• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 History
 Uses
 Soil
 Saving seed-cane
 Cane for planting
 Preparation of seed-bed
 Planting
 Fertilizing
 Cultivation
 Harvesting
 Japanese cane and velvet beans
 Analysis






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 105
Title: Japanese cane for forage
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026699/00001
 Material Information
Title: Japanese cane for forage
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 53-68 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1911
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026699
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921828
oclc - 18160299
notis - AEN2296

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Table of Contents
        Page 55
        Page 56
    Introduction
        Page 57
    History
        Page 58
    Uses
        Page 58
        Pasture
            Page 59
        Silage
            Page 59
        Dry forage
            Page 59
    Soil
        Page 60
    Saving seed-cane
        Page 60
    Cane for planting
        Page 61
    Preparation of seed-bed
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Planting
        Page 64
    Fertilizing
        Page 64
        Page 65
    Cultivation
        Page 66
    Harvesting
        Page 66
    Japanese cane and velvet beans
        Page 67
    Analysis
        Page 67
        Page 68
Full Text


FEBRUARY, 1911


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




JAPANESE CANE FOR FORAGE

BY
JOHN M. SCOTT


Fig. 4.-Foraging on Japanese Cane in January.

The Station bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville.


RECORD COMPANY
42111


BULLETIN 105













BOARD OF CONTROL.

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARrTANN, Citra, Fla.
F. P. FLEMING, Jr., Jacksonville, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.



STATION STAFF.

P. H. ROLFS, M. S., Director.
J. M. ScoTT, B. S., Animal Industrialist and Assistant Director.
A. W. BLAIR, A. M., Chemist.
E. W. BERGER, Ph. D., Entomologist.
H. S. FAWcETT, M. S., Plant Pathologist.
B. F. FLOYD, A. M., Plant Physiologist.
JOHN BELLING, B. Sc., Assistant Botanist and Editor.
S. E. COLLISON, M. S., Assistant Chemist.
A. P. SPENCER,* M. S., Assistant in Extension Work.
C K. McQUARRIE,* Assistant Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.
JOHN SCHNABEL, Assistant Horticulturist.
O. F. BURGER, A. B., Laboratory Assistant to Plant Pathologist.
U. C. LOFTIN, B. S., Laboratory Assistant to Entomologist.
MRS. E. W. BERGER, Librarian.
JESSIE URNER, Secretary.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper.
M. CREWS, Farm Foreman.
KATE BOULWARE,* Stenographer.


*Give all their time to extension work.






















CONTENTS

PAGE
Introduction .............. ........................ 57

H history ............................... ...... ................... 58

U ses ................. ................. ................ ............. 58

Pasture ................................................ 59

Silage ............................. .. ..................... .. 59

Dry Forage .............................................. 59

Soil ......................................................... 60

Saving Seed-Cane ................................................ .0

Cane for Planting.............. ... ................. ............. ........ 61

Preparation of Seed-bed..................... ...... ... ................ 62

Planting ........................................ .... ... 64

Feitilizing ........................................................... 64

Cultivation ................. .... ............... ........... 66

Harvesting .................. ............. .. ........***............... 66

Japanese Cane and Velvet Beans ................ ....... .. ........... 67

Analysis ............ .................................. ............. 67























IMPORTANT FACTS


1. The great need of Florida stockmen is an abundance of nutritious forage.

2. Japanese cane is the cheapest forage and silage crop that we can grow.

3. Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last for many years
if properly cared for.

4. Japanese cane will supply an abundance of good pasturage during the
time of the year when this is most needed.

5. To obtain the best results in feeding, Japanese cane should be fed in
combination with feeds rich in protein.

6. Japanese cane produces good yields of forage on a variety of soils.

7. Japanese cane has an immense root system and is a heavy feeder; hence
it should be given a liberal application of fertilizer.

8. Japanese cane should not be pastured in the spring after new growth
begins.

9. Japanese cane should be well matured before it is harvested.











JAPANESE CANE

By JOHN M. ScoTT

INTRODUCTION

For the successful production of live stock it is important to have
an abundance of feed and forage at all times. If the natural grasses
do not afford this, we must plan our crop rotation so as to supply the
feed when needed. It may be that the natural grasses will supply
sufficient feed for all live-stock, except for a short period during the
winter months or during a severe drought. It is just at such times
that the animals most need our help. If we fail to supply sufficient
food to young growing animals, development is retarded or growth
stops. We get as a result undersized and poorly developed beasts, and
often what are commonly known as runts. Such stunted animals
never develop into as good live-stock as do those individuals that are
kept growing from birth to maturity.
During the past ten years the numbers of cattle in this State have
doubled. On January 1, 1900, we had 412,820 head of cattle. On
January 1, 1910, there were 807,000 head of cattle. If the number of
cattle should increase as rapidly inthe next ten years as in the last
ten years, we shall own one million and a half head in 1920. Such a
rapid increase would require that our farmers take steps to produce
enough forage to properly feed the increment. There will probably
be a like increase in hogs and sheep, and also a considerable increase
in the number of horses and mules. The needed extra supply of forage
can easily be obtained by the growing of Japanese cane. There is no
other crop that we can grow that will produce such a large yield of
forage at so small a cost.
Florida is more of a live-stock State than many realize. On Janu-
ary 1, 1910, there were 807,000 head of cattle, 98,000 sheep, and 456,-
000 hogs. These are all forage-eating animals. To supply the needs
of all these animals we must provide forage of some kind from No-
vember to March. Japanese cane is a crop that supplies a large amount
of roughage at the very time of the year when the natural pasturage is
limited. The want of an abundant supply of forage is one of the
hindrances to the production of good live-stock in Florida. Stock-
men have been negligent in supplying the necessary food to maintain






58 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

their live-stock during the winter seasons and during the times of
severe drought. To produce a good grade of live-stock an abundance
of good feed must be supplied. The best forage to grow is one that
will produce the best yield per acre, and that will supply the largest
amount of nutrition in the feed. As well as being nutritious it must,
of course, be palatable.
HISTORY
Japanese cane was introduced into Florida from the Louisiana
Sugar Experiment Station some sixteen or eighteen years ago. The
Louisiana Station grew it for a number of years for comparison with
other varieties of sugar-cane as a source of sugar and syrup. It is
rather probable that the Japanese cane was imported from Japan into
Louisiana by General LeDuc, U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture,
1878. (There is, however, also a possibility that it came from Bra-
zil.) However, the question as to where it came from is of secondary
importance. The question of most importance is how we can so
handle Japanese cane as to obtain the best results in feeding it to our
live-stock.
USES
Its chief value to the farmers of Florida is as a forage crop for the
feeding of live-stock. It may be used as silage, winter pasture, or dry

JI



















Fig. 5.-Japanese Cane in October.
forage. When first introduced to Florida, Japanese cane was grown
for the production of syrup. In most sections of the State and under






58 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

their live-stock during the winter seasons and during the times of
severe drought. To produce a good grade of live-stock an abundance
of good feed must be supplied. The best forage to grow is one that
will produce the best yield per acre, and that will supply the largest
amount of nutrition in the feed. As well as being nutritious it must,
of course, be palatable.
HISTORY
Japanese cane was introduced into Florida from the Louisiana
Sugar Experiment Station some sixteen or eighteen years ago. The
Louisiana Station grew it for a number of years for comparison with
other varieties of sugar-cane as a source of sugar and syrup. It is
rather probable that the Japanese cane was imported from Japan into
Louisiana by General LeDuc, U. S. Commissioner of Agriculture,
1878. (There is, however, also a possibility that it came from Bra-
zil.) However, the question as to where it came from is of secondary
importance. The question of most importance is how we can so
handle Japanese cane as to obtain the best results in feeding it to our
live-stock.
USES
Its chief value to the farmers of Florida is as a forage crop for the
feeding of live-stock. It may be used as silage, winter pasture, or dry

JI



















Fig. 5.-Japanese Cane in October.
forage. When first introduced to Florida, Japanese cane was grown
for the production of syrup. In most sections of the State and under






BULLETIN o05


the usual conditions, the regular sugar-canes are much more satisfac-
tory as crops for syrup production. This is because the Japanese
cane is harder, and requires more power in grinding. It is also more
difficult to strip, which increases the cost of stripping. However, as
regards the quality of the syrup, there is but little difference between.
the regular sugar-canes and Japanese cane. The yield of syrup per
acre from Japanese cane will vary from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of Japanese cane will be
all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi,
Louisiana and southern Texas. Any section in which the velvet bean
will mature seed will be found a good place to grow the Japanese
cane. This will be up to 200 to 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.

PASTURE
Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle of No-
vember to March. Cattle waste but little of it when pastured. They
first eat off the green blades, then the tender joints at the top, and con-
tinue to eat from the top until there is nothing left but the short
stubble. It should not be pastured late in the spring. If pastured
after growth starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will eat off the new
growth and soon kill out the'plants. It is not advisable to pasture later
than March 1, or after new growth begins in the spring.

SILAGE
Japanese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is relished by
cattle, and the yield that can be secured makes it one of the cheapest
and most economical crops that the Florida farmer can grow for
silage. It has been used in feeding experiments with the dairy herd at
the Experiment Station with quite satisfactory results. The cost of
silage from this crop should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per ton. As
compared with sorghum or corn silage the cost is about one-third less
for Japanese cane silage.
DRY FORAGE
Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry winter forage.
It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in storage is small. If it is
stored in a barn or shed there will be hardly any loss. At the Experi-
ment Station we have stored it in a barn in November and December
and kept it until the following June and July. Six months after har-
vesting there was practically no loss; and when run through a feed
cutter it was relished by cattle, horses and mules. If barn or shed
room is not available, it can be stored in the barn-yard and fed out as






BULLETIN o05


the usual conditions, the regular sugar-canes are much more satisfac-
tory as crops for syrup production. This is because the Japanese
cane is harder, and requires more power in grinding. It is also more
difficult to strip, which increases the cost of stripping. However, as
regards the quality of the syrup, there is but little difference between.
the regular sugar-canes and Japanese cane. The yield of syrup per
acre from Japanese cane will vary from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of Japanese cane will be
all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi,
Louisiana and southern Texas. Any section in which the velvet bean
will mature seed will be found a good place to grow the Japanese
cane. This will be up to 200 to 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.

PASTURE
Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle of No-
vember to March. Cattle waste but little of it when pastured. They
first eat off the green blades, then the tender joints at the top, and con-
tinue to eat from the top until there is nothing left but the short
stubble. It should not be pastured late in the spring. If pastured
after growth starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will eat off the new
growth and soon kill out the'plants. It is not advisable to pasture later
than March 1, or after new growth begins in the spring.

SILAGE
Japanese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is relished by
cattle, and the yield that can be secured makes it one of the cheapest
and most economical crops that the Florida farmer can grow for
silage. It has been used in feeding experiments with the dairy herd at
the Experiment Station with quite satisfactory results. The cost of
silage from this crop should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per ton. As
compared with sorghum or corn silage the cost is about one-third less
for Japanese cane silage.
DRY FORAGE
Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry winter forage.
It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in storage is small. If it is
stored in a barn or shed there will be hardly any loss. At the Experi-
ment Station we have stored it in a barn in November and December
and kept it until the following June and July. Six months after har-
vesting there was practically no loss; and when run through a feed
cutter it was relished by cattle, horses and mules. If barn or shed
room is not available, it can be stored in the barn-yard and fed out as






BULLETIN o05


the usual conditions, the regular sugar-canes are much more satisfac-
tory as crops for syrup production. This is because the Japanese
cane is harder, and requires more power in grinding. It is also more
difficult to strip, which increases the cost of stripping. However, as
regards the quality of the syrup, there is but little difference between.
the regular sugar-canes and Japanese cane. The yield of syrup per
acre from Japanese cane will vary from 150 to 500 gallons.
The locality best suited for the growing of Japanese cane will be
all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Alabama, southern Mississippi,
Louisiana and southern Texas. Any section in which the velvet bean
will mature seed will be found a good place to grow the Japanese
cane. This will be up to 200 to 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.

PASTURE
Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle of No-
vember to March. Cattle waste but little of it when pastured. They
first eat off the green blades, then the tender joints at the top, and con-
tinue to eat from the top until there is nothing left but the short
stubble. It should not be pastured late in the spring. If pastured
after growth starts in the spring the cattle or hogs will eat off the new
growth and soon kill out the'plants. It is not advisable to pasture later
than March 1, or after new growth begins in the spring.

SILAGE
Japanese cane makes a good silage. It keeps well, is relished by
cattle, and the yield that can be secured makes it one of the cheapest
and most economical crops that the Florida farmer can grow for
silage. It has been used in feeding experiments with the dairy herd at
the Experiment Station with quite satisfactory results. The cost of
silage from this crop should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per ton. As
compared with sorghum or corn silage the cost is about one-third less
for Japanese cane silage.
DRY FORAGE
Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry winter forage.
It is an easy crop to cure and the loss in storage is small. If it is
stored in a barn or shed there will be hardly any loss. At the Experi-
ment Station we have stored it in a barn in November and December
and kept it until the following June and July. Six months after har-
vesting there was practically no loss; and when run through a feed
cutter it was relished by cattle, horses and mules. If barn or shed
room is not available, it can be stored in the barn-yard and fed out as






60 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

wanted. But with this method the loss will be considerable. It will
be found profitable to put up a temporary shed under which to store
the dry forage. This need not be an expensive shelter. It may be
made of any material that will shed rain. It will perhaps be advisable
when stacking the forage to set the butts of the canes on the ground.
In this way the canes absorb some of the moisture from the soil, and
will not dry out so much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding experiment in
beef production. In this test the following feeds per 1,000 pounds live
weight were fed: corn, 12.50; velvet beans in the pod, 18.75; sweet
potatoes, 20.8; and Japanese cane, 12.50 pounds. During a period of
sixty days th6 steers made a daily average gain per 1,000 pounds live
weight of 6.5 pounds, at a cost of 4 cents per pound of gain.

SOIL

Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils. Good
hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest yields. But even
the high pine lands will give good returns when properly fertilized.
On swampy muck land Japanese cane will make a fairly good growth.
On such land the growth will be greatly increased by an application
of lime (ground limestone, or burnt lime). The amount of this which
it is necessary to apply will depend upon the amount of acid in the
soil, and will vary from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone,
or one-half these amounts of air-slacked lime per acre. An applica-
tion at the rate of 2,000 pounds of ground limestone per acre on high
pine land on the Experiment Station farm increased the yield to the
extent of 10.37 tons per acre during the season of 1909.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a few acres of Japanese
cane, whether he has the class of soil best suited to it or not. If it
is not the best soil, Japanese cane will produce as heavy a yield as will
any other crop that can be grown on the same soil, or even a heavier
yield. High pine land properly fertilized will give a yield of 15 to 20
tons per acre. Good hammock land will produce yields beyond these
figures.
SAVING SEED-CANE

Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last many years
if properly handled. This in itself causes quite a saving in the expense
of growing the crop. In fact, it reduces -the annual cost of produc-
tion by about 50 per cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes or by divisions
of the stools. The cheapest and most economical way of propagating






60 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

wanted. But with this method the loss will be considerable. It will
be found profitable to put up a temporary shed under which to store
the dry forage. This need not be an expensive shelter. It may be
made of any material that will shed rain. It will perhaps be advisable
when stacking the forage to set the butts of the canes on the ground.
In this way the canes absorb some of the moisture from the soil, and
will not dry out so much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding experiment in
beef production. In this test the following feeds per 1,000 pounds live
weight were fed: corn, 12.50; velvet beans in the pod, 18.75; sweet
potatoes, 20.8; and Japanese cane, 12.50 pounds. During a period of
sixty days th6 steers made a daily average gain per 1,000 pounds live
weight of 6.5 pounds, at a cost of 4 cents per pound of gain.

SOIL

Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils. Good
hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest yields. But even
the high pine lands will give good returns when properly fertilized.
On swampy muck land Japanese cane will make a fairly good growth.
On such land the growth will be greatly increased by an application
of lime (ground limestone, or burnt lime). The amount of this which
it is necessary to apply will depend upon the amount of acid in the
soil, and will vary from 2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone,
or one-half these amounts of air-slacked lime per acre. An applica-
tion at the rate of 2,000 pounds of ground limestone per acre on high
pine land on the Experiment Station farm increased the yield to the
extent of 10.37 tons per acre during the season of 1909.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a few acres of Japanese
cane, whether he has the class of soil best suited to it or not. If it
is not the best soil, Japanese cane will produce as heavy a yield as will
any other crop that can be grown on the same soil, or even a heavier
yield. High pine land properly fertilized will give a yield of 15 to 20
tons per acre. Good hammock land will produce yields beyond these
figures.
SAVING SEED-CANE

Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last many years
if properly handled. This in itself causes quite a saving in the expense
of growing the crop. In fact, it reduces -the annual cost of produc-
tion by about 50 per cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes or by divisions
of the stools. The cheapest and most economical way of propagating






BULLETIN Io5


it is by cane cuttings. Therefore care and attention must be given
to the saving of the seed-canes. Poor seed-canes, like poor seed, result
in poor stands and unsatisfactory yields. The seed-canes should be
selected and cut before there is danger of frost, so as to insure sound-
ness. The buds will only stand a very slight frost without injury, and
it is not safe to risk possible exposure to frost. The canes should be
cut and banked before there is any likelihood of the first fall frost. The
date for this will, of course, vary in different sections of the State.
Almost every farmer has his own method of banking his seed-
cane. Perhaps one method is about as good as another. The impor-
tant facts to keep in mind are: The canes should be covered sufficiently
deep to protect them against frost; the bank should be situated so as
to get perfect drainage; if there should be standing water or abundant
moisture, the canes are likely to rot; if the soil about the beds should
become dry the canes may take the dry rot, and a large amount of the
seed be lost. It is, therefore, important that we get the proper condi-
tions as to moisture in the bank where we store our seed-canes. It will
be found better to make two or three small beds than one large one.
It would be well to bank more canes than you expect to use for plant-
ing. There is always some possibility of loss from various causes.
Sometimes the loss may not exceed 10 per cent., while at other times
it may be as high as 25 to 50 per cent.

CANE FOR PLANTING
The number of canes required to plant an acre will depend upon
the distance between the rows, the distance at which the canes are
dropped in the row, and the length to which the canes are cut. Our
experience has shown that, putting the rows 8 feet apart, 3,000 whole
canes are sufficient to plant an acre; and if good seed is used, are
enough to give an excellent stand. Select only healthy canes, and
reject all that are green and unripe. Plant in rows eight feet apart.
Cut the canes in pieces having three to four eyes to a piece, and drop
them in a double line.
Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to 18 inches
apart in the row. By this method of planting it will only require from
1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an acre. The disadvantage is, however,
that a thin stand will be obtained, which will result in a small yield of
forage. This small yield of forage will not only be for the first year,
but there will be a light yield for several years. It is nearly impossible
to fill in the missing places properly. Where new canes are planted in
the missing hills, it will be found that they make either no growth or
a very unsatisfactory one. The old established canes have such an





62 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

extensive root system and draw so heavily upon the plant food and soil
moisture, that the new canes have little chance to make any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of canes should be obtained
at the first planting. If only a half or two-thirds of a stand should be
secured, it will follow that one third to one half of the crop will be


Fig. 6.-Root System of Japanese Cane.


weeds. For weeds will grow up between the canes unless the stand
is thick enough to smother them out, and it costs less to cultivate an
acre that will produce 20 tons of cane than one of half that yield.
.Hence we should obtain at the start the very best possible stand.

PREPARATION OF SEED-BED

Before planting, the ground should be plowed broadcast to a
depth of six inches. Plow under all vegetable growth on the land.
As soon as the land is plowed it should be harrowed with the tooth
harrow. Harrow it twice if necessary so as to put the surface in good
tilfh. The rows can be laid off by the use of the marker, which is
made of 2 by 6-inch lumber, the runners being set on edge at the dis-
tance apart that the rows are wanted and then braced sufficiently to
keep them in place. A tongue is attached to the cross-brace in front,
and a guide marker is attached at the side, at the proper distance to
mark the next row.


SIP~--~'





BULLETIN mj


For opening up the furrow in which to drop the seed-canes the disk
cultivator will be found most satisfactory. The beginner, however, is
likely to have trouble until he learns how to set the disks. In throwing


Fig. 7.-Planting in Furrows.


Fig. 8.-Covering the Seed Cane with the Disk Cultivator.


out the rows, they should be set close together, so as to leave as nar-
row a ridge as possible in the bottom of the furrow. The cultivator
should be set to run quite deep. If not, when the canes are covered






64 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

the ground will be left in ridges, instead of being level. In covering
the canes it will be found necessary to set the disks as far apart as pos-
sible, so as to give room for the canes between the disks. When the
disks are set close they will catch the canes, which, instead of being
covered, will be thrown out on the top of the bed. The use of the disk
cultivator for this work will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to 40 per
cent., which means much in the total cost of production.

PLANTING
Just when to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends on the local-
ity. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the time of selecting the canes,
This method reduces the expense by the omission of the cost of bank-
ing. Fall planting is perhaps not well suited to all parts of the State.
In the northern and western portions of the State, where the winters
are more severe than in the southern part, there is likely to be a greater
loss of seed-canes during the winter season. Hence if fall planting
should be practised, the result may be an unsatisfactory stand. If the
seed-canes are banked and kept till spring, then only first-class cane will
be planted. This will insure a good stand. Fall planting would be ad-
visable for central and south Florida, and spring planting for north and
west Florida. For fall planting, November 10 to 20 will perhaps be
the best time. For spring planting, the month of March will be the
most satisfactory. All territory north of Gainesville should practise
spring planting. All south of Gainesville may find fall planting satis-
factory under ordinary conditions.

FERTILIZING
The best formula to use in fertilizing Japanese cane is yet an un-
settled question. We know, however, that Japanese cane has a very
large root system and is a gross feeder, and so we may use quite a
liberal amount of fertilizer. Any crop that produces such a tonnage
of forage must necessarily draw heavily upon the fertility in the soil.
The following formula has given good results on the Experiment Sta-
tion farm, and perhaps may be taken as a guide until we get better in-
formation:
Am m onia .................... .............. 3 per cent.
Phos. acid ................................. 6 "
Potash ........................... .. ... 7 "
(Apply fertilizer at the rate of 400 to 600 pounds per acre.)
Ground limestone .............. 2,000 pounds per acre.
It makes little difference whether our source of ammonia is dried
blood or sulphate of ammonia. Likewise the source of potash makes no
material difference.






64 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

the ground will be left in ridges, instead of being level. In covering
the canes it will be found necessary to set the disks as far apart as pos-
sible, so as to give room for the canes between the disks. When the
disks are set close they will catch the canes, which, instead of being
covered, will be thrown out on the top of the bed. The use of the disk
cultivator for this work will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to 40 per
cent., which means much in the total cost of production.

PLANTING
Just when to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends on the local-
ity. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the time of selecting the canes,
This method reduces the expense by the omission of the cost of bank-
ing. Fall planting is perhaps not well suited to all parts of the State.
In the northern and western portions of the State, where the winters
are more severe than in the southern part, there is likely to be a greater
loss of seed-canes during the winter season. Hence if fall planting
should be practised, the result may be an unsatisfactory stand. If the
seed-canes are banked and kept till spring, then only first-class cane will
be planted. This will insure a good stand. Fall planting would be ad-
visable for central and south Florida, and spring planting for north and
west Florida. For fall planting, November 10 to 20 will perhaps be
the best time. For spring planting, the month of March will be the
most satisfactory. All territory north of Gainesville should practise
spring planting. All south of Gainesville may find fall planting satis-
factory under ordinary conditions.

FERTILIZING
The best formula to use in fertilizing Japanese cane is yet an un-
settled question. We know, however, that Japanese cane has a very
large root system and is a gross feeder, and so we may use quite a
liberal amount of fertilizer. Any crop that produces such a tonnage
of forage must necessarily draw heavily upon the fertility in the soil.
The following formula has given good results on the Experiment Sta-
tion farm, and perhaps may be taken as a guide until we get better in-
formation:
Am m onia .................... .............. 3 per cent.
Phos. acid ................................. 6 "
Potash ........................... .. ... 7 "
(Apply fertilizer at the rate of 400 to 600 pounds per acre.)
Ground limestone .............. 2,000 pounds per acre.
It makes little difference whether our source of ammonia is dried
blood or sulphate of ammonia. Likewise the source of potash makes no
material difference.






BULLETIN ro5


Since it requires a long growing season (from March 15 to No-
vember 15 at Gainesville) for this crop to mature, it will be found ad-
visable to give the fertilizer in two applications. The first application
may be made in the latter part of April, and the second during the
early part of August. By putting the fertilizer on in two applications,
there is not likely to be so much of it lost by leaching during the rainy
season.
TABLE X

JAPANESE CANE, FERTILIZER TEST, 1909-10


PLO- PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT PLOT
I II III IV V VI VIII VIII

Dried blood .......... 112 ...... 112 ......1112 ......1112 112
Sulphate of am monia.. ...... ...... ...... 72 |...... 72 .............
Muriate of potash..... 84 84 ...... 84 84 ...... .............
Sulphate of potash.... ...... ...... ...... ...... ......I 84 84 84
Acid phosphate ....... ....... 224 1224 1224 224 224 224 224
*Ground lim estone..... ...... I.... ...... I .... ...... ...... ...... 2000
Total fert. per acre.... 196 1308 1336 1380 1420 1380 420 I 420
tYield, tons, 1909...... 24.2 17.7 16.1 19.1 1.19.5 1 18.9 1 16.6 I 27.0
+Yield, tons. 1910 ...... 14.6 12.4 I 10.0 1 14.4 1 11.8 1 16.7 1 14.1 16.0
Sucrose per cent, 1909.1 11.851 13.501 13.751 13.651 13.601 13.501 13.581 13.78
Sucrose per cent, 1910.1 11.001 10.85! 10.501 11.001 11.201 11.101 10.951 10.90
Brix, 1909 ............I 16.7 17.21 17.7 7 17.4 17.4 1 17.5 1 17.6 j 17.8
Brix, 1910 ............ 15.351 15.40! 15.301 15.401 15.601 15.601 15.50! 15.50

*Ground limestone is not considered as a fertilizer, but as a soil corrective.
IGreen material.

Since the Japanese cane makes a new root-system each year, it is
not necessary to give the first application of fertilizer so early in the
season as many have been doing in the past. If we examine the roots
of the canes when growth starts in the spring, we will find that the
feeding roots do not start until the tops have made a considerable
growth. In fact the tops may have grown as much as a foot before the
roots make a start. This early growth comes from the stored-up plant
food in the old stubs of the ratoons, and the plants do not draw on the
soil fertility until the roots have begun to grow.
The amount of ground limestone or lime to apply, will depend on
the acidity of the soil. The more acid in the soil, the heavier should be
the application of ground limestone or lime. There should be an
amount distributed sufficient to neutralize about all of the acid in the
soil.





66 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

CULTIVATION
The cultivation of Japanese cane is nearly the same as that of corn
or cotton. The important point to remember is the thorough preparation
of the seed-bed before planting the canes. In the succeeding years the
early spring cultivation should be somewhat as follows. About the
time growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring the ground
to a depth of three or four inches. This may be done with the disk
barrow going between the rows, or with the two-horse cultivator.
There is no danger of injuring the roots at this time of the year, as the
new roots have not yet made any growth. The first application of fer-
tilizer should be applied just before the second cultivation. The second
cultivation should be thorough, but not as deep as the first. As the
crop continues to grow, the depth of cultivation should be less each
time. Deep cultivation will be found to do much root pruning. If
one will take time to examine the root system when the cane is nearly
matured, a mass of fine feeding roots will be found very near the sur-
face, many of them not more than one-half inch deep. Deep cultivation
destroys these roots, reducing the feeding capacity of the plants and
so reducing the growth of the crop.

HARVESTING
There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of a hurry to
harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best quality of feed all forage
crops must reach a certain stage of maturity. This is especially true of
all saccharine forage crops. The chief value of this crop as a feed is
its high sugar content. The higher the percentage of sugar, the higher
its feeding value. The formation of the sugar does not take place
while the crop is making a rapid growth. When growth ceases, and
the crop begins to mature, which occurs in the fall when cool weather
comes, is the time the formation of sugar takes place most rapidly.
Harvesting, therefore, should be delayed until near danger of frost. If
it is to be used for silage, the silage will keep better and will have a
higher feeding value if the cane is allowed to mature before putting it
into the silo. If used fordry forage it will also give better results if
not harvested until well matured. However, there is the danger of al-
lowing it to stand in the field until injured by frost. If it is used for
feed a short time after being injured by frost the loss will be but slight.
The feeding value after freezing deteriorates with time.
At the present time we cannot recommend any machine that will
successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes are too hard and heavy
for a mowing machine. After a couple of years' growth the rows spread
out too widely for a corn harvester to work successfully. A machete





66 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

CULTIVATION
The cultivation of Japanese cane is nearly the same as that of corn
or cotton. The important point to remember is the thorough preparation
of the seed-bed before planting the canes. In the succeeding years the
early spring cultivation should be somewhat as follows. About the
time growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring the ground
to a depth of three or four inches. This may be done with the disk
barrow going between the rows, or with the two-horse cultivator.
There is no danger of injuring the roots at this time of the year, as the
new roots have not yet made any growth. The first application of fer-
tilizer should be applied just before the second cultivation. The second
cultivation should be thorough, but not as deep as the first. As the
crop continues to grow, the depth of cultivation should be less each
time. Deep cultivation will be found to do much root pruning. If
one will take time to examine the root system when the cane is nearly
matured, a mass of fine feeding roots will be found very near the sur-
face, many of them not more than one-half inch deep. Deep cultivation
destroys these roots, reducing the feeding capacity of the plants and
so reducing the growth of the crop.

HARVESTING
There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of a hurry to
harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best quality of feed all forage
crops must reach a certain stage of maturity. This is especially true of
all saccharine forage crops. The chief value of this crop as a feed is
its high sugar content. The higher the percentage of sugar, the higher
its feeding value. The formation of the sugar does not take place
while the crop is making a rapid growth. When growth ceases, and
the crop begins to mature, which occurs in the fall when cool weather
comes, is the time the formation of sugar takes place most rapidly.
Harvesting, therefore, should be delayed until near danger of frost. If
it is to be used for silage, the silage will keep better and will have a
higher feeding value if the cane is allowed to mature before putting it
into the silo. If used fordry forage it will also give better results if
not harvested until well matured. However, there is the danger of al-
lowing it to stand in the field until injured by frost. If it is used for
feed a short time after being injured by frost the loss will be but slight.
The feeding value after freezing deteriorates with time.
At the present time we cannot recommend any machine that will
successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes are too hard and heavy
for a mowing machine. After a couple of years' growth the rows spread
out too widely for a corn harvester to work successfully. A machete






BULLETIN o15


corn knife, or hoe will be found to do satisfactory work. No doubt
as more farmers grow Japanese cane there will be a demand created
for the necessary machinery for harvesting this crop.

JAPANESE CANE AND VELVET BEANS

The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be increased by
planting velvet beans between the rows. If the rows of Japanese cane
are eight feet apart, a row of velvet beans may be planted between
the rows and still leave room to cultivate both cane and beans. Plant
the velvet beans as soon as the cane starts new growth in the spring.
Drop the beans about two or three feet apart in the row. Give both
cane and beans good cultivation until the beans throw out long run-
ners. If the beans are not planted early in the season the Japanese
cane will get the start and will almost completely smother the velvet
beans.

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS or AIR-DRIED SAMPLE

Water ................................. 6.75 per cent.

Protein ................................ 1.37 "

Fats ................................... 1.89 "

Fiber ............................... 20.60 "

A sh .................................. .. 2.01 "

Nitrogen-free extract (sugars, etc.) ......... 67.35 "

(Analysis from unpublished data of the Chemical Depart-
ment of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.)

Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in protein.
This should be remembered when feeding it. We should not ex-
pect it to take the place of all the concentrates in the ration. However,
since it is rich in carbohydrates, it is only necessary to supply feed rich
in protein in combination with Japanese cane to obtain the best results.
If this point be kept in mind we will not be disappointed in the re-
sults we obtain from feeding this to our live-stock.






BULLETIN o15


corn knife, or hoe will be found to do satisfactory work. No doubt
as more farmers grow Japanese cane there will be a demand created
for the necessary machinery for harvesting this crop.

JAPANESE CANE AND VELVET BEANS

The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be increased by
planting velvet beans between the rows. If the rows of Japanese cane
are eight feet apart, a row of velvet beans may be planted between
the rows and still leave room to cultivate both cane and beans. Plant
the velvet beans as soon as the cane starts new growth in the spring.
Drop the beans about two or three feet apart in the row. Give both
cane and beans good cultivation until the beans throw out long run-
ners. If the beans are not planted early in the season the Japanese
cane will get the start and will almost completely smother the velvet
beans.

ANALYSIS

ANALYSIS or AIR-DRIED SAMPLE

Water ................................. 6.75 per cent.

Protein ................................ 1.37 "

Fats ................................... 1.89 "

Fiber ............................... 20.60 "

A sh .................................. .. 2.01 "

Nitrogen-free extract (sugars, etc.) ......... 67.35 "

(Analysis from unpublished data of the Chemical Depart-
ment of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.)

Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in protein.
This should be remembered when feeding it. We should not ex-
pect it to take the place of all the concentrates in the ration. However,
since it is rich in carbohydrates, it is only necessary to supply feed rich
in protein in combination with Japanese cane to obtain the best results.
If this point be kept in mind we will not be disappointed in the re-
sults we obtain from feeding this to our live-stock.






68 FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

TABLE XI
GOOD RATIONS


PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION


PROTEIN CARBOHYDRATES FATS


Japanese cane, 10 pounds........... .14 7.30 .19
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds.............. 1.08 3.86 .11
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds..... 1.71 6.19 .46
Total ..................... 2.93 17.35 .76
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.5.)


Japanese cane, 12 pounds........... .16 8.76 .23
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds...... 1.71 6.20 .46
Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds......... .74 .34 .24
Total.............. ... ....... 2.61 15.30 .93
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.6.)


Japanese cane, 10 pounds........... .14 7.30 .19
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds............ 1 1.08 3.86 .11
Velvet beans in pod, 8 pounds...... 1.37 4.95 .37
Total ....................... 2.59 16.11 .67
(Nutritive ratio, about 1:6.7.)


Is Japanese cane hard on land ?-This is a question asked quite fre-
quently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard on land. Any crop that pro-
duces such an abundant growth of forage must necessarily draw very
heavily upon the plant food in the soil. If then the plant food is not
supplied by liberal application of fertilizer the soil will soon become ex-
hausted and the yield obtained from the crop will be unsatisfactory.
The plants produce a new root system each year. Hence there is some
humus added and a small amount of plant food returned to the soil an-
nually, but the amount left in the soil does not equal the amount taken
out each season.




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