• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Labor and material requirements...
 Seasonal distribution of labor...
 Labor and feed requirements for...
 Miscellaneous farm labor
 Application of labor and material...
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 388
Title: Labor and material requirements for crops and livestock
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026705/00001
 Material Information
Title: Labor and material requirements for crops and livestock
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Alternate Title: General farming area in Florida
Physical Description: 28 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brunk, Max E ( Max Edwin ), 1914-
Reitz, J. Wayne ( Julius Wayne )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Farm management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Max E. Brunk and J. Wayne Reitz.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026705
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925193
oclc - 18235072
notis - AEN5839

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        The need for labor and material requirements data
            Page 5
        Sources and method of collecting information
            Page 6
    Labor and material requirements for crops
        Page 6
        Corn
            Page 6
        Corn, peanuts, and velvet beans interplanted
            Page 7
        Short staple cotton
            Page 8
        Peavine hay
            Page 9
        Oats or rye pasture
            Page 9
        Runner peanuts for nuts
            Page 10
        Runner peanuts hogged-off
            Page 11
        Sugarcane
            Page 12
        Sweet potatoes
            Page 13
        Flue-cured tobacco
            Page 13
        Watermelons
            Page 14
    Seasonal distribution of labor for crops
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Labor and feed requirements for livestock
        Page 17
        Hogs
            Page 17
        Cattle
            Page 18
        Chickens - Farm flock
            Page 18
        Commercial poultry flocks
            Page 19
        Workstock
            Page 19
    Miscellaneous farm labor
        Page 19
    Application of labor and material requirement data
        Page 20
        Planning the farm business
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Annual adjustments based on price outlook
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
    Summary
        Page 28
Full Text

AUG 5
June, 1943


SBulletin 388


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA








LABOR AND MATERIAL

REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS

AND LIVESTOCK

I. A General Farming Area in Florida

By
MAX E. BRUNK
and
J. WAYNE REITZ


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


1943










BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield. M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.4
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, D.Sc., Business Managers
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandmana
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., IYairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Hush.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbh.
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.3
Geo. K. Davis, Ph.D., Nutrition Tech.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
J. E. Pace, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist


ENTOMOLOGY

J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist1
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist1
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Elsie May Day, B.S., Research Assistant
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' 3
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chem.
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associates
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist'
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist'
J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chem.
T. C. Erwin, Asst. Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
Thos. Whitehead, Jr., M.S.A., Asst.
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor4
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyor5



1 Head of Department.
SIn cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 In Military Service.
SOn leave.


Gift of is ning office

















BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.*

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED

A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist4
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
J. W. Sites, M.S., Asso. Hort.

EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist4
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.4
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist

SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.


W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STA, ONA

W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.4
R. A. Fulford, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
1. N. Walker, Ph.ID., Plant Path. in Charge5

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.

Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 4
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2

Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Hort. in Chg.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist

Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist

Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 "
Harry Armstrong, Asso. Meteorologist2



1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
5 On leave.















CONTENTS
PAGE

INTRODUCTION .............................. .......... 5
The Need for Labor and Material Requirements Data ....................... 5
Sources and Method of Collecting Information ..........--.......................---- 6

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS ......................................... 6
C orn ......................... ... ............ .. ... ...... .... ....................... 6
Corn, Peanuts, and Velvet Beans Interplanted ..................................... 7
Short Staple Cotton ................................. ... -......-- ....---- .. 8
Peavine H ay ............................ ........ .... ................. ......... ........ 9
Oats or Rye Pasture ....................................................... ... 9
Runner Peanuts for Nuts .......----.............------------------ ...-- 10
Runner Peanuts Hogged-Off ...................... .......... ................ 11
Sugarcane ....-.................... .... ... ....... .......... ....-------12
Sweet Potatoes ....--...--.....................................---...-- 13
Flue-Cured Tobacco ........ ....... ........................... ............. ...... 13
W watermelons ........... .............. ........ ----..- --.------... .... 14

SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR FOR CROPS ..................... ..................... 15

LABOR AND FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR LIVESTOCK .............-....-..........-- ...-...- ... 17
H ogs ....................... ....................................................... .... ...... .. 17
Cattle ...... ----------........ .....----------....--...--..-...- .. ---- 18
Chickens-Farm Flock .................. .......-----....--- ... --18
Commercial Poultry Flocks ..................------- -------..-----. 19
Workstock .------........................................... 19

MISCELLANEOUS FARM LABOR ............--- -..--..........----------..--- 19

APPLICATION OF LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS DATA ........................ 20

Planning the Farm Business .. ................. .... ............. ......... 20
Annual Adjustments Based on Price Outlook ....................................... 25

SUM MARY .................................8.....................











LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

I. A General Farming Area in Florida

By MAX E. BRUNK and J. WAYNE REITZ

INTRODUCTION
THE NEED FOR LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS DATA

All farmers use labor and material requirements information
in planning their year's business. The standards used are mostly
"rule-of-thumb" measures. When a farmer plants a new crop
he must consult informed persons, or through trial and error
establish standards for that crop. In this publication the re-
sults of the experiences of many farmers in the general farm-
ing areas of north and west Florida have been tabulated and
averaged so that reasonably accurate standards rather than mere
"rule-of-thumb" measures are available for their use as well as
for prospective farmers, agricultural students and teachers.
The information can be used in planning a farm business for the
most profitable use of land and labor. Persons using these data
can determine to what extent certain crops compete with each
other in production, as well as the quantity of certain crops and
livestock that can be produced with available land and labor.
The data can be used also in computing costs of production in
man hours and in dollars.
Labor and material requirements vary from year to year,
from farm to farm, and from area to area. Farmers learn to
adjust for these variations only through years of experience.
Individuals using these data can readily make adjustments in
the light of other farmers' experiences. Students and others
will find in these data the common practices and results of such
practices on general farms in northern and western Florida.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.-The writers are indebted to the many farmers
of Madison and Jackson counties for their courtesy in furnishing the data
on which this study is based. Credit also is due Dr. C. V. Noble under whose
direction this work was done.
SProfessor of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University
of Florida.











LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR
CROPS AND LIVESTOCK

I. A General Farming Area in Florida

By MAX E. BRUNK and J. WAYNE REITZ

INTRODUCTION
THE NEED FOR LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS DATA

All farmers use labor and material requirements information
in planning their year's business. The standards used are mostly
"rule-of-thumb" measures. When a farmer plants a new crop
he must consult informed persons, or through trial and error
establish standards for that crop. In this publication the re-
sults of the experiences of many farmers in the general farm-
ing areas of north and west Florida have been tabulated and
averaged so that reasonably accurate standards rather than mere
"rule-of-thumb" measures are available for their use as well as
for prospective farmers, agricultural students and teachers.
The information can be used in planning a farm business for the
most profitable use of land and labor. Persons using these data
can determine to what extent certain crops compete with each
other in production, as well as the quantity of certain crops and
livestock that can be produced with available land and labor.
The data can be used also in computing costs of production in
man hours and in dollars.
Labor and material requirements vary from year to year,
from farm to farm, and from area to area. Farmers learn to
adjust for these variations only through years of experience.
Individuals using these data can readily make adjustments in
the light of other farmers' experiences. Students and others
will find in these data the common practices and results of such
practices on general farms in northern and western Florida.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS.-The writers are indebted to the many farmers
of Madison and Jackson counties for their courtesy in furnishing the data
on which this study is based. Credit also is due Dr. C. V. Noble under whose
direction this work was done.
SProfessor of Agricultural Economics, College of Agriculture, University
of Florida.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOURCES AND METHOD OF COLLECTING INFORMATION
Crop and livestock information other than for peanuts dug
was secured by personal interview with white farmers in Madi-
son County, Florida. Data for peanuts dug were obtained from
white farmers in Jackson County, Florida. Farmers were asked
to estimate the time required, by 2-week periods, for each opera-
tion in the production of crops and livestock. They were asked
also the kind and amount of materials ordinarily used in the
production of each crop and class of livestock and what their
average yields had been over the last 5 years. In summarizing
the data, only the most common practices were considered. For
example, if most farmers broke corn land with 2-mule plows the
time required to break land is shown as an average of the es-
timates of all farmers who followed this practice. For this
reason tractor operations were omitted, although some records
were obtained for crops on which tractors were used. Tractors
were commonly used for breaking land, the time required vary-
ing with the size of the tractor. To break an acre of land, large,
medium and small tractors required an average of 1.1, 1.4, and
1.9 hours, respectively. Farmers breaking land with 1 mule re-
quired 9.0 hours per acre. Farmers using either tractors or 1
mule for breaking land can make adjustments in the labor re--
quirements presented on this basis.
The last section of this publication illustrates some uses of
labor and material requirements data. The farm used as an
illustration is a successful 1-mule farm located in Madison
County. A detailed farm business record was obtained for this
farm as it was operated during 1942.

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS
CORN
Labor and material records were secured from 19 farms which
produced 868 acres of corn grown alone (Table 1). Included in
this number are 3 farms which produced a total of 465 acres.
Most farms studied had between 10 and 30 acres and for this
reason the data in Table 1 apply best to the latter group of
smaller farmers. Large acreages of corn were usually produced
with tractor power. On these tractor farms the time required
to produce and harvest 1 acre of corn averaged 10.6 man hours,
5.6 tractor hours and 2.0 mule hours. The time required per
acre for tractor to break land was 1.4 hours, to prepare and
plant 1.7 hours, and to cultivate 2.5 hours.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOURCES AND METHOD OF COLLECTING INFORMATION
Crop and livestock information other than for peanuts dug
was secured by personal interview with white farmers in Madi-
son County, Florida. Data for peanuts dug were obtained from
white farmers in Jackson County, Florida. Farmers were asked
to estimate the time required, by 2-week periods, for each opera-
tion in the production of crops and livestock. They were asked
also the kind and amount of materials ordinarily used in the
production of each crop and class of livestock and what their
average yields had been over the last 5 years. In summarizing
the data, only the most common practices were considered. For
example, if most farmers broke corn land with 2-mule plows the
time required to break land is shown as an average of the es-
timates of all farmers who followed this practice. For this
reason tractor operations were omitted, although some records
were obtained for crops on which tractors were used. Tractors
were commonly used for breaking land, the time required vary-
ing with the size of the tractor. To break an acre of land, large,
medium and small tractors required an average of 1.1, 1.4, and
1.9 hours, respectively. Farmers breaking land with 1 mule re-
quired 9.0 hours per acre. Farmers using either tractors or 1
mule for breaking land can make adjustments in the labor re--
quirements presented on this basis.
The last section of this publication illustrates some uses of
labor and material requirements data. The farm used as an
illustration is a successful 1-mule farm located in Madison
County. A detailed farm business record was obtained for this
farm as it was operated during 1942.

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS
CORN
Labor and material records were secured from 19 farms which
produced 868 acres of corn grown alone (Table 1). Included in
this number are 3 farms which produced a total of 465 acres.
Most farms studied had between 10 and 30 acres and for this
reason the data in Table 1 apply best to the latter group of
smaller farmers. Large acreages of corn were usually produced
with tractor power. On these tractor farms the time required
to produce and harvest 1 acre of corn averaged 10.6 man hours,
5.6 tractor hours and 2.0 mule hours. The time required per
acre for tractor to break land was 1.4 hours, to prepare and
plant 1.7 hours, and to cultivate 2.5 hours.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOURCES AND METHOD OF COLLECTING INFORMATION
Crop and livestock information other than for peanuts dug
was secured by personal interview with white farmers in Madi-
son County, Florida. Data for peanuts dug were obtained from
white farmers in Jackson County, Florida. Farmers were asked
to estimate the time required, by 2-week periods, for each opera-
tion in the production of crops and livestock. They were asked
also the kind and amount of materials ordinarily used in the
production of each crop and class of livestock and what their
average yields had been over the last 5 years. In summarizing
the data, only the most common practices were considered. For
example, if most farmers broke corn land with 2-mule plows the
time required to break land is shown as an average of the es-
timates of all farmers who followed this practice. For this
reason tractor operations were omitted, although some records
were obtained for crops on which tractors were used. Tractors
were commonly used for breaking land, the time required vary-
ing with the size of the tractor. To break an acre of land, large,
medium and small tractors required an average of 1.1, 1.4, and
1.9 hours, respectively. Farmers breaking land with 1 mule re-
quired 9.0 hours per acre. Farmers using either tractors or 1
mule for breaking land can make adjustments in the labor re--
quirements presented on this basis.
The last section of this publication illustrates some uses of
labor and material requirements data. The farm used as an
illustration is a successful 1-mule farm located in Madison
County. A detailed farm business record was obtained for this
farm as it was operated during 1942.

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CROPS
CORN
Labor and material records were secured from 19 farms which
produced 868 acres of corn grown alone (Table 1). Included in
this number are 3 farms which produced a total of 465 acres.
Most farms studied had between 10 and 30 acres and for this
reason the data in Table 1 apply best to the latter group of
smaller farmers. Large acreages of corn were usually produced
with tractor power. On these tractor farms the time required
to produce and harvest 1 acre of corn averaged 10.6 man hours,
5.6 tractor hours and 2.0 mule hours. The time required per
acre for tractor to break land was 1.4 hours, to prepare and
plant 1.7 hours, and to cultivate 2.5 hours.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 7

TABLE 1.-CORN: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land ...................................... Jan. 1 Feb. 28 5.3 10.6
Prepare and plant ........................... Mar. 1 Mar. 31 3.6 3.6
Cultivate ..............................M...... Mar. 16 June 15 10.9 10.9
Harvest ............................................... Sept. 1 Nov. 15 5.0 2.0

___24.8 27.1
Material requirements per acre: Seed 1% quarts
Yield per acre: 11.4 bushels

Only 2 farmers of the 19 reported using fertilizer on corn as
a regular practice. Some of the larger farmers claim to have
greatly increased their corn yield by planting winter cover crops
on the corn land. Corn commonly follows crops which were
fertilized the previous year, except that the acreage of corn
generally exceeds the total acreage of land fertilized the year
before.
CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS INTERPLANTED
Records for this combination of crops were secured from 20
farmers who grew 620 acres or 31 acres per farm (Table 2).
Only 11 of the 20 farmers planted velvet beans in either the corn
or peanut row but the labor requirements were essentially the
same whether beans were interplanted or not. Corn was ordi-
narily planted 2 weeks to 1 month before peanuts. Corn and
velvet beans were planted at the same time when the beans were
put in the corn row. When beans were planted in the peanut
row the beans and peanuts were planted at one time. Beans were
planted in the corn row on 6 farms and in the peanut row on 5
farms.
TABLE 2.-CORN, PEANUTS AND VELVET BEANS INTERPLANTED: LABOR AND
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land ........................................ Jan. 1 Feb. 28 5.3 10.6
Prepare and plant .................... Mar. 1 Apr. 15 4.5 4.5
Cultivate .......................................... Apr. 1 June 15 11.2 11.2
Hoe peanuts ....................................... May 1 May 31 5.4
Harvest corn ...................................... Sept. 1 Oct. 31 4.9 2.0

__31.3 28.3
Material requirements per acre: Corn seed 1 quart; peanut seed % bushel;
bean seed 1 quart
Yield per acre: 9.1 bushels corn






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Land was usually broken with 2 mules and planted and culti-
vated with 1 mule. The peanuts were usually hoed once about a
month after planting. It is not the common practice to use
fertilizer on either corn or peanuts. The corn is generally har-
vested before the peanuts are hogged-off. By the time the
peanuts have been mostly hogged-off, cattle are turned in the
field.
SHORT STAPLE COTTON
Records were obtained from 24 farmers who produced 153.6
acres of short staple cotton, an average of 6.4 acres per farm
(Table 3). Coker Wilde, a variety with a relatively long staple,
was the most common variety produced. Coker Wilde was pro-
duced on 13 farms and Stoneville No. 2 was produced on 8 of the
24 farms.

TABLE 3.-SHORT STAPLE COTTON: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre

Break land ................................... Jan. 1 Feb. 15 5.3 10.6
Prepare and plant ........................... Mar. 1 Apr. 10 9.0 9.0
Cultivate ............................................... Apr. 16 June 15 19.5 19.5
Chop ........... ................. .............. Apr. 16 May 15 11.8
Hoe .................................................. June 1 June 15 8.0
Pick ................................................ Aug. 1 Sept. 15 51.9
Market ....... ........................... Aug. 1 Sept. 15 3.3

108.8 39.1

Material requirements per acre: Seed % bushel; fertilizer 230 pounds
Yield per acre: 440 pounds of seed cotton


Cotton land was broken with 1-mule plows on 11 farms, 2-mule
plows on 12 farms and tractor plow on 1 farm. Cultivation was
done with mule power on 23 of the farms, with a tractor on 1
farm. The most common mixtures of fertilizer used on cotton
were 3-8-5, 4-8-4, 4-8-6, and 5-7-5. Only 2 of the 24 farmers
side-dressed cotton. Likewise, it was not a common practice to
apply insecticides in this area. Only 3 farmers reported doing
so. Cotton was usually hauled to the gin by truck and sold in
the seed. Farmers not owning trucks ordinarily hired trucks to
do their hauling.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 9

PEAVINE HAY
Peavine hay records were secured from 16 farmers growing
252 acres of hay, an average of 15.8 acres per farm (Table 4).
The average acreage per farm is large because 5 farms having
20 acres or more of hay were included in the group studied. On
these large farms the crop was tended almost entirely by tractor.
The averages shown in the table below are concerned only with
mule power and are representative of the common practice on
the smaller farms. Even on small farms the hay is frequently
baled by contract labor using tractor power. In these instances
the hay baling time is reduced to 7 man hours and 1.8 tractor
hours per acre. On 6 farms planting was done with tractor
power, with an average requirement of 0.6 hours per acre. Small
cypress trees are generally used for stacking poles with the tops
of the trees or mill slabs being used for cross bars. Such poles
are satisfactory for 2 years, although they are frequently burned
as fuel after the first year's use.
TABLE 4.-PEAVINE HAY: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
__Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land ......................................... June 1 June 30 5.1 10.2
Prepare and plant ............................ June 1 June 30 4.2 4.2
Harvest ................................................ Sept. 1 Oct. 15 12.9 11.2
Hay baling (mule power) ................ Sept. 16 Oct. 31 7.7 4.9

29.9 30.5

Material requirements per acre: Seed 4/ bushel; poles 8 (last 2 years);
crossbars 16; baling wires 80
Yield per acre: 0.81 tons hay

OATS OR RYE PASTURE
Records were obtained from 10 farms producing oats and 9
farms producing rye for pasture purposes. Labor requirements
are essentially the same for these crops. Several farmers planted
a mixture of oats and rye. This is not a general practice but the
labor requirements are the same as for oats or rye planted alone
(Table 5).
Farmers without tractors frequently hired someone with a
tractor to break and harrow the land and, in some instances, to
drill the seed. Since drilling results in heavier stands, oats and
rye for harvest are usually sown by this method. A large trac-
tor and 5-foot combine will cut 10 to 12 acres of oats or 15 to






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 9

PEAVINE HAY
Peavine hay records were secured from 16 farmers growing
252 acres of hay, an average of 15.8 acres per farm (Table 4).
The average acreage per farm is large because 5 farms having
20 acres or more of hay were included in the group studied. On
these large farms the crop was tended almost entirely by tractor.
The averages shown in the table below are concerned only with
mule power and are representative of the common practice on
the smaller farms. Even on small farms the hay is frequently
baled by contract labor using tractor power. In these instances
the hay baling time is reduced to 7 man hours and 1.8 tractor
hours per acre. On 6 farms planting was done with tractor
power, with an average requirement of 0.6 hours per acre. Small
cypress trees are generally used for stacking poles with the tops
of the trees or mill slabs being used for cross bars. Such poles
are satisfactory for 2 years, although they are frequently burned
as fuel after the first year's use.
TABLE 4.-PEAVINE HAY: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
__Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land ......................................... June 1 June 30 5.1 10.2
Prepare and plant ............................ June 1 June 30 4.2 4.2
Harvest ................................................ Sept. 1 Oct. 15 12.9 11.2
Hay baling (mule power) ................ Sept. 16 Oct. 31 7.7 4.9

29.9 30.5

Material requirements per acre: Seed 4/ bushel; poles 8 (last 2 years);
crossbars 16; baling wires 80
Yield per acre: 0.81 tons hay

OATS OR RYE PASTURE
Records were obtained from 10 farms producing oats and 9
farms producing rye for pasture purposes. Labor requirements
are essentially the same for these crops. Several farmers planted
a mixture of oats and rye. This is not a general practice but the
labor requirements are the same as for oats or rye planted alone
(Table 5).
Farmers without tractors frequently hired someone with a
tractor to break and harrow the land and, in some instances, to
drill the seed. Since drilling results in heavier stands, oats and
rye for harvest are usually sown by this method. A large trac-
tor and 5-foot combine will cut 10 to 12 acres of oats or 15 to






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


18 acres of rye a day. Oat yields average about 15 bushels and
rye 5 bushels per acre. If oats are pastured before being cut the
yield will be reduced approximately 20 percent.

TABLE 5.-OATS PASTURE AND RYE PASTURE: LABOR AND MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS.
I Man Mule
Operation Usual Period of Performance ] Hours Hours
Oats Rye Iper Acre per Acre

Break land* .. Oct. 1 Oct. 15 Nov. 1 Nov. 15 5.1 10.2
Sow ................ Oct. 1 Oct. 15 Nov. 1 Nov. 15 1.0
Harrow .......... Oct. 1 Oct. 15 Nov. 1 Nov. 15 1.9 3.8

8.0 14.0

Material requirements per acre: Oats seed 11 bushels; rye seed % bushel
Land sometimes broken after rather than before oats or rye is sown.

RUNNER PEANUTS FOR NUTS
Records for runner peanuts dug for nuts were obtained from
16 farmers who produced 269.5 acres or 16.8 acres per farm
(Table 6). Thirteen farms were located in Jackson and 3 in
Madison County. On large farms the planting dates of runner
peanuts are sometimes staggered to spread labor requirements
over peak periods. Planting can be done from the middle of
March through May. The practice of planting oats before runner
peanuts is becoming common. In these cases the oats are turned
under in late May and the peanuts are then planted.

TABLE 6.-RUNNER PEANUTS FOR NUTS: LABOR AND MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre

Break land ........................................ Jan. 1 May 15 5.2 10.4
Prepare and plant ..............-.... Mar. 16 May 31 7.1 7.1
Weed ........................................ Mar. 21 May 31 2.8 2.8
Cultivate .................. ....................... Apr. 16 June 30 10.6 10.6
Hoe ............................................... Apr. 16 June 15 12.0
Plow up and stack ............................ Sept. 1 Oct. 31 27.8 7.0
Pick and bale-farm ................... Sept. 16 Nov. 15 6.2 4.7
Pick and bale-contract ................. Sept. 16 Nov. 15 6.5 *
78.2 42.6

Material requirements per acre: Seed 1% bushels; fertilizer 208 pounds;
poles 12; crossbars 24; baling wires 60
Yield per acre: 909 pounds peanuts and 1,150 pounds hay
Tractor is used to operate picker and hay baler.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 11

In the areas studied, and where peanuts were fertilized, the
most common mixtures were 3-8-5, 0-12-4, and 2-9-4. The
poles and crossbars on which the peanuts are stacked usually
last for 2 seasons.
Records were obtained also from 9 farms producing Spanish
peanuts. On these farms total labor requirements were little
different from runner peanuts. The chief difference in labor
requirements is the time of harvest. Spanish peanuts are dug
in August. Any delay in digging will result in serious loss due
to sprouting. This is not true with runner peanuts which are
dug later in the year.
Spanish peanuts are planted closer and this requires more
seed. The yield of Spanish peanuts on the 9 farms averaged 979
pounds of nuts and 774 pounds of hay per acre.

RUNNER PEANUTS HOGGED-OFF
Records for runner peanuts hogged-off were obtained from
17 farmers who produced 235 acres of the crop, an average of
13.8 acres per farm (Table 7). The greatest labor problem in
producing this crop, either for hogging or harvest, occurs at
hoeing time. This operation cannot be deferred long after weeds
appear if the crop is to be successfully produced. Most other
crops also need attention at this period. Since runner peanuts
can be planted successfully from the middle of March through
May, peak labor loads can be controlled somewhat by varying
the time of planting.

TABLE 7.-RUNNER PEANUTS HOGGED-OFF: LABOR AND MATERIAL
REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land ....................................... Jan. 1 May 15 5.2 10.4
Prepare and plant .......................... Mar. 16 May 31 6.3 6.3
Cultivate ...................................... Apr. 16 June 30 11.9 11.9
Hoe ........................... ............... Apr. 16 June 15 13.5

36.9 28.6

Material requirements per acre: Seed 1,- bushels
Yield per acre: Approximately 200 pounds of pork






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Spanish peanuts are sometimes hogged-off although not
planted for that purpose. When Spanish peanuts are hogged-off
it is either because of poor stands, excessive weeds, or low nut
prices. Spanish peanuts are not very satisfactory for hogging
because of their tendency to sprout soon after maturity.
SUGARCANE
Labor and material requirements for sugarcane production
are based on records from 15 farms producing a total of 34.3
acres of sugarcane or 2.3 acres per farm (Table 8). Eight of
the farms produced only 1 acre or less per farm.

TABLE 8.-SUGARCANE: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.*
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
__Performance per Acre per Acre

Break land .................... ..... Jan. 1 Feb. 28 2.6 5.2
Prepare and plant ..................... Feb. 16 Mar. 30 31.6 15.5
Cultivate ... .................. ......... Apr. 1 June 30 41.0 34.2
Hoe ..................................................... Apr. 16 June 30 16.8
Strip, top, and cut ....................... Nov. 1 Dec. 15 175.7
Haul, grind, boil and can ................ Nov. 1 Dec. 15 191.3 174.8

459.0 229.7

Material requirements per acre: Seed canes (1/ acre) 1,096; fertilizer 592
pounds; wood 5.5 cords
Yield per acre: 240 gallons of sirup
Requirements are based on / newly planted cane and 1 stubble cane. Breaking land
and preparing and planting time is therefore for % acre of new cane.
There was wide variation in the amount of commercial fer-
tilizer used, ranging from none to 1,000 pounds per acre. The
most common mixes used were 4-8-6, 3-8-5, and 4-8-4. Six farm-
ers used large amounts of stable manure before planting new
cane. Most of those using manure also used at least an average
amount of commercial fertilizer.
Hours of labor and yield of sirup vary with the variety grown.
Most farmers from whom records were obtained planted an im-
proved variety of green cane.
On most farms cane is ground with mule power and the juice
is boiled in a kettle. This process requires more labor than is
used with a power grinder and evaporator. The data in the
table above do not include the harvest time for 3 farms using
the latter, more efficient method.






Labor and Material Reffuirements for Crops and Livestock 13

SWEET POTATOES
Sweet potato records were secured from 16 farmers who pro-
duced 25 acres, an average of 1.6 acres per farm (Table 9). The
only variety produced on these farms was the Improved Porto
Rican. Early planting is generally done from a plant bed and
later plantings are made from cuttings. Many plantings of an
acre or less are made for home use and hog feed. After enough
are dug for home use the hogs are turned in on the field. More
attention is given sweet potatoes which are being produced
commercially and seed requirements for such plantings are much
less.

TABLE 9.-SWEET POTATOES: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Preparation and care of seedbed .... Feb. 16 Apr. 30 13.8 2.1
Break land ........................................ Feb. 1 Apr. 30 10.2 10.2
Prepare and plant ....................... Mar. 1 June 30 45.6 11.6
Cultivate ........................................ Apr. 16 July 15 19.5 19.5
Hoe .............................................. Apr. 1 July 15 16.2
Harvest and bank ............................. Oct. 16 Nov. 30 72.7 30.1

178.0 73.5

Material requirements per acre: Seed 5/2 bushels; fertilizer 450 pounds;
plant bed manure 470 pounds
Yield per acre: 102 bushels


All 16 farmers used over 200 pounds of commercial fertilizer
per acre. The most common mixture was 3-8-5. Stable manure
was used under all seedbeds planted.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Flue-cured tobacco records were obtained from 22 farmers
who produced a total of 47.6 acres or 2.2 acres per farm (Table
10). There is little variation between farms in the method of
producing tobacco. Also there is little variation in the time of
year when specific operations are performed. The fertilizing
practice is very uniform, the usual application being 1,000 pounds
to the acre. The most common mixes of fertilizer used are
3-8-5 and 3-8-8. Nearly all farmers hired tobacco trucked to
market at a flat price per 100 pounds.






Labor and Material Reffuirements for Crops and Livestock 13

SWEET POTATOES
Sweet potato records were secured from 16 farmers who pro-
duced 25 acres, an average of 1.6 acres per farm (Table 9). The
only variety produced on these farms was the Improved Porto
Rican. Early planting is generally done from a plant bed and
later plantings are made from cuttings. Many plantings of an
acre or less are made for home use and hog feed. After enough
are dug for home use the hogs are turned in on the field. More
attention is given sweet potatoes which are being produced
commercially and seed requirements for such plantings are much
less.

TABLE 9.-SWEET POTATOES: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Preparation and care of seedbed .... Feb. 16 Apr. 30 13.8 2.1
Break land ........................................ Feb. 1 Apr. 30 10.2 10.2
Prepare and plant ....................... Mar. 1 June 30 45.6 11.6
Cultivate ........................................ Apr. 16 July 15 19.5 19.5
Hoe .............................................. Apr. 1 July 15 16.2
Harvest and bank ............................. Oct. 16 Nov. 30 72.7 30.1

178.0 73.5

Material requirements per acre: Seed 5/2 bushels; fertilizer 450 pounds;
plant bed manure 470 pounds
Yield per acre: 102 bushels


All 16 farmers used over 200 pounds of commercial fertilizer
per acre. The most common mixture was 3-8-5. Stable manure
was used under all seedbeds planted.

FLUE-CURED TOBACCO
Flue-cured tobacco records were obtained from 22 farmers
who produced a total of 47.6 acres or 2.2 acres per farm (Table
10). There is little variation between farms in the method of
producing tobacco. Also there is little variation in the time of
year when specific operations are performed. The fertilizing
practice is very uniform, the usual application being 1,000 pounds
to the acre. The most common mixes of fertilizer used are
3-8-5 and 3-8-8. Nearly all farmers hired tobacco trucked to
market at a flat price per 100 pounds.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 10.-FLUE-CURED TOBACCO: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre

Prepare and plant seedbed .............. Dec. 25 Jan. 7 22.9 4.3
Care of seedbed ............................... Jan. 7 Mar. 31 22.5 8.6
Break land ...................................... Jan. 1 Feb. 28 5.5 11.0
Prepare and set out ........................ Mar. 1 Apr. 15 48.1 19.9
Cultivate ...................................... Apr. 10 July 20 73.6 27.5.
Hoe ..:.................... ................. ..... Apr. 1 May 15 10.1
Poison ............................................. Apr. 16 June 15 16.3
Harvest ................. .................... June 21 July 31 170.9 30.9
Cure ................... ....... ......................... June 21 Aug. 6 100.4
Grade and pack ................................ June 21 Aug. 6 86.0
M market ........................................... July 21 Aug. 20 14.0

570.3 102.2

Material requirements per acre: Seed 2/ ounce; seedbed fertilizer 131
pounds; fertilizer 1,054 pounds; twine 15 balls; lime 85 pounds;
lead arsenate 15 pounds; wood 3.3 cords
Yield per acre: 977 pounds


The greatest variation in time required to produce an acre of
tobacco on different farms was in the curing process. Most
tobacco barns will hold a curing from 4 acres of tobacco. A crop
of tobacco is usually completed with 5 curings. Each curing re-
quires about the same amount of man work regardless of whether
the barn is full or not. For this reason, the curing time shown
in the above table is based on a full barn. If a farmer pro-
duced 4.0 acres of tobacco he would use an average of 570.3 hours
per acre. If, however, he produced less than 4 acres he would use
more hours per acre because the time required for curing remains
the same.
WATERMELONS
Records for watermelons were obtained from 18 farmers who
produced 252 acres, an average of 14.0 acres per farm (Table
11). Thirteen of the 18 farmers averaged 10 acres or less.
Three farmers produced watermelons for commercial seed. Har-
vest time for these 3 farms is omitted from the table below.
Cuban Queen and Stone Mountain were the most common vari-
eties grown. The most common commercial fertilizer used was
4-8-6. Only 3 farmers side-dressed as a regular practice. Six
farmers used heavy applications of compost in addition to com-
mercial fertilizer. There is little variation in the time melons






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 15

can be planted and harvested. At harvest there are serious labor
conflicts between watermelons and flue-cured tobacco.

TABLE 11.-WATERMELONS: LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS.
Usual Period Man Mule
Operation of Hours Hours
Performance per Acre per Acre
Break land .... ...... ..................... ... Jan. 1 Feb. 28 5.3 10.6
Prepare and plant ....................... Feb. 16 Mar. 15 8.6 7.4
Cultivate ............................................ Mar. 16 May 15 9.5 9.5
Hoe ........... ........... ............... Mar. 16 Apr. 30 3.1
Harvest to fence ................................ June 16 July 15 16.4 5.7


42.9 33.2

Material requirements per acre: Seed 1 pound; fertilizer 423 pounds
Yield per acre: 281 marketed melons


Some farmers use trucks in the field at harvest time but the
most common practice is to haul the melons from the pile rows
to the edge of the field by wagon. The data below include only
those following this common practice. The shipper handles the
hauling from field to shipping point, the cost of which is de-
ducted from the farmers' returns. The time required for hauling
from farm to shipping point is not included in the total labor re-
quirements.

SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF LABOR FOR CROPS
The seasonal distribution of man and mule labor by half-month
periods is shown in Table 12. This distribution is based on the
same crop records used in the previous section dealing with indi-
vidual crops. The seasonal distribution of labor for each crop
is based on the average distribution of labor for each operation
found to be the most common practice in the area studied.
Data in this table can be used for computing the distribution
of labor for all crops on a farm. Multiplying the acreage of each
crop by the time required per acre for each half-month period
will give the labor required for individual crops. Totals by
periods will show the labor requirements for all crops. Such a
table will reveal seasonal labor conflicts among crops and those
periods in the year when available labor on the farm is not being
fully utilized.








TABLE 12.-SEASONAL DISTRIBUTION OF MAN AND MULE LABOR HOURS PER ACRE BY HALF-MONTH PERIODS.


SJanuary I February I March I April I May I June [ July I August |
Crops 11-15 116-31| 1-15 116-28 1-15 16-31 1-15 16-301 115 16-31 1-15 116-301 1-15 [16-311 1-15 116-311
CornMan.... 8 2.5 1.7 .1 2.8 1.6 2.0 2.8 2.3 2.4 .6 .2
Mule ..1.6 5.0 3.4 .2 2.8 1.6 2.0 2.8 2.3 2.4 .6 .1
Corn, peanuts and
velvet beans
M an ...................... 8 15 1.4 1.2 1.4 1.5 3.0 3.7 5.8 3.1 2.3 .1
Mule .................. I 1.6 3.0 2.8 2.2 1.4 1.5 3.0 3.1 2.8 1.9 1.7 .1

Man ............. .91 1.4 2.6 .5 3.3 4.3 5.5 9.3 10.0 4.4 8.6 2.0 .6 2.6 18.2 24.9
Mule ....... .. .. 1.8 2.8 5.2 .5 2.8 4.5 3.5 4.3 4.3 3.9 2.8 1.7 .6

Man ......... ... 1,7 1.6 .6 1.7 5.2 3.8 12.7 4.6 4.1 1.0 3.
May lepavine 5.9 .3 .3


Mulean ............. .. 3.4 3.2 .9 1.7 3 .3 6 .6 3.7 1.5 1.0 .
Man 1.6 2.0 .8 1.2 1.2 5.0 5.2 10.7 7.3 1.1 .5
Mule ...................... 3.2 4.0 1.5 1.5 3.6 3.6 3.0 1.1
Peanuts, runner
(dug)
Ma ................ .3 1.7 1.6 .6 1.7 5.2 3.8 12. 46 4.1 1.0 .1 35.
Mule ......1........ .. 6 .6 3.4 3.2 .9 1.7 4.3 3.3 6.6 3.7 1. 1.0 .1 ..9
Peanuts, runner
Man ........... 3 1.6 2.0 .8 1.2 1.2 5.0 5.2 10.7 7.3 1.1 .5
Mule ........ .. 3.2 4.0 2 .5 1.5 1.2 4.8 3.6 3.6 3.0 1. .3 12.2 .
*Peanuts, Spanish
(dSweet potatoes .ug)7 7.6 4.11 12.3 15.2
Man ............... .9 6 1.7 1.2 1.3 7.5 2.9 12.4 7.9 1.3 3.1 12.3 15.2

Rye
Mule ......_......1.4__________________-- --
Man .2 8 3.2 3.0 25.2 7.7 6.4 13.8 9.7 6.6 7.2 5.3 2.6 .3
Mule ........... 1.6. 2.8 2.2 13.5 5.0 3.8 5.8 4.7 4.5 4.9 3.31 2.2 .2

Man ..7 7 4....1 8.2 6.6 14.2 17.4 9.3 9.0 7.0 13.6 3.6 1.9 1.4
Mule ..3 .3 2.8 2.6 3.7 1.5 5.9 7.5 2.8 4.6 3.7 3.5 2.41 .9 .9
Tobacco
Man 13.1 2.6 2.4 5.9 15.7 27.0 25.7 16.6 14.1 15.5 43.2 83.9 118.4 108.7 624 3.0
Mule ... 5.2 3.4 2.1 3.8 8.7 10.9 9.7 6.7 7.7 6.2 6.41 7.4 i 11.5 1 7.6 1.4
Watermelons I 1 6
Man ................melons 2.1 1.4 1.4 3.1 6.4 2.5 2.8 3.5 2.3 .6 .9 9.4 6.1
Mule ............... 4.2 2.8 2.8 3.1 4.1 1.2 2 3.3 2.3 .6 .3 3.3 2.1
Distribution based on 9 records. Total labor adjusted to equal time required to produce runner peanuts.


137.4 158.0 71.6
65.4 75.3 34.1


2.3 23.8 21.6 22.7 2.3
.9 9.9 8.9 9.4 1.0


78.2
42.6

36.9
28.6

78.2
42.6

8.0
14.0

459.0 S
229.7

178.0
73.5


12.1 570.3
3.5 102.2


September October I November | December | Year
1-15 16-301 1-15 116-311 1-15 116-301 1-15 116-311 Total
2.2 1. .9 .2 .1 .1 24.8
.9 .6 .3 .1 .2 .2 27.1

2.8 1.2 .5 .4 .3 .3 31.3
1.2 .5 .2 .1 .6 .6 28.3
8.9 .6 .1 108.81
8'l1 1 211 -121 39.1
4.6 6.5 5.3 3.8 29.9
4.0 5.3 3.9 2.6 30.5

7 3.9 .9 1.7 .9 8.0
1.2 3.0 | 1.6___ 14.0
I I ]


13.9
3.5


0

FL1



(1


2.6 1.0


]


- -


[ I







Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 17

LABOR AND FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR LIVESTOCK

HOGS
Labor requirements for hogs are based on 38 records obtained
in Madison County during the Fall of 1942. The distribution of
labor is based on the average of all these records adjusted to
the total hours reported to care for different numbers of sows
with pigs. There was a variation of over 100 percent in the total
required time reported for each number of sows. The data pre-
sented should be considered with this in mind (Table 13).

TABLE 13.-HOGS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS.

Estimated Hours of Man Labor for Care of:
Period 1 Sow 2 Sows 3 Sows 4 Sows 5 Sows 6 Sows
and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs

January -...... 17 19 22 25 27 31
February ... 16 18 21 23 26 28
March ............ 16 18 20 23 25 27
April ............ 16 18 20 23 25 27
May .......... 15 17 20 22 24 26
June ................ 15 17 20 22 24 26
July ................ 14 16 19 21 23 25
August .......... 16 19 21 23 26 28
September .... 18 22 24 27 30 33
October .......... 19 22 24 27 30 33
November .... 19 22 24 27 30 33
December .... 19 22 25 27 30 33


Year ............ 200 230 260 290 320 350


TABLE 14.-FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR 2 Sows RAISING AN AVERAGE OF 18
PIGS PER YEAR TO AN AVERAGE WEIGHT OF 180 POUNDS.

Kind of Feed Unit Plan 1* Plan 2** Time of year


Peanuts-hogged t ........ Acres 10.8 7.2 Sept. 15-Dec. 31
Corn, solid-ear corn $ Acres 3.0 3.0 Jan. 1-July 15
Rye, oats, or rye and
oats-pastured ........ Acres 4.0 4.0 Jan. 1-May 31
Corn and peas-
hogged ...................... Acres 6.0 July 15-Sept. 15
Minerals .......................... Pounds 100.0 100.0 All year

All 18 hogs fattened on peanuts.
** Twelve hogs fattened on peanuts and 6 head on solid corn and peas during July and
August.
tTo convert peanuts planted solid to peanuts interplanted, multiply by 2.5, i.e., 10.8
acres solid peanuts X 2.5 = 27.0 acres of peanuts planted-1 row peanuts and 1 row corn.
Conversion factor based on relative yields.
: To convert corn planted solid to corn interplanted, multiply by 1.3, i.e., 3.0 acres solid
corn X 1.3 = 3.9 acres corn interplanted. Conversion factor based on relative yields.







Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 17

LABOR AND FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR LIVESTOCK

HOGS
Labor requirements for hogs are based on 38 records obtained
in Madison County during the Fall of 1942. The distribution of
labor is based on the average of all these records adjusted to
the total hours reported to care for different numbers of sows
with pigs. There was a variation of over 100 percent in the total
required time reported for each number of sows. The data pre-
sented should be considered with this in mind (Table 13).

TABLE 13.-HOGS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS.

Estimated Hours of Man Labor for Care of:
Period 1 Sow 2 Sows 3 Sows 4 Sows 5 Sows 6 Sows
and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs and Pigs

January -...... 17 19 22 25 27 31
February ... 16 18 21 23 26 28
March ............ 16 18 20 23 25 27
April ............ 16 18 20 23 25 27
May .......... 15 17 20 22 24 26
June ................ 15 17 20 22 24 26
July ................ 14 16 19 21 23 25
August .......... 16 19 21 23 26 28
September .... 18 22 24 27 30 33
October .......... 19 22 24 27 30 33
November .... 19 22 24 27 30 33
December .... 19 22 25 27 30 33


Year ............ 200 230 260 290 320 350


TABLE 14.-FEED REQUIREMENTS FOR 2 Sows RAISING AN AVERAGE OF 18
PIGS PER YEAR TO AN AVERAGE WEIGHT OF 180 POUNDS.

Kind of Feed Unit Plan 1* Plan 2** Time of year


Peanuts-hogged t ........ Acres 10.8 7.2 Sept. 15-Dec. 31
Corn, solid-ear corn $ Acres 3.0 3.0 Jan. 1-July 15
Rye, oats, or rye and
oats-pastured ........ Acres 4.0 4.0 Jan. 1-May 31
Corn and peas-
hogged ...................... Acres 6.0 July 15-Sept. 15
Minerals .......................... Pounds 100.0 100.0 All year

All 18 hogs fattened on peanuts.
** Twelve hogs fattened on peanuts and 6 head on solid corn and peas during July and
August.
tTo convert peanuts planted solid to peanuts interplanted, multiply by 2.5, i.e., 10.8
acres solid peanuts X 2.5 = 27.0 acres of peanuts planted-1 row peanuts and 1 row corn.
Conversion factor based on relative yields.
: To convert corn planted solid to corn interplanted, multiply by 1.3, i.e., 3.0 acres solid
corn X 1.3 = 3.9 acres corn interplanted. Conversion factor based on relative yields.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The data on feed requirements are based on a large number of
farm records obtained on farms in western Florida over a period
of 17 years. The data also have been adjusted on the basis of
the 38 records obtained in Madison County, as well as in con-
sideration of suggestions made by farmers in a group meeting
held for such purpose. The feed requirements presented in
Table 14 represent the common practice now followed on farms
with better-than-average management.
CATTLE
Most farms in Madison County keep enough cows to furnish
an adequate home supply of milk and butter and to market 1
or 2 milk or beef animals a year. Labor requirements for cattle
average 20 hours a year per head with the peak occurring during
the winter months. This does not include the time required for
milking or feeding the milk cow. Milking and tending time is
included in miscellaneous farm labor. The amount of time varies
with the individual farm and depends on the nearness of range
land, the condition of farm fences, and the difficulties with infes-
tation of screw worms.
Feed requirements for cattle shown in Table 15 are based on
35 records obtained in Madison County, with adjustments made
at the suggestions of farmers in a group discussion held for the
purpose. The feed requirements presented in Table 15 are there-
fore above average but are desirable standards to use in planning
a farm business.
TABLE 15.-FEED REQUIREMENTS PER COW AND CALF PER YEAR.

Kind of Feed Unit Milk Other Time of Year
II Cow Cattle
Velvet beans in every
other corn row ....... Acres 5.0 5.0 Dee, 1-Mar. 15
Peavine hay ............. Acres 1.0 0.5 Mar. 1-Apr. 15
Corn ............................... Acres .5 .5 Mar. 1-Apr. 15
Cottonseed meal ......... Pounds 400.0 When milked
Pasture ............ ............. Acres 5.0 5.0 Mar. 15- Dec. 1
Cottonseed meal or its equivalent.
CHICKENS-FARM FLOCK
Man labor requirements for a farm flock of chickens (25-50
hens) is included in miscellaneous farm labor. Feed require-
ments for a farm flock consists of 1 bushel of corn and 10
pounds of starting and growing mash per hen. This assumes
that the farm flock will have access to unlimited pasture as well
as the farmyard and kitchen wastes.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The data on feed requirements are based on a large number of
farm records obtained on farms in western Florida over a period
of 17 years. The data also have been adjusted on the basis of
the 38 records obtained in Madison County, as well as in con-
sideration of suggestions made by farmers in a group meeting
held for such purpose. The feed requirements presented in
Table 14 represent the common practice now followed on farms
with better-than-average management.
CATTLE
Most farms in Madison County keep enough cows to furnish
an adequate home supply of milk and butter and to market 1
or 2 milk or beef animals a year. Labor requirements for cattle
average 20 hours a year per head with the peak occurring during
the winter months. This does not include the time required for
milking or feeding the milk cow. Milking and tending time is
included in miscellaneous farm labor. The amount of time varies
with the individual farm and depends on the nearness of range
land, the condition of farm fences, and the difficulties with infes-
tation of screw worms.
Feed requirements for cattle shown in Table 15 are based on
35 records obtained in Madison County, with adjustments made
at the suggestions of farmers in a group discussion held for the
purpose. The feed requirements presented in Table 15 are there-
fore above average but are desirable standards to use in planning
a farm business.
TABLE 15.-FEED REQUIREMENTS PER COW AND CALF PER YEAR.

Kind of Feed Unit Milk Other Time of Year
II Cow Cattle
Velvet beans in every
other corn row ....... Acres 5.0 5.0 Dee, 1-Mar. 15
Peavine hay ............. Acres 1.0 0.5 Mar. 1-Apr. 15
Corn ............................... Acres .5 .5 Mar. 1-Apr. 15
Cottonseed meal ......... Pounds 400.0 When milked
Pasture ............ ............. Acres 5.0 5.0 Mar. 15- Dec. 1
Cottonseed meal or its equivalent.
CHICKENS-FARM FLOCK
Man labor requirements for a farm flock of chickens (25-50
hens) is included in miscellaneous farm labor. Feed require-
ments for a farm flock consists of 1 bushel of corn and 10
pounds of starting and growing mash per hen. This assumes
that the farm flock will have access to unlimited pasture as well
as the farmyard and kitchen wastes.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 19

COMMERCIAL POULTRY FLOCKS 2
"Starting with 1,200 layers each fall, a poultryman should be
able to care for them and raise about 800 pullets, if a small
amount of family labor or day labor were available during the
spring months. This would require about 2,500 hours of work
producing eggs and about 700 hours raising pullets. If less than
1,000 chicks are needed per year it would seem advisable to buy
them, as cost per chick increased and returns per hour of labor
decreased very rapidly when less than this number was
hatched." 3
Average feed requirements per laying bird were 77 pounds.4
About 50 percent of feed consumed by laying birds was mash and
50 percent home-mixed grain.5 Poultry flocks with green feed
available all year had the highest egg production. The use of
green feed did not decrease the pounds of concentrated feed the
hens consumed.6
Commercial poultrymen or farms with commercial poultry
flocks will find much additional and valuable data concerning
poultry production in the publication from which this material
has been taken.
WORKSTOCK
The time spent in tending workstock is included also in farm
chores. Feed requirements for a mule will vary with the amount
of work performed and the size of the animal. Average feed for
46 farms in Madison County consisted of 75 bushels of corn and
1 ton of peavine hay or equivalent per mule.

MISCELLANEOUS FARM LABOR
Miscellaneous farm labor consists of feeding and tending the
milk cow, the farm flock of chickens, and the workstock. It
also includes time spent on the farm garden and tending to
miscellaneous farm work. Such labor requirements vary a great
deal throughout the year, although there is odd work to be done
on a farm every day in the year. On a 1-mule farm at least 35
hours a month should be allowed for miscellaneous labor. On a
2-or-more-mule farm at least 45 hours a month should be allowed.

Data in this section obtained from "An Economic Study of Commercial
Poultry Farming in Florida," Frank W. Brumley, Florida Extension Bulle-
tin 105, 1940.
'Ibid., pp. 86-87.
SIbid., p. 61.
SIbid., p. 63.
SIbid., pp. 67-68.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 19

COMMERCIAL POULTRY FLOCKS 2
"Starting with 1,200 layers each fall, a poultryman should be
able to care for them and raise about 800 pullets, if a small
amount of family labor or day labor were available during the
spring months. This would require about 2,500 hours of work
producing eggs and about 700 hours raising pullets. If less than
1,000 chicks are needed per year it would seem advisable to buy
them, as cost per chick increased and returns per hour of labor
decreased very rapidly when less than this number was
hatched." 3
Average feed requirements per laying bird were 77 pounds.4
About 50 percent of feed consumed by laying birds was mash and
50 percent home-mixed grain.5 Poultry flocks with green feed
available all year had the highest egg production. The use of
green feed did not decrease the pounds of concentrated feed the
hens consumed.6
Commercial poultrymen or farms with commercial poultry
flocks will find much additional and valuable data concerning
poultry production in the publication from which this material
has been taken.
WORKSTOCK
The time spent in tending workstock is included also in farm
chores. Feed requirements for a mule will vary with the amount
of work performed and the size of the animal. Average feed for
46 farms in Madison County consisted of 75 bushels of corn and
1 ton of peavine hay or equivalent per mule.

MISCELLANEOUS FARM LABOR
Miscellaneous farm labor consists of feeding and tending the
milk cow, the farm flock of chickens, and the workstock. It
also includes time spent on the farm garden and tending to
miscellaneous farm work. Such labor requirements vary a great
deal throughout the year, although there is odd work to be done
on a farm every day in the year. On a 1-mule farm at least 35
hours a month should be allowed for miscellaneous labor. On a
2-or-more-mule farm at least 45 hours a month should be allowed.

Data in this section obtained from "An Economic Study of Commercial
Poultry Farming in Florida," Frank W. Brumley, Florida Extension Bulle-
tin 105, 1940.
'Ibid., pp. 86-87.
SIbid., p. 61.
SIbid., p. 63.
SIbid., pp. 67-68.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 19

COMMERCIAL POULTRY FLOCKS 2
"Starting with 1,200 layers each fall, a poultryman should be
able to care for them and raise about 800 pullets, if a small
amount of family labor or day labor were available during the
spring months. This would require about 2,500 hours of work
producing eggs and about 700 hours raising pullets. If less than
1,000 chicks are needed per year it would seem advisable to buy
them, as cost per chick increased and returns per hour of labor
decreased very rapidly when less than this number was
hatched." 3
Average feed requirements per laying bird were 77 pounds.4
About 50 percent of feed consumed by laying birds was mash and
50 percent home-mixed grain.5 Poultry flocks with green feed
available all year had the highest egg production. The use of
green feed did not decrease the pounds of concentrated feed the
hens consumed.6
Commercial poultrymen or farms with commercial poultry
flocks will find much additional and valuable data concerning
poultry production in the publication from which this material
has been taken.
WORKSTOCK
The time spent in tending workstock is included also in farm
chores. Feed requirements for a mule will vary with the amount
of work performed and the size of the animal. Average feed for
46 farms in Madison County consisted of 75 bushels of corn and
1 ton of peavine hay or equivalent per mule.

MISCELLANEOUS FARM LABOR
Miscellaneous farm labor consists of feeding and tending the
milk cow, the farm flock of chickens, and the workstock. It
also includes time spent on the farm garden and tending to
miscellaneous farm work. Such labor requirements vary a great
deal throughout the year, although there is odd work to be done
on a farm every day in the year. On a 1-mule farm at least 35
hours a month should be allowed for miscellaneous labor. On a
2-or-more-mule farm at least 45 hours a month should be allowed.

Data in this section obtained from "An Economic Study of Commercial
Poultry Farming in Florida," Frank W. Brumley, Florida Extension Bulle-
tin 105, 1940.
'Ibid., pp. 86-87.
SIbid., p. 61.
SIbid., p. 63.
SIbid., pp. 67-68.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


APPLICATION OF LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIRE-
MENTS DATA

PLANNING THE FARM BUSINESS
The general organization of a farm should be planned so that
greatest profit is obtained from the use of the farm labor and
resources over a period of years. Such a plan must be flexible
to allow for annual adjustments based on price outlook. For a
particular farm there are probably several plans of organization
of approximately equal merit. The plan chosen will depend on
the personal likes of the operator.
Labor and material requirements data are useful in planning
the most profitable use of land and labor.
For the purpose of illustration a detailed study was made of a
small successful farm as it was operated in 1942. This 80-acre
farm has been under the management of the present operator
for 28 years. The farming is done with 1 mule except for
breaking land, which is done with 2 mules. The extra mule is
obtained by exchanging with a nearby 1-mule farmer. In this
way both farmers break land with 2 mules. The general organi-
zation of the farm is similar to most farms in western Florida.
The farm organization as operated in 1942 is shown in Table 16.
For purposes of illustration, normal yields for the area and
1935-39 average prices are used both in the 1942 plan and in
the alternative plan shown in Table 17.
Cash crops are shown in the first section of Table 16. Feed
crops and the kind and number of livestock to which the feed
crops were fed are shown in the second part of the table. The
last part of the table shows the livestock sales. Based on normal
yields for the area and 1935-39 average prices, the normal cash
receipts for this farm would be $435 a year under the 1942 and
previous organization.
An alternative plan is presented in Table 17 which is arranged
in the same order as Table 16. The feed requirements used in
Table 17 are based on the standards already presented in this
publication.
The alternative plan calls for 0.6 more acres of sugarcane
because man labor requirements on this farm were light during
the fall months when sugarcane is harvested. The farm is well
equipped with a good sheltered mill so that this additional acre-
age could be handled. The alternative plan also calls for fewer
but better tended cattle because the farm does not provide






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


APPLICATION OF LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIRE-
MENTS DATA

PLANNING THE FARM BUSINESS
The general organization of a farm should be planned so that
greatest profit is obtained from the use of the farm labor and
resources over a period of years. Such a plan must be flexible
to allow for annual adjustments based on price outlook. For a
particular farm there are probably several plans of organization
of approximately equal merit. The plan chosen will depend on
the personal likes of the operator.
Labor and material requirements data are useful in planning
the most profitable use of land and labor.
For the purpose of illustration a detailed study was made of a
small successful farm as it was operated in 1942. This 80-acre
farm has been under the management of the present operator
for 28 years. The farming is done with 1 mule except for
breaking land, which is done with 2 mules. The extra mule is
obtained by exchanging with a nearby 1-mule farmer. In this
way both farmers break land with 2 mules. The general organi-
zation of the farm is similar to most farms in western Florida.
The farm organization as operated in 1942 is shown in Table 16.
For purposes of illustration, normal yields for the area and
1935-39 average prices are used both in the 1942 plan and in
the alternative plan shown in Table 17.
Cash crops are shown in the first section of Table 16. Feed
crops and the kind and number of livestock to which the feed
crops were fed are shown in the second part of the table. The
last part of the table shows the livestock sales. Based on normal
yields for the area and 1935-39 average prices, the normal cash
receipts for this farm would be $435 a year under the 1942 and
previous organization.
An alternative plan is presented in Table 17 which is arranged
in the same order as Table 16. The feed requirements used in
Table 17 are based on the standards already presented in this
publication.
The alternative plan calls for 0.6 more acres of sugarcane
because man labor requirements on this farm were light during
the fall months when sugarcane is harvested. The farm is well
equipped with a good sheltered mill so that this additional acre-
age could be handled. The alternative plan also calls for fewer
but better tended cattle because the farm does not provide







Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 21

TABLE 16.-ORGANIZATION OF FARM A IN 1942 SHOWING CROP PRODUCTION
ADJUSTED TO NORMAL YIELDS FOR THE AREA AND CROP AND LIVESTOCK
RECEIPTS ADJUSTED TO 1935-39 PRICES.

CASH CROPS

Normal for Area
Kind Acres Pro-
1942 Yield Unit duc- Sold Price Receipts
____________ _____ tion

Seed cotton ........ 2.9 440 Pounds 1,276 1,276 $0.043 $ 55.00
Tobacco .............. 1.0 977 Pounds 977 977 0.187 183.00
Sugarcane .......... 0.4 288 Gallons 115 100 0.450 45.00
Peanuts dug for
seed .......... 0.3 xx xx xx xx xx


Total ......... 4.6 xx xx xx xx $283.00



FEED CROPS AND LIVESTOCK


Acres Fed to:
Kind Acres 3 Cows 5 Sows
1 Mule 4 5 Hogs**-190 lbs.
Heifers 14 Feeder Pigs 80 lbs.
Corn, interplanted ................ 21.4 6.6 14.8
Velvet beans, interplanted* 20.0 20.0
Peanuts, interplanted* ........ 21.4 21.4
Peanuts, solid ........... ....... ... 1.2 1.2
Peavine hay .......................... 2.5 1.3 1.2
Oats pasture ......................... 12.5 12.5


Total ............................. .... 37.6 xx xx xx



LIVESTOCK SALES

Normal Normal
Kind Description Number Price Receipts

Cattle ........................ Range cow 1 $15.00 $ 35.00
Heifers 2 10.00
Sows ............................ 3 .068 28.00
Hogs ............................ 190 lbs. 1 .068 13.00
Feeder pigs ............... 80 lbs. 14 .068 76.00


Total ......... ...... xx xx xx $152.00

Corn, velvet beans, and peanuts, interplanted.
** Four hogs butchered for home use.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 17.-SUGGESTED ADJUSTMENTS TO IMPROVE FARM INCOME ON
FARM A.

CASH CROPS-ADJUSTED

Normal for Area
Kind Acres Pro-
Yield Unit due- Sold Price Receipts
tion

Seed cotton ........ 2.9 440 Pounds 1,276 1,276 $0.043 $ 55.00
Tobacco .............. 1.0 977 Pounds 977 977 0.187 183.00
Sugarcane ....---...... 1.0 288 Gallons 288 273 0.450 123.00
Peanuts dug for
seed ................ .3 xx xx xx xx xx


Total .......... 5.2 xx xx xx xx $361.00



FEED CROPS AND LIVESTOCK-ADJUSTED

Acres Required for:
Kind Acres 2 Sows
1 Mule 2 Cows**l 18 Hogst Excess
1 12 Heifers 1(180 lbs.)

Corn, interplanted ................ 20.0 8.2 1.8 6.0 4.0
Velvet beans, interplanted* 20.0 20.0
Peanuts, interplanted* ........ 20.0 20.0
Peanuts, solid ....................... 2.8 2.8
Peavine hay ............ ......... 3.3 1.3 2.0
Oats pasture ......................... 4.0 4.0


Total .......... ............ 30.1 xx xx xx xx



LIVESTOCK SALES-ADJUSTED
Num- Normal Normal
Kind Description ber Price Receipts

Cattle ..................... Cow with calf 1 $40.00 $ 40.00
Hogs ............................ 180 lbs. 14 .068 171.00


Total ................. xx xx xx $211.00


* Corn, velvet beans, and peanuts, interplanted.
** Milk cow also fed 400 pounds cottonseed meal or its equivalent.
t Four hogs butchered for home use.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 23

enough feed to feed properly a large number of cattle. It is a
common practice in this area to raise dairy stock to be sold to
dairies. With reduced numbers of cattle on this farm this could
be done successfully. The alternative plan provides feed for fat-
tening hogs rather than for selling feeder hogs as was done under
the 1942 method of operation. The acreages of feed crops have
been changed slightly to provide the necessary feed for the re-
vised livestock plan. The only other difference between the
1942 organization and the adjusted plan is a reduction in the
acreage of oats pastured.
The adjusted plan necessitates some changes in farm expendi-
tures. Net changes in expenses are shown in Table 18. The
adjusted plan calls for an increase of $24 in expenses.

TABLE 18.-NET CHANGES IN EXPENSES-ADJUSTED PLAN.

Item* Expenses**
Increase Decrease
Corn seed ......................-...~.--- .... $ 0.03
Peanut seed ............ ........... $ 0.75
Peavine seed ....................... 1.85
H ay baling .................................. 2.50
Oats seed ........................-....... 7.50
Sugarcane fertilizer ................ 5.33
Cane sirup cans ..................... 12.11
400 lbs. cottonseed meal .......... 6.00
100 lbs. hog minerals ................ 3.00

Total .................. .......... $31.54 $ 7.53

Net increase .................................... $24.01
Amount of materials required based on standards presented in tables in this publication.
** Based on 1935-39 average prices.

TABLE 19.-CHANGE IN INCOME RESULTING FROM ADJUSTED PLAN.

Item 1942 Organization Adjusted Plan

Crop receipts .................................. $283 $361
Livestock receipts ........................ 152 211

$435 $572
Increase in expenses ...................... ...... 24
Normal income ................................ $435 $548

Net gain in income .......................... $113







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The result of the adjusted plan over the present plan is shown
in Table 19. Income from crops and livestock under the 1942
organization was $435. Under the adjusted plan the income
would have been increased 26% to $548 a year.
The adjusted plan requires 23 additional days of man labor
(Table 20). Most of the additional labor is needed during No-
vember and December when total farm labor requirements are
low. The adjusted plan may necessitate employing several days
of extra labor during April and May.

TABLE 20.-SEASONAL MAN LABOR REQUIREMENTS UNDER THE 1942
ORGANIZATION AND UNDER THE ADJUSTED PLAN.*


riod


1 15 .......
16-31....

1-15.....-
16 28 ........

1-15 -
16-31. .

1- 15 ...... .
16 30........

1-15 ........
16-31........

1 -15 ........
16 30...

1 15......
16-31........

1 15 ........
16 31 ....

1-15 .......
16 30........

1-15........
16-31 ........

1 15 ........
16 30....

1-15 .....
16 31 ........


Days of Man Labor Required
1942 Adjusted Net
Organization Plan Change

6.5 6.3 .2


Pe:


January


February


March


April


May


June


July


August


September


October


November


December


+ .2


+1.4
+ .4

+ .6
+1.1

+1.3
+1.0

+ .4
+ .7

+ .1
- .2


- .1

- .1
- .3

-3.1
- .4

+6.9
+9.6

+3.6
+ .1


Total year ................... 272.8 295.8 +23.0

This table constructed from data in Table 12 and in livestock and miscellaneous farm
labor sections of this publication.






Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 25

ANNUAL ADJUSTMENTS BASED ON PRICE OUTLOOK
The most important aspect in farm planning is that of organiz-
ing the farm business so as to have the best year-to-year balance
between crops and between crops and livestock to obtain the
maximum utilization of labor, land and other resources. Such
was the objective in the alternate farm plan presented on a pre-
vious page. However, within this over-all plan each year farm-
ers are faced with the problem of making adjustments because of
price changes and relationships which depart from the normal
prices assumed in making the farm plan. For those farmers
who are in a position to vary crop acreages and livestock pro-
duction according to the short-term price outlook, a simple basis
for making comparisons of profitableness is needed.
In Table 21 a method is shown for determining the advantage
of growing one crop rather than another under assumed yields
and prices. In this example 11/2 acres of peanuts for harvest
are compared with 1 acre of cotton. The variation in acreage is
used to equalize labor requirements. Thus, according to the labor
requirements shown earlier in this study, the same amount of
labor is required on 1 acre of cotton as on 11/2 acres of peanuts
for harvest, excluding contract labor for picking and baling pea-
nuts. In cases where land is more limited than labor the com-
parison can be made on an acre-for-acre basis.
In making such a comparison it should be pointed out that the
only cost items to consider are those costs which would be
affected by growing one crop instead of the other. The costs
thus shown are not costs of production but only those costs which
are affected under each plan and the only ones necessary to con-
sider in making annual adjustments. Since prices are constantly
changing from year to year and since yields vary significantly
from farm to farm, it is emphasized that the individual farmer
must substitute those yields and prices which fit his individual
situation. The same is true for costs. To illustrate with respect
to prices, in the example shown there is an advantage in growing
11/ acres of peanuts for harvest as compared to growing 1 acre
of cotton. However, had the price of seed cotton been assumed
to be 6.5 cents per pound, with all other items remaining the
same, the income advantage for cotton would have been $3.16
instead of the advantage of $6.52 shown for 11/2 acres of peanuts.
Table 22 is an example of the same method shown in Table 21
applied to an acre of peanuts for harvest and an acre of peanuts






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


hogged. Since the labor requirements in this illustration are not
equal, the excess labor for peanuts harvested over peanuts hog-
ged is charged against the peanuts harvested. Here again it is
emphasized that in applying this method to an individual farm
the operator should make whatever adjustments are necessary
in yields of peanuts and pork production per acre as well as in
costs as found on his farm.

TABLE 21.-A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE ADVANTAGE FOR AN INDIVID-
UAL FARMER GROWING 1% ACRES OF PEANUTS FOR HARVEST OVER 1 ACRE
OF COTTON.

One acre of cotton requires 108.8 hours of man labor. One and one half
acres of peanuts for harvest, excluding contract picking and hay baling
labor, require 107.6 hours of man labor. Labor requirements are based on
breaking land with 2 mules and cultivating with 1 mule.

Average per acre yield of seed cotton ............ 440 pounds
Average per acre yield of peanuts ............... 638 pounds
Average per acre yield of peanut hay .......... ton
Expected price of seed cotton per pound ...... 4.34
Expected price of peanuts per ton .............. $64
Expected price of peanut hay per ton ......... $8

Affected expenses for growing 1 acre of cotton:
Cotton seed: % bushels @ $1.00 = $ 0.67
Fertilizer: 230 pounds @ $30.00 = 3.45
Total $ 4.12

Affected expenses for growing 11/2 acres of peanuts:
Peanut seed: 214 bushels @ 90( = $ 2.02
Fertilizer: 312 pounds @ $28 per ton = 4.37
Baling wire: 90 wires @ $1.56 per 250 = 0.56
Contract picking 34.2 bu. @ 12 = 4.10
Contract baling 30 bales @ 100 = 3.00
Excess hoeing labor on peanuts, 1 day = 1.25
Total $15.30
Cotton receipts: 440 pounds @ $ .043 = $18.92
Cotton expenses (from above) = 4.12
Net from 1 acre of cotton $14.80
Peanut receipts: 957 lbs. nuts @ $64 per ton = $30.62
% ton hay @ $8.00 = 6.00
Total peanut receipts $36.62
Peanut expenses (from above) 15.30
Net from 1% acres peanuts $21.32
NET ADVANTAGE FOR 11/ ACRES OF PEANUTS
HARVESTED OVER 1 ACRE OF COTTON* ............................... $ 6.52
This does not include allowances for soil depletion or risk.







Labor and Material Requirements for Crops and Livestock 27

TABLE 22.-A METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE ADVANTAGE FOR AN INDIVID-
UAL FARMER GROWING 1 ACRE OF PEANUTS FOR HARVEST OVER 1 ACRE OF
PEANUTS HOGGED.


One acre of peanuts harvested requires 71.7 hours of man labor, exclud-
ing contract labor for picking and baling. One acre of peanuts hogged
requires 36.9 hours of man labor which, with 10 hours required for tending
2 hogs while feeding on peanuts, totals 46.9 hours of man labor. Thus
about 2.5 more man days of labor are required for peanuts for harvest.
Labor requirements are based on breaking land with 2 mules and cultivat-
ing with 1 mule.


Average gain of hogs per acre of peanuts .... 180 pounds
Average per acre yield of peanuts .................. 638 pounds
Average per acre yield of peanut hay ............ ton
Expected price of hogs per pound .................. 6.80
Expected price of peanuts per ton ................ $64
Expected price of peanut hay per ton ............ $8


Affected expenses for growing 1 acre of peanuts and hogging off:
Peanut seed: 11/1 bushels @ 90 $ 1.12
Minerals: 10 pounds @ $3.00 per cwt. = 0.30

Total $ 1.42
Affected expenses for growing 1 acre of peanuts for harvest:
Peanut seed: 1 bushels @ 90 = $ 1.35
Fertilizer: 208 pounds @ $25 per ton 2.60
Baling wire: 60 wires @ $1.56 per 250 0.37
Contract picking: 22.8 bushels @ 12 = 2.74
Contract baling: 20 bales @ 10 = 2.00
Excess man labor: 2% days @ $1.25 = 3.12

Total $12.18
Hog receipts: 180 pounds @ $. 068 $12.24
Less peanuts hogged expenses (from above) = 1.42
Net from 1 acre peanuts hogged $10.82
Peanut receipts: 638 lbs. nuts @ $64 per ton = $20.42
2' ton hay @ $8.00 = 4.00
Total peanut receipts $24.42
Less peanut expenses (from above) 12.18

Net from 1 acre of peanuts harvested $12.24
NET ADVANTAGE FOR 1 ACRE OF PEANUTS HARVESTED
OVER 1 ACRE OF PEANUTS HOGGED-OFF* ............................ $ 1.42

This does not include allowances for soil depletion or risk.

The method illustrated in these two tables does not allow for
differences in the soil-depleting effect of the various crops nor
does it allow for the relative risk of producing one product over
another.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SUMMARY

The labor and materials data presented are based on the most
common practice of performing each operation in the production
of crops and livestock and therefore constitute average stand-
ards.
Hours of man and mule labor per acre, by operations as well as
by 2-week periods, are shown for corn, interplanted corn, pea-
nuts and velvet beans, cotton, peavine hay, oats, runner peanuts
(dug), runner peanuts (hogged), rye, sugarcane, sweet pota-
toes, flue-cured tobacco and watermelons. Material requirements
and average yields per acre are presented for these crops. Sea-
sonal man labor requirements per head of livestock and for
miscellaneous farm work are included, together with data on
feed requirements for livestock.
In addition to the presentation of these standards the reorgani-
zation of an actual farm is shown to illustrate some ways these
standards can be used in making long-term as well as annual
adjustments for the purpose of securing greater profits.




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