• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction into Europe and...
 Scientific and common names
 Description of the tree
 Varieties
 The size of the kumquat tree
 Stocks
 Hardiness of the kumquat
 Distance apart to plant
 Pot culture
 Picking and packing
 Uses
 Analyses






Group Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 65
Title: The kumquats
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026703/00001
 Material Information
Title: The kumquats
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. <551>-566, <2> leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1902
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruits -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H. Harold Hume.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026703
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921022
oclc - 18156422
notis - AEN1462

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 551
        Page 552
    Table of Contents
        Page 553
        Page 554
    Introduction into Europe and America
        Page 555
    Scientific and common names
        Page 556
    Description of the tree
        Page 557
    Varieties
        Page 558
    The size of the kumquat tree
        Page 559
    Stocks
        Page 560
        Page 561
    Hardiness of the kumquat
        Page 562
        Page 562a
        Page 562b
    Distance apart to plant
        Page 563
    Pot culture
        Page 563
    Picking and packing
        Page 564
    Uses
        Page 565
    Analyses
        Page 566
Full Text







BULLETIN NO. 65.


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.


THE KUMQUATS.


* 4 -:1 7


...
:. .


. .

Marumi Kumquat.

By H. HAROLD HUME.

The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon ap-
plication to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lasle City, Fla.

DELAND, FLA.:
E. 0. PAINTER & CO.,
1903.
i-







E. O. PAINTF.R .,

~.1903.


DECEMBER 1902.













BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILSON, President.................Jacksonville.
F. E. HARRIS, Vice-President .................... Ocala.
J. D. CALLAWAY, Secretary ................... Lake City.
C. A. CARSON, Chairman Executive Committee, Kissimmee.
J. R. PARROTT ............................Jacksonville.
E. D. BEGGS ................ ........ ........ Pensacola.
L. HARRISON ........ .......... ............Lake City.


STATION STAFF.

T. H. TALIAFERRO, C. E., Ph. D.............. Director.
H. K. MILLER, M. S............ Vice-Director and Chemist.
H. A. GOSSARD, M. S ................... Entomologist.
H. H. HUME, B. Agr., M. S.....Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S.......... .Veterinarian.
*C. M, CONNER, B. S........... ...... Agriculturist.
A. W. BLAIR, M. A................... Assistant Chemist.
LUCIA MCCULLOCH, B. S., Asst. Biologist and Asst. Librarian.
W. P. JERNIGAN ................ Auditor and Bookkeeper.
C. S. BROCK ............ ..... Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN H. JEFFERIES..Gardener in Horticultural Department.
JOHN H. JEFFRIES...Gardener in Horticultural Department.
Louis DEGOTTRAU, Supt. Citrus Experiments at Boca Raton.


*Supt. Farmers' Institutes.
















CONTENTS AND SUMMARY.


Introduction Into Europe and America ................ 555
The kumquat was not known in Europe previous to its intro-
duction into England by Mr. Fortune in 1846. Sometime with-
in four years of that date it was brought to America.

Scientific and Common Names...................... 556
This fruit should be known as Citrus Japonica Thun., and
the recognized common name in America is kumquat.

Description of the Tree ............................ 557
As a budded tree it reaches a height of from eight to twelve
feet. The flowers are produced for the most part on wood one
year old. They are small, white and sweet scented. A native of
Cochin China.

Varieties............ ...... .... ............... 558
Two varieties are known in Florida. Nagami (oblong) and
Marumi (round.) They are easily distinguished in habit, leaf
and fruit. Nagami is probably the more desirable.

Size of the Kumquat Tree.......................... 559
The largest tree observed in Florida was ten feet, nine inches
high and ten feet eight inches across the branches.

Stocks.... ...... .......... .................... 560
For northern Florida, Citrus trifoliata is recommended, and
for the southern portion of the state, sour orange, pomelo and
rough lemon or rough lemon sprouts from roots already bear-
ing another top.

Hardiness of the Kumquat ...................... 562
Hardier than most citrus fruits. Will withstand almost or
quite as much cold as the Satsuma. Recommended for planting
in North Florida.











CONTENTS AND SUMMARY.



Distance apart to Plant ............................. 563
Plant from eight to twelve feet apart. In hedge form five
feet apart in the rows with rows twelve feet apart.

Pot Culture.... ..... ........... ................ 563
The kumquat is a useful ornamental which may easily be grown
as a pot plant. Bud on trifoliata stock. The mealy bug,
Dactyloupus citri, may be held in check by using whale oil soap, to-
bacco -juice, or by spraying frequently with pure water under
strong pressure.

Picking and Packing .............................. 564
Pick with or without leaves attached. Pack in quart baskets
and ship in strawberry crates. The demand is limited.

Uses...................... ..................... 565
Eaten raw or as a preserve. Used 'n decorations.














The Kumquats.


Introduction Into Europe and America.

The introduction of the kumquat into Europe appears to
have been quite recent. Gallesio seems not to have known it.
Risso and Poiteau make no mention of it in their exhaustive
work, "Histoire et Culture des Orangers." Since none of these
writers refer to the kumquats, we are safe in concluding that
they were not growing in Europe at the time they wrote. So
far as the author has been able to find out, the kumquat was in-
troduced into Europe by Mr. Fortune, a collector for the Lon-
don Horticultural Society, who brought it with him from China
to London, May 6, 1846.* The oblong variety appears to have
been the only one introduced by him,for in his remarks, publish-
ed in the Journal of the London Horticultural Society,page 239,
1848, he says, "The fruit ripens late in the autumn, being then
about the size of a large oval gooseberry." Very soon after-
ward specimens of the kumquat must have been forwarded to
America. A. J. Downing in his Horticulturist of February,
1850, pages 375-377, gives a description of the variety Nagami
with illustrations and quotes largely from the remarks of Mr.
Fortune. He further makes the following statement: "We have
a small tree growing on our own grounds, which was kindly
sent us by Mr. Ranch, exotic florist, near Greenwood cemetery,
Brooklyn. We believe Mr. Buist, of Philadelphia, and probably

The Kumquat was one plant of a lot collected in the districts of
Foo-chow-foo, Chusan and Ningpo, China. See, Fortune, R. Sketch of a
visit to China, in search of New Plants. Jour. Hort. Soc. Lon. 1: 223,
1846.











556 ..BULLETIN NO 65.

other men, now have it for sale, so that amateurs can make trial
of it in various parts of the country." Some time later, probably
very shortly after this date, it was brought to Florida. Since
then several importations have been made by various nursery-
men. The original trees imported by G. L. Taber, of Glen St.
Mary, in 1885, were still standing in his grove in the autumn of
1901. Reasoner Bros., of Oneco, imported the variety Nagami
in 1885 and the Marumi in 1890 from Japan.

Scientific and Common Names.

The following scientific names have been applied to the kumquat:
Malus Limonia, fructu pumilo aureo Kaemp. Amoent, exotic, 801.
1712.
Limonellus Madurensis Rump, Fl. Amboyn. 2:IIo. t.3i. 1741.
Citrus japonica Thunb. Fl. Jap. 292. 1784.
Citrus japonica Murr. Linn. 2: 697. 1784.
Citrus Madurensis Lour. Fl. Cochin china. 467. 1790.
-_Citrus .Margarita Lour.j. ,c. above.
Citrus japonica Wild Spec. Plant. Linn. 3: 1426. 1803.
Acrumen japonicum Gall. Traite du Citrus. 182. 1811.
Citrus inermis Roxb. Fl. Ind. 393. 1832.
Kaempfer's description consists of a single line, "Malus Limonia,
fructu pumilo aureo, medulla dulci." It is highly probable that this re-
fers to the Kumquat and besides the common name Kin Kan is given as
noted below.
The description given by Rumphius coupled with the figure, t.31,
leaves no room to doubt that his Limonellus Madurensis is the round
kumquat, as we know it. Credit cannot be given either to Kaempfer or
to, Rumphius, however, as they did not refer it to its correct genus.
Under the name of Citrus japonica this fruit was described by Thunberg
in 1784 and his is the accepted botanical name. Murray described the
kumauat under the same name in 1784, but credit cannot be given to him,
for although the year is the same, Murray refers to Thunberg's descrip-
tion, which is proof of the priority of the latter's publication. Under the
name Citrus Madurensis, Lourerio in his Flora of Cochin China describ-
ed the variety Marumi (round) and under Citrus Margarita the variety
Nagami (oblong). Willdenow in his Species Plantarum simply copied
Thunberg's description. Gallesio in his Traite du Citrus bases his re-
marks upon descriptions of Lourerio and Thunberg, but apparently had
never seen the fruit. Roxburgh wrote his description from plants grow-
ing in the botanical garden at Calcutta, India.

Quite a number of common names have been given for this
fruit. Thunberg gives the common name kinkan (1. c. above).









THE KUMQUATS.


Lourerio gives the common names Kin Kuit, Kin and Kuit Xu
for the round fruit andChu tsu and Chantu for the oblong
form. Kaempfer gives the common names Kin Kan and Fime
Tats banna, while Roxburgh uses the common name kumquat.
Siebold and Zuccarina in their Flora of Japan, page 35, 1826,
give the common names kin kan or kin kit to the round variety,
while to the eliptical or oblong one the name too kin kan is giv-
en. It might be added that Siebold and Zuccarina give a better
illustration of this fruit than has been published in any other
work. The commonly accepted name for this fruit throughout
the United States is kumquat and this appears to be the com-
mon name in India. Kumquat, sometimes spelled "comquot," is
a Chinese word meaning "gold orange" and the Japanese equi-
valent is "kin kan."

Description of the Tree.

Citrus Japonica Thunb. A shrub reaching a height of from
8 to 12 feet, much branched, the head rather close and compact,
branches when young light green, somewhat angled, becoming
rounder with age, leaves 3-8xl 1-4 inches to I 5-8x3 3-8 inches
lanceolate; apex obtuse; base acute or obtuse; margin very
slightly crenate down about half way from the apex; upper sur-
face dark green, glossy; lower, lighter. Flowers white, axillary,
single or in pairs, sometimes as many as four, produced on one
year old wood; calyx small, not lobed but five pointed, green-
ish; corolla white, five parted, dotted with oil cells, margins in-
curved; stamens 15 to 20, unequal in length, united into two or
three groups; pistil five or six loculed; flowers delicately sweet
scented like those of the orange; fruit round or oblong, I to
I 1-4 inches in diameter, five or six celled: oil cells of the rind
large and conspicuous; juice acid; seeds small, pointed; cotyle-
dons greenish. Presumably a native of Cochin China, extenqve-









558 BULLETIN NO 65.

ly cultivated in China and Japan, where the fruit forms an im-
portant ingredient in various preserves and sweetmeats.

Varieties.

NAGAMI-Oblong, olive-shaped.-Tree dwarf, eight to
twelve feet, bushy; young branches somewhat angled, light
green; leaves I I-2x3, 1-2 or 3-8xI 1-4 inches, lanceolate,
apex obtuse; base acute or obtuse; margin crenate down about
half way from the apex; veins inconspicuous; upper surface
dark green, glossy; lower lighter; borne on rather stout usually
very slightly margined petioles 1-4 to 5-8 inches in length.
Fruit small; obovate or oblong; I I-4x3-4 inches, I I-2xI
inch, I 3-4xI 1-8 inches, I 3-4xi 3-16 inches, golden yel-
low; stem short; calyx small; rind smooth, aromatic, spicy; oil-
glands large; juice acid, sparse; sections usually five; seeds 2
to 5 oval, 1-2 inch'long, greenish; cotyledons two, green; sea-
son, October-January
MARUMI-Round.-Tree similar to Nagami, except that it
is slightly thorny, and has the leaves somewhat smaller and
rounder at the apex. Leaves, oval; apex obtuse; base obtuse;
margin crenate half way down the length; veins slightly more
conspicuous than in Nagami, borne on short, rigid, inconspicu-
ously winged petioles 1-4 to 1-2 inch in length. Fruit spherical
or somewhat oblate, I to I 1-4 inches in diameter; golden yel-
low, short stalked; calyx small; rind smooth, thin, spicy to the
taste and aromatic when bruised; oil cells large; pulp sparse;
juice acid; sections four to seven; seeds, small, oval, greenish,
I to 3 in number; cotyledons two, greenish; season, same as
Nagami.
When eaten raw both varieties have a very pleasant flavor
or combination of flavors. The juice is acid; the rind has an









THE KUMQUATS.


agreeable spicy taste; while the soft white granular inner por-
tion of the rind is decidedly sweet. There is a slight difference
in flavor between the two varieties but it is better determined by
taste than described in words. Of the two, the Nagami is gen-
erally considered to be the more desirable, though among grow-
ers there is a difference of opinion. The fruit of the Nagami is
more regular in size on young plants. Large sized plants of both
varieties bear about the same amount of fruit of uniform size.

The Size of the Kumquat Tree.

The largest and most symmetrical kumquat bushes with
which the writer is acquainted are those growing in the grove
of Mr. John Thompson, at Clearwater, Fla. The following are
the actual measurements taken Dec. 10, 1901.
Nagami, height 10 feet, 9 inches; distance across the head,
To feet, ? inches; stock, rough lemon.
Nagami, height 9 feet, 3 inches; distance across the head,
i feet, 8 inches; stock, rough lemon.
Nagami, height 8 feet, 2 inches; distance across the head,
8 feet; stock, sweet.
Marumi, height 8 feet, 8 inches; distance across the head, 8
feet; stock, pomelo.
These were budded in 1894 on two year old stocks and were
set out in their present position and started growth in the spring
of 1895. The tops are round and symmetrical as the measure-
ments would indicate and the branches sweep the ground.
A large Nagami kumquat may also be seen on the grounds
of Reasoner Bros., at Oneco, Fla. The specimen is 10 feet high
and Io.feet 6 inches across the top while the trunk is 4 inches in
diameter just above the union with the stock. The stock is a
rough lemon shoot. The tree is badly shaded and the top, in con-
sequence, is not symmetrical but it bears well. At the time it was









BULLETIN NO 65.


observed and measured (December, 1901) it was carrying a
crop of from three thousand to three thousand five hundred
fruits, of which it takes from forty to fifty to make a quart.
Seedling kumquats would not attain the size of those bud-
ded upon strong, vigorous stocks.

Stocks.

Since the kumquat is decidedly dwarf and shrubby it is by
all means preferable that it be budded upon a vigorous stock,
thereby increasing its size and bearing capacity. The kumquat
has been worked on all kinds of stocks used for citrus trees in
Florida including pomelo, sweet orange, rough lemon, sour or-
ange and Citrus trifoliata. On most of these the kumquat suc-
ceeds, but from time to time complaints have been made against
the rough lemon stock, it being stated that the kumquat did not,
in many cases, do well when worked upon it.
A number of kumquats on rough lemon stock planted on
rather moist ground have come under personal observation in
which it was found that there was a more or less copious flow
of gum from the region just above the union of the stock and
cion. In all cases where this occurred it appeared that the cion
was the only part affected. The trees were in an unhealthy con-
dition. The diseased condition, if we may so designate it, did
not appear to be mal-di-goma, though in some respects it re-
sembled it. The trouble may have been due to the fact that the
great foraging power of the roots enabled them to collect, in
certain soils, more food than the less rapidly growing top could
readily assimilate.
On the other hand, on soils containing less moisture and
presumably less fertility, a number of trees budded upon rough
lemon roots have been examined which were vigorous and per-
fectly healthy. If one desires to use the rough lemon stock for










THE KUMQUATS.


the kumquat on some soils the best plan would be to adopt the
method used quite extensively by C. W. Butler, St. Petersburg,
Fla. His practice is to insert kumquat buds in sprouts from
rough lemon roots which already support and feed a sweet or
mandarin orange top. A perfectly healthy union is secured in all
cases as most of the food gathered by the roots is used by the
larger and more vigorous top. Strange to say, however, the
kumquat frequently outstrips the other top, sweet or mandarin
orange as the case may be, in growth in height.
For the northern part of the state on most soils no stock is
better adapted than Citrus trifoliata. Upon this stock it thrives
and bears profusely, in four or five years forming a head as
many feet in height. Regarding the stock used for the kumquat
in China, Mr. Fortune, from whose remarks quotations have
already been made, makes the following statement.* "The kum-
quat is propagated by grafting on a prickly wild species of cit-
rus which seems of a more hardy nature than the kumquat
itself. This fact should be borne in mind when the plant is intro-
duced into this country; otherwise we shall have a compar*ative-
ly hardy plant growing on a tender one." These remarks un-
doubtedly refer to Citrus trifoliata, the stock now so common-
ly used throughout Northern Florida for all varieties of cit-
rus trees.
Sweet stock, on account of its susceptibility to the attacks of
mal-di-goma should not be used. On some soils and in some lo-
calities the trees might continue to live and thrive for many
years but there, is no knowing at what time they may become
diseased. The pomelo stock appears to be entirely free from
mal-di-goma and it is well adapted to the kumquat.


* Jour. Lon. Hort. Soc. 3:239. 1848.









BULLETIN NO 65.


To summarize.-In Northern Florida use trifoliata stock
and in the southern portion, sour orange or pomelo. Rough lem-
on may be satisfactory on some soils but on many it is not. It
will be found to be quite satisfactory if the root throws a large
portion of the food which it collects into some other top in the
manner already described.

Hardiness of the Kumquat.

Mr. Fortune saw large numbers of these plants
in Southern China where they were grown in pots,
and said that it was a common plant in the nursery gardens of
Fa-Tee. He believed, however, that it was of more northern
origin for he had met with numerous groves of it on the island
of Chusan and elsewhere in that portion of China. There it
grew in far greater perfection than in the vicinity of Canton.
Thus it would appear that the cultivation of the kumquat in
China extends at least from latitude 20 to 30 degrees a
range of o1 degrees. It might be noted here that the main por-
tion of Japan lies between 30 and 48 degrees but the kum-
quat is cultivated probably only in the southern portions of that
country. It must, however, be borne in mind that neither the
climate of Japan nor of those portions of China to which refer-
ence has just been made is by any means so variable as ours. In
Northern Florida the kumquat has proved quite hardy and it
appears to be considerably hardier than most other members of
the citrus family. The natural hardiness of the kumquat is in-
creased by using Citrus trifoliata as a stock and the low dwarf-
ish habit of the tree gives every opportunity for successful and
economical protection. The best method of protection is that of
banking. The bank should be placed about the trees in Northern
Florida about the middle of December or earlier and should be




Plate I.


.1. .


-r i.j,., .'. .2 L" .-

Kumquats~~~~~~~~~~~U inhde sgrw yG aeGe S.MrFa


d.,
'~
J1
L 2`










Plate 11.


V~^


1r
A~ ;d


Pot-plant.-Nagami.










THE KUMQUATS. 63

allowed to remain until the end of March. The tree should be
banked about half or three-quarters of the way up, leaving from
one-half to one-quarter of the top exposed. It will not do
to bank the tree completely over. This prevents respiration and
transpiration and if it be done the trees will almost invariably
succumb before the coming of spring. This has been proved to
our entire satisfaction. The variety Marumi appears to be con-
siderably hardier than Nagami.

Distance Apart to Plant.

The trees should be set from eight to twelve feet apart each
way or they may be planted in hedge form allowing about
twelve feet between the rows placing the trees about five feet
apart in the rows. The latter method appears to give excellent
satisfaction. It will probably be better in Northern Florida to
plant the trees farther apart as it will be easier to secure earth
for banking. The cultivation and care given the kumquat tree
should be the same as for other members of the citrus family.

Pot Culture.

As a pot plant the kumquat is unsurpassed by any other spe-
cies of citrus as a useful ornamental. The potting soil used at
the Station has been composed of two-thirds of good hammock
soil together with one-third thoroughly decomposed cow ma-
nure. This has given very good satisfaction, but any good soil
will do. Two points in the growing of the kumquat in pots or
tubs must be carefully looked after. The plants require a con-
siderable amount of water If they're allowed to suffer from
lack of moisture the leaves will curl up and drop, the fruit will
also fall, and frequently some of the smaller tv-igs die back.










THE KUMQUATS. 63

allowed to remain until the end of March. The tree should be
banked about half or three-quarters of the way up, leaving from
one-half to one-quarter of the top exposed. It will not do
to bank the tree completely over. This prevents respiration and
transpiration and if it be done the trees will almost invariably
succumb before the coming of spring. This has been proved to
our entire satisfaction. The variety Marumi appears to be con-
siderably hardier than Nagami.

Distance Apart to Plant.

The trees should be set from eight to twelve feet apart each
way or they may be planted in hedge form allowing about
twelve feet between the rows placing the trees about five feet
apart in the rows. The latter method appears to give excellent
satisfaction. It will probably be better in Northern Florida to
plant the trees farther apart as it will be easier to secure earth
for banking. The cultivation and care given the kumquat tree
should be the same as for other members of the citrus family.

Pot Culture.

As a pot plant the kumquat is unsurpassed by any other spe-
cies of citrus as a useful ornamental. The potting soil used at
the Station has been composed of two-thirds of good hammock
soil together with one-third thoroughly decomposed cow ma-
nure. This has given very good satisfaction, but any good soil
will do. Two points in the growing of the kumquat in pots or
tubs must be carefully looked after. The plants require a con-
siderable amount of water If they're allowed to suffer from
lack of moisture the leaves will curl up and drop, the fruit will
also fall, and frequently some of the smaller tv-igs die back.









u"*l ..BULLETIN NO 65.

The plants should not be allowed to become pot-bound, for if
they do they will come to a complete standstill. Bone meal to-
gether with a little blood and potash makes an excellent fertili-
zer for the plants when grown in this way.
Plants intended for pot culture should be worked on Citrus
trifoliata stock.
Considerable difficulty has been experienced in keeping pot-
ted kumquats free from the mealy-bug (Dactylopius citri).
This insect does injury by sucking the juice of the plant and
causing the fruit to drop. The bugs cluster about the stem close
to the fruit and weaken it to such an extent that the fruit falls.
Thrip juice or tobacco juice applied with a brush has been tried
with good success, but constant attention is required to keep the
plants free from them by this or by any other means. Syring-
ing the trees with a stream of water under strong pressure has
given good satisfaction. The ants have much to do with dis-
tributing the mealy-bugs, as they carry them about from place
to.place. The nests of the ants should be sought for and de-
stroyed either with boiling water or with carbon bi-sulphide.
Do not put the latter near the roots of trees as it is likely to in-
jure or destroy them and kill the whole plant. Three or four
feet from the trunk is generally a safe distance.

Picking and Packing.

The kumquat cannot be regarded as anything else than a
fancy fruit, and in most cases a demand must be created.
The package best adapted for shipping the kumquat is the
strawberry carrier. Each quart basket may be lined with
fancy fringed paper and the whole crate should also be lined
with heavy paper. Fill each basket level full of the fruit and










THE KUMQUATS.


place on top a small twig with two or three fruits attached. The
fringed edges of the paper should then be drawn together to
form a covering. Various styles of fancy packages holding a
quart or less are in use.
Another method which has given good satisfaction is the
one used by G. L. Taber, of Glen St. Mary, Fla. His plan is to
cut the fruits with two or three leaves attached to each stem.
They are then packed as already described. When put up in
this fashion the package is very neat and presentable. Cut and
packed as indicated (see Bulletin 63) they have frequently
brought from seventy-five cents to a dollar a quart. It may,
however, be stated that the demand is not unlimited and heavy
shipments should not be made at any one time. The price usual-
ly obtained last season was twenty-five cents per quart. As al-
ready noted forty or fifty fruits fill a quart basket, but if the
fruit is cut with leaves attached this number is considerably re-
duced.

Uses.

The kumquat may be eaten raw, and when served in small
glasses holding three or four fruits they make a very pretty ad-
dition to the table. If cut with leaves attached they may be
used as table decorations. In eating the fruit the skin is not re-
moved, and the spicy, aromatic rind and acid pulp make a very
delightful and palatable combination. An excellent preserve
can also be made from the fruit, and the Chinese export consid-
erable quantities put up in small stone jars.
The following recipe for preserving the kumquat has been
tried and has proved satisfactory: Take four parts sugar and
three parts water; place in a preserving kettle and boil for five
minutes; select fresh fruit so as to have it of uniform size and









. BULLETIN NO 65.


ripeness. Place the fruit in the boiling syrup and boil briskly
for an hour and a half. Do not allow it to simmer or the rinds
will become tough. Remove from the fire and seal at once. A
pint of fruit, two cupfuls of sugar and a cupful and a half of
water make about a quart.

Analyses.

The station chemists Messrs. Miller and Blair have found
that the kumquats contain the percentages of fertilizer ingredi-
ents shown in the accompanying table. The averages, it may be
noted agree very closely with the results of similar work done
by theri on pomelos. (See Bul. 58.)


VARIETY. P2 05 K 0 N
per cent. per cent. percent.
Marumi... ............ .0528 .2623 .14
Nagami ................ .0531 .2796 .132
Average ........ .... .0529 -2709 I .136

Twenty-four quarts of kumquats, the contents of one car-
rier, weighs forty-two pounds, or one and three-fourths pounds
to the quart. Ten carriers would therefore weigh 420 pounds.
This amount of fruit would remove from the soil,.. 222 pounds
phosphoric acid (P205), 1.137 pounds potash (K20), and
.571 pounds nitrogen (N). Using dissolved bone analysing 18
per cent. phosphoric acid, high grade sulphate of potash, 50 per
cent. potash and sulphate of ammonia analyzing 20 per cent. ni-
trogen, there would be required 1.233 pounds dissolved bone,
and 2.274 pounds high grade sulphate of potash and 2.855
pounds sulphate of ammonia to replace the fertilizer removed
from the soil.
H. HAROLD HUME. -




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