers ..................... ........... .. ........ bu. 134
W atermelons .................................. ......... I melons 269
Cabbage ................... .... ....................... tons 9.1
Corn, sweet ................................................... crates, 5 doz. 105**
Strawberries ............................................ crates, 24 qt. 65
Squash ......................... ............................. bu. 86**
Eggplant .................... ....................... bu. 282
E scarole ................................................. bu. 463
Beans, lima ........ .. .................. bu. 90
Lettuce .................................................. crates, 4-6 doz. 139
Cauliflower ..................... .......... ....... crates I 277
Peas, green ............-...-.. .... ... ...............I.. bu. 59


1949 50 season preliminary.
** 3-year average.
Source: Florida Vegetable Crops, Vol. VI, USDA Crop
porting Service, Orlando, Florida.


and Livestock Re-


Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops
Records were obtained for the important truck crops in the
various areas of production. The crops and areas for which
records were obtained are shown in Table 3.
Requirements for labor and materials vary widely between
areas for the same crop; they also vary from one season to an-
other, as well as between farms. The averages shown in the
following tables, therefore, should be used with some degree
of discretion. Harvest labor required is based on yield given
in each table. Since harvest labor varies almost directly with
yield, proper adjustment should be made for a different yield.
Seasonal arrangement of labor required is not attempted, be-
cause for some crops it is possible within a single area to find
every operation pertaining to its production and harvesting
going on at the same time. The range in usual dates of per-








10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

formance is given instead of seasonal distribution. It should
be understood that these dates may not apply to a single crop,
but rather indicate the period during which the grower performs
a given operation.

TABLE 3.-TRUCK CROPS AND AREAS OF PRODUCTION IN WHICH LABOR AND
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS WERE OBTAINED.

Crop Area of Production


Tomatoes ...............................
Beans, snap ...................
Celery ....................................
Potatoes, Irish, comm. ........
Peppers, green .....................
Cucumbers ............... ........
Watermelons ...................
Cabbage ............ ...............
Corn, sweet ...........................
Strawberries ........................
Squash ..................................
Eggplant .........................
Lettuce, escarole, romaine ..
Beans, lima ..........................
Okra .......................................
Field peas ...........................


Dade County, Fort Pierce, Manatee County,
Marion and Sumter counties, Plant City
Dade County, Everglades, McIntosh, Plant
City, Pompano
Everglades, Sanford, Sarasota
Dade County, Everglades, Hastings, LaCrosse,
Lee County, Plant City
Alachua County, Lee County, Plant City,
Pompano, Sumter County
Alachua, Hardee, Lee, Sumter counties
Alachua, Gilchrist, Jackson, Lake, Madison
counties
Hastings, Manatee County, Sanford
Lake City, Sanford
Plant City
McIntosh, Plant City
Lee County, Manatee County, Plant City
Manatee County, Sanford
Everglades, Hawthorne, Pompano
Plant City
Plant City


Tomatoes

Labor requirements per acre of tomatoes were highest in the
Manatee area, where staking is practiced. Staking and tying
required more man labor per acre than was required to produce
the entire crop in the other areas shown, Table 4. In the Fort
Pierce area growers move to new land each season for planting
tomatoes. In most cases the land must be ditched, diked, have
pumps installed, be drained and have roads and bridges built
before the land can be prepared for planting. In other areas
tomatoes are planted on the same land for more than one season
and less pre-planting preparation is required. Harvest labor
requirements range from 0.5 to 0.7 man hours per bushel of
green tomatoes sold.
The Fort Pierce and Manatee County areas produce both a
fall and a spring crop. South Dade County produces a winter
and spring crop, while the Marion-Sumter and Plant City areas




TABLE 4.-TOMATOES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area


South Dade
County


Fort Pierce


Manatee County


Marion and
Sumter Counties


Plant City


Number of Growers | 23 7 20 14 15


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed* ........................................
Field:
Ditching and draining,
roads, pumps ......---............
Preparing land .......................
Preparing rows and fertilizing
Planting or setting ..-...............
Cultivating and fertilizing ....
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........
Insect and disease control ......
Irrigating ...................---- ....
Pruning and topping ............
Staking and tying .......--........
Removing stakes ......................
Total pre-harvest, field ................
Harvest Labor:
Picking ....-...............................
Lugging ....................................
Washing tomatoes and
handling boxes ......................
Field grading ............................
Foremen, checkers .............-....
Hauling to packing house
or market ...................- ....
Total harvest labor .....................


Total-all operations ...................
Estimated yield .............................


* Per acre of field-set tomatoes.


I Trac-
Man Horse tor

4.8 1.2
I 4.8| 1.2


108.91


Tractor 1Tra
Operation I Unstaked _Staked Trac-
Trac- I I Trac- I I Trac-I Man Horse tor
Man tor Man |Horse tor ] Man Horse tor I
19.6 .7 26.1
1 19.61 71 26.1 .9 1 1


2.3
.5 23.4 15.0 6.5
1.1 1
.91: 36.3
5.7 31.2 28.8
22.8
3.0 33.01
S24.01
61.0


12.91 5.41 75.01 13.51 231.71 43.81

72.9
19.5 155.2|


S221.41 14.1|


121.61


162.61


5.41 196.61 13.51 413.9| 44.51


165 bu. green 200 bu.
40 bu. ripes,
picked: no labor
included


205 bu. green
25 bu. ripes


27.9 15.7
54.0
37.4 26.3
33.3
23.3
31.6
89.3
124.0
26.6


2.8
5.8
2.0
23.8
9.7
7.3


6.51 447.41 42.01 9.61 51.4

)19 37.8
(175.9 6.2


S 9.31
185.21


6.5! 658.7! 42.9!


258 bu. green
35 bu. ripes


2.8
4.7
51.51


102.91


STrac-
Man Horse tor
I !


S 4.0


118.8| 36.4


69.4


S34.9

18.01
S ]122.31 |
30.91 2.81 241.11 36.4! 4.0


100 bu.


160 bu.


' '


' '


* Per acre of field-set tomatoes.




















TABLE 5.-TOMATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Seedbed : .....................

Field:
Ditching and drain-
ing, roads,
pumps* ................
Preparing land ......
Preparing rows and
fertilizing ..............
Planting or setting
Cultivating and fer-
tilizing ............
Hoeing, raking,
weeding ... .......
Insect and disease
control ..................
Irrigating ..............
Pruning and top-
ping ........................
Staking and tying..
Removing stakes ...

Harvesting ................


South Dade
County

Aug. 20 Jan.15





Sept. 1 Jan. 15

Sept. 20 Feb. 10
Sept. 20 Feb. 15

Sept. 25 Mar. 31

Sept. 25 Mar. 15

Oct. 1 April 15


Fort Pierce


Fall Crop


April 1 Aug.
July 1 Aug.

Aug. 5 Aug.
Aug. 5 Aug.

Sept. 5 Oct.

Sept. 1 Sept.

Sept. 1-Nov.
Aug. 5 Dec.


Spring Crop


Jan. 1 Dec.
Nov. 1 Dec.

Dec. 7- Jan.
Dec. 7 Jan.

Jan. 10 Mar.

Jan. 10- Feb.

Jan. 10- Mar.
Dec. 7 May


D2c. 1 -April 15 Nov. 1- Dec. 25 Mar. 25 May 25


Manatee County


Fall Crop Spring Crop


July 10- Aug. 31





July 1 Sept. 15

July 1 Sept. 15
Aug. 10 Sept. 15

Aug. 20 Nov. 15

Sept. 1 Oct. 31

Aug. 10- Jan. 10
Aug. 10 Dec. 31

Sept. 15 Nov. 15
Sept. 15 Nov. 15
Dec. 15 Jan. 31


Dec. 15 Feb. 10





Nov. 1 -Feb. 10

Nov. 1 Feb. 10
Jan. 10- Feb. 10

Jan. 15 April 20

Feb. 1 Mar. 15

Jan. 10 April 15
Jan. 10- April 30

Feb. 1 April 15
Feb. 15-Mar. 31
May 1- May 31


Nov. 10- Jan. 10 April 10- May 20


Marion and
Sumter Counties


Oct. 15 Dec. 15

Dec. 20-Jan. 1
Jan. 5 -Jan. 20

Feb. 20- April 30

Feb. 20 Mar. 5

,Mar. 1 -April 30






May 5-June 15


Plant City








Oct. Dec.

Dec. Jan.
Dec. Jan.

Feb. April

Feb.

Mar. April
April May





May June


* May be done any time in advance of preparing land and planting.











Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Fig. 2.-Location of tomato areas studied.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


produce for spring harvest, Table 5. Fall crop plantings are made
in August and early September, winter plantings from Septem-
ber to November and spring plantings from December to Feb-
ruary. Dates of performance of various operations may not
always apply to the same crop, especially in Dade County, where
plantings are spread over a long period.


TABLE 6.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.

Item Kind Amount

South Dade County

Seedbed:
Seed .......................... Rutgers, Grothen Globe .2 lb.
Fertilizer .............. 4-7-5 (plus manganese) 40 lb.
Dust ......................... Copper-arsenic lime
(20-20-60) 4 lb.
Field:
Plants ................... Rutgers, Grothen Globe 3,350
Compost ................. 1 cu. yd.
Fertilizer .............. 4-7-5 2,000 lb.
Top-dressing .......... 8-0-12; nitrate of potash 200 lb.
Spray .................... Nabam (dithane D-14 or
liquid parzate), fixed
coppers 300 gal.
Chlordane, toxaphene, DDT
Spray or parathion 100 gal.
Dust .......................... Copper-arsenic-lime 75 lb.

(Fall and Spring Crop)
Fort Pierce Area

Seed ........................... | Grothen Globe .33 lb.
Seed (seedbed if used I
Spring only) .......... Grothen Globe .08 lb.
Fertilizer (before
planting) ................ 4-8-8; 4-8-6 650 lb.
Fertilizer (side appli-
cations) .................. 4-8-8; 4-8-6 2,350 lb.
Fertilizer (top-dress-
ing) ......................... Nitrate of potash; 8-0-8;
10-0-10 275 lb.
Spray ..................... Nabam (dithane D-14 or
liquid parzate), sulfur,
fixed coppers, liquid DDT 700 gal.
Dust* ............................ Copper-lime, DDT, sulfur 135 lb.
Field boxes (1 bu.)
owned per acre ....... 25
Field boxes, annual
loss per acre .......... _15%
Most growers sprayed until the plants were large, and then used dust, applied by
planes for control. Copper dusts were used for blight with DDT added for insects. When
dust was used exclusively, instead of spraying, it required about 400 pounds per acre.









Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 6.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS (Concluded).

Item Kind Amount Required
Unstaked Staked
Manatee County


Seedbed:
Seed ..........................
Fertilizer .............
Spray ...................

Field:
Plants (from seed-
bed) ......................
Fertilizer ................
Top-dressing ..........

Spray ......................


Poison bait ............

Stakes .....................



Initial fertilizer ......

Seed ................. ....
Poison bait ..............

Fertilizer (side-
dressing) ............
Fertilizer (top-
dressing) ......
Spray ......................


Seed ........................
Fertilizer ....... ....
Lime ....................

Top dressing ..........
Dust .........................

Spray ......................

Poison bait ..............

Field boxes ............


Grothen Globe, Rutgers
4-7-5
Bordeaux


Grothen Globe, Rutgers
4-7-5; 4-8-8
Nitrate of soda, nitrate of
potash, 8-0-12
Nabam (dithane D-14 or
liquid parzate), DDT,
parathion, fixed coppers,
cryolite (kryocide)
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
or bran bait
Cypress
Marion and Sumter Counties

4-7-5; 5-7-5; (30-40% or-
ganic)
Rutgers, Grothen Globe
Ready mixed, or shorts,
bran, paris green, and
syrup

4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-7-5; 3-8-8

Nitrate of potash
Nabam (dithane D-14 or
liquid parzate), DDT,
nicotine, fixed coppers
Plant City

Rutgers
4-7-5
One application every 18
months
Nitrate of potash, kainit
Bordeaux, calcium arsenate,
copper A, zineb or nabam
I Bodeaux with nicotine sul-
fate or calcium arsenate
Bran, paris green or ar-
senic, syrup
Wood, 1 bushel or 1%
bushel (owned per acre)


.4 lb.
40 lb.
8 gal.


4,300
2,200

180


1,000 gal.

75 lb.


.5 lb.
50 lb.
10 gal.


6,400
2,500 lb.

220 lb.


1,000 gal.

75 lb.
6,000


600 lb.
1 lb.

20 lb.

550 lb.

150 lb.


60 gal.


1 lb.
2,000 lb.

333 lb.
325 lb.

100 lb.

240 gal.

60 lb.

12


Note: Field boxes of 1 to 1% bushel capacity are used for transporting
tomatoes and other crops to market. They are usually grower-
owned and the annual loss is estimated at 15 percent.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Rutgers and Grothen Globe were the most important varieties
of tomatoes planted, Table 6. From 0.2 to 1 pound of seed was
required per acre, depending upon whether seed was drilled in
the field or plants were raised in a seedbed and reset to the field.
From 3,000 to 6,400 plants were required per acre for setting
in the field, depending upon width of rows and spacing in the
row. Total fertilizer requirements ranged from 1,300 pounds
per acre in Marion and Sumter counties to an average of 3,275
pounds in the Fort Pierce section. The amount applied varied
with soil and intensity of cultivation. From two to three ap-
plications of fertilizer were made during the growth of the crop.
In some areas, particularly during a wet season, growers may
use 4,500 to 6,000 pounds of fertilizer in making a crop. In the
South Dade area growers used compost when setting plants to
the field. This required around one cubic yard per acre.
Most growers were using nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid par-
zate) as a spray in the control of late blight of tomatoes. This
disease has been a serious threat to the tomato crop in Florida
since the 1945-46 season. It is caused by a fungus (Phyto-
phthora infestans (Mont.) DBy) which thrives in moist weather
when the nights are cool and the days only moderately warm.3
A complete spray program required an application every five
to seven days when late blight was present or infestation was
expected.

Snap Beans
The usual labor requirements per acre for growing and har-
vesting snap beans are given in Table 7. In the Pompano area
beans are planted on a high bed. The fields are ditched for
drainage. After each cultivation drains are opened with a hand
shovel, requiring about 10 hours per acre. In the Everglades
area the ditching consists of mole draining with a tractor and
some work clearing main ditches.
In the Everglades and Dade County areas bean production is
fully mechanized by practically all the larger growers and re-
quires a relatively small amount of man labor. Since these data
were obtained increases in mechanization in the Pompano area
have reduced labor requirements. It will be noted that most
of the labor required for a bean crop is in the picking, which

3 Reuhle, George D. Control of late blight of tomatoes. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Press Bul. 632. 1947.






TABLE 7.-SNAP BEANS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area


Number of Growers


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Ditching and draining ..............
Preparing land ............................
Preparing rows and fertilizing
Planting ........................................
Cultivating and fertilizing ........
H oeing ............. ............... .........
Insect and disease control ........

Total pre-harvest labor ..............

Harvest Labor:
Picking .................... .....
Lugging, heading, checking ....
Hauling to grader or market.
Grading and packing ................

Total harvest labor .......................

Total-all operations ....................

Estimated yield, packed bushels


Pompano Dade County

13 17

Man Horse Trac- Man Trac-
tor tor


9.9
4.2 4.2 4.7 4.7
4.3 3.4 .9
2.8 2.8 2.5 1.2
5.8 5.8 4.6 2.7
.6 .61 1.2 .6

27.6 12.0 5.7 13.01 9.2


73.2 112.5
9.9 14.2
1.6 2.6
7.5 *

92.2 __ 129.3 I

119.8 12.0 5.7 142.3 9.21

100 135


Everglad


Man



2.5
4.1
1 2.6
3.4
1.5
.8

14.9


76.0
8.5
2.1
*

86.6

101.5


Ti
t





I


* Done at packinghouse. Others are field packed.


es Plant City McIntosh

S 16 19

Tractor Horse
rac- Man Horse Trac- Operation Operation
or Itor Trac- I Trac-
i Man tor Man Horse tor

.3
4.1 13.0 10.0 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.4
12.5 9.7 2.0 1.0 7.9 7.9
.9 5.0 5.0 1.0 1.0 3.4 3.4
1.2 16.0 12.8 2.7 1.0 12.2 10.5
.8

7.3 46.51 37.5 3.0 9.1 6.4 26.9 21.8 3.4


133.0 100.0 100.0
25.0 10.0 10.0
12.0 4.0 4.0
]
170.01 1 114.0 1 114.0 _

7.3 216.5 37.5 3.0 123.1 6.4 140.9 21.8 3.4

126 100 100







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 3.-Location of snap bean areas studied.








TABLE 8.-SNAP BEANS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Ditching and mole draining ...........................
Preparing land .............................. .......
Preparing rows and fertilizing ......................
Planting .................................... ........ .............
Cultivating and fertilizing ...............................
H oeing ...................................... .. .. .....-- .. ....
Insect and disease control ..........................


H arvesting ........................................ ..............


Operation


Preparing land ................................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ....
Planting ........................................
Cultivating and fertilizing ............


Plant City McIntosh


Sept. Nov. Dec. 1 Feb. 15
Nov. -Feb. Feb. 1 Feb. 15
Jan. Feb. Feb. 15 Feb. 25
Feb. Mar. Mar. 5 Mar. 20


April April 10 April 25


* Planting dates for winter crop, Nov. 15- Jan. 31; spring crop, Feb. 1 Mar. 31.
** Harvesting dates for winter crop, Jan. 20- Mar. 15; spring crop, Mar. 25 May 15.


Harvesting


Pompano Dade Everglades
(Fall Crop)

Aug. 1 -Feb. 1 Aug. 1 -Aug. 15
Aug. 15 -Oct. 1 Oct. 1 Nov. 15 Aug. 1 Oct. 31
Oct. 1- Feb. 1 Nov. 1 Nov. 15 Sept. 5 Nov. 10
Oct. 1 -Feb. 1 Nov. 1 Nov. 15 Sept. 5 Nov. 10*
Oct. 20- Mar. 1 Nov. 15 Dec. 15 Sept. 15 Nov. 30
Oct. 1 -Nov. 30
Oct. 25- Mar. 1 Dec. 1 Dec. 15 Sept. 20- Nov. 20


Nov. 25 April 1 Jan. 1 Feb. 15 Nov. 1 Dec. 31**







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is done by hand in all areas. In the Everglades and Dade County
grading and packing were done at a packinghouse. The labor
for this operation was not obtained.
Season of performance of the various operations in producing
and harvesting is shown in Table 8. There is considerable
variation within an area for many of these operations; the
period shown is that during which most of the work usually
occurs. Many of the larger growers in the Pompano area follow
a planting schedule, weather permitting, of a certain number
of acres per day during the months of October, November,
December and January. There follows then a period of con-
tinuous harvest from late November through March. The crop
in Dade County is planted for winter harvest and operations
cover a shorter span of time. Growers in the Everglades plant
a fall, winter and spring crop, but planting and harvesting
periods are somewhat more clearly defined than in Pompano.
Plantings in the Plant City and McIntosh areas are for spring
harvest, usually during the month of April.
The usual material requirements per acre for snap beans are
shown in Table 9. Black Valentine, Plentiful and Tendergreen
were the most popular varieties of seed. From 0.5 to 1.25 bushels
of seed were required to plant an acre, depending upon spacing
in the row, width of rows and seed size.
Fertilizer requirements ranged from 500 pounds per acre of
a low nitrogen content fertilizer in the Everglades to 1,200
pounds of a complete fertilizer in the Pompano area. All areas
except the Everglades used some form of nitrate as a top-
dressing at the rate of 100 to 300 pounds per acre during the
crops' growth.
Sulfur and lime or manganese dust at the rate of 81 to 90
pounds per acre were required in the Pompano, Dade County
and Everglades areas. Some growers preferred spraying and
used from 400 to 700 gallons per acre of a sulfur mixture. Other
materials may be used as required for disease control and nu-
tritional effect.
Celery
Few crops in Ficrida, other than staked tomatoes, required
more skilled hand labor for production than was required for
celery, Table 10. Sanford, Sarasota and the Everglades are
the principal celery-producing areas of the state. Sanford celery
is produced on sand land, while the other two areas use a muck








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops



TABLE 9.-SNAP BEANS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Material


Kind


Amount


Pompano


Seed .......................

Fertilizer ................
Top-dressing ........
Dust ......................
Containers .............


Plentiful, Black. Valentine, Tender-
green, Bountiful, Wax type .............
4-9-3; 4-8-3; 5-8-3 ....................................
Nitrate of soda, calcium nitrate ..........
Sulfur and lime .......................................
Bushel hampers .......................................


Dade County

Seed ........................ Stringless Black Valentine, Tender-
green ....... ............ ................................ 1.25 bu.
Fertilizer ............... 4-9-3; 4-7-3; 4-7-5; 4-8-3 ........................ 950 lb.
Top-dressing ......... Nitrate of soda, ammonium nitrate .... 100 lb.
Dust ................... Sulfur, or sulfur and manganese oxide 90 lb.
Containers ............. Bushel hampers ........................................ 135


Everglades

Windbreak seed .... Sunflower, corn ........................................ 2.3 lb.
Seed ........................ Stringless Black Valentine, Bountiful, I
Plentiful, Tendergreen, Wax type ... I 1.0 bu.
Fertilizer ................ 0-14-5; 2-8-6; 0-10-10 .............................. 500 lb.
Dust ........................ Sulfur, or sulfur and manganese oxide I 81 lb.
Containers .............. Bushel hampers .....................................I 100


Plant City

Seed ........................ Tendergreen, Giant Stringless, String-
less Black Valentine, Green Pod.... 1.0 bu.
Fertilizer .........-.... 4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-8 .................................... 800 lb.
Top-dressing .......... Nitrate of soda ........................................ 160 lb.
Containers .............. Bushel hampers ........................................ 126


McIntosh

Seed ........................ Black Valentine, Wax Type, Florida
Belle, Tendergreen, Plentiful ........... .5 bu.
Fertilizer ................ 4-7-5; 5-7-5 ........................................... 850 lb.
Top-dressing .......... Nitrate of soda ..................................... 100 lb.
Containers ............ Bushel hampers ............................--...... 100


1.0
1,200
170
85
100







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


soil. Other minor celery areas are Oviedo, Zellwood, Ocklawaha
and Island Grove, all having muck soils. Celery growers use
machinery to as great an extent as presently possible in pro-
ducing the crop, but still must use considerable hand labor.
From 187 to 209 man hours per acre were required. Of this
amount, from 38 to 56 percent was required for the setting of
plants in the field, with setting machines.
Harvesting required from 0.8 to 1.0 man hours per crate from
cutting in the field until arrival at the washhouse for preparation,
packaging, precooling and loading. Labor requirements for

TABLE 10.-CELERY: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.
I
Area Sanford Sarasota Everglades

Number of Growers | 13 9 5
1 [ Trac- Trac- Trac-
Operation Man Horsel tor Man tor Man tor

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed* ................................ 67.0 .9 .6 70.0 1.0 74.0 .9
Field:
Ditching and draining .... 3.0 39.1 .9 19.8 .7
Preparing land ................ 1
Preparing rows and 11.8 2.0 8.2 17. 14.3 8.4 6.2
fertilizing ...... I J
Planting or setting .......... 133.0 111.1 104.9
Cultivating and
fertilizing ............. 37.4 27.9 38.8 12.6 4.7 2.7
Hoeing, raking, weeding 45.2 67.2 38.4
Insect and disease
control .......................... 28.3 31.51 16.21 6.51 10.81 3.8
Total pre-harvest labor. I
field** .......................... 258.7 61.4 8.2 289.5 34.3 187.0 13.4

Harvest Labor:
Cutting ............................ 8.5 8.0
Trimming and stripping.. 112.3 104.074.0
Packing in field crates.... 32.5 36.4 31.0
Topping ........................... 4.1 4.5 4.0
Loading and hauling ...... 23.8 28.1 27.7
Handling empty boxes 5.6 10.3 8.1
Other labor, foremen .... 9.0 9.0

Total harvest labor ............ 195.91 200.3 __ 153.8_

Total-all operations .............. 521.6 62.3 8.8 559.8 35.3 414.8 14.3

Estimated yield, Howard
crates ................................ 525 600 510
Per acre of field-set celery.
** If celery is bleached additional man-hour requirements for placing and removing
paper as follows: 50.0 hours, Sanford; 63.3 hours, Sarasota; 58.6 hours, Everglades.







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Fig. 4.-Location of celery areas studied.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


these latter operations were not included, since they have been
made the subject of special study.4 Recent developments in
mechanization permit the washing and packing of celery in the
field but this operation has not been studied.
Preparation of celery seedbeds begins in late June in the Sara-
sota area and in July in the Sanford and Everglades areas,
Table 11. Land is prepared in July and August for the first
settings in September. Successive plantings are made until
late December in the Sanford area and until February in the
Sarasota and Everglades areas for the spring crop. Harvesting
begins in mid-December in all areas and continues until May
in the Sanford and Everglades areas and is completed around
June 1 in the Sarasota area. The dates of performing the vari-
ous operations in Table 11, therefore, do not refer to the same
crop, but rather to the period during which the work is being
done.
Pascal and Golden are the two types of celery grown in Flor-
ida. From 0.125 to 0.25 pound of seed produces sufficient plants
in a seedbed to set one acre of celery in the field, Table 12.
Celery plants require protection from the sun and heavy rain
during the young stages. To this end they are grown under
cloth to give proper protection. The cloth is turned back in
good weather to allow some exposure to the sun.
Fertilizer requirements ranged from 800 pounds of cyanamid
at setting time in the Sarasota area (used also to control pink
rot) to 2,200 pounds per acre of a 4-5-5 mixture and ashes in
the Sanford area. Side-dressings of 4,500 to 5,400 pounds of a
complete fertilizer were used in the Sanford and Sarasota areas.
This was followed by 485 to 500 pounds of a high-nitrogen-
content top-dressing. In the Everglades area 1,800 pounds of
a low-nitrogen-content fertilizer was applied at setting and fol-
lowed with 150 pounds of a 16-0-0 or 8-0-12 mixture.
From 75 to 90 pounds of copper-lime dust was used in the
Sanford and Sarasota areas, while all areas were sprayed with
a bordeaux mixture. An average of 60 pounds per acre of
arsenic bran was applied to control cutworms.

Irish Potatoes
Usual labor requirements in hours per acre for the production
and harvesting of Irish potatoes are shown in Table 13. Labor
Brunk, Max E. "An Economic Study of Celery Marketing," Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 445, 1948.














TABLE 11.-CELERY: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Sanford


Sarasota


Everglades


Seedbed: ................................ ................ July 1 Dec. 15 June 25 Jan. 15 July 1 Jan. 31
Field:
Ditching and draining ................................. Aug. 1 Sept. 10 July 15- Aug. 31 July 1- Aug. 31
Preparing land ................................. ..... Aug. 1 Dec. 31 July 1 Feb. 20 Aug. 1 Feb. 10
Planting or setting ................................ Sept. 10 Dec. 31 Sept. 1- Feb. 28 Sept. 15- Feb. 10
Cultivating and fertilizing ............ ........ Sept. 20- Mar. 15 Sept. 15 April 30 Oct. 15- April 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...................... Oct. 1- Mar. 15 Sept. 20 April 15 Oct. 1 Mar. 31
Insect and disease control ....................... Sept. 10 April 10 Sept. 15 May 15 Sept. 25- May 15
Papering and removing paper* ................... Dec. 10 Mar. 31 Dec. 10 May 20 Dec. 10 May 5


Harvesting .................... ....................... Dec. 20 April 10 Dec. 20-June 1 Dec. 20 -May 15

* No longer a common practice.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 12.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Material


Kind


Amount


Sanford


Seedbed:
Seed ...............................
Fertilizer ............................

Top-dressing .................
Dust ............................
Spray .................... .......
Poison bait .......... .......
A-frames .........................
Cloth ..................................
Wire for cloth................
Clothespins ........... ......
Nails and staples ............
Posts for wires ................
Stakes for frames ............

Field:
Plants .................................
Fertilizer ............................
Side-dressing ....-...........
Top-dressing ....................
Dust .................................
Spray ..................................
Poison bait .....................
Containers ..........................


Pascal, Golden
4-5-5; caster pomace
Hardwood ashes
4-5-5; dried blood and soda
Copper-lime
Bordeaux, nabam
Arsenic bran, paris green
Wood
Muslin
Galvanized

Wood
Wood

From seedbed
4-5-5; ashes
4-5-5; 4-5-8
8-0-12; 16-0-0
Copper-lime
Bordeaux, metallic copper
Arsenic bran, paris green
Standard crates


Sarasota


Seedbed:
Seed ..................................
Fertilizer ...........................
Top-dressing .....................
Spray ..................................
Poison bait ........................
A-frames ... .....................
Cloth ....................................
W ire for cloth ................
Clothespins .......................
Nails for staples ..............
Posts for wires ............
Stakes for frames ............

Field:


Pascal, Golden
4-8-3; castor pomace
4-8-3; 16-0-0
Bordeaux
Arsenic bran, paris green
Wood
Muslin
Galvanized

Wood
Wood


Plants ................................ From seedbed
Fertilizer .......................... Cyanamid
Side-dressing .................... 5-5-8
Top-dressing ..................... 8-0-12; 16-0-0
Dust --.. .... ..................... .. Copper-lime
Spray ............................... Bordeaux, metallic copper or
copper compounds
Poison bait ........................ Arsenic bran, paris green
Containers .-..--..........----- .. Standard crates
Note: If celery is bleached 116 rolls of bleaching paper
stakes are required per acre.


.25 lb.
10 lb.
40 lb.
50 gal.
4.5 lb.
17
50 yd.
157.5 yd.
50
.5 lb.
2
34


50,000
800 lb.
4,500 lb.
500 lb.
90 lb.

1,500 gal.
60 lb.
600
and 5,500 wire


.25 lb.
70 lb.
35 lb.
48 lb.
3 lb.
38 gal.
4.5 lb.
17
50 yd.
157.5 yd.
150
.5 lb.
3
39

50,000
2,200 lb.
5,400 lb.
485 lb.
75 lb.
1,000 gal.
60 lb.
525








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 12.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE, BY AREAS
(Concluded).


Material Kind Amount


Everglades


Seedbed:
Seed ..................................
Fertilizer ...........................
Top-dressing ....................
Dust ....................................
Spray ........................-........
Poison bait ....................
A-frames .......................
Cloth .............................
Wire for cloth ..................
Clothespins .............-...
Nails and staples .--......
Post for wires ................
Stakes for frames ....-.......
Field:
Plants ............................
Fertilizer ........................
Top-dressing .............
Spray .................................
Poison bait ........................
Containers ........................


Pascal, Golden
0-12-24; 4-9-3
16-0-0
Copper-lime
Bordeaux
Arsenic bran, paris green
Wood
Muslin
Galvanized

Wood
Wood

From seedbed
0-12-24; 2-8-6; 4-8-8
16-0-0; 8-0-12
Bordeaux, metallic copper or
copper compounds
Arsenic bran, paris green
Standard crates


Note: If celery is bleached 116 rolls of bleaching paper
stakes are required per acre.


.125 lb.
13.5 Ib.
6 lb.
1 lb.
25 gal.
4.5 lb.
15
50 yd.
157.5 yd.,
50
.5 lb.
3
30

50,000
1,800 lb.
150 lb.

1,200 gal.
60 lb.
510

and 5,500 wire


requirements for producing were highest in the Hastings area
and for harvesting were highest in the LaCrosse area. The
least amount of production labor was required in the LaCrosse
area and harvest labor requirements were lowest in the Lee
County area.
Growers in the Everglades area begin preparing land for
planting between the first of July and the middle of August,
'Table 14. In Lee County land preparation is started around
the first of August, while growers in Dade County must wait
until the first of October or later to break the land. In the Hast-
ings and LaCrosse areas land preparation is begun in September
and in Plant City in October.
Planting begins in September in the Everglades area, in Octo-
ber in Lee County and in November in Dade County. Growers
in the Hastings area plant in December and January, while the
LaCrosse and Plant City areas plant in January and February.










TABLE 13.-IRISH POTATOES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area LaCrosse Hastings
Number of Growers 5 I 24
I Trac- I I Trac-


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Ditching and draining ..............
Preparing land .........................
Preparing rows ...................
Planting and fertilizing ...........
Cultivating and fertilizing ....
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..........
Insect and disease control ........
Irrigating ..................................


SMan


2.1
2.0
.9
11.5
3.3


1


Total pre-harvest labor ............ 20


Harvest Labor:
Digging ....... .........................
Picking up ..........................
Hauling to grader .....................-
Grading, packing, loading ........
Hauling to market ...................


1.
32.
8.
13.


Total harvest labor ........................ 56.

Other labor ..............--.................

Total-all operations ................... 76.

Estimated yield, bushels ............


tor IMan tor


.2
2.0
.6
.8
2.2


6.4
3.3
2.5
14.2
5.5


.4
3.3
1.2
1.1
2.4


Dade Lee
Everglades County County
5 18 6
STrac- Trac- Trac-
Man tor Man tor Man tor tor


2.5 .3 4.7
3.2 2.9 4.0 4.0 3.9 3.9

15.9 .7 16.7 1.0 11.1 .8
1.3 1.3 2.7 2.7 2.5 1.9


Plant City


I Man



12.0
8.6
22.3
11.0


2.1
.0 .8 1.1 .8 4.2 2.1 4.9 2.4 4.6 2.3
___5.7 ___ 1 4.0

.8 6.6 40.8 9.2 27.1 7.3 28.3 10.1 30.8 8.9 53.9


.8 .9 2.2 1.1 1.8 .9 2.5 1.2 1.6 .8 7.0
.4 32.6 26.3 21.8 17.2 46.0
.9 7.7 8.0 7.9 4.7
.0 13.0 14.5 15.8 30.8
__6.0

.1 .9 55.5 1.1 50.6 .9 32.2 1.2 39.3 .8 89.8.

S______ 3.7 2.9 1.1 .8

.9 7.5 96.3 10.3 77.7 8.2 64.2 14.2 71.2 10.5 143.7

142 167 175 200 200


STrac-
Horse tor



10.0 2.0
8.6
5.0
11.0



34.6 2.0


7.0




7.0



41.6 2.0









TABLE 14.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


LaCrosse


Hastings


Everglades


Ditching and draining ................................. Sept. 1- Mar. 31 Sept. 1 Mar. 15 Aug. 15 Sept. 15
Preparing land ..... ....................... ....... Sept. 1 Dec. 31 Sept. 1 Nov. 30 July 1 Sept. 15
Preparing rows ............................................. Dec. 1 Jan. 15 Dec. 1 Dec. 25 Sept. 15 Sept. 30
Planting and fertilizing .................................... Jan. 15 Feb. 10 Dec. 20 Jan. 15 Sept. 15 Sept. 30
Cultivating and fertilizing ............................. Feb. 1 Mar. 31 Jan. 15- Mar. 15 Oct. 1 Nov. 30
Hoeing, raking, weeding .................... ...... Mar. 1- Mar. 31
Insect and disease control .............................. Mar. 15 April 20 Mar. 1- Mar. 31 Oct. 1 Dec. 15
Irrigating ........................... Jan. 15 Mar. 31

Harvesting ........................ .......................... April 25- May 25 April 15- May 15 Dec. 15 Jan. 31



Operation Dade County Lee County Plant City


Ditching and draining .................................. Oct. 1- Nov. 15 Aug. 1- Oct. 31
Preparing land .....- ........... Oct. 1- Nov. 15 Aug. 1- Oct. 15 Oct. Jan.
Preparing rows ............................................. Nov. 1 Nov. 20 Oct. 10 Oct. 31 Jan. Feb.
Planting and fertilizing .................................... Nov. 1 Nov. 20 Oct. 10 Oct. 31 Jan. Feb.
Cultivating and fertilizing .............................. Nov. 10 Dec. 31 Oct. 20 Dec. 15 Jan. Mar.
Insect and disease control ................................ Nov. 25 Jan. 31 Oct. 25- Dec. 10
Irrigating .............. -............... .............. ....I Oct. 10 Dec. 31


Anril


Jan 20 -Mr1


t


Harvesting


Feb. 1 Mar. 31


Jan. 20 Mar 10
































































Fig. 5.-Location of Irish potato areas studied.








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Harvesting begins in December in the Everglades area and
progresses through the spring until the LaCrosse area finishes
in late May.
The usual material requirements per acre for producing Irish
potatoes are shown by areas in Table 15. Growers in the La-

TABLE 15.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount

LaCrosse

Seed ...................... Sebago, Bliss Triumph 900 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 4-8-6 2,000 lb.
Dust ........................ Fixed copper dust, zineb (dithane Z-78
or dry parzate) 45 lb.
Containers ............ 100 lb. burlap bags 85 bags

Hastings

Seed ........................ Sebago 1,300 lb.
Fertilizer .............. 5-7-5; 4-8-6 2,100 lb.
Dust ........................ Fixed copper dusts, zineb (dithane Z-78
or dry parzate) 110 lb.
Containers ............ 100 lb. burlap bags I 100 bags

Everglades

Seed disinfectant.. Hot formaldehyde
1:120 @ 122o F. for 3 minutes 0.6 pt.*
Seed ........................ Bliss Triumph 1,200 lb.
Seed stimulant .... Ethylene chlorhydrin, 40% 0.8 pt.
Fertilizer ................ 0-8-24 (incl. zn, cu, mn, bo.) 500 lb.
Spray ................. Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate),
chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides,
nicotine sulfate 800 gal.
Containers .............. 50 lb. burlap bags 210 bags

Dade County

Cover crop seed .... Velvet beans 0.75 bu.
Seed ........................ Bliss Triumph, Pontiac 1,800 lb.
Seed disinfectant.. Formaldehyde 0.7 pt.
Bichloride of mercury 4.0 oz.
Muratic acid 0.6 pt.
Fertilizer ................ 4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-5 2,000 lb.
Spray .................... Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate),
chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides,
nicotine sulfate 2,100 gal.
Containers ........... 50 lb. burlap or paper bags 240 bags

71/ gallons 40% formaldehyde treats 1,200 bags (100 lbs. each) of potatoes.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 15.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS (Concluded).

Material Kind Amount


Lee County

Cover crop seed .... Sesbania 30 lb.
Seed ....................... Bliss Triumph, Pontiac 1,620 lb.
Seed stimulant ...... Ammonium thiocyanate 2 lb.
Fertilizer (initial
application) ...... 5-7-5; 4-7-5; 5-8-6; 5-8-8 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer (second
application) ..... 5-7-5; 4-7-5; 5-8-6; 5-8-8 I1,000 lb.
Spray ................. Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate), I
chlorinated hyrocarbon insecticides,
nicotine sulfate 1,125 gal.
Containers .............. 50 lb. burlap or paper bags 240 bags


Plant City

Seed ...................... Pontiac, Bliss Triumph 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8 1,800 lb.
Land conditioner .. Lime** 333 lb.
Top-dressing ........ Nitrate of soda 115 lb.
Spray ..................... t
Containers ......... Bushel baskets I145

** Applied once every 18 months.
t Not a normal practice but a few farmers spray or dust if need is apparent.

Crosse area planted an average of 900 pounds of seed per acre,
as contrasted with an average of 1,800 pounds of seed per acre
in Dade County and 1,300 pounds in the Hastings area. The
Everglades area used an average of 500 pounds of fertilizer
per acre on its muck land, as compared with an average of
around one ton per acre in the other four areas. All fertilizer
was applied in one application at planting time in all areas ex-
cept Lee County. In that area one-half of the total amount was
applied at planting and a second application made 10 days to
two weeks later.
Nabam (dithane D-14 or liquid parzate), combined with zinc
sulfate and hydrated lime, was used almost wholly in the Lee
County, Dade County and Everglades areas as a control for
late blight. The spray was applied with tractor-drawn power
sprayers every few days at the rate of 85 to 125 gallons per
acre per application.








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Most growers in the Hastings and LaCrosse areas were not
equipped to spray for late blight, so were using dust as a control.
They applied an average of 45 pounds per acre of basic or neu-
tral copper dust in three applications in the LaCrosse area. In
the Hastings area growers used from 80 to 175 pounds per acre
of basic or neutral copper dust in three to seven applications
at weekly intervals. Copper dusts containing 3 percent DDT
also were used when needed for controlling Colorado potato
beetles and other insects, with the exception of aphids.

Green Peppers
Labor requirements per acre for the production of green pep-
pers vary widely between producing areas, Table 16. Green
peppers in the Pompano area were planted in double rows on
high beds, required for proper drainage. This method required
more hand labor for hoeing, raking and weeding, ditching and
draining than in other areas where plantings were on smaller
beds in single rows. In the Sumter County and Plant City areas
acreages per farm were small and much of the labor required
was performed by the farm family. The harvesting of green
peppers required from 0.4 to 0.8 man hours per bushel, depend-
ing upon whether the peppers were washed and packed at the
field as in the Pompano area or at the packinghouse as in the
Lee County area.
The Lee and Manatee County areas produce for fall and win-
ter harvest, Pompano for winter and spring harvest and the
Alachua and Sumter County areas for spring harvest, Table 17.
California Wonder, World Beater, Florida Giant and Ruby
Giant were the most popular varieties for Florida planting,
Table 18. From 9,000 to 15,000 plants per acre were required,
depending upon whether plantings were in single or double rows.
At the time of planting from 600 pounds of fertilizer in the
Pompano area to 3,900 pounds in the Lee County area was ap-
plied. Side-dressing ranged froW 600 pounds in the Alachua
area to 5,400 pounds in the Pompano area. Some areas used,
in addition, 200 to 382 pounds of a high-nitrogen-content top-
dressing. Copper-lime, nicotine and zineb or nabam dusts and
sprays were used for the control of insects and diseases. Green
peppers were packed for shipment in bushel hampers.









TABLE 16.-GREEN PEPPERS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area Alachua County Pompano Lee County I Plant City Sumter County
Number of Growers 10 12 5 _26 I 10
Tractor Operation Horse Operation Trac- Trac- Trac- Trac-
Operation ITrac- Trac-! Man Horse tor Man tor Man Horse tor Man Horse tor
Man Horse tor Man |Horse tor

Pre-Harveed*t.. Lab22.6i .3 22.6 .5 ___ 18.0 .6 25.31 .2 96.3 5.3 .7 16.2 2.6_
Field:
Ditching and draining .......... 9.6
Preparing land ........................ 3.5 3.5 8.2 16.4 4.2 4.2 6.0 6.0 24.0 15.0 5.0 23.0 18.8 3.4
Preparing rows and
fertilizing ............... .... .. 4.1 1.8 6.7 6.7 14.4 14.4 3.7 2.6 15.4 10.4 9.4 8.9
Planting or setting and *
resetting ................................ 34.1 3.6 38.3 .9 92.6 1.6 72.8 65.9 5.0 53.7 2.0
Cultivating and fertilizing .... 11.8 3.3 8.5 18.0 18.0 49.3 4.5 14.4 8.2 26.5 18.0 49.3 28.5
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..... 18.0 18.0 186.3 105.8 40.0 45.6
Insect and disease control .... 2.0 2.0 19.4 6.7 .3 31.0 18.1
Irrigating .................................. _29.0 20.01
Total pre-harvest, field ................ 73.5 3.3| 17.41 91.21 42.01 375.8| 20.51 4.21 209.41 17.11 231.8 48.4| 5.0 219.11 58.21 3.4
Harvest Labor:
Picking .....----........................... 154.8 154.8 216.0 87.5 82.0
Lugging ................................... 32.8 32.8 163.0 36.0 17.3 25.0
Hauling to packing shed .. 54.0
Grading, packing .......... 63.7 90.0 39.6 36.0
Hauling to market ............. 14.7 __ 14.7 7.5 15.0 15.0
Total harvest labor ....................... 202.31 1| 202.3 1 I 234.2 I 1 396.01 159.41 1 1 158.01 I
Other labor ......................... ....... I I I 1 2.5| 2.51 I 1 i
Total-all operations .................... 298.41 3.31 17.71 316.11 42.5 628.0| 21.1! 4.2! 633.2! 19.8| 487.5| 53.71 5.7! 393.31 60.81 3.4
Estimated yield, bushels ........... .... 250 I 250 1 550 540 | 275 I 300
* Per acre of field-set peppers.


































































Fig. 6.-Location of green pepper areas studied.










TABLE 17.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Seedbed:
Preparation ........... .............................
Planting ................................................
Care .................... .............. ............

Field:
Ditching and drainng ..............................
Preparing land .............. .............................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ................
Planting, setting or resetting ......................
Cultivating and fertilizing .........................
Hoeing, raking, weeding .........................
Insect and disease control .........................


Harvesting .......


Alachua County


Dec. 1 -Dec. 20
Dec. 25 Jan. 1
Jan. 10-Mar. 5



Dec. 1 -Feb. 25
Feb. 10 Feb. 28
Mar. 5 -Mar. 20
Mar. 25-May 31
April 1 April 20
April 15 May 31


May 25 July 5


Pompano


September
September
Oct. Nov.


Sept. 1 -Oct. 1
Sept. 1 -Oct. 1
Oct. 1- Nov. 25
Oct. 1- Nov. 25
Oct. 20- Mar. 1
Oct. 15 -Feb. 1
Oct. 20- Mar. 1


Jan. 15- Anril 15 I


Lee County


July 15 July 31
July 15 July 31
Aug. 1 -Aug. 31



July 10 -Sept. 20
Sept. 1 Sept. 20
Sept. 10 -Sept. 25
Sept. 10 Feb. 28
Oct. 1 Feb. 15
Oct. 1 -Feb. 20
Nov. 10 -Mar. 10


Operation

Seedbed:
Preparation .................................
Planting ......... ........................
Care ........................ ................

Field:
Preparing land .-.........................
Preparing rows and fertilizing..
Planting, setting or resetting..
Cultivating and fertilizing ........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..........
Insect and disease control ........
Irrigating ................. ............
H arvesting ...... ........... ...............


Plant City


Aug. Nov.
November
Nov. Jan.


Aug. Jan.
Nov. Jan.
Jan.- Feb.
Feb. May
Feb. April
Feb. April
Mar. June
April June


Sumter County


Nov. 1 Nov. 30
Nov. 10 Nov. 30
Dec. 1 Feb. 10


Nov. 1- Jan. 30
Feb. 1 Feb. 25
Feb. 15-Mar. 5
Mar. 5 April 30
Mar. 5 Mar. 30
Mar. 1 May 15
Mar. 1 May 30
April 25- June 15


.


--


May 25 July 5


1








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 18.-GREEN


PEPPERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Material Kind Amount


Alachua County

Seedbed:
Seed .............................. -World Beater, Florida Giant .6 lb.
Fertilizer ...................... Stable manure 1,060 lb.
Fertilizer ..... .............. 4-8-8; 4-7-5 30 lb.
Dust -....-----.....--............ Copper-lime 2.0 lb.
Seed disinfectant ........ Semesan, spergon, bichloride of
mercury .125 lb.
Seedbed cover .............. Muslin or feed sacks 140 sq. ft.
Seedbed cover treat-
ment .......................... Raw linseed oil .5 gal.
Field:
Plants (from seedbed) World Beater, Florida Giant 9,350
Fertilizer (initial) ...... 4-8-8; 4-8-6; 4-7-5 1,100 lb.
Fertilizer (side dress.) 4-8-8; 4-8-6; 4-7-5 600 lb.
Fertilizer (top dress.) Nitrate of potash, muriate of
potash, nitrate of soda I 275 lb.
Dust .............................. Copper-lime, nicotine sulfate I 22 lb.
Containers .................. Bushel hampers 250

Pompano

Seedbed:
Seed .............................. World Beater, Ruby Giant, Flor-
ida Giant, California Wonder 1.3 lb.
Poison bait .................... Bran, sodium fluosilicate, paris
green, syrup 15 lb.
Dust ......---------.......... Copper-lime-arsenic 6 lb.
Fertilizer .. ................. 4-9-3; 4-7-5 60 lb.
Field:
Plants (from seedbed) World Beater, Ruby Giant, Flor-
ida Giant, California Wonder I 15,000
Fertilizer (at setting) 4-9-3; 4-8-3; 4-7-5 600 lb.
Fertilizer (side dress.) 4-9-3; 4-8-3; 4-7-5 5,400 lb.
Dust .............................. Sulfur, copper compounds, ar-
senic, nicotine sulfate 105 lb.
Containers ................... Bushel hampers 550

Lee County

Seedbed:
Seed ................................ W orld Beater 1.0 lb.
Fertilizer ...................... 4-9-3, castor pomace, ashes,
nitrate of soda 71 lb.
Spray or dust .............. Copper sulfate 2.0 lb.
Arsenate of lead 1.0 lb.
Lime 3.0 lb.
Field:
Seed (cover crop) ...... Sesbania, crotalaria or Sudan
grass 27 lb.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 18.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS (Concluded).


Material Kind


Lee County (Continued)
Fertilizer ...................... Castor pomace


Plants ............................

Fertilizer ......................
Top-dressing ...............
Dust ...........................
Poison bait ....................

Containers ..................



Seedbed:
Seed .........................

Fertilizer ......................
Soil sweetener ...........
Poison bait ....................
Spray ............................

Dust .........................

Field:
Plants ..........................

Soil sweetener ............
Fertilizer ........ .........
Top-dressing ................
Poison bait ....................
Dust ........................

Containers ........ .........


4-9-3; 4-8-3; 4-8-8
World Beater-single row
or double row
4-7-5
Nitrate of soda
Arsenate of lead, lime
Bran, paris green and syrup, or
chlordane in fertilizer
Bushel hampers


Plant City


Florida Giant, California Won-
der, World Beater, Colossal,
Ruby Giant
4-7-5
Lime, dolomite, calcite or ashes
Bran, paris green and syrup
Bordeaux (4-4-50) plus lead
arsenate
Nicotine sulfate

Florida Giant, California Won-
der, World Beater, Colossal,
Ruby Giant
Lime, dolomite, calcite, ashes
4-7-5; 4-7-8; 5-7-7
Nitrate of soda, 17-0-5, kainit
Bran, paris green and syrup
Nicotine sulfate, copper-lime
zineb or nabam
Bushel hampers


Sumter County

Seedbed:
Seed .............................. Florida Giant, Wonder Giant .6 lb.
Fertilizer ...................... 4-7-5 68.0 lb.
Dust .............................. Copper-lime 10.0 lb.
Poison bait .................... Bran, paris green and syrup 4.5 lb.

Field:
Plants (from seedbed) Florida Giant, Wonder Giant 10,000
Fertilizer (initial) ...... 4-7-5 800 lb.
Fertilizer (side dress.) 4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-8 2,250 lb.
Fertilizer (top dress.) 10-0-12, soda, potash 382 lb.
Dust .............................. Copper-lime, nicotine sulfate 165 lb.
Poison bait .................... Bran, paris green and syrup 25 lb.
Containers .................... Bushel hampersI 300


Amount



500 lb.


700 lb.
10,700
13,600
3,900 lb.
200 lb.
30 lb.

10 lb.
540


1.0 lb.
50 lb.
90 lb.
20 lb.

15 lb.
15 lb.


10,000
400
1,800
275
100

105
275







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Cucumbers
The usual labor requirements per acre for producing cucum-
bers in four major areas are shown in Table 19. The spring
crop in Sumter County is grown with the use of V-shaped wooden
troughs. These are placed over the rows of young cucumber
plants during periods of expected frost and removed when the
temperature rises. Distributing, setting and stacking these
troughs, together with placing on and removing them from the
rows, required nearly 75 man hours of labor per acre. Total
labor requirements for producing cucumbers were considerably
higher in Sumter County for the trough crop than for other
areas. Some growers in the Hardee County area also used
troughs for the spring crop.
In both the Sumter and Hardee County areas farms were
relatively small. About two acres or less per farm were devoted
to cucumbers and the majority of the labor was furnished by the
operator and his family. The other areas farmed less inten-
sively on larger acreages, used more hired labor and were mech-
anized to a larger extent. Hoeing, raking and weeding by hand
took 88 hours in Sumter County, as compared with 10 hours
per acre in Alachua County.
Overhead irrigation systems were commonly used in Sumter
County, while other areas used a movable pipe or flow system.
As is the case for most truck crops for fresh consumption,
picking of cucumbers requires much hand labor. From 0.3 to 0.6
man hour per bushel was required for picking; the total amount
of harvest labor required was very nearly proportional to the
size of the crop produced. Average yields ranged from 120
bushels per acre in Alachua County to 450 bushels per acre in
Sumter County.
The season of performance of the various operations in pro-
ducing and harvesting cucumbers is shown in Table 20. Land
preparation for the fall crop in Hardee County and the Fort
Myers area begins in June and July. The seed is planted in
September and early October for harvest from the middle of
October to late in November, when the danger of frost becomes
imminent.
Land preparation for the spring crop begins in November and
December and may continue until mid-February in Alachua
County. Seed in Sumter County is planted in early January
and in Hardee County during the last two weeks of January.


































































Fig. 7.-Location of cucumber areas studied.







TABLE 19.-CUCUMBERS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area


Number of Growers -


I Sumter County


Hardee County


SLee County


27 I 8 23 I 10 1


Alachua County


I Spring Crop Spring Crop Fall Crop Fall Crop Spring Crop ISpring Crop
SHorse
Man IHorsel Trac- Man Horse Trac- Man Horse Trac- Man Trac- Tractor Operation Operation
Operation tor tor tor tor Trac-i
_Man Horse tor ]Man Horse

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Ditching and draining ................ 9.6 7.5 8.0
Preparing land ....................... 14.3 12.1 2.2 13.8 10.0 3.8 12.0 9.0 3.0 8.4 7.9 2.7 2.7 7.3 14.6
Preparing rows and fertilizing .. 10.7 6.9 21.5 9.1 25.8 14.2 7.3 1.8 3.8 1.9 1.9 4.8 6.4
Planting ........................................ 11.3 7.0 3.0 4.8 2.8 7.3 .8 .9 .9 2.5 2.5
Cultivating and fertilizing .......... 39.5 14.1 35.3 22.8 26.6 15.2 23.5 5.2 5.4 5.4 9.5 9.5
Hoeing, raking, weeding .............. 87.9 33.0 30.0 27.5 10.1 10.1
Insect and disease control ............ 30.1 75.1 76.2 8.7 3.1 3.0 3.0 4.5 4.5
Irrigating ........................................ 38.0 16.6 15.0 4.8
Distributing, setting and stack-
ing troughs ................................. 31.4 .9
Frost and rain protection ........... 43.4 35.0

Total pre-harvest labor .................... 306.61 34.01 2.21 246.91 44.91 3.81 197.91 41.21 3.01 95.51 18.81 25.91 1.91 13.91 38.7 37.5

Harvest Labor:
Picking and lugging, hauling up 138.0 98.0 10.0 82.0 9.0 105.6 70.2 70.2
Washing, grading, packing .......... 64.0 34.0 28.0 30.0 *
Hauling to market ....................... 45.0 43.0 36.0 8.0 7.5 7.5
Total harvest labor .......................... 247.01 | 175.01 10.01 146.01 9.0| 143.61 1 77.71 I1 77.71
Total-all operations ........................ | 553.61 34.01 2.21 421.91 54.91 3.81 343.91 50.21 3.01 239.11 18.81 103.61 1.91 13.91 116.41 37.5


Estimated yield, bushels .................. I
Not packed by grower.


1 200 I 175


I 200 1


120 I 120










TABLE 20.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Ditching and draining ..................................
Preparing land ........................... ..............----
Preparing rows and fertilizing .......................
Planting .................... .......... ..................
Cultivating and fertilizing ..........................
Hoeing, raking, weeding ................. ....
Insect and disease control ..........................
Irrigating ......................... ............................
Distributing, setting and stacking troughs ..
Frost and rain protection ................................

Harvesting .......... ... .... ...... ................


Mar. 25- April 30


Hardee County
Spring Crop Fall Crop

Dec. 1- Feb. 28 Aug. 15- Sept. 15
Dec. 1 -Dec. 31 June 1 Aug. 31
Dec. 15 -Jan. 15 Aug. 15 Aug. 31
Jan. 15 Jan. 31 Sept. 1 Sept. 15
Feb. 15 Mar. 15 Sept. 15 Oct. 31
Feb. 1- Feb. 28 Sept. 15- Sept. 30
Jan. 1 April 30 Sept. 15 Nov. 10
Mar. 1 -April 30 Oct. 1 -Nov. 15

Jan. 20 -Feb. 28

April 1 -May 10 Oct. 20 Nov. 20


Operation


Ditching and draining ....................
Preparing land ...............................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ....
Planting ..........................................
Cultivating and fertilizing ...........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...........
Insect and disease control ............
Irrigating ..................................

Harvesting ..........................-...........


Lee County
Fall Crop

Aug. 15- Sept. 30
July 15-Aug. 31
Sept. 1 -Sept. 15
Sept. 8 -Oct. 5
Sept. 20- Nov. 15
Sept. 25- Oct. 15
Sept. 25- Nov. 15
Sept. 8- Nov. 20

Nov. 1- Nov. 20


Alachua County
Spring Crop


Dec. 1- Feb. 15
Feb. 5-Feb. 28
Feb. 20 Mar. 5
Mar. 10- April 15
Mar. 10-Mar. 31
Mar. 25- April 30


May 5 Ma 25


Sumter County
Spring Crop


Nov. 1- Dec. 31
Dec. 15 -Dec. 31
Jan. 1 Jan. 15
Jan. 8 April 20
Jan. 25 -Mar. 15
Jan. 25 April 30
Jan. 8 April 30
Dec. 15-May 15
Jan. 1 -Feb. 28








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Growers in Alachua County plant late in February or early in
March. Harvest of the spring crop begins in late March in
Sumter County and progresses by areas until Alachua County
ends the season in May.
The usual material requirements for producing and harvest-
ing cucumbers are shown by areas in Table 21. Marketer,
Straight 8 and Colorado were the most popular varieties for
planting. Palmetto and Santee are new varieties gaining in
popularity as more seed become available. From 2.4 to 5.6
pounds of seed were required per acre. More seed must be
planted where a poor stand or early frost damage occurs.


TABLE 21.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL MATERIAL
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


REQUIREMENTS


Material Kind Amount

Sumter County

Seed ................. Marketer, Straight 8, Colorado 5.6 lb.
Soil conditioner Lime, calcite or basic slag (new
land only) 1,320 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 4-8-8 900 lb.
Manure ............ Sheep, castor or tung pomace 500 lb.
Side-dressing .. 4-8-8; 5-7-5 2,500 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of potash; 12-0-10;
8-0-12 300 lb.
Dust ................ Copper-lime 300 lb.
Sulfur 50 lb.
Nicotine sulfate 38 lb.
Containers ........ Bushel baskets (tubs) 450

Hardee County
Fall Spring
Crop Crop

Seed .................. Marketer, Straight 8, Colorado 2.5 lb. 4.0 lb.
Soil conditioner Calcipo, hardwood ashes, basic
slag* ........................................ 1,000 lb. 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 4-8-8 1,000 lb. 2,000 lb.
Side-dressing .. 4-7-5; 5-7-5 1,150 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of soda, nitrate of
potash, calcium nitrate 340 lb. 375 Ib.
Spray ................ Bordeaux 2-4-50 to 4-8-50 with
sometimes nicotine sulfate or
arsenic added I560 gal. 385 gal.
Dust .................. Copper-arsenic-lime 180 lb. 175 lb.
Nicotine sulfate 100 lb. 70 lb.
Poison bait ...... Bran, sodium-flouride, arsenic,
syrup 120 lb. 80 lb.
Containers ........ Bushel baskets (tubs) 175 200
One ton per acre is used on new or first year land. Land not over three years in
cultivation is preferred for cucumbers.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 21.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS (Concluded).

Material Kind Amount

Lee County

Seed .............. Colorado, Straight 8, Marketer 2.4 lb.
Soil conditioner Hardwood ashes, dolomite 1,000 Ib.
Fertilizer ....... 4-7-5; 4-8-8 750 lb.
Side-dressing .. 4-7-5; 4-8-8 2,750 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of potash, nitrate of
soda 400 lb.
Dust ............. I Copper-arsenic-lime 340 lb.
SNicotine sulfate 150 lb.
Poison bait ...... Bran, sodium-flouride, arsenic,
syrup 60 lb.
Containers ....... Bushel baskets (tubs) 200

Alachua County

Seed .................... Colorado, A and C, Marketer
Sunnybrooke 3.0 lb.
Fertilizer ....... 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-7-5 1,200 lb.
Top-dressing ... Nitrate of potash, nitrate of
soda 225 lb.
Dust ............... Copper-lime 56 lb.
Containers ........ Bushel baskets (tubs) 120

The Sumter County area used a soil conditioner of lime, calcite
or basic slag on new land at the average rate of 1,320 pounds per
acre. In the Hardee and Lee County areas soil conditioner is
added at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre yearly. Calcipo,
hardwood ashes or dolomite is commonly used.
Fertilizer used at planting time ranged from 750 pounds per
acre in the Lee County area to 2,000 pounds per acre for the
spring crop in Hardee County. Growers in Sumter County used
900 pounds of sheep manure, castor or tung pomace in addition
to the complete fertilizer. Side-dressings of a complete fertil-
izer at the rate of 1,000 to 2,750 pounds per acre were used in
all areas except Alachua County. Top-dressings of sodium,
calcium or potassium nitrate were applied at the rate of 225 to
400 pounds per acre before the crop matured.
In the Sumter and Lee County areas copper-lime, sulfur and
nicotine dusts were used for insect and disease control. Hardee
County used a bordeaux mixture with Blackleaf 40 added as a
spray. The application of some form of poison bait was a com-
mon practice for the control of cutworms in all areas except
Alachua County.







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops 45

Watermelons

Labor requirements for producing watermelons were highest
in the Lake County area and least in Madison County, Table 22.
In Lake County growers moved to new land each year. The
land was cleared of most trees some time in advance of planting.


Fig. 8.-Location of watermelon areas studied.











TABLE 22.-WATERMELONS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

SJackson Madison
Area Lake County Alachua County Gilchrist County County County*
Number of Growers 21 6 18 18 18

Tractor Operation Horse Tractor Operation Horse
Operation Man Horse Trac- I OperationOperation Man Horse Man Horse
tor M Trac-I I Trac-
I_____ I Man Horse tor Man Horse Man Horse tor Man Horse _
Pre-Harvest Labor:
Preparing land ............................ 9.4 1.3 2.6 2.6 12.0 12.0 2.7 2.7 6.5 12.9 4.5 9.0 5.3 10.6
Preparing rows and fertilizing 12.4 16.4 3.7 2.6 5.5 4.6 2.6 1.8 6.3 5.1 5.4 3.4 8
Planting and replanting ......... 9.0 1.8 .8 .4 2.3 1.7 1.4 .8 .3 1.9 1.6 5.9 8.6 7.4
Cultivating and fertilizing ........ 12.8 14.2 7.9 3.4 2.7 10.0 11.3 8.7 5.8 1.9 11.2 10.2 13.4 11.0 9.5 9.5
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........ 9.7 5.0 5.0 7.6 7.6 5.2 3.1
Insect and disease control ........ 5.7 .9 1.6 1.6 1.2 1.2
Pruning and turning vines ....... 11.0 5.6 5.6 6.3 6.3 4.3
Total pre-harvest labor ................ 66.6tj 40.0 1 2.2 28.2 4.2 1 8.3 | 42.0 1 29.6 1 30.5 6.6 I 6.7 1 41.0 29.8 138.7 23.4 1 26.5 1 27.5

Harvest Labor:
Cutting ...... ................ ... 2.5 3.9 3.9 4.4 4.4 3.6 ) 1
Carrying to drive row .......... 7.0 7.8 7.8 4.9 4.9 7.7 516.4 5 5.7
Hauling ............................... 8.4 8.4 8.4 7.5 7.5 8.0 4.0
Loading in car .............................. 4.8 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0
Total harvest labor ........................ 22.7 |_| 25.1 25.1 | 21.8 | 21.8 19.3 4.0 16.4 | 5.7
Total-all operations ................... 89.3 40.0 [ 2.2 53.3 4.2 I 8.3 1 67.1 29.6 52.3 6.6 ) 6.7 | 62.8 29.8 58.0 27.4 42.9 33.2
Estimated yield, melons ................ 300 333 | 333 1 333 375 281
From Bulletin No. 388, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
t Does not include land clearing which requires about 25 hours per acre.









TABLE 23.-WATERMELONS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Preparing land .............................. ...-
Preparing rows and fertilizing .........-.....
Planting and replanting .........................
Cultivating and fertilizing .......................
Hoeing, raking, weeding .........-.......-........-
Insect and disease control ........................
Pruning and vine turning .....................


Lake County


July 15- Nov. 15
Nov. 1 Jan. 5
Jan. 5 Feb. 15
Feb. 1 April 30
Mar. 1 Mar. 31
Mar. 20- April 30
April 20- May 15


Alachua County


Sept. 15 Jan. 25
Jan. 10 Feb. 10
Feb. 14 Feb. 28
Mar. 20 May 15
Mar. 20 April 20
April 5 -April 30
May 10 -May 31


Gilchrist County


Sept. 1 -Jan. 31
Jan. 10 Feb. 8
Feb. 14 Mar. 5
Mar. 15 April 30
Mar. 20 April 20
April 15 May 5
May 10-May 31


Harvesting ................................... .......... .... May 20-June 20 1 June 1 -June 28 June 1 -June 25


Jackson County


Madison County*


Preparing land .......-......--- Jan. 1- Jan. 20 Jan. 1- Feb. 28
Preparing rows and fertilizing ... Feb. 1 Feb. 15 Feb. 16- Mar. 15
Planting and replanting .......... Feb. 18 -Feb. 28 Feb. 16 Mar. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ........ Mar. 15 April 30 Mar. 16 May 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......... April 1- April 15 Mar. 16 April 30
Pruning and vine turning ........ May 1 May 30

Harvesting ....................................... June 8 July 8 June 16 July 15
From Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 388. M. E. Brunk and J. W. Reitz, 1943.


Operation








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


In the Alachua and Gilchrist County areas watermelons were
rotated on the land every five to seven years. In Jackson and
Madison counties the land is heavier and rotation was more fre-
quent. Harvest labor requirements varied only slightly between
areas.
Watermelons in Florida are planted from early in January

TABLE 24.-WATERMELONS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount


Lake County

Seed .................. Cannonball, Tom Watson 2.5 lb.
Poison bait ...... Grain and strychnine 1.5 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5 '1,100 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of soda 50 lb.
Nitrate of potash 150 lb.
Spray ............... Bordeaux 200 gal.
Dust .................. Nicotine sulfate 10 Ib.


Alachua County

Seed .................. Cannonball, Tom Watson 1.4 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 4-9-5 850 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of potash 50 lb.
Dust .................. Nicotine sulfate-lime 5 lb.
Copper-lime 20 lb.
Poison bait ...... Strychnine, beef fat, rolled oats .8 lb.


Gilchrist County

Seed .................. Cannonball, Tom Watson 1.8 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 5-7-5 835 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of potash 50 lb.
Dust .................. Nicotine sulfate-lime 6 lb.


Jackson County

Seed .................. Cannonball 1.2 lb.
Fertilizer .......... 4-10-7; 3-8-5 650 lb.
Top dressing .... Nitrate of potash, muriate of potash,
nitrate of soda 75 lb.

Madison County

Seed .................. Cuban Queen, Stone Mountain 1.0 lb.
Fertilizer ........ 4-8-6 423 lb.







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


through the middle of March, Table 23. Some areas not shown
and located in the southern portion of the state plant in Decem--
ber. Harvesting begins in Lake County in May and ends with
the Madison and Jackson County crop in July.
Cannonball, Tom Watson, Cuban Queen and Stone Mountain
were the varieties usually planted, Table 24. A new variety,
Congo, is gaining favor among growers. From 1.0 to 2.5 pounds
of seed were required to plant an acre. This included seed for
replanting skips which occur frequently in the rows. From 423
to 1,100 pounds per acre of fertilizer were applied. Most areas
used 75 to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda or potash during the
growing period. From 6 to 20 pounds of nicotine or copper-lime
dust were used in the Alachua and Gilchrist County areas.
Growers in Lake County used an average of 200 gallons per
acre of bordeaux spray. However, all growers did not spray
every year; therefore, more than 200 gallons may be required
per acre to control anthracnose in some years when disease is
prevalent.
Cabbage
The usual labor requirements per acre for the production of
cabbage are shown in Table 25. The largest number of man
hours per acre for most operations was found in the Manatee
County area. Much of the cabbage in this area was planted on
small farms having only a minimum amount of machinery.
The work was done by hand or with a mule and one-horse plow.
Tractor work, such as preparing land, rows, etc., was often hired.
Growers in the Hastings and Sanford areas did much of the
work with machinery, even to setting plants on some farms;
hence, labor requirements were lower in these areas.
In harvesting, cabbage was loaded into carts and packed in
the field or in a packing area adjacent to the field. From eight
to nine man hours per ton were required for the harvesting
operation.
Seedbed preparation and care start in August or early Septem-
ber in all areas and continue until planting time is nearly com-
pleted, Table 26. Land is prepared for field planting from Au-
gust to early January. First plantings are made about mid-
September in the Sanford area and continued until mid-February.
Harvesting begins in December in the Hastings area and is
usually completed by May 10 in the Sanford area. Harvesting
is continuous in all areas from January through Maich. The









TABLE 25.-CABBAGE: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area


Hastings


Number of Growers | 21


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed* ..............................................


Field:
Ditching and draining ....................
Preparing land ..........................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..
Setting and resetting .................
Cultivating and fertilizing ..........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..............
Insect and disease control ...........
Irrigating ......... .....................


Tractor Horse Operation
Operation
Man ITractor Man I Horse [Tractor


1 4.7 .9 1 7.8 I .5 .


6.4
3.1
4.7
39.4**
8.3

1.8


Total pre-harvest, field ....................... 63.7

Harvest Labor:
Cutting ...................... ... .. .... 30.3
Hauling to packing area .......... 6.6
Packing, weighing, tying ............ 30.1
Hauling to car ........................... 10.2
Lugging or stacking in field ........
Total harvest labor ................................ 77.2
Total-all operations ............................ 145.6


Estimated yield, tons ...........................
Per acre of field-set cabbage.
** Machine setting.
tHand setting.


.6
3.1
1.6
5.0
3.9

.8


6.9
3.1
3.7
46.7t
12.5

2.2


15.0 1 75.1 1 16.2 | 4.0 1 129.3


6.6



6.6
22.5


30.3
5.3
30.1
10.2

75.9
158.8


41.3

22.0
16.2
9.0
88.5
4.5 I 237.6


Manatee County


Man Horse Tractor
I |I


.2




9.3
2.0**
16.4



27.7








27.9


9.6


.2


1.5
5.8






7.3


S92.5
7.5 1 163.0


Sanf
14

Tract
Operal
Man IT


6.8



5.1
3.1
33.6**
7.5
9.6
4.8

63.7


.120


9.3


120


ord


;or
tion
reactorr


1.5



4.8 1
.6

6.3

3.1 le

14.8


10.3
c-
5-.


10.3
26.6


, _
,


,








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Fig. 9.-Location of cabbage areas studied.
















TABLE 26.-CABBAGE: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Hastings Manatee County Sanford

Seedbed:
Preparation ...... .............. ........... Aug. 15 Nov. 10 Sept. 1- Dec. 31 Aug. 1 Dec. 31
Planting ..................................................... Sept. 15 Nov. 10 Sept. 1 Dec. 31 Aug. 15 Jan. 1
Care ............................................................ Sept. 15 -Nov. 30 Sept. 1- Jan. 31 Aug. 15 -Feb. 15
Field:
Ditching and draining ................................... Sept. 1 Feb. 28
Preparing land ............................................. Aug. 15 Dec. 20 Sept. 1 Jan. 10 Aug. 1 Feb. 1
Preparing rows and fertilizing .............. Oct. 1 Dec. 31 Oct. 1 -Jan. 15 Sept. 10- Feb. 1
Setting or resetting ................................. Oct. 10 Jan. 25 Oct. 10 Jan. 31 Sept. 15 Feb. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing .......................... Oct. 20 Mar. 1 Oct. 20 Feb. 28 Oct. 15- April 10
Hoeing, raking, weeding ................................ Oct. 25- Mar. 31 Oct. 15 Mar. 1
Insect and disease control ............................ Oct. 20 Mar. 1 Oct. 15 Feb. 28 Oct. 1 April 10
Irrigating .................................................. Sept. 1 Feb. 28 Oct. 10 -Mar. 31 Sept. 15- May 1


Dec. 15- Mar. 31


Dec. 20 April 15


Dec. 25 Mav 10


Harvesting ......--...................................................









Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 27.-CABBAGE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount

Hastings

Seedbed:
Seed ....................... Midseason Market, Copenhagen
Market, Marion Market, Glory
of Enkhuizen 1.1 lb.
Fertilizer ................... 5-7-5; 5-8-8; 6-8-8 109 lb.
Dust ....... .............. Spergon, arsenic-lime, DDT 4.3 lb.
Poison bait .............. Bran, sodium flouride, paris
green 19 lb.

Field:
Plants ....................... Midseason Market, Copenhagen *
Market, Marion Market, Glory
of Enkhuizen 14,500
Fertilizer .................... 5-7-5; 4-7-5; 6-8-6 2,000 lb.
Top-dressing ............... Nitrate of soda 100 lb.
Nitrate of potash 200 lb.
Dust .............................. Arsenic-lime, DDT 23 lb.
Rotenone 20 lb.
Nicotine 16 lb.
Poison bait .........-....... Bran, sodium flouride, arsenic 20 lb.
Containers ............... 50 lb. capacity mesh bags or
crates 362

Manatee

Seedbed:
Seed ........-.................... Copenhagen Market I 0.9 lb.
Fertilizer .................... 4-7-5 28 lb.
Dust ............................ DDT 1.1 lb.
Spergon or copper-lime 1.6 lb.
Field:
Plants .......................... Copenhagen Market 13,500
Fertilizer (to set) ...... 4-7-5 650 lb.
Fertilizer (side-dress.) 4-7-5 1,150 lb.
Fertilizer (top-dress.) 4-7-5 200 lb.
Dust ........................ DDT 71 lb.
Containers .................. 50 lb. capacity mesh bags or
crates 382

Sanford

Seed ................................. Marion Market, Copenhagen,
Glory of Enkhuizen 0.8 lb.
Plants (from seedbed) .. 16,000
Fertilizer ........................ 4-5-7; 4-7-5; 5-5-8 2,750 lb.
Top-dressing .-.............. Nitrate of soda 386 lb.
Dust ............................... Cryolite, DDT 91 lb.
Spray ............................. DDT, bordeaux, spergon 450 gal.
Poison bait ...................... Bran, paris green, syrup 20 lb.
Containers ........................ 50 lb. capacity mesh bags or
crates 480







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


period of performance of the various operations does not apply
to a given crop but to a series of plantings.
Marion Market, Copenhagen Market and Glory of Enkhuizen
were the most popular varieties for Florida planting, Table 27.
From 2,000 to 2,750 pounds of a complete fertilizer per acre
were applied before plants were set in the Hastings and Sanford
areas. This was followed by one or more applications of a
nitrate top-dressing during growth of the plants. In the Mana-
tee area 650 pounds of complete fertilizer were applied at setting
time, followed by side applications of 1,150 pounds of a 4-7-5
mixture during growth and a final top application of 200 pounds
per acre.
Arsenic, DDT, rotenone or nicotine dusts were used for insect
control in the Hastings and Manatee areas. The Sanford area
used cryolite or DDT dust, plus some spraying for worm and
lice control.
Cabbages were packed in mesh bags or wooden crates of 50-
pound capacity.
Sweet Corn
From 14 to 21 man hours and from 7 to 12 tractor hours per
acre were required for the production of sweet corn in the two
areas shown in Table 28. Land preparation, cultivation and
fertilizing accounted for the major use of labor in these areas.
About 0.2 man hours per bag or 4/5-bushel crate were required
for harvesting sweet corn.
Sweet corn is planted for spring harvest in the areas shown in
Table 29. Other areas in the state (Everglades, Dade County
and Ruskin) produce for late fall and some winter harvest, when
there is very little or no competition from producing areas in
other states. The acreage of sweet corn harvested in Florida
has increased 4.7 times over the last three seasons (Table 1).
Ioana and Golden Cross Bantam were the most popular va-
rieties for sweet corn production. From 800 to 1,000 pounds of
a complete fertilizer were applied prior to or at planting time
in most areas. This was followed by 200 pounds of sodium
nitrate or other high-nitrogen-content fertilizer during growth,
Table 30.
Insect and disease control is one of the big problems in the
production of sweet corn for fresh consumption. Growers were
dusting and spraying with DDT and sulfur combinations to com-
bat the budworm and corn earworm. Frequent and often daily








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops 55


Fig. 10.-Location of sweet corn areas studied.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


applications are made during the budding and silk stages of
growth. Methods and materials used are changing so rapidly
that the County Agent or other qualified individual should be
consulted for the latest specific recommendations.

TABLE 28.-SWEET CORN: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area Sanford Lake City
Number of Growers 18 13
| Horse Tractor
Operation Man IHorse| Trac- Operation Operation
I I tor I I Trac-
_______ I Man IHorsel Man IHorsel tor

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Preparing land ........ 4.1 4.1 5.6 11.2 2.4 1 2.4
Preparing rows and
fertilizing .............. 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.6 1.2 1.0
Planting ................... 2.3 2.0 2.2 2.2 1.1 1.1
Cultivating and
fertilizing ............ 4.1 2.8 1.6 10.3 1 10.3 3.0 3.0
Insect and disease
control .............. 4.4 3.0 .8 .8 6.1

Total pre-harvest
labor .......................... 16.7 2.8 12.5 20.7 26.1 13.8 7.5

Harvest Labor:
Picking and packing 33.3 3.7 14.5 5.1 14.5 5.1

Total harvest labor .. 33.3 3.7 14.5 5.1 14.5 5.1

Total-all operations.. 50.0 2.8 16.2 35.2 31.2 28.3 5.1 7.5

Estimated yield, bags
of % bushels ............ 136 65 65



TABLE 29.-SWEET CORN: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Sanford Lake City

Preparing land ..... .......................... Feb. 15 -Mar. 1 Jan. 15 Feb. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing .... Feb. 15 Mar. 10 Feb. 20 Mar. 15
Planting .......................................... Feb. 15 Mar. 10 Feb. 20 Mar. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ........ Mar. 1 April 20 Mar. 15 May 1
Insect and disease control -.......... Mar. 10 May 10 IApril 10- June 30


Harvesting ....................................... April 25 May 20 May 20 -July 15








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 30.-SWEET CORN: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount

Sanford

Seed ............................. Ioana, Golden Cross Bantam 10.7 Ib.
Fertilizer ......................... 4-7-5; 4-5-7; 5-5-5 1,000 lb.
Top-dressing .................. Nitrate of soda 200 lb.
Poison bait .................... Bran, paris green, syrup 27 lb.
Dust .......................... DDT and sulfur 83 lb.
Spray ......................-. Wettable DDT 344 gal.
Containers ............... 5-dozen mesh bags or crates 136

Lake City

Seed ............................. loana 5.2 lb.
Fertilizer ...................... 4-8-6 800 lb.
Top-dressing ................ Nitrate of soda; 10-0-10; 12-0-10 200 lb.
Dust ....................... .... DDT and sulfur 40 lb.
Containers ....................... 5-dozen mesh bags or crates 65



Strawberries

Propagating an acre of strawberries in the Plant City area
falls into three major operations: (1) the first nursery bed,
(2) the second or June-set nursery bed and (3) the field-set, or
crop planting, from which berries are harvested.
To produce and harvest one acre of strawberries required ap-
proximately 17 to 20 months from the time of the initial work
on the first nursery bed until the final harvest of berries. Labor
requirements throughout the period were 1,300 man hours per
acre or more, Tables 31 and 32.
The first nursery bed was usually set during January and
February, Table 33. The plants were set 12 to 16 inches apart
in single rows from three to seven feet apart. From 850 to
1,000 mother plants were set in the first nursery bed for each
acre of strawberries to be set in the field. These plants produced
4,000 to 10,000 runner plants which were set in the second or
June nursery bed. The runner plants placed in the second
nursery bed produced 17,000 to 25,000 or more healthy plants
for field setting.
During September and October the runner plants developed
from the second nursery bed were set in the field for berry pro-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 11.-Location of strawberry, okra and Southern pea area studied.







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


duction. In the Plant City area the major portion of the straw-
berries were planted in double rows on beds spaced from four
to four and one-half feet apart. Two rows 12 to 15 inches apart
were marked off on each bed. Plants were set alternately in
these two rows 10 to 12 inches apart.
Hoeing, raking and weeding alone accounted for 48 percent
of the man hours required prior to harvest. Setting and water-
ing in the nursery beds and field accounted for 29 percent of
the pre-harvest man-labor requirements.
In harvesting, strawberries must be picked by hand, care-
fully, to avoid bruising the fruit and damaging the plants. An
average of 4,550 pints of strawberries were harvested from one
acre, requiring 398 man hours for picking and 153 man hours
for washing and packing at the field shed.
From 300 to 500 pounds of a soil sweetener, 1,900 pounds of
a complete fertilizer, 600 pounds of manure and 200 pounds of
top-dressing were applied to the field-set berries, Table 34. A
heavy application of commercial fertilizer was made before plant-
ing and two applications were normally made after setting. This
was followed by the application of top-dressing. Fertilization
practices varied among farmers as to both quantity applied and
frequency of application.


TABLE 31.-STRAWBERRIES: USUAL NURSERY BED LABOR REQUIREMENTS
IN HOURS PER ACRE.*


Area


Plant City


First Nurser-
Operation
Man Horse

Preparing land ........................ 1.4 1.0
Preparing rows and
fertilizing .......................... 3.6 3.6
Setting and watering ............ 7.3
Cultivating and fertilizing .. 5.5 5.5
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...... 40.0
Insect and disease control .... 7.5

Total ......................... ... 65.3 10.1


Bed Second or June-Set
S Nursery Bed
Trac- I Trac-
tor Man Horse tor

.4 3.6 1.5 2.1
8.2 6.5
55.0
4.0 2.0
85.0
2.0**

.4 157.8 10.0 2.1


Per acre of field-set strawberries, nurseries would be on a fraction of an acre.
** Spraying of second bed is practiced by half of the growers, requiring 7.5 man hours
not included above.


T








30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 32.-STRAWBERRIES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE.


Area


Plant City


Number of Growers 24


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed:*
Nursery bed .....................................
June-set bed ................................


Field:
Preparing land ...........................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ....
Setting ............ .......... ................... ..
Cultivating and fertilizing ...........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ................
Insect and disease control ..............


Total pre-harvest labor ..........................


Harvest Labor:
Picking ......................... ...........
Carrying to shed ...............................
Washing and packing ......................
Hauling to market ...........................


Man




65.3
157.8



18.2
22.1
154.5
70.9
231.7
20.2


517.6



397.7
61.2
152.9
41.6


Horse Tractor


10.1
10.0



10.0
16.0
1.7
37.4



65.1


.4
2.1



5.7






8.2


Total harvest labor ............................... 653.4


Total-all operations ............................. 1394.1 85.2 8.2

Normal yield-4,550 pints.
Seedbed to produce plants for a field-set acre.

TABLE 33.-STRAWBERRIES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS.

Plant City
Operation First Second
_Nursery Bed Nursery Bed Field-Set

Preparing land .......................... Dec. Feb. May June Aug. Sept.
Preparing rows and fertilizing Jan. Feb. May June Sept. Oct.
Setting and watering .............. Jan. Feb. June Sept. Oct.
Cultivating and fertilizing ...... Feb. June June Oct. Oct. Mar.
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......... Feb. June June Sept. Oct. Mar.
Insect and disease control ........ Feb. April June Aug. Sept. April

Harvesting .................................. I Dec. April








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops 6]

TABLE 34.-STRAWBERRIES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE.


Item


First Nursery Bed:
Plants ..........................--

Fertilizer ....................-----

Poison bait ..................
Spray .....................
Soil sweetener ............

June-Set Nursery Bed:*
Plants ...............-.........

Soil sweetener ............
Fertilizer .....................
Poison bait ..........-......

Field-Set Planting:
Plants ..---....... ----....

Soil sweetener ......-......
Fertilizer ......................
Top-dressing ................

Manure ..........................
Spray .. .......... ..
D ust ..............................
Poison bait ....................
Containers ....................
Pickng cups ..................
Crates .................-- ..---


Kind



Missionary

4-7-5 or other commercial
Bone meal
Mole crcket and cutworm bait
4-6-50, bordeaux with arsenic
Dolomite or ashes

Taken from first nursery bed

Lime, dolomite or ashes
4-7-5
Mole cricket and cutworm bait

From June-set nursery bed

Lime, dolomite or ashes
4-7-5; 4-5-5; 5-7-5; 4-8-8
Nitrate of potash, nitrate of
soda, 17-0-5; 14-0-10
Sheep or chicken
4-6-50 bordeaux
Lime-sulphur
Mole cricket and cutworm bait
Pint cups
Annual loss per acre
36 pint crates


Quantity



850 to 1,000
plants
86 lb.
54 lb.
31 lb.
62 gal.
50 lb.

4,000 to 10,000
plants
167 lb.
325 lb.
50 lb.

17,000 to 25,000
plants
300 to 500 lb.
1,900 lb.

200 lb.
600 lb.
130 gal.
118 lb.
118 lb.
4,550
100
126


Approximately half of the growers reported spraying the second nursery bed. This
required 150 gallons of a 4-6-50 bordeaux with arsenic solution, not included above.


Squash

The usual labor requirements per acre for producing squash
are shown in Table 35. From 28 to 42 man hours were required
in the McIntosh area for tractor and horse operation. For the
spring crop in the Plant City area 69 man hours were required.
Cultivating, fertilizing, hoeing, raking and weeding were the
most time-consuming operations in production. Harvesting re-
quired from 0.9 to 1.1 hours per bushel.
The fall crop in McIntosh is planted in August and September
for harvest in October and early November, Table 36. In the
Plant City area growers prepare the land in November and
December, plant in January and February and harvest in April
and May.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 12.-Location of squash areas studied.








TABLE 35.-SQUASH: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRRE, BY AREAS.


Area

Number of Growers


Operation


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Preparing land ............. ......... ............
Preparing rows and fertilizing ................
Planting .......... .... .........
Cultivating and fertilizing ...........................
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...........................
Insect and disease control ........................
Total pre-harvest labor .......................................

Harvest Labor:
Picking .................. ........ .............. .......
Lugging and hauling up ..............................
Washing and grading ..................................
Packing ................. ................. ......
Hauling to market .... ........................ -.
Total harvest labor .............................- ........


McIntosh Plant City

15 16
Fall Crop* Spring Crop

Tractor Operation Horse Operation Man Horse Tractor
Man I Horse 1 Tractorl Man I Horse Tractor I


123.9


2.4 2.4
1.0 5.6
2.8 2.8
4.7 2.7 14.4
10.2
.4 6.6
7.5 I 6.5 42.0


~I I


54.0
10.8
21.6
32.4
5.1
123.9


2.4
5.6
2.8
11.9


S20.3 2.4






II


13.0
12.4
4.0
16.4
14.4
9.2
69.4



I149.9
33.3
183.2


35.8


0


C.,


3.0




3.0

C4,






3.0
M
'S-


Total-all operations ......................................... 152.0 1 7.5 | 6.5 165.9 20.3 2.4 252.6 35.8
Estimated yield, bushels ........................................ 135 I 135 155
For spring crop, add 2.0 man hours and 2.0 tractor hours for land breaking.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Squash received from 700 to 1,000 pounds per acre of a com-
plete fertilizer and 150 to 200 pounds of a high nitrate and
potash side- or top-dressing, Table 37. Cocozelle, Early Prolific
Straight-neck, Yellow Summer Crookneck and Zucchini were
the varieties most commonly planted. Sulfur and lead arsenate
dust at the rate of 110 pounds per acre were used on the fall
crop in the McIntosh area. Cryolite and copper compounds were
used for worm control on the spring crop at Plant City.


TABLE 36.-SQUASH: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation McIntosh Plant City
Fall Crop I Spring Crop

Preparing land ................................ Aug. -Aug. 15 Nov. Dec.
Preparing rows and fertilizing .... Aug. 15 Sept. 10 Dec. Feb.
Planting and replanting ................ Aug. 25 Sept. 10 Jan. Feb.
Cultivating and fertilizing .......... Sept. 10 Oct. 15 Feb. Mar.
Hoeing, raking, weeding .............. Sept. 15 Sept. 30 Feb. Mar.
Insect and disease control ............ Sept. 15- Nov. 1 Mar. April


Harvesting ...............................


Oct. 5 Nov. 15


April May


TABLE 37.-SQUASII: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount


McIntosh

Seed ................................ Cocozelle, Early Prolific,
Straightneck, Zucchini 2.6 lb.
Fertilizer ....................... 4-7-5; 5-7-5 700 lb.
Top-dressing .................. Nitrate of soda, 8-0-8; 14-0-10;
10-0-12 200 lb.
Dust ................................ Sulfur and lead arsenate 110 lb.
Containers ...................... Bushel and half-bushel hampers 135 bu.


Plant City


Seed ............................
Fertilizer .........................
Side-dressing ....................
Dust .............................
Poison bait ....................
Containers .....................


Yellow Summer Crookneck
4-7-5
Nitrate of soda, kainit
Copper compounds, cryolite
Bran, paris green and syrup
Bushel and half-bushel hampers


4
1,000
150
40
61
155







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops 65


Fig. 13.-Location of eggplant areas studied.












TABLE 38.-EGGPLANT: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area


Lee County


alP nt City


Manatee Count


Number of Growers 6 7 7 7
Fall Crop I Spring Crop* Spring Crop Spring Crop
Operation Man Horse Tractor[ Man I Horse I Tractor Man I Horse Tractor |Man I Horse i Tractor
15... IT ~ L ,.. b ____


I re-Har vest a or:
Seedbed** .................. .............


Field:
Preparing land ............................
Preparing rows and fertilizing
Planting or setting ....-.............
Cultivating and fertilizing ....
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..........
Insect and disease control ........
Irrigating --------........................----
Total pre-harvest, field ...................
Harvest Labor:
Picking .........................................
Lugging ....................................
Hauling to packinghouse .........
Grading and packing ..............
Hauling to market ..............
Total harvest labor ........................
Other labor .............................
Total-all operations .......................
Estimated yield, bushels .................


8.0

6.3
2.3
24.7
23.0
146.2
20.8

223.3

107.7
30.8
46.1
61.6

S246.2
2.9
S480.4


8.1



8.1


.4

6.3
1.2

2.9



10.4


3.5


1.5

36.0t

20.0
15.5
110.0
13.5

195.0

92.6
26.5
39.6
53.0


4.0



4.0


3.0


13.5 211.7 3.0
2.7
8.1 17.0 408.2 3.0 7.0


40.4

13.0
11.0
37.0
29.8
48.8
12.2
15.0
166.8

114.6


108.6
33.0
256.2

463.4


3.0


11.3

5.2
4.6
20.4
22.8
26.1
4.0

83.1

120.0
80.0

73.2


.3

5.2
.8


.4


22.4 1 6.4


S_273.2

3.5 367.6 22.4 6.7


600


Set after peppers. If set after fall cucumbers, add 3.2 man hours and 2.2 tractor hours for disking cucumbers and bedding up; and subtract 36.0 man hours
for pulling pepper plants.
** Seedbed per acre of field-set plants.
SRemoving old pepper plants.


,,,


---


I


I--








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Eggplant

The labor required for producing eggplant is shown in Table
38. Eggplant is a prolific producer over a long period when given
proper care and growing weather. Hoeing, raking and weeding
alone required 146 man hours per acre in the Lee County area
and 49 man hours in the Plant City area. The spring crop is
generally picked for not more than two months and man-hour
requirements are lower. From 0.35 to 0.45 man hours per bushel
were required in the harvesting and packing of eggplant.


TABLE 39.-EGGPLANT: USUAL SEASON' OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation ILee County
IFall Crop Spring Crop

Seedbed:
Preparation ................... July 15 Aug. 15 Oct. 15 Oct. 31
Planting ...........................-...... Aug. 1 Aug. 15 Oct. 15 Oct. 31
Care .. ........................ ...... Aug. 1 Aug. 31 Oct. 15 Nov. 15
Field:
Preparing land .......... ........ July 1 Sept. 15 Oct. 1 Nov. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing Sept. 1- Sept. 30 Oct. 15 Oct. 31
Planting or setting .................... Sept. 1- Sept. 30 Nov. 1 Nov. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ........ Sept. 25 Feb. 1 Dec. 1 April 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......... Oct. 1- Feb. 1 Dec. 1- Mar. 1
Insect and disease control ...... Oct. 1- Jan. 15 Dec. 1- May 1

Harvesting .........................-.- Nov. 20 Feb. 15 May 1 May 20



Operation i Plant City Manatee County
S Spring Crop Spring Crop

Seedbed:
Preparation .. ....................... Nov. Dec. Oct. 1 Nov. 1
Planting ........ ................. Nov. Dec. Oct. 10- Nov. 1
Care ....................... ..... .... I Nov. Feb. Oct. 10 Dec. 1
Field:
Preparing land ........................... Oct. Jan. Nov. 1 Nov. 20
Preparing rows and fertilizing Dec. Feb. Dec. 1 Dec. 31
Planting or setting .................... Jan. Feb. Dec. 15 Dec. 31
Cultivating and fertilizing ...... Feb. May Jan. 1 May 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding ......... Feb. May Jan. 15 April 1
Insect and disease control ...... Mar. June Jan. 15 June 1
Irrigating ............... ..... ........ Feb. June

Harvesting ............................ May June May 1 June 30









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Land preparation for the fall crop in the Lee County area
begins in July, Table 39. Plants are set in the field in Septem-
ber and harvest begins in November. The spring crop is planted
in November in the Lee County area, usually after a fall pepper
or cucumber crop. The Manatee County area plants in Decem-


TABLE 40.-EGGPLANT: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Material


Kind

Lee County


Amount


Seedbed:
Seed ....................
Fertilizer ..........
Dust ................

Field:
Cover crop seed..

Plants (from
seedbed) ........
Fertilizer ........
Top-dressing ....

Dust .................
Spray ..................
Poison bait .......
Containers ......


Seedbed:
Seed ................
Semesan ............

Fertilizer ..........
Top-dressing ....
Spray ...............
Dust .................

Poison bait ........

Field:
Plants (from
seedbed) ........
Fertilizer ..........
Top-dressing ....
Spray ...............
Dust ...................
Containers ..........


Fort Myers Market
4-9-3; 4-8-3
Copper, arsenic, lime


Crotalaria, sesbania, Sudan
grass

Fort Myers Market
4-9-3; 4-8-3; 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-6-5
Nitrate of soda, ammonium
sulfate
Sulfur
Bordeaux, DDT, sulfur
Bran, paris green and syrup
Bushel baskets


Plant City


Fort Myers Market
Seed treatment to control
damping-off fungi
4-7-5
Potassium or sodium nitrate
Bordeaux
Nicotine, copper compounds,
cryolite
Bran, paris green and syrup


Fort Myers Market
4-7-5; 4-8-8
Nitrate of potash, kainit
Bordeaux with arsenic or lime
Nicotine sulfate
Bushel baskets


Fall

.2 lb.
27 lb.
1 lb.


25 lb.

2,810
4,000 lb.

217 lb.
100 lb.
55 gal.
170 lb.
688


Spring

.2 lb.
5 lb.





2,904
3,000 lb.

200 lb.
80 lb.
150 gal.
140 lb.
590


1.0 lb.

.75 oz.
60 lb.
8 lb.
10 gal.

10 lb.
10 lb.


2,800
1,600 lb.
540 lb.
200 gal.
75 lb.
565








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


TABLE 40.-EGGPLANT: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS (Concluded).

Material Kind Amount

Manatee County

Seedbed:
Seed ................... Fort Myers Market .3 lb.
Fertilizer ......... 4-7-5 32 lb.
Dust ............. .. Sulfur, DDT 4.5 lb.
Spray .................. Bordeaux, copper compounds 3 gal.
Field:
Plants (from
seedbed) ....... Fort Myers Market 3,400
Fertilizer .......... 4-7-5; 4-8-8 4,200 lb.
Top-dressing .... Nitrate of soda, nitrate of
potash, ammonium nitrate 150 lb.
Dust .................... Sulfur, DDT 123 lb.
Spray .................. Bordeaux, copper compounds 86 gal.
Containers .......... Bushel baskets 600


ber and the Plant City area from December to February. Har-
vest of the spring crop is in May and June for all areas.
Fort Myers Market, Florida Market and Florida Beauty were
the popular varieties of eggplant produced in Florida. From
1,600 to 4,200 pounds of a complete fertilizer were required per
acre, Table 40. In addition, all areas used from 150 to 540
pounds of a high-nitrogen-content top-dressing per acre. Plants
were dusted or sprayed in the seedbed and again in the field
to control insects and diseases. From 75 to 150 pounds of DDT,
sulfur or nicotine dust and from 55 to 200 gallons of bordeaux,
copper A or DDT and sulfur sprays were required.

Lettuce, Escarole, Romaine
From 126 to 179 man hours of labor were required for the
production of lettuce, escarole and romaine in the areas shown in
Table 41. Setting and watering alone accounted for 50 percent or
more of the labor requirements in both areas. Hoeing, raking
and weeding required 61 man hours per acre in the Manatee area.
Cutting and packing was usually done in the field and required
from 105 to 140 man hours per acre with the yields shown for
the respective area. Hauling to market in Manatee County in-
cluded waiting in line for auction selling, which was not a
practice in the Sanford area.








70 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The usual season of operations in the production of lettuce,
escarole and romaine in the Sanford and Manatee areas is shown
in Table 42. Sanford's production is for late fall and early win-
ter harvest, while that in Manatee County continues from mid-
November through February. However, there may be a series
of plantings in the Manatee area.
Great Lakes, Imperial No. 44, Big Boston and Iceberg type
lettuce were grown on most of the acreage studied, Table 43.
Growers in the Sanford area used an average of 3,250 pounds
of complete fertilizer and nitrates, in addition to 2,500 pounds
of land conditioner per acre. In the Manatee area an average
of 2,200 pounds of complete fertilizer and nitrates were used.
These leaf crops require a minimum of spray and dust materials
and in some years none is needed.


TABLE 41.-LETTUCE, ESCAROLE, ROMAINE: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN
HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area Sanford Manatee County
Number of Growers 19 10
Tractor
Operation Trac-
Operation i i Man Horse tor
Man Trac-
tor _

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed* 7.4 1.0 25.6 | .3

Field:
Preparing land .......................... 6.2 6.2 4.3 4.3
Preparing rows and fertilizing 4.9 1.1 5.6 2.8
Setting .......................................... 66.5 89.3**
Cultivating and fertilizing ....... 47.1 .9 16.0 7.7
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......... 60.8
Insect and disease control ........ 1.2 1.0
Irrigating .................................... 2.1

Total pre-harvest, field ..................... 125.9 8.2 179.1 7.7 7.1

Harvest Labor:
Cutting and packing ................ 139.8 104.8
Hauling to market ...................... 9.8 27.8

Total harvest labor ............................ 149.6 132.6
Total-all operations ....................... 282.9 9.2 337.3 7.7 7.4
Estimated yield:
Escarole, bushels ..... ............ 780 790
Lettuce, standard crates .......... 650 560
Seedbed per acre of plants set in the field.
** Includes pot watering-12.1 hours.








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Fig. 14.-Location of lettuce, escarole and romaine areas studied.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 42.-LETTUCE, ESCAROLE, ROMAINE: USUAL SEASON OF
OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Sanford Manatee County


Seedbed:
Preparation and care ................ Sept. 1 Nov. 5 Aug. 15- Nov. 15
Field:
Preparing land .............- .....- Aug. 15- Nov. 5 Aug. 15 Oct. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing Sept. 5 Nov. 5 Oct. 15 Dec. 31
Setting ..--......................... .. Oct. 1- Nov. 5 Sept. 20 Dec. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ...... Oct. 1- Dec. 10 Oct. 5 Nov. 30
Hoeing and weeding .................. Oct. 1 Dec. 10 Oct. 15 Dec. 31
Insect and disease control .......... Oct. 1 Nov. 1 Oct. 10 Dec. 31

Harvesting .......... .................. .. Nov. 25 Jan. 1 Nov. 15 Feb. 28

TABLE 43.-LETTUCE, ESCAROLE, ROMAINE: USUAL MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount


Sanford


Seed ...... ...................

Land conditioner .........
Fertilizer ......................
Top-dressing ..................

Poison bait .....................
Containers ......................


Seedbed:
Seed ....-........................

Fertilizer ......................
Poison bait ................

Field:
Fertilizer ......................
Top-dressing ................

Poison bait* ......... .
Spray* ......................
Dust* ...........................
Containers ....................


Not always necessary.


SLettuce-Great Lakes, Imperial
No. 44, Big Boston
Escarole-Florida Deepheart
Ashes, lime. castor pomace
4-7-5; 4-5-7; 5-5-8; 5-7-5; 5-5-5
Nitrate of soda, nitrate of
potash
Bran, paris green and syrup
ILettuce-standard crates
Escarole-bushel hampers

Manatee County


Lettuce-Iceberg, Big Boston
Escarole, Romaine-Deepheart,
Fullheart
4-7-5; 5-7-5; 4-8-6
Mixed

4-7-5; 5-7-5; 4-8-6
Nitrate of soda, nitrate of
potash; 10-0-12
Bran, paris green and syrup
Neutral coppers
DDT
Lettuce-standard crates
Escarole, Romaine-bu. hampers


0.5
0.5
2,524
3,000

250
24
650
780


2,000 lb.
200 lb.
25 lb.
75 gal.
20 lb.
560
790







Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Lima Beans
The usual labor requirements for growing and harvesting lima
beans is given in Table 44. In the Pompano area lima beans
were planted on a high bed and the fields were ditched for drain-
age. After each cultivation drains were opened with a hand
shovel, requiring 10 hours per acre. The necessity for com-
plete drainage being less in the Hawthorne area, less labor was
required for opening ditches. In the Everglades area the ditch-
ing consisted of mole draining with tractors and some work
cleaning main ditches.
Lima beans required a larger amount of hand work for hoeing
and weeding than snap beans, and more cultivation. Otherwise,
production practices were very similar for lima beans and snap
beans. Recent increases in mechanization of farming operations
in the Pompano area have probably materially reduced the labor
requirements for producing lima beans. As was the case with
snap beans, most of the labor required for lima beans was in
picking, which must be done by hand. In the Everglades and
Hawthorne areas the final grading and packing were done at a
packinghouse and the labor required for this operation was not
obtained.
The season of performance of the various operations in pro-
ducing and harvesting lima beans is shown in Table 45. In the
Everglades area, weather permitting, a late fall and winter crop
may be produced. The Pompano area produces a late fall and
spring crop, while production in the Hawthorne area is for spring
harvest in late May and early June.
The usual material requirements for producing lima beans are
shown in Table 46. Fordhook was the only commercial variety
reported by -growers and one bushel of seed was required per
acre in all areas. The Everglades area used an average of 500
pounds of a low-nitrogen-content fertilizer on its muck soils. The
Hawthorne and Pompano areas used 1,000 and 2,000 pounds of a
complete fertilizer per acre, respectively. In addition, the latter
areas top-dressed with 175 to 225 pounds of ammonium, calcium
or potassium nitrate or other high-nitrogen and potassium-con-
tent fertilizer per acre. From 90 to 100 pounds of sulfur and
lime or manganese dust were required in the Everglades and
Pompano areas. As in the case of snap beans, some growers
preferred to spray for insect and disease control or for nutri-
tional purposes. Very little, if any, dust is used in the Haw-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 15.-Location of lima bean areas studied.








TABLE 44.-LIMA BEANS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area Everglades Hawthorne Pompano
Number of Growers 4 16 3

Operation Tractor Operationl Tractor Operation Horse Operation Horse Operation
_Man I Tractor Man ITractor Man I Horse Man I Horse Tractor


Pre-Harvest Labor:
Ditching and draining ..........
Preparing land .......................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..
Planting ....................................
Cultivating and fertilizing ..........
Hoeing, weeding .......................
Insect and disease control ..........
Total pre-harvest labor ...................

Harvest Labor:
Picking ...................... .......
Lugging ..................................... ....
H leading ...................................
Foremen, checkers ........................
Hauling to grader or market .....
Grading and packing......... -
Total harvest labor ..........................
Total-all operations .......................
Estimated yield, bushels ................
Grading done at packinghouse.


2.5 .3 6.3 6.3 9.9
4.1 4.1 3.4 3.4 9.1 18.2 4.5
I 2.5 1.3 8.8 7.9 21.2
2.0 .6 1.2 .6 2.7 2.7 3.7
2.0 2.0 4.3 3.1 15.3 14.0 10.9
10.0 8.8 8.8 10.6
.8 .8 .6
21.4 7.8 26.5 8.4 51.0 42.8 61.4


91.1 1 78.2
112.5 | 7.8 104.7 8.4
100 85


68.0
3.2
2.6
1.9
2.5
*
78.2
129.2 42.8
85


102.1
163.5


21.2
3.7
8.4


33.3


33.3
100


-tc


re

4.5 F"

Ca
(

.6 S"
5.1

n.
Co




M
CO
Ca

5.1 C^
Co








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


thorne area in the average season. However, some growers
occasionally applied 30 to 40 pounds of a sulfur and lime or
manganese dust per acre.

TABLE 45.-LIMA BEANS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Ditching and draining
Preparing land ............
Preparing rows and
fertilizing ................
Planting ....................
Cultivating and
fertilizing ...............
Hoeing, weeding ..........
Insect and disease
control ...................


Harvesting ....................


Everglades


Sept. 1 -Jan. 1
Aug. 15 -Jan. 1

Sept. 15-Jan. 1
Sept. 15- Jan. 15


Hawthorne



Oct. 1 -Nov. 15


Pompano


Oct. 1 Feb. 1
Aug. 15- Oct. 1


Jan. 20 Mar. 5 Oct. 1 Feb. 1
SFeb. 18-Mar. 5 Oct. 1 -Feb. 1


Sept. 15 Mar. 1 Mar. 15 April 10 Oct. 20-Mar. 1
Oct. 15 Mar. 15 April 1- April 15 Oct. 25-Mar. 1


Sept. 15-April 15


Nov. 20 April 15


Oct. 25-Mar. 1


May 15 June 15 Nov.25-Aprill


TABLE 46.-LIMA BEANS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Material Kind Amount

Everglades

Seed .................................. Fordhook 1 bu.
Seed disinfectant ......... Spergon 2.5 oz.
Fertilizer ................. 0-14-5; 0-12-12; 2-8-6 500 lb.
Dust ..................... Sulfur and manganese 90 lb.
Containers ................ Bushel hampers 100

Hawthorne

Seed .............................. Fordhook 1 bu.
Fertilizer ......................... 4-7-5 1,000 lb.
Top-dressing .................... Nitrate of potash, nitrate of
soda; 8-0-8; 10-0-16 175 lb.
Containers ............... Buhel hampers 85

Pompano

Seed .................. Fordhook 1 bu.
Fertilizer ............... 4-9-3; 4-8-3; 5-5-3 2,000 lb.
Top-dressing .............. Nitrate of soda, calcium nitrate;
8-0-8; 10-0-12 225 lb.
Dust ............................ Sulfur and lime 100 lb.
Containers ...-............. Bushel hampers 100








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Okra

The production of okra is relatively unimportant in the state,
though quite important to many small farmers in the Plant City
area (Fig. 11). It required much hand labor for hoeing, raking,
weeding and picking, Table 47. Okra is grown to be harvested
from April through June, but with favorable weather and proper
cultivation may bear fruit until early fall.
One ton of fertilizer and 240 pounds of top-dressing per acre
were applied to okra. Clemson Spineless, Ladyfinger (Louisiana
White Velvet) and Perkins Long Green were the important va-
rieties grown, Table 48.

TABLE 47.-OKRA: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, AND USUAL
SEASON OF OPERATIONS, 11 GROWERS, PLANT CITY AREA.

Labor Requirements Season of
Operation Man Horse Tractor Performance
Hours Hours Hours__

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Preparing land ......................... 16.7 12.5 4.2 Nov. Dec.
Preparing rows and fertilizing 11.8 8.5 Dec. Feb.
Planting .................. ....... 4.1 4.1 February
Cultivating and fertilizing .... 22.2 16.2 Mar. April
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........ 80.6 Mar. April
Insect and disease control .... 4.6 Feb. April

Total pre-harvest labor ....-........ 140.0 41.3 4.2 Nov. April

Harvest Labor:
Picking and packing ..........4 453.3
Marketing ........................... 38.0

Total harvest labor ..................... 491.3 April- June
Total-all operations ................. 631.3 41.3 4.2
Normal yield, bushels ................ |175 I


TABLE 48.-OKRA: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE, PLANT CITY.

Material Kind Amount

Seed ........................ Clemson Spineless, Lady Finger,
Perkins Long Green, Low Bush 14 lb.
Fertilizer .................... 4-7-5 1,000 lb.
Poison bait ....-............. Bran, paris green and syrup 30 lb.
Top-dressing .............. Nitrate of soda, 17-0-5 240 lb.
Dust* .......................... Nicotine sulfate 30 lb.
Containers ................ Bushel hampers 175

Needed occasionally.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Southern Peas

Southern peas or cowpeas are a good soil-building legume and
provide supplemental income for many small farmers in the
Plant City area (Fig 11). Pre-harvest labor requirements were
small (Table 49) and the family supplied most of the harvest
labor. The peas are planted in January and February for har-
vest in April and May.
Alabama Crowder, Ramshorn and Blackeye were the import-
ant varieties for fresh market consumption, Table 50. Growers
used an average of 475 pounds of 4-7-5 fertilizer per acre. A few
supplemented this with 150 pounds nitrate of soda per acre.



TABLE 49.-SOUTHERN PEAS (COWPEAS): LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS
PER ACRE, AND USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, 23 GROWERS, PLANT CITY AREA.

Labor Requirements Season of
Operation Man Horse Tractor Performance
_Hours Hours Hours
Pre-Harvest Labor:
Preparing land ........................ 13.0 10.0 3.0 Nov. Feb.
Preparing rows and fertilizing 9.4 6.5 Jan. Feb.
Planting ..................................... 2.5 2.5 Jan.- Feb.
Cultivating and fertilizing .... 8.4 8.4 Mar. April

Total pre-harvest labor .............. 33.3 27.4 3.0 Nov. April

Harvest Labor:
Picking and packing ................ 66.4
Hauling to market .................. 12.0

Total harvest labor ................... 78.4 I April May
Total- all operations .................. 111.7 27.4 3.0
Normal yield, bushels ............. 100



TABLE 50.-SOUTHERN PEAS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, PLANT CITY.

Material Kind Amount

Seed ............................ Alabama Crowder, Ramshorn,
Blackeye 1.5 pecks
Fertilizer* .......... 4-7-5 475 lb.
Containers ............ Bushel hampers 100

A few growers top dress with 150 lbs. of nitrate of soda.








Labor and Material Requirements for Truck Crops


Summary

Man hours required for producing truck crops in the various
areas of the state are summarzied in Table 51. Data are given
here only for pre-harvest labor, harvest labor and total labor
per acre for the yield shown. Should a different yield be ob-
tained, the harvest labor requirement would be changed. For
more complete details on man-hour, tractor or horse-hour re-
quirements, materials used and season of operations, reference
should be made to the various crop tables.

TABLE 51.--SUMMARY OF MAN HOURS REQUIRED PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS
CROPS, BY AREAS.


Area and Crops


Alachua County:
Irish potatoes (LaCrosse) ..
Green peppers ......................
Cucumbers ..............................
Watermelons (Newberry) ..
Lima beans ...........................
Dade County:
Tomatoes ...........................
Snap beans .......................
Irish potatoes ........................
Everglades:
Snap beans ...........................
Celery ................. ...................
Irish potatoes ........................
Lima beans ...... ...............
Fort Pierce:
Tom atoes .............................
Gilchrist County:
W atermelons .......................
Hardee County:
Cucumbers-Spring ..............
Cucumbers-Fall ............... --
Hastings:
Irish potatoes .................... .
Cabbage .................. ..... ...
Jackson County:
Watermelons .........................
Lake City:
Sweet corn ......................
Lake County:
Watermelons .........................
Lee County:
Irish potatoes ......................
Green peppers .......................
Cucumbers-Fall ..................
Eggplant-Fall ....................
Eggplant-Spring ...............
Madison County:
Watermelons ...........................


Man Hours per Acre


Pre- I
Harvest I Harvest


20.8
96.1
25.9
28.2
26.5

112.5
13.0
32.0

14.9
261.0
27.1
21.4

75.0

30.5

246.9
197.9

40.8
68.4

38.7

13.8

66.6

31.9
237.2
95.5
234.2
196.5

26.5


56.1
202.3
77.7
25.1
78.2

108.9
129.3
32.2

86.6
153.8
50.6
91.1

121.6

21.8

175.0
146.0

55.5
77.2

19.3

14.5

22.7

39.3
396.0
143.6
246.2
211.7

16.4


Total


76.9
298.4
103.6
53.3
104.7

221.4
142.3
64.2

101.5
414.8
77.7
112.5

196.6

52.3

421.9
343.9

96.3
145.6

58.0

28.3

89.3

71.2
633.2
239.1
480.4
408.2

42.9


Estimated
Yield


142 bu.
250 bu.
120 bu.
333 melons
85 bu.

165 bu.
135 bu.
200 bu.

100 bu.
510 crts.
175 bu.
100 bu.

200 bu.

333 melons

200 bu.
175 bu.

167 bu.
9.3 tons

375 melons

65% bu.

300 melons

200 bu.
540 bu.
200 bu.
688 bu.
590 bu.

281 melons








80 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 51.-SUMMARY OF MAN HOURS REQUIRED PER ACRE FOR VARIOUS
CROPS, BY AREAS (Concluded).


Area and Crops


Manatee County:
Tomatoes-staked .......
Tomatoes-unstaked ---
Cabbage .........................
Eggplant-Spring ................
Lettuce, escarole, romaine ..
Marion and Sumter Counties:
Tomatoes ...........................
Snap beans (McIntosh) ....
Green peppers (Sumter Co.)
Cucumbers (Sumter Co.) ..
Squash (McIntosh) ..............
Plant City:
Tomatoes ...................
Snap beans ............................
Irish potatoes ............... ......
Green peppers ..................
Strawberries ..........................
Squash ...............................
Eggplant-Spring ............
Okra .... .......................
Southern peas .............-....
Pompano:
Snap beans ..........................
Green peppers ..................
Lima beans .................
Sanfcrd:
Celery .....................................
Cabbage ..................................
Sweet corn ..............................
Lettuce, escarole, romaine ..
Sarasota:
Celery .................... ...............


I
Man Hours per Acre I
Pre- | j 1


Harvest I Harvest


473.5
251.3
149.1
94.4
204.7

51.4
9.1
235.3
306.6
28.1

118.8
46.5
53.9
328.1
740.7
69.4
207.2
140.0
33.3

27.6
393.8
61.4

325.7
70.5
16.7
133.3

359.5


185.2
162.6
88.5
273.2
132.6

51.5
114.0
158.0
247.0
123.9

122.3
170.0
89.8
159.4
653.4
183.2
256.2
491.3
78.4

92.2
234.2
102.1

195.9
92.5
33.3
149.6

200.3


Total


658.7
413.9
237.6
367.6
337.3

102.9
123.1
393.3
553.6
152.0

241.1
216.5
143.7
487.5
1,394.1
252.6
463.4
631.3
111.7

119.8
628.0
163.5

521.6
163.0
50.0
282.9

559.8


The data on labor and materials required represent the most
common practices. Yields of most truck crops vary widely from
year to year because of the hazards of weather. Labor and ma-
terials used are constantly changing, also. Increasing mechan-
ization is lowering man hours required on many operations;
new spray and dust materials and new varieties may affect
yields. Most changes in practices, however, occur gradually.


Estimated
Yield


258 bu.
205 bu.
9.6 tons
600 bu.
790 bu.

100 bu.
100 bu.
300 bu.
450 bu.
135 bu.

160 bu.
126 bu.
145 bu.
275 bu.
4,550 pt.
155 bu.
565 bu.
175 bu.
100 bu.

100 bu.
550 bu.
100 bu.

525 crts.
12.0 tons
136% bu.
780 bu.

600 crts.




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