• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 History of the Japanese Persim...
 Varietal
 Propagation
 Grafting
 Cultural
 Marketing
 Insects
 Index of American literature on...
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 71
Title: Japanese persimmons
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026701/00001
 Material Information
Title: Japanese persimmons
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. <65>-110 : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Reimer, F. C ( Frank Charles ), b. 1881
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1904
 Subjects
Subject: Kaki persimmon -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 105-110.
Statement of Responsibility: by H. Harold Hume and F.C. Reimer.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026701
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921040
oclc - 18156592
notis - AEN1480

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Table of Contents
        Page 68
    Introduction
        Page 69
    History of the Japanese Persimmons
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Varietal
        Page 71
        Botany and description
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
        Varieties
            Page 76
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Light-fleshed varieties
            Page 79
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Dark-fleshed varieties
            Page 83
        Mixed-fleshed varieties
            Page 84
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Varieties recommended for planting
            Page 87
    Propagation
        Page 88
        Stocks
            Page 89
        Seedlings for stocks
            Page 89
        Scions
            Page 90
    Grafting
        Page 90
        Cleft-grafting
            Page 91
        Whip-grafting
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Cultural
        Page 93
        Area of cultivation
            Page 93
        Soils, preparation of the soil, and distances
            Page 94
        Time of planting, setting the trees, and fertilizing
            Page 95
        Cultivation and pruning
            Page 96
    Marketing
        Page 97
        Picking
            Page 97
        Packing
            Page 97
            Page 98
            Page 99
            Page 100
        Uses
            Page 101
            Page 102
            Page 103
    Insects
        Page 104
    Index of American literature on the persimmon
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
        Page 110
    Back Cover
        Page 111
Full Text









FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT .STATION


Japanese Persimmons,


TAURU PERSIMMONS IN FRUIT ON STATION ROUNDS.


By H. HAROLD HUME and F, C, REIMER,

The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon application
to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.


Jacksonville, Fla..
INDUSTRIAL RECORD PUB. CO,
1904.


BULLETIN NO. 71


MARCH, 1904,













BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILsON, President ...................... Jacksonville.
C. A. CARSON, Vice-President ......................Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary ........................Brooksville.
F. E. H ARRIS ................................... ..... Ocala.
E. D. BEGGS ...................................... Pensacola.
J. R. PARROTT .................................. .Jacksonville.
F. M. SIMONTON .................................... Tampa.



STATION STAFF.


T. H. TALIAFERRO, C. E., Ph. D. ................ .... Director.
SH. K. MILLER, M. S................. Vice-Director and Chemist.
H. A. GOSSARD, M. S. ..........................Entomologist.
H. H. HUME, B. Agr., M. S. .......Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S. ................. Veterinarian.
*C. M. CONNER, B. S. .......................... Agriculturist.
A. W. BLAIR, M. A. ........................Assistant Chemist.
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, Mi. S............... .Assistant Chemist.
F. C. REIMER, B. S. ...................Assistant Horticulturist.
W. P. JERNIGAN ...................... Auditor and Bookkeeper.
A. L. CLAYTON ................... Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN H. JEFFRIES ....... Gardener, Horticultural Department.
F. E. WORTHINGTON ........... Assistant in Field Experiments.
*Superintendent of Farmers' Institutes.












CONTENTS,

Introduction .................................................... 69
History of the Japanese Persimmons ................................ 69
Varietal ................. ................................ ........ 71
Botany and Description ........................................ 71
Varieties .................................................... 76
Light-Fleshed Varieties ......................................** 79
Dark-Fleshed Varieties ........................................ 83
M ixed-Fleshed Varieties ........................................ 84
Varieties Recommended for Planting ........................... 87
Propagation ................................... ................... 88
Stocks ........................................................ 89
Seedlings for Stocks .......................................... 89
Scions ........................................ .... ........ 990
Grafting .................................... ... ...... ....... ..... 90
Cleft-Grafting .......................................... ..... ......... 91
W hip-Grafting ............ ............. ...................... 91
Cultural ................. .................... ....................... 93
Area of Cultivation ........................................... 93
Soils ......................................................... 94
Preparation of the Soil ......................................... 94
D istances ..................................................... 94
Time of Planting .............................................. 95
Setting the Trees ............................................ 95
Fertilizing ........... ............... .................... 95
Cultivation .......... ... ......... ....... .... -.... ........ 96
Pruning .... ........ ........................ ............... 96
M marketing .................... .. .... .. ........ ... ................ 97
Picking ......... ........ ........... : ..................... 97
Packing ................. .................................... 97
Uses ............................................ ............ 101
Insects ......................... .......... ....................... 104
Literature .................... ... ....... ...................... 105


ILLUSTRATIONS.

Tsuru Persimmons in Fruit on Station Grounds .................... Fig. 1.
Hachiya Persimmon Tree ......................................... Fig. 2.
Persimmon Seeds .......................... .......................... Fig. 3.
Cross sections of fruit, Triumph and Hachiya ....... ............ Fig. 4.
Hachiya, natural size .......................................... Fig. 5.
Tanenashi, natural size ................. ... .... .......... ......... Fig. 6.
Persimmon Propagation ...................................... Plate I.
A basket of Tsuru Persimmons ......................... Fig. A, Plate II
Packed crate of Tsuru Persimmons ....................... Fig. B, Plate II.













Japanese Persimmons,


Introduction,

Since its introduction into this country a little more than
a quarter of a century ago, the Japanese persimmon or Kaki, has
been slowly but steadily growing in favor. Throughout the South-
ern States, where it can be placed on the market when nearly
ripe, there has been and is always a good demand for the fruit,
sufficient to make it profitable to cultivate it in a limited way.
In the northern markets, however, it has not met with the favor
that it was expected to receive. The reason for this, perhaps, lies
in the fact that it comes into the markets with apples, pears and
late peaches. Besides this, it must be shipped before fully ma-
tured, and being placed on the fruit stands while still unripe,
the purchaser's first impression of it has too frequently been
everything but favorable. Delicious though the fruit is when
fully matured, there is nothing more repellent than a green, or
half ripe, light-fleshed Kaki.
Though it cannot, be grown extensively for shipments out-
side of the State, the local demand is good and will increase. For
home use, few fruits surpass the Japanese persimmon and no
garden should be without a few trees.

History of the Japanese Persimmons,
Kaki, or the Japanese persimmon, is a native of Japan,
Corea and parts of China. There it has been growing wild in
the forests from time immemorial. It is a delicious fruit in the













Japanese Persimmons,


Introduction,

Since its introduction into this country a little more than
a quarter of a century ago, the Japanese persimmon or Kaki, has
been slowly but steadily growing in favor. Throughout the South-
ern States, where it can be placed on the market when nearly
ripe, there has been and is always a good demand for the fruit,
sufficient to make it profitable to cultivate it in a limited way.
In the northern markets, however, it has not met with the favor
that it was expected to receive. The reason for this, perhaps, lies
in the fact that it comes into the markets with apples, pears and
late peaches. Besides this, it must be shipped before fully ma-
tured, and being placed on the fruit stands while still unripe,
the purchaser's first impression of it has too frequently been
everything but favorable. Delicious though the fruit is when
fully matured, there is nothing more repellent than a green, or
half ripe, light-fleshed Kaki.
Though it cannot, be grown extensively for shipments out-
side of the State, the local demand is good and will increase. For
home use, few fruits surpass the Japanese persimmon and no
garden should be without a few trees.

History of the Japanese Persimmons,
Kaki, or the Japanese persimmon, is a native of Japan,
Corea and parts of China. There it has been growing wild in
the forests from time immemorial. It is a delicious fruit in the









BULLETIN NO. 71,


wild state, as it grows in Japan, hence the Japanese have taken
a great fancy to it, even in its unimproved condition. The per-
simmon is to the Japanese what the orange is to the Floridian.
This love for the fruit even in the wild state soon created a de-
sire for its cultivation and improvement.
The persimmon has been cultivated for centuries in Japan.
There it has received more care and attention than any other
Japanese fruit. It has been improved to such an extent that
there are now many varieties. The Japanese serve and preserve
it in many different ways. Various methods of preserving and
curing them are in use. In fact, this fruit is now to Japan
what the apple is to the United States. It is their national fruit.
There is almost no literature to be found on the Japanese
persimmon in this country. Several reasons may be given for
this fact. First, it is a comparatively new fruit. Second,' there
are only a few sections in this country where it can be grown
successfully. Third, people must learn to like the fruit, hence there
has been no market for the fruit until recently. Fourth, until a
.short time ago, the value of the fruit was not known in this coun-
try. It is somewhat difficult to trace its introduction into the
various Southern States.
In 1863, the Department of Agriculture became interested in
'the Japanese persimmon and a large number of seeds were sent to
the Department by the American Legation in Japan. These
seeds were sown in the open ground. The. plants grew well that
season, but as the following winter proved to be a severe one,
most of them were killed. Several other importations of seeds
were made, but with the same unsatisfactory result, although
some of the varieties proved to be more hardy than others.
As a result of these attempts the idea that the Japanese








JAPANESE PERSIMMONS


persimmon could be successfully introduced by seed was given
up. It was then thought that if the young trees of the hardiest
varieties could be secured, the introduction might prove success-
ful. This was done, but the severe winter following again killed
the trees.
Then budding and grafting the hardiest Japanese varie-
ties on the American species, Diospyros Virginiana was attempted.
The budding proved to be unsuccessful. The grafted trees did
well during the growing season, but in the severe winter which fol-
lowed they were killed. This discouraged the Department and
the idea of introducing the Japanese persimmon was given up
for some time.
About 1875, a large number of trees were imported by the
Department and by private parties, and were sent to nearly all of
the Southern States. These importations proved successful, and
since then the Japanese persimmon has been planted in nearly every
State in the South, and is now a fruit of considerable importance
both for market and home use, especially the latter.
Kizo Tamari, in the Report of the Michigan State Horticul-
tural Report for 1886, says: "Mr. S. Truda was the first to im-
port our persimmon (D. Kaki) into this country; he tells me
that the importation cost him considerable pains, and he further
states that the fruit was not appreciated at first by the Americans
at Tokio, being discarded in America as not eatable; but at pres-
ent the fruit is well known by every pomologist in this country
and is called the Japanese persimmon."

Varietal,

Botany and Description. The persimmon belongs to th!
family Ebenaceae or Ebony family. There are five or six genera








JAPANESE PERSIMMONS


persimmon could be successfully introduced by seed was given
up. It was then thought that if the young trees of the hardiest
varieties could be secured, the introduction might prove success-
ful. This was done, but the severe winter following again killed
the trees.
Then budding and grafting the hardiest Japanese varie-
ties on the American species, Diospyros Virginiana was attempted.
The budding proved to be unsuccessful. The grafted trees did
well during the growing season, but in the severe winter which fol-
lowed they were killed. This discouraged the Department and
the idea of introducing the Japanese persimmon was given up
for some time.
About 1875, a large number of trees were imported by the
Department and by private parties, and were sent to nearly all of
the Southern States. These importations proved successful, and
since then the Japanese persimmon has been planted in nearly every
State in the South, and is now a fruit of considerable importance
both for market and home use, especially the latter.
Kizo Tamari, in the Report of the Michigan State Horticul-
tural Report for 1886, says: "Mr. S. Truda was the first to im-
port our persimmon (D. Kaki) into this country; he tells me
that the importation cost him considerable pains, and he further
states that the fruit was not appreciated at first by the Americans
at Tokio, being discarded in America as not eatable; but at pres-
ent the fruit is well known by every pomologist in this country
and is called the Japanese persimmon."

Varietal,

Botany and Description. The persimmon belongs to th!
family Ebenaceae or Ebony family. There are five or six genera








BULLETIN NO. 71.


in this family. The persimmon belongs to the genus Diospyros,
which contains over 150 species. Only two species are culti-
vated, i. e.,the American species, D. Virginiana, and the Japan
persimmon, D. Kaki. D. Virginiana is perhaps the most widely
distributed species of the genus; representatives of it are found
from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico. It is particularly


Fig. 2. Hachiya Persimmon tree.










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


abundant in the Southern States. This is of considerable impor-
tance in growing Japanese persimmons, as will be seen further
on. ,
The tree of the Japanese persimmon varies a great deal in
size and shape. In Japan, the wild tree often attains a height of
from 40 to 50 feet. Under cultivation the tree is considerably
smaller and has a more spreading habit than that of the wild
one. Heavy bearing, while the tree is young, also dwarfs it to
a great extent.
Flowers are solitary or in clusters, small, greenish-white in
color; calyx generally four lobed, rarely three or five lobed; corolla
four to six lobed; stamens many, anthers introrse; styles two to
six in the pistillate flowers.
The leaves are extremely variable, both in size and shape.
They are oval, ovate, oblong and elliptical. Apex acute or ob-
tuse; base acuminate, acute, obtuse or truncate. Margin is entire.
Size of leaf, length two to eight inches, width one and five-eighths to
three and one-half inches; petiole one-half to three-fourths inch
long.
Fruit. No fruit varies more than the persimmon in form,
size, color, flesh, flavor, color of flesh, number and form of seeds,
texture and thickness of skin.
In form -they are round, quadrangular, slightly or strongly
oblate, oblong, conical, strongly pointed, or a combination of
two or more of these forms. In size they vary from one and
one-half by one and three-fourths to three and three-fourths by
three and one-half inches. In weight from a few ounces, as Zengi,
to over a pound, as some specimens of Hachiya and Tanenashi.
The color is not so variable as some of the other characters,
especially when the fruit is dead ripe, yet at the picking sea-









74 BULLETIN NO. 71.

son, they vary to 'a considerable extent. They vary from light
yellow, as Tsuru, through dark yellow, light red to dark red, as
Hachiya. Generally the base of the fruit is not as dark as the
apex. All become darker as they ripen. A few, as Maru and
Miyotan,' have a purple bloom. Maru has a very heavy bloom.
There is no correlation between the color of the skin and the
color of the flesh.
As to the color of the flesh, persimmons may be divided into
three distinct groups. They are either light-fleshed, dark-fleshed
or mixed. The latter being a combination of light and dark
flesh. The two are always separate in the fruit; the dark flesh
being about the seeds, while the light flesh is just beneath
the skin. Generally dark flesh accompanies seeds and vice
versa. The dark flesh is made up of a reddish or yellowish
ground color and is thickly dotted with grayish-black specks and
generally some dark or reddish streaks. About each seed there
is a distinct gelatin-like sack which is always of a dark yel-
lowish color. When the seed is missing, the cavities are filled
with flesh, which otherwise surrounds the seed. The flesh is
generally hard, until the fruit is ripe, when it begins to soften.
It becomes extremely soft in some varieties, as Tsuru and Tane-
nashi; while in others, as Zengi, the flesh remains rather firm.
The first experience that most people have in eating the
persimmon is generally a very unpleasant one. This is due to
the fact that they do not understand the fruit; they attempt to eat
the fruit before it is fit to eat. The fruit may appear very inviting,
yet when eaten it is found to be very astringent. This is true with
all light-fleshed persimmons, until they are dead ripe. Some of
them never do lose this puckery quality entirely. When perfectly
ripe and very soft, most varieties are very delicious and are es-


\ '








JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


teemed by the most critical. The flavor varies somewhat in the
different varieties, but it is simply a difference in degree, not in
kind.


1. Okame. 2 Yeddoichi.
9. Hiyakume. 10. Maru.


Fig. 3. Persimmon Seeds, natural size,
3 Miyotan. 4. Nectar. 5. Godbey. 6. Phelps. 7. Tabers 129. 8. Hachiya.
11. Zmngi. 12. Tsuru. 13. Ycmon. 14. Tabers 23. 15. Triumph. 16, Cosatat.


The seeds vary as much, both in number and form as does
the form of the fruit. In fact there is a strong correlation be-
tween the shape of the fruit and the shape of the seed. In the
round and oblate varieties, as Yemon, Tanenashi* and Triumph,
the seeds are short, broad and flat; while in the oblong and
conical varieties, as Hachiya and Tsuru, the seeds are long, narrow
*On two occasions a single seed has been found in a Tanenashi fruit.


4/11


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Pt~ gj~~


.1










BULLETIN NO. 71.


and pointed. The number of seeds varies from none to eight.
There are eight seed cavities, but we seldom find more than six
seeds in one fruit. Some varieties, as Tanenashi and Hachiya,
are known as "seedless varieties," yet one or two seeds are often
found in some specimens. The ripening season of the different
varieties ranges from the first of September to the last of Novem-
ber.
Varieties. Had greater care been exercised at the time of
introduction, the nomenclature of the Japanese persimmons would
not have been in such a chaotic condition, as it now is. Varie-
ties were introduced under assumed English names and further
introductions of the same varieties were made under the Japan-
ese names. Furthermore, many of the Japanese names were sim-
ply local ones and frequently the same variety was imported
under two or three different names; hence, the confusion. Most
ot the varieties now cultivated in this country are, as their names
would indicate, of Japanese origin, and it is unfortunate that
greater care was not taken to secure the proper varieties under
their correct names at the time of introduction.
The most noteworthy work that has been done in straighten-
ing out the nomenclature of these fruits is that of Prof. H. E.
VanDeman, formerly pomologist of the United States Department
of Agriculture. The work done by Professor Van Deman has
been practically accepted by all Horticulturists.
In the United States Department of Agriculture museum
there is a collection of models of Japanese persimmons which
was exhibited at the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893. The fol-
lowing is the list of varieties: Gosho, Hyakume, Gosho-Maru,
Yeddo-ichi, Chinese, Dai-dai-maru, Arukaya, O-anzai, Myotan,
Kanro, Giboshi, Mishiradzu, Tsuru-no-ko, Yaman, Tsuruoko, Nita-










JAPANESE. PERSIMMONS.


ri, Zengi-maru Hassaku, Kaku-yemon, Hachiya, Shime-shiradzu,
Saijo, Gronbo, Yemon Takura, Tane-nashi, Kaku-maru, Okame,
Oni-maru, Midzu-hachiya-twenty-nine varieties in all. A glance
at this list will illustrate thbefact that- some of the difficulties
of our nomenclature of this fruit may have arisen from the fact
that many of the names are compound and connected by a hyphen.
In some cases, as for instance, Kaku-maru and Oni-maru, we
have a combination that might, through mistakes in spelling, or
by omission of a portion of the name, lead to a great deal of
trouble. Herein we see the wisdom of the determination of the
American Pomological Society to exclude names of this type frorh
our pomological lists.
Some time previous to 1891 the Japanese Agricultural Soci-
ety, of Tokio, Japan, published a large chart illustrating the
fruit, cross-sections of the fruit and in some cases the seed of
forty-five varieties of Japanese persimmons.: It was accompanied
by a folio of descriptions and iots s.: The list of varieties is
.as follows: Tsuru-no-ko, Tankin-Dzuru; Yama-Dzuru,Ko-Tsuru,
Shimo-maru, Kumosu-maru, Tane-nashi, Teingu, Shibu-Tsuno-ma-
gari, Tsuno-magari, Masugata, Hachiya, Shimo-Shiradzu, Okame,
Yemon, Nitari, Hiyakume, Dai-dai-maru, Gosho-Goki, Goshio-Hira,
Goshio-maru, Yeddo-ichi, Zengi-maru, Denji-maru, Kabuo-Goki,
Kow-shin-maru, Toyama, Giboshin, Miyotan, Higaki, Ditto, Abura-
Tsubo, Hakojaki, Koshibu, Aoso, Gionbou, Soijio-Goki, Kintoki-
maru, Hetaguro, Shinano-gaki, (D. lotus).
The illustrations are sufficiently clear and the descriptions
lucid enough to make it possible to determine each variety with
a fair degree of accuracy. It is strongly recommended that this
chart and folio, and the models in the museum of the United









BULLETIN NO. 71.


States Department of Agriculture be taken as the foundation of
our nomenclature. Furthermore, it is deemed advisable to drop
all hyphens and this policy has been adopted in this publication.














A..




Fig, 4. Cross sections of fruit. Triumph and Hachiya,

After considerable study of the subject, it has been decided
to group the varieties into light-fleshed, dark-fleshed and mixed.
As a general rule, it may be said that dark flesh and seeds ac-
company each other, though Triumph is an exception to this
rule, and occasionally when seeds are found in light-fleshed vari-
eties, dark spots about the seeds are usually .present. Unfortu-
nately there are no other characteristics of the plant which con-
stantly accompany the differences in the color of the flesh of the
fruit. It might be mentioned here, as already noted, that in the
case of varieties in which seeds are found there is always a cor-
relation between the shape of the fruit and the shape of the seed.
Oblong, pointed, or conical varieties have seeds much longer than










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


broad, while oblate varieties have broad, or roundish seeds. Based
upon the distinctions in the color of the flesh the varieties may
be grouped as follows:
*Light-fleshed varieties: Costata, Hachiya, Phelps, Tane-
nashi, Triumph, Tsuru.
"*Dark-fleshed varieties: Hyakume, Myotan, Nectar, Yed-
doichi, Zengi.
**"Mixed-fleshed varieties: Godbey, Maru, Okame, Tabers
No. 23, Tabers No. 129, Yemon.

LightFFleshed Varieties,
Costata, Form distinctly conical, pointed, one side larger
than the other; size medium to large, 2 1-8x2 5-16, to 2 5-16x2 3-4
inches; color reddish, when dead ripe deep red with heavy purple
bloom; cavity deep and irregular; apex a long, sharp point; stem
stout and curved, one-half inch; calyx large, thick and tough, re-
curved; skin smooth, tough and very thin; flesh firm, heavy, gran-
alar, cartilage-like around seed cavities; color, whitish yellow,
brownish in vacant seed cavities; seeds few, one or two, long, oval,
large, 14-16x9-16 inch, color dark brown, nearly seedless; season
October; grown at the University of Florida.
Trees strikingly upright, tall; bark grayish-brown; number of
fruits on average -five-year-old tree, 95 to 100; leaves oval, base
acute, apex acute, size 6 5-10x3 3-8 inches; petiole, 3-4 inch long.
Hachiya, Form oblong, slightly pointed; size, very large,
3 3-4x3 1-2 inches; color reddish yellow, apex end bright red,
surrounded by sparse, irregular, grayish lines; cavity deep and
wavy; apex slightly pointed, black point on end; stem very
stout, curved, 5-8 inch; calyx large, adhering closely to fruit;
skin smooth, medium thick; flesh astringent until thoroughly ripe,










BULLETIN NO. 71.


firm, granular, creamy yellow in color; seeds one, often seedless,
*lanceolate, long, 11-8x3-8 inch, color light brown; season October
15 to 30. Obtained of G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Leaves oval, apex obtuse, base acute; leaf 3 3-4x2 3-4 inches;
petiole, 5-8 inch long. Tree large and spreading.
Phelps, Form spherical; size small, 1 5-8x1 9-16 inches; color
lemon yellow, becoming reddish and covered with bluish white
bloom as it softens; cavity shallow, irregular; apex a small, black


Fig. 5. Hachiya, natural size.


point; stem medium stout, curved, 1-2 inch long; calyx large, deeply
lobed; skin smooth and tough, medium thick; flesh solid, slightly









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


granular, reddish-yellow in color; seeds three or four, elliptical,
slightly triangular, large, 3-8x7-16 inch, color light brown. Sea-
son, October. Obtained of Mr. G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla.
Fruit borne in clusters, leaves elliptical, apex acute, base
acute, 3 1-4x1 3-4 inches; petiole, 1-2 inch long. This is one of
the few light-fleshed varieties that have seeds.
Tanenashi, Form round, slightly pointed; size large, 2 1-2
x3 1-8 inches; color bright, light red, with a few irregular cracks
about apex; cavity deep, slightly red, apex pointed; stem medium
stout, 1-2 inch long; calyx large, adhering closely to fruit; skin
leathery and thin; flesh solid, rather granular, light yellow in
color; seeds none; season October. Grown at the University of
Florida.
Tree medium in size, strongly upright, top slightly spreading;
bark dark gray; leaves oval-elliptical, apex and base acute, 5 1-4
x3 1-4 inches; petiole 5-8 inch long.
Triumph, Form strongly oblate, slightly four-sided; size
small, 1 1-2x2 3-8 inches to 1 3-4x21-2 inches; color reddish' yel-
low, with a few grayish cracks about the apex; cavity medium
deep; apex a small black point; stem long, rather stout, calyx
large, deeply four-parted, recurved; skin smooth, except about
apex, medium thick; flesh firm, slightly yellow, dark about seeds;
seeds six or seven, nearly oblong, 9-16x6-16 inch, thick, dark
brown; season October. Grown at the University of Florida.
Tree medium in size, upright, spreading, rather compact;
bark grayish-brown; very prolific; leaves elliptical, apex acute,
base acuminate, size 4x1 5-8 inches; petiole 1-2 inch long.
Tsuru, Form distinctly conical, pointed; size medium, 2 1-2
x2 1-4, 2 3-4x2 1-2, 2 7-8x2 13-16 inches; color yellowish red, chang-
ing to very dark red as it softens, with heavy purple bloom; cavity









iULtTIN NO. 71.


very shallow; apex a long, sharp point; stem stout, 1-2 to 5-8 inch;
calyx large, medium thick, recurved; skin rough, rather thick;
flesh sweet, granular, solid, dark yellow in color; seeds three,


Fig. 6. Tanenashi, natural size,


lanceolate, large, long, 11-2x3-8 inch, light brown in color. Sea-
son middle of October to middle of November. Grown at the
University of Florida.
Tree upright, spreading, medium to large; bark grayish-
brown; leaves ovate-elliptical, base and apex acute; size 5x2 1-2
inches, petiole, 5-8 inch. Very prolific. A light-fleshed variety,
but has seeds.









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


** Dark-Fleshed Varieties,

Hyakume. Form nearly spherical, apex end flattened; size
medium, 21-4x2 7-8 inches; color light red with many 'brownish
cracks about the apex; cavity deep, grooved; apex a slender, sharp
projection; stem medium stout, curved, 5-8 inch long; calyx large,
rather thin; skin smooth, except a small area about the apex, very
thick; flesh sweet, fibrous, solid, dark, filled with many brownish
black specks; seeds six, elliptical, slightly kidney-shaped, large,
5-8x1-2 inch, brown; season October. Grown at the University
of Florida.
Tree upright, spreading, large branches grayish, twigs red-
dish brown in color; leaves ovate, base acute, apex obtuse, 5 3-4x
2 7-8 inches, petiole 1-2 inch. Medium prolific.
Miyotan, Form roundish oblate, slightly pointed; size small
to medium, 1 11-16x2 5-16, 1 5-8x2 1-8 inches; color dull red; bloom
present; irregular grayish-black cracks about the apex; cavity
very shallow, reddish yellow; apex a black point, four wide depres-
sions radiating from it; stem short, curved and very thick; calyx
medium, adhering to fruit; skin puckery, leathery, thick; flesh
firm, breaking, dark, except a very thin layer just beneath the skin
and about the seeds; seeds five or six, oval, flat, large, 7-8x1-2 inch,
color light brown; season November. Obtained of P. J. Berckmans
Co., Augusta, Ga.
Nectar. Form oblong, pointed; size small, 2 1-8x2 1-8 inches;
color light reddish yellow, dark red near apex, bright; cavity
very shallow, dull yellow in color; apex a black point; stem long
and stout; calyx large, adhering close to fruit; skin smooth, leath-
ery in appearance, -medium thick; flesh medium sweet, solid,
dark, filled with many reddish black specks; seeds five, long,









BULLETIN NO. 71.


7-8x5-16 inch, rather thick and plump, light brown in color; season
October. Obtained of D. L. Pierson, Monticello, Fla.
Yeddoichi. Form roundish oblate, slightly pointed, size
medium, 21-8x21-2 inches; color light red, covered with dark
dots; cavity rather deep, wide, slightly irregular; apex a small
black point; stem stout, curved, 3-8 inch long; calyx medium, quite
thick; skin smooth, medium thick; flesh sweet, granular, seed cavi-
ties filled with a gelatin-like flesh, yellowish white in color; seeds
oval, slightly pointed, large, 13-16x9-16 inch, brownish in color,
tendency to seedlessness; season October 15th to November 15th.
Grown at the University of Florida.
Tree small to medium, open, branches drooping, bark grayish-
brown in color, shy bearer; leaves oblong, apex acute, base trun-
cate, 5 1-2x3 1-2 inches, petiole 1-2 inch long.
Zengi, Form roundish oblate; size very small, 1 2-8x113-16
inches; color dull reddish-yellow, with brownish cracks about the
apex; cavity very shallow; apex a brownish point; stem thick,
curved, 3-8 inch long; calyx medium, well lobed; skin leathery,
very thick; flesh stringy, compact, dark throughout; seeds generally
eight, slightly kidney-shaped, rather triangular, 11-16x3-8 inch,
dark brown; season October. Grown at the University of
Florida.
Tree, large, upright, spreading; bark grayish brown in color;
leaves elliptical, apex acute, base truncate, 4x2 1-2 inches, petiole
3-8 inch long. A heavy bearer.
*** Mixed-Fleshed Varieties,
Godbey, Form strongly oblate, grooved about the apex;
size large, 1 5-8x3 1-4 inches; color yellowish red, deeper red about
the apex; cavity deep, four-grooved; apex slightly sunken, with
a black point; calyx medium thick and tough; skin smooth, very









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


thin; flesh sweet, compact, granular with mixed color, bright yellow
beneath the skin with dark center; seeds five, oval, 13-16x5-8 inch,
brown in color; season October 15th to November 1st. Obtained
of T. K. Godbey, Waldo, Fla.
T. K. Godbey, of Waldo, Fla., the originator of this variety,
makes the following statement in regard to it:
"During the big freeze all of the persimmon trees I had
were killed to the ground except this one. It went through with-
out the loss of a twig. I had about all of the imported varieties
at that time."
Maru, Form roundish-oblate, or sometimes slightly pointed,
depressed apex; size small to medium, 2 1-2x2 1-2 inches; color
bright, dark red with heavy purple bloom; cavity deep, irregular;
apex strongly depressed, with sharp, black point; stem 3-8x1-2
inch long, stout and curved; calyx large, lobes distinct, not re-
flexed; skin very uneven tinted with markings particularly around
the base and up about half way, thin; flesh solid, somewhat granu-
lar, color mixed, bright yellow near the skin, dark in center, dark
flesh extending nearer skin on one side than on the other; seeds
four to six, slightly oval, one side nearly straight, 13-16x7-16 inch,
dark brown in color; season October 15th to November 15th.
Obtained of P. J. Berckmans & Co., Augusta, Ga.
This variety is distinct from Yeddoichi as propagated in Flor-
ida.
Okame. Form oblate, four-sided, grooved about the apex;
size large, 2x3 inches; color dark yellow; cavity large, with many
deep grooves radiating from it; apex a black point; stem stout,
slightly curved, 1-2 inch long; calyx medium in size, adhering to
fruit; skin smooth, medium thick; flesh solid, heavy, decidedly
stringy, light yellow in color, dark about seeds, becoming reddish









BULLETIN NO. 71.


as it softens; seeds broad oval in shape, large, 3-4x9-16- inch,
chocolate brown in color, variable in number; tendency to seed-
lessness; season October. Grown at the University of Florida.
Tree medium in size, compact grower, upright, spreading,
bark light gray.
Leaves 5x3 inches, ovate, base truncate, apex acute, petiole
5-8 inch long. Shy bearer.
Tabers No, 23, Form strongly oblate, slightly four-sided;
size small, 11-2x2 3-8 inches; color light red with apex surround-
ed by small rough grayish lines; cavity small, shallow, slightly
wavy; apex a black point; stem medium long and stout, curved;
calyx large, thick, deeply four-parted; skin smooth and stipple
marked and rather thick; flesh sweet, stringy, jelly-like about seeds,
dark in color, with innumerable brownish-black specks; seeds six
to eight, oval, size 5-8x1-2 inch, brown in color; season September
15th to October 15th. Grown at the University of Florida.
Trees small and spreading. Leaves broadly elliptical, apex
acute, base obtuse, size, 6x2 3-4 inches, petiole 5-8 inch long.
Tabers No, 129, Form strongly oblate, slightly four-sided;
17-8x2 1-2 inches; color yellowish red, a few black specks on
surface and irregular grayish cracks about the apex; cavity med-
ium deep and uneven; apex slightly pointed; stem medium thick,
3-8 inch long; calyx medium in size, adhering closely to the fruit;
skin smooth except about the apex, thin; flesh mixed, solid, rather
granular, light yellow beneath the skin, dark and light mixed in
the center; seeds five, nearly triangular, 3-4x3-8 inch, brown in
color; season September 15th to October 15th. Grown at the Uni-
versity of Florida.
Tree upright; bark grayish brown. Leaves elliptical, apex










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


acute, base acute, 5 1-4x2 7-8 inches, petiole 1-2 inch long. A good
bearer.
Yemon, Form oblate, distinctly four-sided; size medium,
2x3 inches; color dark red, base yellowish red, apex surrounded
by grayish-black lines; cavity medium large with two marked
depressions; apex a small black point; stem short and stout; ca-
lyx large, deeply four-parted; skin smooth, slightly resembling
leather, thin; flesh very sweet, soft, a jelly-like coating about
seeds and in seed cavities, color mixed, light yellow near skin,
dark in center; seeds four, elliptical, large, 7-8x1-2 inch, brown
in color; season October. Grown at the University of Florida.
Tree medium in size, spreading; grayish-brown in color; leaves
ovate, apex and base acute, 41-2x2 2-3 inches; petiole 9-16 inch
long.
Varieties Recommended for Planting. It is rather difficult
to say just what variety, or varieties, should be planted. With
persimmons, as with every other fruit, every planter has his
personal tastes. One person may have a decided preference for
a variety and he may be successful with it, while his neighbor may
be equally successful with another variety, because he likes that
variety. For home use several varieties should be planted, ranging
from the earliest to the latest. For this purpose, the following list
would be a good one: Yemon, Tanenashi, Zengi, Costata, Triumph
and Tsuru. For commercial purposes the season at which the dif-
ferent varieties could be shipped has no advantage as the early
varieties as well as the late ones come into competition with other
fruits in northern markets. The early varieties come into compe-
tition with the late peaches and grapes, and the late varieties with
apples and early oranges. The following is considered a good list
to select from for commercial purposes: Yemon, Tabers No. 129,
Tanenashi, Hachiya, Hyakume, Costata, Triumph and Tsuru.









BULLETIN NO. 71.


Propagation.
Trees may be secured from two sources: by buying them from
the nurseryman or each grower may grow stocks and scions and
propagate his trees at home; that is, the farmer may have a small
nursery of his own. Each source has some advantages and also
some disadvantages; each source also has some strong advocates.
If trees are secured from nurseries, often they are not true
to name and the propagating work may not have been well done;
this is true principally when nursery trees are bought from so-
called peddlers and unreliable nurseries. Then, too, the conditions
of climate, soil, etc., under which the trees have been grown in the
nursery are different from those on 'the farm where they are to
be planted. Sometimes this has a tendency to check the tree. Yet
this is not very important with the persimmon as the trees are very
hardy and will grow on almost any soil. Then by securing trees
from the nursery a person may gain from one to three years in time.
This is very important when a grower wishes to get his orchard into
bearing as soon as possible. To be sure, when one has no persim-
mon trees to begin with, nursery trees must generally be resorted
to. Three points should be kept well in mind when buying nur-
sery stock: first, never buy from unaccredited peddlers; second,
always buy from a reliable nursery; third, buy the best trees that
can be obtained.
The home grown trees also have advantages and disadvan-
tages. The propagating work is often done by inexperienced hands
and in many cases proves a failure. Scions are indiscriminately se-
lected with a poor tree as a result. The advantages of a home
grown tree are numerous if the work is properly performed. The
young trees are grown under conditions which are identical with
those under which the bearing trees are to grow. Then too, the
desired variety can be propagated, but most important of all, the









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


grower can propagate the individual tree. Every orchard has one
or movie trees which are superior to other trees belonging to the
same variety. These are the trees which should be propagated.
There should be no doubt as to what constitutes the best trees. The
best tree is not simply the one which bears the most fruit, for the
fruit may be of inferior value. Nor is.the best tree the one which
bears the largest specimens for the yield may still be small. In
general, it may be said that the best tree is the one which is least
affected by disease and year after year bears the largest number
of standard sized specimens of good quality.
Stocks. There are two kinds of stocks on which persimmons
may be grown: Japanese persimmon seedlings or seedlings of the
American persimmon, D. Virginiana. Both are good, but for Flor-
ida and for all the United States, the native persimmon furnishes
by far the best stock. It is more vigorous and so gives a larger tree
than does the Japanese stock. This is an important point as the
tree is inclined to be rather dwarf when grown in Florida. The
presence cf the American persimmon, as a native tree in Florida,
is good proof of the fact that Florida conditions are well suited to
it, and hence it makes a good stock. Then, too, the seeds can be
easily secured; and as they are plentiful, only the best seeds of the
healthiest and most vigorous trees may be selected, and lastly, only
the best seedlings. Many of the native persimmon trees can, and
should be, top grafted with Japanese varieties.
Seedlings for Stocks. The seed of the American persimmon
should be planted in a seed bed and not in the nursery row as is
often done. After the seedlings have attained a height of say ten
or twelve inches, transplant them to the nursery row. In the nur-
sery, the rows are placed about two feet apart and the plants are
placed six inches apart in the row. While in the nursery row, they









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


grower can propagate the individual tree. Every orchard has one
or movie trees which are superior to other trees belonging to the
same variety. These are the trees which should be propagated.
There should be no doubt as to what constitutes the best trees. The
best tree is not simply the one which bears the most fruit, for the
fruit may be of inferior value. Nor is.the best tree the one which
bears the largest specimens for the yield may still be small. In
general, it may be said that the best tree is the one which is least
affected by disease and year after year bears the largest number
of standard sized specimens of good quality.
Stocks. There are two kinds of stocks on which persimmons
may be grown: Japanese persimmon seedlings or seedlings of the
American persimmon, D. Virginiana. Both are good, but for Flor-
ida and for all the United States, the native persimmon furnishes
by far the best stock. It is more vigorous and so gives a larger tree
than does the Japanese stock. This is an important point as the
tree is inclined to be rather dwarf when grown in Florida. The
presence cf the American persimmon, as a native tree in Florida,
is good proof of the fact that Florida conditions are well suited to
it, and hence it makes a good stock. Then, too, the seeds can be
easily secured; and as they are plentiful, only the best seeds of the
healthiest and most vigorous trees may be selected, and lastly, only
the best seedlings. Many of the native persimmon trees can, and
should be, top grafted with Japanese varieties.
Seedlings for Stocks. The seed of the American persimmon
should be planted in a seed bed and not in the nursery row as is
often done. After the seedlings have attained a height of say ten
or twelve inches, transplant them to the nursery row. In the nur-
sery, the rows are placed about two feet apart and the plants are
placed six inches apart in the row. While in the nursery row, they









BULLETIN NO. 71.


should be grafted. After the graft is well established, the trees are
transplanted to the field where they are to remain. This trans-
planting them twice is of great importance as it gives the trees a
better root system. More laterals are formed and a good compact
system is the result. When the seed is planted in the nursery row
and then the trees into their permanent place in the field, a poor
root system is developed: a long tap root with few laterals.
Scions. The subject of scions is the most important one con-
nected with the propagation of trees. The value of the trees de-
pends almost entirely upon the scion; and the value of the scion
depends entirely upon the tree from which it is taken.
The greatest scrutiny should be practiced in the selection of
scions. First, decide upon a variety which you wish to propagate.
Then study the individual trees of that .variety. Study the quality
*of the fruit, healthfulness, vigor and productive power of the trees.
After giving these points careful study, select the trees which come
nearest to your ideal. Then select your scions from these trees.
Select them from that part of the tree which bears the most and
best fruit; generally this is on the branches most exposed to the
light and sun. The scions should be from four to six inches long
and should not exceed one-half inch in thickness. If possible the
scion wood should- not be cut until just before the grafting is done;
or, if it is cut in the fall, it should be stored in sphagnum during
the winter.

Grafting.
In Florida, persimmon trees are propagated by grafting.
Crown grafting is so much superior to root grafting that the latter
should never be employed in Florida. Two methods of crown graft-
ing are used: cleft-grafting and whip-grafting.









BULLETIN NO. 71.


should be grafted. After the graft is well established, the trees are
transplanted to the field where they are to remain. This trans-
planting them twice is of great importance as it gives the trees a
better root system. More laterals are formed and a good compact
system is the result. When the seed is planted in the nursery row
and then the trees into their permanent place in the field, a poor
root system is developed: a long tap root with few laterals.
Scions. The subject of scions is the most important one con-
nected with the propagation of trees. The value of the trees de-
pends almost entirely upon the scion; and the value of the scion
depends entirely upon the tree from which it is taken.
The greatest scrutiny should be practiced in the selection of
scions. First, decide upon a variety which you wish to propagate.
Then study the individual trees of that .variety. Study the quality
*of the fruit, healthfulness, vigor and productive power of the trees.
After giving these points careful study, select the trees which come
nearest to your ideal. Then select your scions from these trees.
Select them from that part of the tree which bears the most and
best fruit; generally this is on the branches most exposed to the
light and sun. The scions should be from four to six inches long
and should not exceed one-half inch in thickness. If possible the
scion wood should- not be cut until just before the grafting is done;
or, if it is cut in the fall, it should be stored in sphagnum during
the winter.

Grafting.
In Florida, persimmon trees are propagated by grafting.
Crown grafting is so much superior to root grafting that the latter
should never be employed in Florida. Two methods of crown graft-
ing are used: cleft-grafting and whip-grafting.









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


Cleft-grafting. This method has been quite extensively used
in grafting, due to the fact that the work is so easily performed.
The operation is very simple and requires but very little
skill. Furthermore, this method can be used on large stocks,
while whip grafting can be practiced only on stocks not ex-
ceeding one-inch in diameter. Cleft-grafting is nearly always em-
ployed in top working persimmons and its greatest value is for this
purpose. Cut the stock off squarely at the place where it is desired
to place the scion. Then with a grafting knife, split the stock
through the center and place the scions on each side of the stock
so that the cambium layers will be in close contact. The scion should
be sharpened at the lower end and the side which is to be in con-
tact with the cambium of the stock should be somewhat thicker
than the inner edge, making it wedge-shaped, with the thin edge
on the inside. This brings all the pressure of the stock on the cam-
bium layers, thereby uniting the two cambium layers more firmly.
This latter fact is of considerable importance.
Whip-grafting. This is the best method of grafting the per-
simmon in Florida if the stock is small. For the best results the
stock should not be over one-half inch in diameter; but stocks
one-inch in diameter can be successfully grafted by this method,
although the operation is more difficult. By this method a greater
area of the cambium layers of the stock and scion are brought in
contact. Then, too, the stock and scion can be held together more
securely. As the method is here illustrated, it will need but little
explanation.
Just at the surface of the ground a diagonal cut one or two
inches long is made on the stock. Then the stock is split vertically
for a short distance. A diagonal cut is then made at the lower
end of the scion. This cut surface of the scion is split similar to the









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


Cleft-grafting. This method has been quite extensively used
in grafting, due to the fact that the work is so easily performed.
The operation is very simple and requires but very little
skill. Furthermore, this method can be used on large stocks,
while whip grafting can be practiced only on stocks not ex-
ceeding one-inch in diameter. Cleft-grafting is nearly always em-
ployed in top working persimmons and its greatest value is for this
purpose. Cut the stock off squarely at the place where it is desired
to place the scion. Then with a grafting knife, split the stock
through the center and place the scions on each side of the stock
so that the cambium layers will be in close contact. The scion should
be sharpened at the lower end and the side which is to be in con-
tact with the cambium of the stock should be somewhat thicker
than the inner edge, making it wedge-shaped, with the thin edge
on the inside. This brings all the pressure of the stock on the cam-
bium layers, thereby uniting the two cambium layers more firmly.
This latter fact is of considerable importance.
Whip-grafting. This is the best method of grafting the per-
simmon in Florida if the stock is small. For the best results the
stock should not be over one-half inch in diameter; but stocks
one-inch in diameter can be successfully grafted by this method,
although the operation is more difficult. By this method a greater
area of the cambium layers of the stock and scion are brought in
contact. Then, too, the stock and scion can be held together more
securely. As the method is here illustrated, it will need but little
explanation.
Just at the surface of the ground a diagonal cut one or two
inches long is made on the stock. Then the stock is split vertically
for a short distance. A diagonal cut is then made at the lower
end of the scion. This cut surface of the scion is split similar to the









PLATE I,


Persimmon Propagation,
Scion and stock cut, ready for placing together. Scion and stock placed together, ready for wrapping,









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


stock. The two are then put together, the tongue of the scion being
inserted into the cleft of the stock. The cambium layers of the
two must be in close contact. The union is then tightly wrapped
with waxed cloth. If there are crevices, they must be filled with
grafting wax. -As soon as the stock and scion are well united, the
waxed cloth should be removed. This last operation is very es-
sential and should always be promptly attended to.
The best time to graft is when, stock and scion are in a dor-
mant condition. Winter or early spring just before growth starts
is the best time to graft. This will give the best conditions for a
rapid union of stock and scion.
Budding-Budding is more easily performed than grafting.
Although it is the leading method of propagating citrus trees in
Florida it is not successful with the persimmon, and should not
be employed.

Cultural,

Area of Cultivation. .The Japanese persimmon is now widely
cultivated to a greater or less extent throughout most of the
Southern United States and in parts of California. In the Southern
States the area adapted to its culture corresponds in a certain meas-
ure with the cotton belt. It cannot be grown successfully north of
Washington, although it has been fruited in New Jersey, and the
northern limit of profitable culture is considerably south of the
District of Columbia. The leading states are California, Tennessee
and the Gulf States. In Texas there are several large orchards, but
so far as known to the writers, the largest single orchard in the
country is that owned by Mr. William Macklin of Dinsmore, Fla.,
who has between two and three thousand trees. Florida probably
has the largest acreage of any state in the Union but the total









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


stock. The two are then put together, the tongue of the scion being
inserted into the cleft of the stock. The cambium layers of the
two must be in close contact. The union is then tightly wrapped
with waxed cloth. If there are crevices, they must be filled with
grafting wax. -As soon as the stock and scion are well united, the
waxed cloth should be removed. This last operation is very es-
sential and should always be promptly attended to.
The best time to graft is when, stock and scion are in a dor-
mant condition. Winter or early spring just before growth starts
is the best time to graft. This will give the best conditions for a
rapid union of stock and scion.
Budding-Budding is more easily performed than grafting.
Although it is the leading method of propagating citrus trees in
Florida it is not successful with the persimmon, and should not
be employed.

Cultural,

Area of Cultivation. .The Japanese persimmon is now widely
cultivated to a greater or less extent throughout most of the
Southern United States and in parts of California. In the Southern
States the area adapted to its culture corresponds in a certain meas-
ure with the cotton belt. It cannot be grown successfully north of
Washington, although it has been fruited in New Jersey, and the
northern limit of profitable culture is considerably south of the
District of Columbia. The leading states are California, Tennessee
and the Gulf States. In Texas there are several large orchards, but
so far as known to the writers, the largest single orchard in the
country is that owned by Mr. William Macklin of Dinsmore, Fla.,
who has between two and three thousand trees. Florida probably
has the largest acreage of any state in the Union but the total









BULLETIN NO. 71.


acreage has not yet been definitely ascertained. The conditions for
the culture of the Japanese persimmon in Florida are ideal, no
other state having soil and climatic conditions more suitable. It can
be grown from the extreme west to the extreme east and from the
Georgia boundary to the southern portion of the state.
Persimmon plantings have so increased in both California and
Florida, that the nursery supply of desirable varieties has been
entirely exhausted during the last two seasons.
Soils. In our State the Japanese persimmon is propagated en-
tirely upon native stocks. The native persimmon has a wide range
of soil adaptibility and specimens of it may be found growing in
the hammocks, on the high pine lands, or flat woods. Broadly speak-
ing, however, the best soil for the Japanese persimmon is one of
rather open texture containing a fair amount of humus and having
good drainage. Regarding the soil conditions in Japan, the Japan
Agricultural Society makes this statement: "The soil most adapted
to the plantation of the Kaki is the gravelly clay loam. In a situa-
tion neither too dry nor too damp; a free open space is neces-
sary. "
Preparation of the Soil. The soil should be thoroughly cleared
of all stumps, roots and trees, and put in a thorough state of till-
age before setting out the trees. They may be set in old fields with
good success, provided they are given plenty of plant food. In
fact, the native persimmon in our State may be regarded as an
"old field tree." If the soil is poor, however, something should
be done toward building it up before the trees are set. A crop of
beggarweed, velvet beans or cow peas should be grown, if possible,
the year previous and turned into the soil.
Distances. The Japan persimmon may be divided into two
groups, based upon the habit of the growth of the trees. Some










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


varieties, Costata for.instance, are strict and upright in habit, and
consequently require less space than varieties of more or less
spreading habit like Triumph and Hachiya. However, this differ-
ence in habit of growth need hardly be taken into consideration
in discussing the question of distances. As a general thing, 15 to
20 feet distance will be about right.
Time of' Planting. The best time to set Japanese persim-
mon trees is during the months of December and January. Pre-
ferably, they should be planted as early in the season as possible
so as to allow them to become well settled in the ground that they
may take advantage of the first opportunity to commence growth
in spring.
Setting the Trees. As a general rule, the roots of nursery-
grown Japanese persimmons are not good, when compared with
the root systems of other trees in this State. There is no question
but that the root system would be improved if the seedling stocks
were transplanted from the seed bed to the nursery rows before
they are grafted. This would have a tendency to increase the num-
ber of fibrous roots and the chances of success in transplanting
would be much improved. As a general thing, the native persim-
mon root is far from being an ideal root system. The lateral roots
are usually few in number and quite large. The greatest care
should be exercised in transplanting trees. The roots should not
be allowed to dry out in the least and a goodly application of water
should be given at the time of setting.
Fertilizing. The Japanese persimmon in common with all other
fruitsis benefited in our State by applications of fertilizers. Still,
in many cases it does not seem to need the same quantities as are
required by most other fruit trees.
As a result of experimental work at the Station, we have de-


95 :









BULLETIN NO. 71.


cided that a fertilizer analysing 3'per cent. nitrogen, 6 per cent.
phosphoric acid and 10 per cent. potash, applied at the rate of five
pounds per tree for six year old trees is about right.
It does not appear that the Japanese persimmon tree is in
any wise particular about the source of its food supply, in which
respect it distinctly differs from citrus fruits.
Experiments carried out on the station grounds to determine
the relation between the amount of potash in the fertilizer and the
dropping of the fruit during the early summer months gave nega-
tive results. Even when the potash content of the fertilizer was
doubled, the fruit did not hold any better than with a normal
amount. It appears that the dropping of the fruit may be due in
some cases to self-sterility, but on the other hand it is a noteworthy
fact that generally as the trees become older and increase in size,
the young fruits do not drop to such an extent.
All the nitrogen required by the trees may. be supplied by
growing beggarweed as a cover crop and this plan is recommended
wherever possible.
Cultivation. The cultivation of the persimmon plantation
should be much the same as that given citrus groves. On high, dry
soils, the ground should be cultivated frequently during the spring
months and should be discontinued after the rainy season begins.
Moist soils should be given little or no cultivation, but the cover
crop of weeds and beggarweed should be cut once or twice dur-
ing the season.
Pruning. While as a general rule the persimmon will do with
but little pruning, some varieties should be pruned to some extent.
Strict upright varieties, like Costata, should be headed back. On
the other hand those with thick bushy tops like Triumph and
Hachiya should be thinned out. All dead and injured branches


96 "










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


should be removed and at the time of planting the young trees
should be cut back to within two or two and one-half feet of the
ground.

Marketing.

Picking. The fruit should be gathered when it is fully ma-
tured and before it softens, if it is intended for long distance ship-
ments. It must be carefully handled so that the rind is not injured
and it should not be poured from one receptacle to another, but
handled entirely with the hands. It must be cut from the trees,
and for this purpose the best instrument is a pair of ordinary
orange clippers of the Weiss pattern. All injured or bruised speci-
mens should be discarded.
If the fruit is to be delivered to the home market it is pre-
ferable that it be allowed to become quite or nearly matured on
the trees. In Florida difficulty is usually encountered in allowing it
to ripen on the trees as the mocking birds are extremely fond of
the fruit. In view of this fact, the better plan .is to remove the
fruit from the trees when fully matured and just before it begins
to soften. Place it in a dry, warm room and allow it to ripen. The
flavor will be quite as good as when ripened on the trees.
Packing. The fruit may be packed immediately after removal
from the trees. It should be sized and graded. Two grades will be
sufficient and extremely small fruit should not be packed. The best
package for shipping the Ilaki is the six basket carrier, common-
ly used throughout the State for tomatoes and peaches. The fruit
should be wrapped, the wrapper being of the best quality, as it
is likely to be torn by the small, sharp, nipple-like point at the
apex of the fruit. In placing them in the baskets they must be put
in in regular order and each basket in the carrier should contain










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


should be removed and at the time of planting the young trees
should be cut back to within two or two and one-half feet of the
ground.

Marketing.

Picking. The fruit should be gathered when it is fully ma-
tured and before it softens, if it is intended for long distance ship-
ments. It must be carefully handled so that the rind is not injured
and it should not be poured from one receptacle to another, but
handled entirely with the hands. It must be cut from the trees,
and for this purpose the best instrument is a pair of ordinary
orange clippers of the Weiss pattern. All injured or bruised speci-
mens should be discarded.
If the fruit is to be delivered to the home market it is pre-
ferable that it be allowed to become quite or nearly matured on
the trees. In Florida difficulty is usually encountered in allowing it
to ripen on the trees as the mocking birds are extremely fond of
the fruit. In view of this fact, the better plan .is to remove the
fruit from the trees when fully matured and just before it begins
to soften. Place it in a dry, warm room and allow it to ripen. The
flavor will be quite as good as when ripened on the trees.
Packing. The fruit may be packed immediately after removal
from the trees. It should be sized and graded. Two grades will be
sufficient and extremely small fruit should not be packed. The best
package for shipping the Ilaki is the six basket carrier, common-
ly used throughout the State for tomatoes and peaches. The fruit
should be wrapped, the wrapper being of the best quality, as it
is likely to be torn by the small, sharp, nipple-like point at the
apex of the fruit. In placing them in the baskets they must be put
in in regular order and each basket in the carrier should contain










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


should be removed and at the time of planting the young trees
should be cut back to within two or two and one-half feet of the
ground.

Marketing.

Picking. The fruit should be gathered when it is fully ma-
tured and before it softens, if it is intended for long distance ship-
ments. It must be carefully handled so that the rind is not injured
and it should not be poured from one receptacle to another, but
handled entirely with the hands. It must be cut from the trees,
and for this purpose the best instrument is a pair of ordinary
orange clippers of the Weiss pattern. All injured or bruised speci-
mens should be discarded.
If the fruit is to be delivered to the home market it is pre-
ferable that it be allowed to become quite or nearly matured on
the trees. In Florida difficulty is usually encountered in allowing it
to ripen on the trees as the mocking birds are extremely fond of
the fruit. In view of this fact, the better plan .is to remove the
fruit from the trees when fully matured and just before it begins
to soften. Place it in a dry, warm room and allow it to ripen. The
flavor will be quite as good as when ripened on the trees.
Packing. The fruit may be packed immediately after removal
from the trees. It should be sized and graded. Two grades will be
sufficient and extremely small fruit should not be packed. The best
package for shipping the Ilaki is the six basket carrier, common-
ly used throughout the State for tomatoes and peaches. The fruit
should be wrapped, the wrapper being of the best quality, as it
is likely to be torn by the small, sharp, nipple-like point at the
apex of the fruit. In placing them in the baskets they must be put
in in regular order and each basket in the carrier should contain










PLATE II.


Fig. A. A basket of Tsuru Persimmons.


Fig. B, Packed crate of Tsuru Persimmons.










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


exactly the same number of fruits. The first row should be put in
with the base downward and if three layers are required to fill the
basket, the second one should be reversed, while the third layer
should be placed with apices upperward. The fruit should pro-
ject about one-half inch above the sides of the baskets. If the
fruit is to be sent into a new market, it will be a good idea to
place in each basket a small placard giving the name of the fruit
and stating how and at what stage of ripeness it should be eaten.
This will in some measure prevent attempts at eating it before
it is fully ripe and hence create a more favorable impression of
the fruit.
Some of the California shipments of Japanese persimmons to
the Eastern markets have been made in box carriers containing
a number of trays in which the fruit is placed in single layers'
This seems to be an excellent method for shipping them and when
opened on the market, they show up in inviting shape.
From time to time complaints have been made that the Japan-
ese persimmon did not carry well when shipped to Northern mar-
kets. Believing that this undesirable condition arose from ship-
ping the fruit when too ripe, three or four shipments were made
from the Department of Horticulture last autumn to determine
the carrying quality of the fruit when picked at the right time and
put up in good shape. One crate was shipped to Prof. F. W. Rane,
Durham, N. H., and was received on Oct. 15. Prof. Rane replied
as follows:
One box Costata Persimmons-1 fruit over-ripe, 1 fruit soft,
14 lard.
One box Costata Persimmons-1 fruit over-ripe, 2 fruits soft,
12 fruits.hard.
One box Tsuru, Persimmons-5 fruits over-ripe, 2 soft, 16
fruits hard. -. ..










BULLETIN NO. 71.


One box Zengi Persimmons.l fruit over-ilpe, 8 fruits- ripe,
25 fruits hard.
One box Triumph Persinuon.is-5 fruits ripe, 16 fruits hard.
I do not"understand why more of these are not sent to our
Northern markets; at least, they seem to come through in good
shape."
A second crate was sent to Prof. A. T. Erwin, Ames, Iowa,
who reported as follows:
"I am pleased to acknowledge receipt of your recent favor and
also the crate of persimmons which came to hand in nice shape *
As to condition upon arrival I am pleased to report as follows:
Tsuru. Twenty specimens per basket and three baskets. These
were all firm and in good condition and still unripe and astringent
ten days after arrival.
Costata. Ten fruits, one-half basket. Nearly ripe one week af-
ter arrival, quality good and all of them were in firm condition.
Triumph. Twenty-five fruits per basket aid two and one-half
baskets. Ripe one week after arrival. All the fruits of this variety
opened up in good shape, with the exception of one which was
slightly bruised and soft. In fact, the whole shipment came through
in the best of condition and opened up in nice shape."
Small shipments were also made to Prof. F. A. Waugh, Am-
herst, Mass., and to Prof. U. P. Hedrick, Agricultural College,
Mich, and these went through in good shape.
In regard to his experiences in marketing a small lot of Kaki
of the Triumph variety, Mr. Walter Cooper, Sorrento, Fla., under
date of Dec. 18, 1903, wrote the Department as follows:
"I have not many varieties of persimmons in cultivation, and
not many large trees. In fact, while I have possibly 100 small, one
and two year grafts of Triumph now in cultivation, I have but










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


one large tree of this variety. This is a beauty and of handsome
shape.- For the season of 1901 it gave me thirteen packed crates,
thiovr p-'rk to the crate, and in" 1902 :t-'gave eighteen packed
crates. The cold spell of February 15th, or thereabout, last spring
injured the coming crop to the extent that I had only about two
crates on this same tree. Season of 1901 Triumph sold at $3.00
per crate for the entire crop in Philadelphia. Season of 1902
prices were $2.00 to $2.25 per crate."
Uses. In Japan where the persimmon has been in cultivation
for centuries a number of different ways of preserving and pre-
paring the fruit for consumption are in common use. The fol-
lowing letter from Prof. Kizo Tamari of the Agricultural College,
Imperial University, Tokio, Japan, gives the different methods in
use in that country:
"I duly received your favor and am glad to reply to your
inquiries cn the Japan persimmon, Kaki. I presume you know
that there are two distinct varieties of Kaki, the sweet one and the
austere varieties. The sweet varieties are readily eaten and I
think what you want to know is how to cure the austere varieties,.
hence, I will tell you how to treat the austere varieties so as to make
them edible or change them into sweet ones in the following ways:
First Method-When fairly ripened pick the fruit from the
trees, peel off the skin and hang them by threads attached to the
stems in a room for two or three weeks. They will then turn
brown' or black and become soft. You will say they are the most
delicious fruits in the world and dried still further, they will be-
come just like dried figs, or better than figs. Further, pack them
in a box in alternate layers with cut rice straw and keep them for
a month. Black ones then become covered with a white powder (not
mouldy.) They then become very sweet, though the sweetness may










BULLETIN NO. 71.


not be retained through the next summer.
Second method-Harvesting time being the same as above,
the fruits are packed into'an empty wine cask, (in Japan Sake
casks, Japanese.rice wine). This should still be full of alcoholic
flavor, or if the flavor be weak, the cask should be sprinkled with
wine or brandy or any other spirit. Sherry wine somewhat resem-
bles our Sake. Sprinkle the fruits very slightly with wine and
keep covered air tight for a week or two according to the tempera-
ture and the degree of austereness of the fruit. At the end of the
time they become sweet.
Other Methods: The process of sweetening is not merely
limited to the above methods, but the fruit may be treated .in
several other ways; for instance, put new rice straws and dried
haulms of sweet potato in about equal proportions in a vat, fill-
ing it about one-fifth full. To this add a little wood.ashes and
pour warm water over them. Stir up the straw so as to get it
thoroughly wet. When the water is tepid, put in fruit to fill it
one-quarter to one-third full and stir up to wet the fruit and
imbed it in the straw. Cover the vat for five or seven days, after
which time the fruit will be fit to eat. The fruits thus cured,
are not as sweet as those cured by the Sake cask process."
These methods of preparing the fruit are applied only to
the astringent or light-fleshed varieties and not to the dark-fleshed
which really never become astringent.
In this -country the Japan persimmon is valued chiefly as
a dessert fruit, eaten raw.. When fully matured, the flesh becomes
jelly-like and may be readily, scooped out with a spoon. Some
prefer to add cream, while others eat the fruit without it. It may
be used in making marmalades and puddings, and perhaps in
other ways.












JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


In Japan a valuable juice is expressed from the green fruit

and used as a varnish. It is known as "Kakishibu.'"

Some idea of the food value of the Japanese persimmon may

be obtained from the following analyses by J. B. McBryde, chem-

ist of the Tennessee Experiment Station, published in Bulletin

1, vol. xl, of that station. The specimens of fruit from which these

analyses were made were obtained from Florida and Georgia.


,-


No. 1. Hachiya ............................
No. 2. Tsuru.............................. 194
No. 3. Hiyakume........................ 175
No. 4. Yemon ............................ 150


Sugar. a Proximate analysis
Sur 3 of Pulp.


a. .c S e '
i '- a a

) io 0 dd, 4

Seed- 16.83 16.83 .1 71.77 0.93 26.42 0.88
less 15.67 15.67 .1 73.46 0.74 25.16 0.64
1.71 17.83 17.52 .1 70.17 1.10 27.58 1.15
Seed-15.99 15.99 .1 76.26 0.45 22.69 0.6J
less


Sugar. Proximate analysis.
---- ^----------


2 g 3 5-t" a

Persimmons, eight analyses......................... 18.57 | 16.98 I 0.15 ] 68.49 | 0.67 1 29.95 1 0.89

As pointed out by Professor McBryde, the persimmon is richer

in sugar than either apples, cherries, strawberries or oranges, while

Prof. G. E. Colby found the California samples to contain nearly

as much sugar as the French prune and the white Adriatic fig,

and 2 per cent less sugar than the average California grape.












PERSIMMON INSECTS.

H. A. Gossard.

White Peach Scale, Diaspis pentagon. This insect is a dan-
gerous enemy to the persimmon and attacks the Japanese varieties
as well as the natives. Fortunately, it is not widely distributed
in Florida, but is known to occur in Escambia and Duval Couu-
ties and is reported to occur in another county. The latter re-
port lacks confirmation, but is probably correct. A description
and the life history of the insect is given in bulletin No. 61 of
this station.
The most satisfactory remedy is probably found in lime-salt-
sulphur wash. One application should be made when the trees
are thoroughly dormant, about the last of December, and a second
application just before growth starts in the Spring, about the
middle or latter part cf February.
San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus.-This pest does not
often attack the Japanese varieties seriously, but occasionally be-
comes bad on the native persimmon. The remedy is the same as
for the preceding.
The Twig Girdler, Oncideres cingulatus.-The twig girdler's
work is well known on various hard wood trees, such as hickory,
pecan and oak, and it has the reputation of being partial to the
persimmon, though I have not observed the insect to be worse
on it, or as bad, as upon the trees mentioned. The eggs are thrust
beneath the bark, after which the female makes a straight, smooth
cut around the limb, either completing the work or so nearly
severing the twig that the first strong wind carries it to the ground.
The twig absorbs enough moisture from the earth to enable the









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


young sawyer to develop and the following summer it leaves the
wood, going into the ground to pupate. It issues as an adult in
late summer, usually in September.
Remedy. Pick up all twigs cut by the girdler and burn dur-
ing fall and winter.
The Orange White Fly, Aleyrodes citri.-This insect is found
sparsely on Japan persimmons when planted near infested orange
groves or other plants which'suppport it in numbers. It does not
seem to perceptibly damage the persimmon, and is mentioned
chiefly for the purpose of warning orchardists that the white fly
may be introduced icto new localities upon this plant.
Miscellaneous.- Wasps, bees and flies frequent the fruit when
ripe, especially after it has been pecked by birds or after the
skin has been split through any cause.


INDEX OF AMERICAN LITERATURE ON THE PERSIMMON,

As already noted, the Japanese persimnion literature in Amer-
ica is quite scant and scattered. The references given below em-
brace practically all of importance that has been published in
America by the Experiment Stations, United States Department
of Agriculture, in Horticultural Works, and the reports of horti-
cultural societies. References to the literature of the native per-
simmon, Diospyrus Virginiana, are also given.
Bailey, L. H. The Persimmon, in the Evolution of our Native
Fruits. New York. The Macmillan Co., Copyrighted. 1898.
Pp. 433-441.
--Kaki, or Japanese Persimmon, in Annals of Horticulture.
New York. Orange Judd Company. Copyrighted 1894. Pp.
92 and 126. 1894.









BULLETIN NO. 71.


Barber, C. E. Kaki, or Persimmon, in Proc. Sixteenth Annl.
Meet. Fla. State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter
& Co. 1893. Pp. 57. 1893.
Bartram, Isaac. A Memoir on the Distillation of Persimmon. In
Trans. Amer. Phil. So. 1, 301. 1889.
Berckmans, P. J. The Japanese Persimmon, in Cyclopedia of
American Horticulture, by L. H. Bailty. New York: The
Macmillan Co. Copyrighted 1901. Pp. 1281-1282. 1902.
Bielby, C. S. The Kaki, in Proc. Seventh Annl. Meet. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co. 1894. Pp.
40 and 44.
Colby, George E. Partial Analysis of Seedless Persimmon, in
Report of Work of Agricultural Experimental Station, Uni-
versity of California. 1894-95. Sacramento:A. J. Johnston.
Pp. 183. 1896.
Emerson, Governeur. Persimmon (Diospyrus Virginiana), in The
American Farmers' Encyclopedia. New York: A. O. Moore.
Copyrighted 1857.- Pp. 889. 1858.
Griffing, W. D. Kaki, in Proc. Fourteenth Annual Meet. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co. 1901.
Pp. 84. 1901.
Hadley, C. F. See Troop J., and Hadley, O. M.
Harcourt, Helen. Japanese Persimmon, in Florida Fruits and
How to Raise Them. Louisville, Ky.: Jno. P. Morton &
Co. Copyrighted 1886. Pp. 284-286. 1886.
Hart, -E. H. The Persimmon, in the American Fruit Culturist,
20th edition, by Jno. J. Thomas. New York: Win. Wood
& Co. Copyrighted 1897. Pp. 605-613. 1897.
--The Persimmon, in The American Fruit Culturist, 21st edition,
by John J. Thomas. Revised and enlarged by William









JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


H. S. Wood. New York: William Wood & Co. Copyrighted
1903. Pp. 669-677 and 782. 1903.
Hart, W. S. Kaki, in Proc. Thirteenth Annual Meet. Florida
State Horticultural Society. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter
& Co. 1900. Pp. 103. 1900.
Henderson, Peter. Date Plum, Persimmon, in Henderson's Hand-
book of Plants and General Horticulture. New York. Peter
Henderson & Co. Copyrighted 1889. Pp. 128-129. 1890.
Keck, Irving. Kaki, in Proc. Sixteenth Annual Meet. Florida
State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. 0. Painter & Co. 1903.
Pp. 58. 1903.
Lipsey, L. W. The Kaki, in Proc. Sixth Annual Meet. Fla. State
Short. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co. 1893. Pp.
37-40. 1893. /
Livingstone, B. F. The Kaki, in Proc. Sixteenth Annual Meet.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.:E. O. Painter & Co.
1903. Pp. 162. 1903.
Loring, Geo. B. The Japan Persimmon, in Report of the United
States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1883.
Pp. 4. 1884.
--Japan Persimmon, in Report of the United States Department
of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1883. Pp. 7. 1884.
McBryde, J. B. Notes on -the Chemistry of the Persimmon, in
Bulletin No. 1, Vol. XI. Knoxville, Tenn. University Press.
1899. Pp. 220-223. 1899.
Palmer, E. The Persimmon, in United States Department of
Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 1870. Pp. 417. 1871.
Powers, S. Kaki-Japanese Persimmon, in Proc. Thirteenth An-
nual Meet. State Hort. Soc., Catalogue of Fruits. DeLand,
Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co. 1900. Pp. xiv. 1900.









BULLETIN NO. 71.


Ragan, W. H. Kakis, Japanese Persimmons, in Revised Cata-
logue of Fruits, Bulletin No. 8, Division of Pomology, U. S.
Department of Agriculture, Washington, D. C.: Government
Printing Press. 1899. Pp. 54. 1899.
Reasoner, P. W. Kaki, or Japan Persimmon, in The Condition
of Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruits in the U. S. in 1887.
Washington: Government Printing Office. 1891. Pp. 108-109.
1891.
Report of United States Department of Agriculture. 1870. Per-
simmon in Mississippi Valley. Pp. 417.
Saunders, William. Japan Persimmons, in Report of the United
States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 1876.
Pp. 68. 1877.
--Japan Persimmon, in Report of the United States Depart-
ment of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 1878. Pp. 195.
1879.
--The Japan Persimmon, in Report of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 1886. Pp.
692-693. 1887.
--Japan Persimmons, in Report of the United States Depart-
ment of Agricnlture. Washington, D. C. 1889. Pp. 121.
1890.
--Japan Persimmons, in Yearbook of the United States De-
partment of Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1897. Pp. 187.
1898.
Stewart, A. W. The Persimmon, in Proc. Eighth Annual Meet.
Fla. State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co.
1895. Pp. 78. 1895.
Taber, G. L. Another Estimate of the Japanese Persimmons, in
Cyclopedia of American Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey. New










JAPANESE PERSIMMONS.


York: The Macmillan Co. Copyrighted 1901. Pp. 1282-1283.
1902.
Tamari, Kizo. The Japanese Persimmon, in Rep. Mich. Hort. Soe.
Lansing, Mich. Thorp & Godfrey. 1886. Pp. 90-91. 1886.
Troop, J. and Hadley, O. M. The American Persimmon, in Bul-
letin No. 60, Vol. VII, Ind. Exp. Sta. Lafayette, Ind. '1886.
Pp. 41-45. 1887.
Troop, J. The Native Persimmon, in Cyclopedia of American
Horticulture, by L. H. Bailey, New York: The Macmillan
Co. Copyrighted 1901. Pp. 1281. 1902.
Van Deman, H. E. The Japan Persimmon, in Report of the
United States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.
C. 1886. Pp. 261. 1887.
--The Kaki (or Japanese Persimmon), in Report of the United
States Department of Agriculture. Washington, D. C. 1887.
Pp. 642-645. 1888.
--The Kaki, in Report of the United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1889. Pp. 449-450. 1890.
--The Kaki, in Report of the United States Department of
Agriculture, Washington, D. C. 1890. Pp. 422-423. 1891.
--Special Investigation of the Kaki in Georgia and Florida,
in Report of the United States Department of Agriculture,
Washington, D. C. 1891. Pp. 385-389. 1892.
Kaki, in Report of the United States Department of Agri-
culture. Washington, D. C. 1892. Pp. 259 and 266. 1893.
Watts, R. L. Persimmons, American and Japanese, in Tenn. Exp.
Station Bul. No. 1, Vol. XI, Knoxville, Tenn., University Press.
1899. Pp. 191-219. 1899.
Waugh, F. A. The Persimmon, in Systematic Pomology. New










BULLETIN NO. 71.


York. Orange Judd Co. Copyrighted 1903. Pp. 205-206.
1903.
Whitner, J.'N. Japan Persimmon, or Date Plum, in Gardening
in Florida. Second edition. Jacksonville, Fla.: C. W. Da-
Costa. Pp. 207-210. 1885.
Wickson, E. J. The Persimmon, in California Fruits. Third
edition. San Francisco, Cal.: Pacfic Rural Press.. Copyright-
ed 1899. Pp. 384-385. 1900.
Woodworth, N. The Kaki, in Proc. Sixth Annual Meet. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. DeLand, Fla.: E. O. Painter & Co. 1893.
Pp. 52-54. 1893.
H. HAROLD HUME,
F. C. REIMER.

Footnote.-The writers desire to acknowledge the kindness
of Col. G. B. Brackett, U. S. D. A.; G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary,
Fla.; Walter Cooper, Sorrento, Fla.; T. K. Godbey, Waldo, Fla.;
Wm. Macklin, Dinsmore, Fla.; and Professors Rane, Irwin .and
Tamari for kindly assistance in the preparation of this bulletin.


















The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-

tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by

addressing the director of the Experimernt Station, University of

Florida, Lake City, Fla.:


Fertilizers.........................pp. 48
Annual Report .................... 32
Leeches and Leeching ............ 17
Big Head .................. .... .. 19
Pineapple ....................... 14
Liver Fluke Southern Cattle
Fever. ....................... 15
The San Jose Scale............... 28
The Culture of Tobacco.........." 28
Cotton and Its Cultivation ........ 4
Orange Groves................. 33
Insect Enemies ........... ....... 96
Insects Injurious to Grain ........" 31
Pineapple ........................ 15
Tobacco in Florida........... "... 63
Strawberries ................... 48
The Fall Army Worm............. 8
The San Jose Scale............... 30
Some Strawberry Insects...... .. 55
A Chemical Study of Some Typi-
cal Florida Soils................. pp.128


Some Common Florida Scales.... 24
Baking Powders .................. 15
Some Citrus Troubles..... ....... 35
Pecan Culture..................... 31
Feeding With Florida Feed Stuffs 95
The Cottony Cushion Scale....... 48
Top-working of Pecans........... 124
Pomelos............ .......... ... 43
Cauliflower ......................... 20
Velvet Beans .. ................... 24
Two Peach Scales................. 32
Peen-to Peach Group.............. 22
Packing Citrus Fruits.............. Folio
Texas Fever and Salt Sick....... p31
The Kumquats................... 14
The Mandarin Orange Group...... 32
The White Fly .................... 94
Pineapple Culture. I. Soils...... 35
Cultivation of Citrus Groves...... 30
Pineapple Culture. II. Varieties" 32


PRESS BULLETINS.


1 Directions for Preparation of Bordeaux
Mixture.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture.
3 Seed Testing.
4 The White Fly.
5 Basic Slag.
6 Nursery Inspection (part 1).
7 Nursery Inspection (part 2).
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in
the Spring and Held for Fall Planting.
9 Sore Head..
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot.
11 Vinegar.
12 Seed Beds and Their Management.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods
18 Cantaloupe Blight.
19 Cut Worms.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
S21 Parturient Paralysis.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer,


23 Protection Against Drought.
24 Orange Mites.
25 Roup.
26 Lumpy Jaw.
27 Cover Crops.
28 Moon Blindness.
29 Food Adulteration.
30 Dehorning Cattle.
31 Coffee.
32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
34 Ox Warbles.
35 Butter.
36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
37 Velvet Bean.
38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
ulations.
39 Lung Worms in Swine.
40 and 41 Glanders.
42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
diments.
43 How to Feed a Horse.
44 Tree Planting.
45 The Sugar-cane Borer.




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