• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Results of fertilizer experime...
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Uses of Japanese cane
 Soil for Japanese cane
 Saving seed-cane
 Preparation of seed-bed
 Cane for planting
 Planting
 Cultivation
 Harvesting
 Japanese cane and velvet beans
 Fertilizer experiment with Japanese...
 Storing Japanese cane
 Replanting Japanese cane






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 129
Title: Japanese cane
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026698/00001
 Material Information
Title: Japanese cane
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 21-44 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1916
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026698
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922749
oclc - 18161557
notis - AEN3258

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Results of fertilizer experiment
        Page 23
    Table of Contents
        Page 24
    Introduction
        Page 25
    Uses of Japanese cane
        Page 26
        Pasture
            Page 27
        Silage
            Page 27
        Dry forage
            Page 28
    Soil for Japanese cane
        Page 28
    Saving seed-cane
        Page 29
    Preparation of seed-bed
        Page 30
    Cane for planting
        Page 31
    Planting
        Page 31
    Cultivation
        Page 32
    Harvesting
        Page 33
    Japanese cane and velvet beans
        Page 34
    Fertilizer experiment with Japanese cane
        Page 35
        Yield of cane
            Page 36
        Comparison of yields
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Percentage of sucrose in juice
            Page 39
        How shall we fertilize cane
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Fertilizing value of Japanese cane
            Page 42
    Storing Japanese cane
        Page 42
    Replanting Japanese cane
        Page 43
        Page 44
Full Text


January, 1916


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




JAPANESE CANE

by
JOHN M. SCOTT


Fig. 7.-A shock of Japanese cane.


The Station Bulletins will be sent ,free upon !application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Florida.


Pepper Pub. & Ptg. Co., Gainesvllle, Fla.


Bulletin 129












BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
F. E. JENNINGS, Jacksonville, Fla.
W. D. FINLAYSON, Old Town, Fla.

STATION STAFF
P. H. ROLFS, M.S., Director.
J. M. SCOTT, B.S., Vice Director, and Animal Industrialist.
B. F. FLOYD, A.M., Plant Pathologist.
J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist.
H. E. STEVENS, M.S., Plant Physiologist.
S. E. COLLISON, M.S., Chemist.
JOHN BELLING, B.Sc., Assistant Botanist, and Editor.
C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist.
S. S. WALKER, M.S., Assistant Chemist.
F. F. HALMA, B.S., Assistant Horticulturalist.
H. L. DOZIER, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Entomology.
JULIUS MATZ, B.S., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology.
H. G. CLAYTON, B.S.A., Laboratory Assistant in Dairying.
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper.
T. VAN HYNING, Librarian.
E. G. SHAW, Secretary.
L. T. NEILAND, Farm Foreman.

COMMITTEE ON PUBLICATIONS
John M. Scott, H. E. Stevens, and B. F. Floyd.

























RESULTS OF FERTILIZER EXPERIMENT

1. On the soil on which this cane was grown potash was most beneficial.
2. Nitrogen seems to be next in importance to potash as a fertilizer on the soil on
which this experiment was conducted.
3. Phosphate seems to be of less importance than nitrogen or potash.
4. Ground limestone acted as a temporary stimulant. No results were obtained
except from the first application.
5. The yield per acre decreased on all plots each year.
6. Better yields of Japanese cane will be obtained if the cane be replanted every
third or fourth year.
7. The fertilizer had no effect in increasing the percentage of sucrose in the juice.





















CONTENTS
Page
Introduction------... ------------- ------------- -----------------------25
Uses of Japanese Cane ---------.... -----------------------------------..26
Pasture---.-------.... ....------------------------ --------------- 27
Silage.---....--.-- --- -------------------------------------- --27
Dry Forage....-----....------------------------------ ----------- 28
Soil for Japanese Cane.....---------------------. -------------------- ---28
Saving Seed Cane.-----------.... ----.. ------------------------------ 29
Preparation of Seed-Bed -------..........---------------- ------------30
Cane for Planting ........--------------------------------------------31
Planting .------ --..............---------------------- --------------31
Cultivation.......-- -- ---- -------------------------- -----------------32
Harvesting .----------. -------------------------------------------33
Japanese Cane and Velvet Beans............-------------- ------------------- 34
Fertilizer Experiment with Japanese Cane ..-------.----------------------35
Yield of Cane ----... ----- --.--------------------. ----------36
Comparison of Yields ----....---------------------------------.37
Percentage of Sucrose in Juice ------------..-----------------------39
How Shall We Fertilize Cane ----.. ----------------------------- 40
Fertilizing Value of Japanese Cane -----------------------------------42
Storing Japanese Cane ----.--------------------------------------42
Replanting Japanese Cane....- ----------------- -------------------------43









JAPANESE CANE
BY JOHN M. SCOTT

INTRODUCTION

For the successful production of live-stock, it is important to
have an abundance of feed and forage at all times. If the natural
grasses do not afford this, the crop rotation must be planned so
as to supply the feed when needed. It sometimes happens that
the natural grasses will supply sufficient feed for all live-stock,
except for a short period during the winter months or during a
severe drought. It is just at such times that the animals most
need our help. If we fail to supply sufficient food to young
growing animals, development is retarded or growth stops. We
get as a result undersized and poorly developed beasts, and often
what are commonly known as runts. Such stunted animals
never develop into as good live-stock as do those individuals
.that are kept growing from birth to maturity.
During the past 14 years the number of cattle in this State
has more than doubled. On January 1, 1900, we had 412,820 cattle.
On January 1, 1914, there were 863,000 head of cattle. If the
number of cattle should increase as rapidly in the next ten years
as in the last ten years, we shall own one and a half million
head in 1920. Such a rapid increase would require that our
farmers take steps to produce enough forage to properly feed the
increment. There will probably be a like increase in hogs and
sheep, and also a considerable increase in the number of horses
and mules. The needed extra supply of forage can easily be
obtained by the growing of Japanese- cane. There is no other
crop that we can grow that will produce such a large yield of
forage at so small a cost.
Florida is more of a live-stock State than many realize. On
January 1, 1914, there were besides 863,000 head of cattle, also
118,000 sheep, and 904,000 hogs. These are all forage-eating
animals. To supply the needs of these animals we should provide
forage of some kind from November to March. Japanese cane is
a crop that supplies a large amount of roughage at the very time
of the year when the natural pasturage is limited. The want of
an abundant supply of forage is one of the hindrances to the
production of live-stock in Florida. Stockmen have been negli-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


gent in supplying the necessary food to maintain their live-stock
during the winter seasons and during the times of severe drought.
To produce a good grade of live-stock, an abundance of good feed
must be supplied. The best forage to grow is the one that will
produce the best yield per acre, and that will supply the largest
amount of nutrition in the feed. As well as being nutritious, it
must, of course, be palatable.

USES OF JAPANESE CANE
The chief value of Japanese cane to the farmers of Florida is
as a forage crop for the feeding of live-stock. It may be used as
silage, winter pasture, or dry forage. When first introduced into
Florida Japanese cane was grown for the production of syrup.
In most sections of the State, and under the usual conditions, the
regular sugar-canes are more satisfactory than Japanese cane as
crops for syrup production. This is because the Japanese cane

















Fig. S.-Three varieties of Japanese cane.

is harder, and requires more power in grinding. It is also more
difficult to strip, which increases the cost of stripping. However,
as regards the quality of the syrup, there is but little difference
between the regular sugar-canes and Japanese cane. The yield
of syrup per acre from Japanese cane will vary from 150 to 500
gallons. Three varieties of Japanese cane are shown in Fig. 8.
The region adapted for the growing of Japanese cane
includes all Florida, southern Georgia, southern Alabama,





Bulletin 129


southern Mississippi, Louisiana, and southern Texas. Any
section in which the Florida velvet bean will mature seed will be
found a good place to grow Japanese cane. This will reach up
to 200 or 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.


Fig. 9.-Japanese cane pastured by cattle (February).


PASTURE
Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle of
November to March. Cattle waste but little of it when pastured.
They first eat off the green blades, and then the tender joints at
the top. They continue to eat from the top until there is nothing
left but the short stubble. The cane should not be pastured late
in the spring. If pastured after growth starts in the spring, the
cattle will eat off the new growth, and this soon kills the plants.
It is not advisable to pasture later than about March 1, in central
Florida. A field that has been pastured is shown in Fig. 9.

SILAGE
Japanese cane makes good silage which keeps well and is
relished by cattle. The yield that can be secured makes Japanese
cane one of the cheapest and most economical crops that the
Florida farmer can grow for silage. It has been used in feeding
experiments with the dairy herd at the Experiment Station with
quite satisfactory results. The cost of silage from this crop





Bulletin 129


southern Mississippi, Louisiana, and southern Texas. Any
section in which the Florida velvet bean will mature seed will be
found a good place to grow Japanese cane. This will reach up
to 200 or 250 miles north of the Gulf of Mexico.


Fig. 9.-Japanese cane pastured by cattle (February).


PASTURE
Japanese cane furnishes good pasturage from the middle of
November to March. Cattle waste but little of it when pastured.
They first eat off the green blades, and then the tender joints at
the top. They continue to eat from the top until there is nothing
left but the short stubble. The cane should not be pastured late
in the spring. If pastured after growth starts in the spring, the
cattle will eat off the new growth, and this soon kills the plants.
It is not advisable to pasture later than about March 1, in central
Florida. A field that has been pastured is shown in Fig. 9.

SILAGE
Japanese cane makes good silage which keeps well and is
relished by cattle. The yield that can be secured makes Japanese
cane one of the cheapest and most economical crops that the
Florida farmer can grow for silage. It has been used in feeding
experiments with the dairy herd at the Experiment Station with
quite satisfactory results. The cost of silage from this crop






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per ton. The cost is about one-
third less for Japanese-cane silage as compared with sorghum or
corn silage.
When feeding Japanese-cane silage it should be remembered
that this crop produces no grain, and to get the same results from
feeding it that you would from sorghum silage or corn silage it
will be necessary to add as much grain to the Japanese-cane
silage as the stock would get from corn or sorghum silage.

DRY FORAGE
Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry winter
forage. It is an easy crop to cure, and the loss in storage is
small. If it is stored in a barn or shed there will be hardly any
loss. At the Experiment Station we have stored it in a barn in
November and December, and kept it until the following June
or July. Six months after harvesting there was practically no
loss; and when run through a feed cutter it was relished by cattle,
horses, and mules. If barn or shed room is not available, it can
be stored in the barn-yard and fed out as wanted. But with this
method the loss will be considerable. It will be found profitable
to put up a temporary shed under which to store the dry forage.
This need not be an expensive shelter. It may be made of any
material that will shed rain. It will perhaps be advisable when
stacking the forage to set the butts of the canes on the ground.
In this way the canes probably absorb some of the moisture from
the soil, and will not dry out as much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding exper-
iment in beef production. In this test the following feeds per
1000 pounds live weight were given: corn, 12.5; velvet beans in
the pod, 18.75; sweet potatoes, 20.8; and Japanese cane, 12.5
pounds. During a period of 60 days the steers made a daily
average gain of 6.5 pounds per 1,000 pounds live weight, at a
cost of 4 cents per pound of gain.

SOIL FOR JAPANESE CANE
Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils.
Good hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest yields.
But even the high pine lands will give good returns when
properly fertilized. On sivampy muck land, Japanese cane will
make a fairly good growth. On such land the growth will be
greatly increased by an application of lime (either ground lime-
stone or burnt lime). The amount of lime which is useful will






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


should not exceed $1.75 or $2.00 per ton. The cost is about one-
third less for Japanese-cane silage as compared with sorghum or
corn silage.
When feeding Japanese-cane silage it should be remembered
that this crop produces no grain, and to get the same results from
feeding it that you would from sorghum silage or corn silage it
will be necessary to add as much grain to the Japanese-cane
silage as the stock would get from corn or sorghum silage.

DRY FORAGE
Japanese cane will be found a valuable crop for dry winter
forage. It is an easy crop to cure, and the loss in storage is
small. If it is stored in a barn or shed there will be hardly any
loss. At the Experiment Station we have stored it in a barn in
November and December, and kept it until the following June
or July. Six months after harvesting there was practically no
loss; and when run through a feed cutter it was relished by cattle,
horses, and mules. If barn or shed room is not available, it can
be stored in the barn-yard and fed out as wanted. But with this
method the loss will be considerable. It will be found profitable
to put up a temporary shed under which to store the dry forage.
This need not be an expensive shelter. It may be made of any
material that will shed rain. It will perhaps be advisable when
stacking the forage to set the butts of the canes on the ground.
In this way the canes probably absorb some of the moisture from
the soil, and will not dry out as much.
Japanese cane was used as roughage in one feeding exper-
iment in beef production. In this test the following feeds per
1000 pounds live weight were given: corn, 12.5; velvet beans in
the pod, 18.75; sweet potatoes, 20.8; and Japanese cane, 12.5
pounds. During a period of 60 days the steers made a daily
average gain of 6.5 pounds per 1,000 pounds live weight, at a
cost of 4 cents per pound of gain.

SOIL FOR JAPANESE CANE
Japanese cane is a crop well suited to a variety of soils.
Good hammock land will no doubt produce the heaviest yields.
But even the high pine lands will give good returns when
properly fertilized. On sivampy muck land, Japanese cane will
make a fairly good growth. On such land the growth will be
greatly increased by an application of lime (either ground lime-
stone or burnt lime). The amount of lime which is useful will






Bulletin 129


depend upon the amount of acid in the soil, and will vary from
2,000 to 6,000 pounds of ground limestone, or one half these
amounts of burnt lime, per acre. An application at the rate of
2,000 pounds of ground limestone per acre on high pine land on
the Experiment Station farm increased the yield to the extent of
10.37 tons per acre, during the season of 1909.
Every farmer in Florida should grow a ft w acres of Japanese
cane, whether he has the class of soil best su ted to it or not. If it
is not the best soil, Japanese cane will produce as heavy a yield
as will any other crop that can be grown on the same soil,
or even give a heavier yield. High pine land properly fertilized
will give a yield of 15 to 20 tons per acre. Good hammock land
will produce larger yields.

SAVING SEED-CANE
Japanese cane is a perennial, and one planting will last for
several years if properly handled. This in itself causes quite a
saving in the expense of growing the crop. In fact, it reduces
the annual cost of production by about 50 per cent.
Japanese cane is propagated by cuttings of the canes, or by
divisions of the stools. The cheapest and most economical way
of propagating it is by cane cuttings. Therefore care and atten-
tion must be given to the saving of the seed-canes. Poor seed-
canes, like poor seeds, result in poor stands and unsatisfactory
yields. The seed-canes should be selected and cut before there
is danger of frost, so as to insure soundness. The buds will stand
only a very slight frost without injury, and it is not safe to risk
possible exposure to frost. The canes should be cut and banked
before there is any likelihood of the first fall frost. The date for
this will, of course, vary in different sections of the State.
Many farmers have their own method of banking seed-cane.
Perhaps one method is about as good as another. The important
facts to keep in mind are the following: the canes should be
covered deeply enough to protect them against frost; the bank
should be situated so as to get perfect drainage; since if there
should be standing water or abundant moisture, the canes are
likely to rot; if the soil about the beds should become dry, the
canes may take the dry rot, and a large amount of the seed-cane
be lost. It is, therefore, important that the proper moisture con-
ditions be present in the bank where the seed-canes are stored.
It will be found better to make two or three small beds than one
large one. .It would be well to bank more canes than one ex-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pects to use for planting, as there is always some possibility of
loss from various causes. Sometimes the loss may not exceed
10 per cent., while at other times it may be as high as 25 or 50
per cent.
PREPARATION OF SEED-BED
Before planting, plow the ground broadcast to a depth of six
inches. Plow under all vegetable growth on the land. As soon
as the land is plowed, harrow it with the tooth harrow. Harrow
it twice if necessary, so as to put the surface in good tilth. For
opening up the furrow in which to drop the seed-canes, the disk
cultivator will be found most satisfactory. The beginner, how-
ever, is likely to have trouble until he learns how to use the
disks. In throwing out the rows, they should be set close to-
gether, so as to leave as narrow a ridge as possible in the bottom
of the furrow. The cultivator should be set to run quite deep.
If not, when the canes are covered the ground will be left in
ridges, instead of being level. In covering the canes, it will be
found necessary to set the disks as far apart as possible, so as to
give room for the canes between the disks. When the disks are
set close they will catch the canes, which, instead of being cov-
.... ,J


Fig. 10.-Method of planting Japanese cane (January).






Bulletin 129


ered, will be thrown out on top of the bed. The use of the disk
cultivator for this work will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to
40 per cent., which means much in the total cost of production.
Fig. 10 shows the cane in the furrows.

CANE FOR PLANTING
The number of canes required to plant an acre will depend
upon the distance between the rows, the distance at which the
canes are dropped in the row, and the length to which the canes
are cut. Our experience has shown that, putting the rows 8 feet
apart, cutting the canes from 1i to 2 feet long, and dropping
them in a double line in the furrow, 3,000 whole canes are suffi-
cient to plant an acre; and if good seed-cane is used, are enough
to give an excellent stand. Only healthy canes should be chosen,
and all that are green and unripe should be rejected. The rows
are made eight feet apart. The canes are to be cut in pieces
having three to four eyes each, and dropped in a double line.
Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to 18
inches apart in the row. By this method of planting, it will re-
quire from 1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an acre. The disadvantage
is, however, that a thin stand will be obtained, which will result
in a small yield of forage. This small yield of forage will not
only be for the first year, but there will be a light yield for several
years. It is nearly impossible to fill in the missing places prop-
erly. Where new canes are planted in the missing hills, it will
be found that they make either no growth or an unsatisfactory
one. The old-established canes have such an extensive root
system and draw so heavily upon the plant food and soil mois-
ture, that the new canes have little chance to make any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of cane should be
obtained at the first planting. If only a half or two-thirds of a
stand should be secured, it will follow that one-third to one-half
of the crop will be weeds. For weeds will grow up between the
canes unless the stand is thick enough to smother them out. It
costs less to cultivate an acre that will produce 20 tons of cane
than one of half that yield. Hence, the very best possible stand
should be obtained at the start.

PLANTING
The time to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends on the
locality. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the time of selecting
the canes. This method reduces the expense by the omission






Bulletin 129


ered, will be thrown out on top of the bed. The use of the disk
cultivator for this work will reduce the cost of planting by 25 to
40 per cent., which means much in the total cost of production.
Fig. 10 shows the cane in the furrows.

CANE FOR PLANTING
The number of canes required to plant an acre will depend
upon the distance between the rows, the distance at which the
canes are dropped in the row, and the length to which the canes
are cut. Our experience has shown that, putting the rows 8 feet
apart, cutting the canes from 1i to 2 feet long, and dropping
them in a double line in the furrow, 3,000 whole canes are suffi-
cient to plant an acre; and if good seed-cane is used, are enough
to give an excellent stand. Only healthy canes should be chosen,
and all that are green and unripe should be rejected. The rows
are made eight feet apart. The canes are to be cut in pieces
having three to four eyes each, and dropped in a double line.
Some farmers drop the canes in a single line from 12 to 18
inches apart in the row. By this method of planting, it will re-
quire from 1,000 to 1,500 canes to plant an acre. The disadvantage
is, however, that a thin stand will be obtained, which will result
in a small yield of forage. This small yield of forage will not
only be for the first year, but there will be a light yield for several
years. It is nearly impossible to fill in the missing places prop-
erly. Where new canes are planted in the missing hills, it will
be found that they make either no growth or an unsatisfactory
one. The old-established canes have such an extensive root
system and draw so heavily upon the plant food and soil mois-
ture, that the new canes have little chance to make any growth.
It is very important that a good stand of cane should be
obtained at the first planting. If only a half or two-thirds of a
stand should be secured, it will follow that one-third to one-half
of the crop will be weeds. For weeds will grow up between the
canes unless the stand is thick enough to smother them out. It
costs less to cultivate an acre that will produce 20 tons of cane
than one of half that yield. Hence, the very best possible stand
should be obtained at the start.

PLANTING
The time to plant the seed-canes in Florida depends on the
locality. Some prefer to plant in the fall, at the time of selecting
the canes. This method reduces the expense by the omission






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the cost of banking. But fall planting is perhaps not well
suited to all parts of the State. In the northern and western por-
tions of Florida, where the winters are more severe than in the
southern part, there is likely to be a greater loss of seed-canes
during the winter season. Hence, if fall planting should be prac-
ticed, the result may be an unsatisfactory stand. If the seed-canes
are banked and kept until spring, then only first-class canes
should be chosen to plant. This will insure a good stand. Fall
planting would be advisable for central and south Florida, and
spring planting for north and west Florida. For fall planting,
November 10 to 20 will perhaps be the best time. For spring
planting, the month of March will be the most satisfactory. All
territory north of Gainesville should practice spring planting.
All south of this point may find fall planting satisfactory under
ordinary conditions.
Since Japanese cane makes a new root system each year,
it is not necessary to give the first application of fertilizer so
early in the season as many have been doing in the past. If we
examine the roots of the canes when top growth starts in the
spring, we will find that the feeding roots do not start until the
tops have made a considerable growth. In fact, the tops may
have grown as much as a foot before the roots make a start.
This early growth comes from the stored-up plant food in the old
stubs of the ratoons, and the plants do not draw on the soil
fertility until the roots have begun to grow.
The amount of ground limestone or lime to apply, will
depend on the acidity of the soil. An application of from one to
two tons per acre should be made. The more acid there is in the
soil, the heavier should be the application of ground limestone
or lime. There should be an amount distributed sufficient to
neutralize about all of the acid in the soil.

CULTIVATION
The cultivation of Japanese cane is nearly the same as that
of corn or cotton. The important point to remember is the
thorough preparation of the seed-bed in the first year before
planting the canes. In the succeeding years the early spring cul-
tivation should be somewhat as follows. About the time that top
growth begins, give a thorough cultivation, stirring the ground
to a depth of three or four inches. This may be done with the
disk harrow going between the rows, or with a two-horse
cultivator. There is no danger of injuring the roots at this time






Bulletin 129


of year, as the new roots have not yet developed. The first
application of fertilizer should be made just before the second
cultivation. The second cultivation should be thorough, but not
as deep as the first. As the crop continues to grow, the depth of
cultivation should be less each time. Deep cultivation late in the
season will be found to cut many roots. If one will take time to
examine the root system when the cane is nearly matured, a mass
of fine feeding roots will be found very near the surface, many of
them not more than one-half inch deep. Deep cultivations destroy
these roots, reducing the feeding capacity of the plants, and so
reducing the growth of the crop.

HARVESTING
There is a tendency for the farmer to be in too much of a
hurry to harvest Japanese cane. To produce the best quality of
feed all forage crops must reach a certain stage of maturity.
This is especially true of all saccharine forage crops. The chief
value of this crop as a feed is its high sugar content. The higher
the percentage of sugar, the higher the feeding value. The for-
mation of sugar does not take place while the crop is making a
rapid growth. When growth ceases, and the crop begins to
mature, which occurs in the fall when cool weather comes, the
formation of sugar takes place most rapidly. Harvesting, there-
fore, should be delayed until near danger of frost. If the cane is
to be used for silage, the silage wil keep better and will have a
higher feeding value if the cane is allowed to mature before
putting it into the silo. If the cane is used for dry forage it will
also give better results if not harvested until well matured.
However, there is the danger of allowing it to stand in the field
until injured by frost. If it is used for feed a short time after
being injured by frost the loss will be but slight. The feeding
value after freezing deteriorates with time.
At present we cannot recommend any machine that will
successfully harvest Japanese cane. The canes are too hard and
heavy for a mowing machine. After a couple of years' growth,
the rows spread out too widely for a corn harvester to work
successfully. A machete, corn knife, or hoe will be found to do
satisfactory work.. No doubt as more farmers grow Japanese
cane there will be a demand created for the necessary machinery
for harvesting this crop.






34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

JAPANESE CANE AND VELVET BEANS

The feeding value of Japanese cane pasture may be increased
by planting Florida velvet beans between the rows. If the rows
of Japanese cane are 8 feet apart, a row of velvet beans may be
planted between the rows and still leave room to cultivate both
cane and beans. The velvet beans can be planted as soon as the
cane starts new top growth in the spring. The beans may be
dropped about two or three feet apart in the row. Both cane and
beans should have good cultivation until the beans throw out
long runners. If the beans are not planted early in the season,
the Japanese cane will get the start and will almost completely
smother the velvet beans.
Japanese cane is rich in carbohydrates, but poor in protein.
This should be remembered when feeding it and velvet beans or
some other feed rich in protein added. We do not expect
Japanese cane to take the place of all the concentrates in the
ration. However, since it is rich in carbohydrates, it is only
necessary to supply feed rich in protein in combination with
Japanese cane to obtain the best results. If this point be kept in
mind there need be no disappointment in the results to be obtained
from feeding Japanese cane.

TABLE III
GOOD RATIONS, INCLUDING JAPANESE CANE

Percentage Composition

Protein Carbo- Fats
hydrates
Japanese cane, 10 pounds------------------------ 0.14 7.30 0.19
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds-.------------------.---- 1.08 3:86 0.11
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds.------...------. 1.71 6.19 0.46
Total------------------- 2.93 17.35 0.76
(Nutritive ratio, about 1 : 6.5)
Japanese cane, 12 pounds------------------------ 0.16 8.76 0.23
Velvet beans in pod, 10 pounds-----.------------ 1.71 6.20 0.46
Cottonseed meal, 2 pounds---..-----... --------. 0.74 0.34 0.24
Total-----...--------.--. 2.61 15.30 0.93
(Nutritive ratio, about 1 : 6.6)
Japanese cane, 10 pounds..-----------------..--. 0.14 7.30 0.19
Cowpea hay, 10 pounds.. ------------------.... 1.08 3.86 0.11
Velvet beans in pod, 8 pounds ..---------.. -----. 1.37 4.95 0.37
Total ----..-----------. 2.59 16.11 0.67






Bulletin 129


FERTILIZER EXPERIMENT WITH JAPANESE CANE
The land upon which this experiment was conducted is a
fair grade of high pine land. It has a gentle slope to the east. We
have no record as to the crops grown on the land previous to
1907, nor how it had been fertilized, except that it was an old
field and had probably grown cotton, or corn.
The Japanese cane on this acre was planted early in the
spring of 1908. The ground was plowed to a depth of 5 to 7
inches, and a seed bed prepared by the use of a harrow. The
cane was planted in rows six feet apart. The entire acre re-
ceived the following fertilizer during the spring and summer of
1908: dried blood, 75; muriate of potash, 56; and acid phosphate,
150 pounds per acre. The crop received good cultivation during
the growing season. The cane was harvested on November 19,
1908. The crop from the entire acre was not weighed, but three
representative rows were selected and weighed, giving a yield
of 22.75 tons of green material per acre.
Early in the spring of 1909, the acre was divided into plots
and the fertilizer experiment was begun. It has been continued
to the present time. We thus have the results of six crops from
which to draw our conclusions. Six crops ought to be sufficient
to obtain some facts regarding the effect of different fertilizers on
the yield per acre of Japanese cane.
In this experiment there were eight plots of cane. Each plot
received a definite amount of fertilizer the first year, and each
plot received the same fertilizer each year thereafter for six
years. Each plot did not receive the same number of pounds of
fertilizer, but the fertilizer was applied so that each plot received
the same amount of plant food of each element. The fertilizer
was given in two equal applications. The first application was
made in April, and the second about the middle of August each
year.
Japanese cane and the regular sugar-canes are very much
alike in regard to their fertilizer requirements. Therefore the
results obtained with Japanese cane can be applied to the regular
sugar-cane.
Apparently the only effect fertilizer has on Japanese cane is
to increase the yield of green forage per acre. From the results
obtained in this experiment, the fertilizers did not seem to change
the composition of the Japanese cane to any extent. Neither did
the fertilizers seem to have any effect in increasing or decreasing
the percentage of sucrose in the juice.






36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The important point then to keep in mind when fertilizing
cane is to use a fertilizer that will produce the maximum growth.
A fertilizer that will do this best is one that carries a liberal
amount of ammonia and potash, and a small amount of phos-
phoric acid. In addition, it might be advisable to apply a good
dressing of lime or ground limestone.

TABLE IV
JAPANESE CANE FERTILIZER TEST. 1909 TO 1914

Fertilizers, pounds per acre
Plot Plot Plot Plot IPlot Plot Plot Plot
I II III IV VI VII VIII
t Dried blood... ...--- 112 --_ 112------ 1 ..---- 112 112
SSulphate of ammonia --- ------ _----- -_--. 72 ...... 72 ..
Muriate of potash .------. 84 84 .___. 84 84 -----. -.__..- ..
Sulphate of potash .----.---. ....... __.------ ---- 84 84 84
Acid phosphate ----------..... 224 224 224 224 224 224 224
SGround limestone ...------ -.--. ---------_ ------ ...... 2000

Yield, in tons of green material per acre
1909 --------------------- 24.20 17.70 16.10 19.10 19.54 18.90 16.60 27.03
1910 ..---------------...... 14.60 12.40 10.00 14.40 11.80 16.70 14.10 16.00
1911..---------........... 7.08 9.00 9.63 14.36 13.56 15.48 14.02 14.10
1912 ----.--------------- 6.38 684 3.68 7.92 7.26 9.62 10.68 10.28
1913 -----..._--- ..--------8.16 6.93 3.83 8.51 8.09 7.86 9.33 8.92
1914---........- .......-- 5.31 5.05 2.07 6.87 5.25 6.73 726 5.89
Average for six years 10.95 9.65 7.55 11.87 10.91 12.54 11.99 13.70
*Ground limestone was applied in 1909, 1911, and 1913.
fThe dried blood contained 16 per cent. of ammonia.
SThe sulphate of ammonia contained 25 per cent. of ammonia.

YIELD OF CANE
Table IV gives the yield of green material per acre produced
each year. This shows that there was a considerable decrease in
yield after the first year. Heretofore it has been the opinion
that Japanese cane did not produce its maximum yield until
about the third or fourth year after planting the crop. Experience
does not prove the above opinion to be correct. It does prove
however that the opposite is true, that is, that the yield decreases
each year after the first year. In this case the heaviest yield per
acre was produced from canes and not from ratoons. We have
kept records of yields from other plots of Japanese cane on the
Station farm, and find the same is true on all plots on which
records have been kept; that is, that there is a decrease in yield
of cane after the first year.
We have no opinion to advance as to why we obtain a






Bullettn 129


decrease in yield of Japanese cane after the first year, unless it
be that the soil is more or less exhausted and needs a change or
rotation. Nearly all crops produce better when grown in a
rotation than when grown continuously on the same piece of
ground.
Since the yields decreased greatly from the first to the sixth
year, it seems advisable, in order that each year's crop may have
an equal share in determining the average, to reduce all years to
the same crop total of all the plots. Taking this total crop as 800,
we have table V, in which the yields are given as percentages
of the yearly averages.
This table shows the relative standing of each plot each year
and of the average for the six years. This changes the relative
standing of the plots but little. Plot III produced the lowest
yield per acre, and Plot VIII produced the largest yield per acre.
Plots IV, VI and VII were nearly equal to Plot VIII. These four
plots were consistently above the average every year, except the
first; while Plots II and III, which gave the lowest yields, were
below the average every year. Plots I and V varied on either
side of the average, giving a mean yield only slightly below
the average.
TABLE V
COMPARATIVE YIELDS CALCULATED AS PERCENTAGES OF THE AVERAGE
OF THE WHOLE CROP FOR EACH YEAR

Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot
I II III IV V VI VII VIII Average
1909__ 122 89 81 96 98 95 83 136 100
1910 106 90 73 105 86 121 103 116 100
1911_. 58 74 79 117 112 127 115 116 100
1912.. 81 87 47 101 93 123 136 131 100
1913. 106 90 50 111 105 102 121 116 100
1914. 96 91 37 124 95 121 131 106 100
ATeragea 95 87 61 109 98 115 115 120 100

COMPARISON OF YIELDS
We find, on comparing Plots I and III, that Plot I, which was
fertilized with dried blood and muriate of potash, gave, on an
average of six years, a yield of 10.95 tons of green material per
acre; while Plot III, which received dried blood and acid phos-
phate, produced a yield, on an average of six years, of only 7.55
tons green material per acre. There is a difference of 3.4 tons
per acre of green material in favor of dried blood and muriate of
potash.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Comparing the yield from Plot II with those from Plots I and
III, we see that Plot II, fertilized with muriate of potash and
acid phosphate, produced a better yield per acre, on an average
of six years, than did Plot III with dried blood and acid phos-
phate; but Plot I, which received dried blood and muriate of
potash, gave a little better yield per acre than did Plot II, which
was fertilized with muriate of potash and acid phosphate.
The results obtained from these three plots with incomplete
fertilizers would indicate that the best results from an incomplete
fertilizer might perhaps be obtained from the use of dried blood
and muriate of potash. The results from these three plots
show one important fact, that is, that Japanese cane to produce
the best yield requires potash. Plot I produced a 30 per cent.
larger yield than did Plot III, and Plot II produced a 25 per cent.
larger yield than did Plot III.
To find the effect of dried blood, we should compare Plots
II and V. These two plots were fertilized alike, except that Plot
II received no dried blood. Taking an average of six years, Plot
V produced 1.26 tons more green material per acre than did
Plot II.
We might also compare the yields from Plots II and IV.
This will give us the effect of sulphate of ammonia. The aver-
age yield per acre of green material from Plot II was 9.65 tons,
and that from Plot IV was 11.87 tons. There is a difference of
2.22 tons in favor of the use of sulphate of ammonia.
We can also compare the yields from Plots IV and V, and
from Plots VI and VII. This gives a comparison of dried blood
and sulphate of ammonia.' It is evident that both plots which re-
ceived sulphate of ammonia produced slightly better yields than
did the two plots that received dried blood.
By comparing the yields from Plots IV and VI, and V and VII
we get the effects of the different sources of potash. Plots VI
and VII, which received sulphate of potash, produced a slightly
better yield, on an average of six years, than did Plots IV and V,
which received muriate of potash. The differences however,
were only 0.67 and 1.08 (an average of 0.87) of a ton in favor
of sulphate of potash.
Plots VII and VIII show the effects of ground limestone.
There is a difference in yield of 1.7 tons of green material in
favor of the use of ground limestone. There is one important
point to be noticed here, and that is that although ground lime-
stone wa applied in 1909, 1911, and 1913, it had no effect in






Bulletin 129


increasing the yield except in 1909. In fact, the yield obtained
from Plot VIII, which received ground limestone, was just a
little lower in 1912 and in 1913, and the yield in 1914 was consid-
erably lower, than that from Plot VII which received no ground
limestone.
To get the effect of potash we should compare Plots III, V,
and VII. Plot III, which received dried blood and acid phos-
phate, gave a yield, on an average of six years, of 7.55 tons of
green material. Plot V, which received dried blood, muriate of
potash and acid phosphate, produced a yield, on an average of
six years, of 10.91 tons of green material. This is an increase
over the yield of Plot III of 3.36 tons of green material. Plot
VII, which received dried blood, sulphate of potash, and acid
phosphate, gave a yield, on an average of six years, of 11.99 tons
of green material. This is an increase over the yield of Plot III
of 4.44 tons of green material. These results indicate the need
of potash in a fertilizer for Japanese cane.

PERCENTAGE OF SUCROSE IN JUICE
Each year, during the six years that the Japanese cane
fertilizer experiment was conducted, a sample of twenty stalks
was cut from each plot. These twenty stalks were weighed,
stripped, and then weighed a second time. They were then run
through a small handpower mill, and the juice from each sample
was collected and weighed. Each sample of juice was then tested
for the percentage of sucrose it contained. The juice was also
tested for density. Table VI gives the results of these tests. The
percentage of sucrose in the juice varies somewhat from year to
year. When we take the average of six years and compare the
results, we find there is but little difference in the percentage of
sucrose from the various plots. The percentage of sucrose from
Plot III is a little lower than from any other plot. This might in-
dicate that potash was necessary in the fertilizer for cane. How-
ever, the difference between Plot III and Plot VIII (which is the
highest) is only about one per cent on the average of six years.
These results indicate strongly that any complete fertilizer will
give the same percentage of sucrose in the juice. Thus the
fertilizer does not change the percentage of sucrose in the juice.
The way then to increase the production of syrup is to use a
fertilizer that will increase the growth of the cane and give more
tons of cane to the acre, and in this way increase the production
of syrup per acre.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE VI
JAPANESE CANE FERTILIZER TEST, SUCROSE AND DENSITY

Percentage of Sucrose in Juice
Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot Plot
I II III IV V VI VII VIII
1909 ---.---. 11.85 13.50 13.75 13 65 13.60 13.50 13.58 13.75
1910 ...-..-- 11.00 10.85 10.50 11.00 11.20 11.10 10.95 10.90
1911.-----.---. 9.30 9.24 6.12 9.00 7.92 6.90 8.12 9.18
1912-------- 11.25 11.12 11.17 12.14 11 48 11.65 11.37 11.87
1913---------.. 1100 10.10 9.80 10.72 10.87 11.08 10.61 11.06
1914.--------. 8.97 8.89 7.63 8.93 9.97 9 13 9 23 8.57
Average------ 10.56 10.61 9.83 10.91 10.84 10.56 10.64 10.89
Density of Juice (Brix)
1909 -------- 16.70 17.20 17.70 17 40 17.40 17.50 17.60 17.80
1910-------. 15.35 15.40 15.30 15.40 15.60 15.60 15.50 15.50
1911 --------- 14.00 13.90 13 60 13 50 14 00 14.20 14.30 14.20
1912--------- 15.40 15.48 16.05 16.28 15.63 15.70 15 60 16.00
1913..-------. 15.27 14 82 14.47 15.22 15.18 15.25 15.00 15.15
1914 -------- 15.43 15.90 16.33 16.00 16.68 17.28 17.58 17.23
Average ..... 15.36 15.45 1 15.58 15.63 15.75 1 15.92 15.93 15.98
These determinations were made by the Chemical Department of the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station.

HOW SHALL WE FERTILIZE CANE
From the results obtained from the experiment just described,
it would seem that the best fertilizer for cane is one that will
produce the largest growth. For the results of this experiment
indicate that the fertilizer has no effect on the sucrose content of
the juice. Hence, the only way to increase the yield of syrup
per acre is to increase the yield of cane per acre. This can best
be done by using a fertilizer which contains a good percentage
of ammonia, some potash, and phosphoric acid. Perhaps the
formula should be something like the following:
Ammonia._.------------- 3 to 4 per cent
Potash._ _---------------. 5 to 7 per cent
Phosphoric acid-...--..----3 to 4 per cent

The source of ammonia should be sulphate of ammonia.
The source of potash should be sulphate of potash. The phos-
phoric acid can be obtained from acid phosphate.
A sufficient amount of fertilizer should be applied per acre
so that the crop would never lack for plant food during the
growing season. It is useless to state any given amount to apply,
as this will vary with the character of the soil, and climatic







Bulletin 129 41

conditions of the season. The better grades of soil will require
less fertilizer, while the poorer grades of sandy pine land will
require more fertilizer. During an excessively wet season it
would be advisable to give the fertilizer in smaller and more
frequent applications.
A liberal application of fertilizer for cane would be from 500
to 1000 pounds per acre. A yield of twenty to thirty tons of
green material per acre draws heavily upon the fertility in the
soil, hence the necessity for supplying the crop with an abun-
dance of plant food.
TABLE VII
ANALYSES OF JAPANESE CANE; 1913 CROP
Oven-dry Samples

Plot I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Protein --...-----..--- 2.17 2:42 2.44 2.01 2.14 1.99 1.86 1.87
Ether Extract.......--------. 1.80 1.57 1.74 1.83 2.26 1.87 1 57 1.93
Crude fiber.......----- 34.52 33.48 33.27 35.63 33.48 33.80 35.45 33.76
Nitrogen-free Extract--... 54.62 56.04 55.54 53.50 55.36 54.54 55.33 53.81
Ash ----------.......- 4.31 3.78 3.24 3.48 3.84 3.45 3.26 3.84

These analyses were made by the Chemical Department of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station.

TABLE VIII
ANALYSES OF JAPANESE CANE; 1914 CROP
Oven-dry Samples
P'ot I II III I V V VI VII VIII
Ash --------........--- 2.82 3.43 2.51 2.48 2.64 2.20 2.58 2.84
Crude fat- .---- ...----.. 2.23 2.73 3.02 2.38 2.53 2.75 2.32 2.40
Crude fiber ....---- ..---- 30 08 26.76 33.21 31.57 29.27 30.02 29.32 30.16
Crude protein -........- 2.70 2.68 2.33 1.97 1.87 1.20 1.70 2.34
Nitrogen-free extract-.. 54.52 55.78 51.22 52.90 55.45 56.13 56.11 53.98

These analyses were made by E. B. Helm, working in the Department of
Chemistry of the University of Florida.

TABLE IX
FERTILIZER CONSTITUENTS OF JAPANESE CANE; CROP OF 1913
Percentages of Oven-dry Samples

Plot I II III IV V VI VII VIII Averages
Nitrogen....-.. .347 .388 .386 .321 .343 .319 .294 .300 .337
Phosphoric acid. .319 .385 .362 .355 .351 .328 .363 .395 .357
Potash.......... .891 .733 .791 .417 .812 .903 .803 .952 .787
Lime ....-.... .504 .543 .529 .438 .502 .474 .522 .498 .501
Magnesia------- .231 .249 .288 .213 .218 .153 .233 .203 .223

Analyses by the Chemical Department of the Florida Agricultural Experi-
ment Station.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE X
FERTILIZER CONSTITUENTS OF JAPANESE CANE; 1913 CROP
Pounds in the ton of oven-dry cane

Plot I I II II IV V VI VII VIII averages
Nitrogen ---- --. 6.94 7.76 7.72 6.42 6.86 6.38 5.88 6.00 6.74
Phosphoric acid. 6.38 7.70 7.24 7.10 7.02 6.56 7.26 7.90 7.15
Potash -...---- 17.82 14.66 15.82 8.34 16.24 18.06 16.06 19.04 15.38
Lime _-.------. 10.08 10 86 10.58 8.76 10.04 9.48 10.44 9.96 10.03
Magnesia --- 4.62 4.98 5.76 4.26 4.36 3.06 4.66 4.06 4.47

FERTILIZING VALUE OF JAPANESE CANE
Table IX shows the fertilizing value of dry Japanese cane.
This shows that on an average of eight analyses, dry Japanese
cane contains .337 per cent. of nitrogen, .357 per cent. of phos-
phoric acid, .787 per cent. of potash, .501 per cent. of lime, and
.223 per cent. of magnesia.
If we calculate this on the basis of a ton (Table X), on the
average of the eight analyses each ton of dry cane contains 6.74
pounds of nitrogen, 7.15 pounds of phosphoric acid, 15.38 pounds
of potash, 10.03 pounds of lime, and 4.47 pounds of magnesia.
These analyses in a measure may help to explain why potash
is of so much importance in the fertilizer. The tables show that
Japanese cane contains nearly two and a half times as much
potash as it does nitrogen, and twice as much potash as phos-
phoric acid.
Is Japanese cane hard on land? This is a question iisled
.quite frequently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard on land. Any
crop that produces such an abundant growth of forage must
necessarily draw very heavily upon the plant food in the soil.
If then the plant food is not supplied by liberal application of
fertilizer, the soil will soon become exhausted and the yield ob-
tained from the crop will be unsatisfactory. The plants produce
a new root system each year. Hence, there is some humus added
and a small amount of plant food returned to the soil annually,
but the amount left in the soil does not equal the amount taken
out each season and removed in the leaves and canes.

STORING JAPANESE CANE
The storing of a crop is of as much importance as the grow-
ing of it. Nothing is gained by growing a crop and then losing
it by failing to properly cure and store it for feeding purposes.
Japanese cane is perhaps one of the easiest crops we have to






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE X
FERTILIZER CONSTITUENTS OF JAPANESE CANE; 1913 CROP
Pounds in the ton of oven-dry cane

Plot I I II II IV V VI VII VIII averages
Nitrogen ---- --. 6.94 7.76 7.72 6.42 6.86 6.38 5.88 6.00 6.74
Phosphoric acid. 6.38 7.70 7.24 7.10 7.02 6.56 7.26 7.90 7.15
Potash -...---- 17.82 14.66 15.82 8.34 16.24 18.06 16.06 19.04 15.38
Lime _-.------. 10.08 10 86 10.58 8.76 10.04 9.48 10.44 9.96 10.03
Magnesia --- 4.62 4.98 5.76 4.26 4.36 3.06 4.66 4.06 4.47

FERTILIZING VALUE OF JAPANESE CANE
Table IX shows the fertilizing value of dry Japanese cane.
This shows that on an average of eight analyses, dry Japanese
cane contains .337 per cent. of nitrogen, .357 per cent. of phos-
phoric acid, .787 per cent. of potash, .501 per cent. of lime, and
.223 per cent. of magnesia.
If we calculate this on the basis of a ton (Table X), on the
average of the eight analyses each ton of dry cane contains 6.74
pounds of nitrogen, 7.15 pounds of phosphoric acid, 15.38 pounds
of potash, 10.03 pounds of lime, and 4.47 pounds of magnesia.
These analyses in a measure may help to explain why potash
is of so much importance in the fertilizer. The tables show that
Japanese cane contains nearly two and a half times as much
potash as it does nitrogen, and twice as much potash as phos-
phoric acid.
Is Japanese cane hard on land? This is a question iisled
.quite frequently. No doubt Japanese cane is hard on land. Any
crop that produces such an abundant growth of forage must
necessarily draw very heavily upon the plant food in the soil.
If then the plant food is not supplied by liberal application of
fertilizer, the soil will soon become exhausted and the yield ob-
tained from the crop will be unsatisfactory. The plants produce
a new root system each year. Hence, there is some humus added
and a small amount of plant food returned to the soil annually,
but the amount left in the soil does not equal the amount taken
out each season and removed in the leaves and canes.

STORING JAPANESE CANE
The storing of a crop is of as much importance as the grow-
ing of it. Nothing is gained by growing a crop and then losing
it by failing to properly cure and store it for feeding purposes.
Japanese cane is perhaps one of the easiest crops we have to






Bulletin 129


cure and store. It can be stored in a barn or shed. A temporary
roof made of any material that will shed water may be erected.
In storing Japanese cane it will be found advisable to set the
stalks on end, butts on the ground. Storing can be best accom-
plished by stretching two strands of heavy wire lengthwise of
the barn, and about three to three and a half feet above the
ground. The canes are stood on end on both sides of the wire.
This will leave an open space between the butts which will af-
ford ventilation and will prevent the cane from molding.
Another method that may be employed is to shock the cane
in the field. The cane will cure and keep in good condition
when stored by this method. However, there will be some loss
due to weathering. If the shocks are made sufficiently large and
are well made and securely tied so as to prevent them from
blowing down, the results will be found satisfactory. The tying
of the shocks is an important consideration. Lath cord.or baling
wire should be used for tying. The cord or wire should be
placed near the top of the shock.
Perhaps the most satisfactory method of storing Japanese
cane will be to put it in a silo.

REPLANTING JAPANESE CANE
After the sixth year of the fertilizer experiment, the Japanese
cane on the plots was plowed up. On March 6, 1915, a part of
each of the eight plots was replanted with Japanese cane. The
new cane was planted in the same rows as the cane which had
stood for six seasons. Each plot of the replanted Japanese cane
was fertilized in the same way as the plots had been for the
previous six years (Table IV).
The following yields per acre of green material were
obtained from each plot in the fall of 1915.
Tons
Plot I ------....... ---------------29.5
Plot II .------. --.... ---- ---------31.9
Plot III......-------------.........--------18.0
Plot IV .------.-------- -------. 24.2
Plot V --.....-----...------------ 29.7
Plot VI -----------------------24.9
Plot VII.----------------------27.3
Plot VIII*------------ .-----------22.5
*Ground limestone was applied in 1915 at the rate of 2000 pounds per acre.
The replanted cane produced a better yield than the field
had produced before. One would have thought after growing






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Japanese cane for seven years that the soil would have been
almost exhausted. This, however, did not appear to be so.
The ratoon cane does not produce as heavy a yield of green
material per acre as does the planted cane. These results indi-
cate strongly the advisability of replanting Japanese cane every
three or four years. All of the plots, except Plot III, gave satis-
factory yields. There is but little difference in the yields produced
by Plots I, II, and V. Plot II, which had received no ammonia
for seven years, gave the heaviest yield of green material per
acre. Plot III, which had received no potash during the past
seven years, gave a yield of only 18 tons of green material per
acre. This is a marked decrease in yield as compared with that
of any of the other plots. This shows the need of potash in a
fertilizer to produce the best yields of Japanese cane.
The yields of Plots IV and VI are nearly equal. Plot VII
produced a yield of 27.3 tons, which is 4.8 tons more green mate-
rial than the yield of Plot VIII. This tends to show that no
benefit was obtained from the applications of ground limestone,
except from the first application in 1909.




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