• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Errata
 The pecan bud-moth
 The pecan case-bearer
 Other bud-worms
 Catocala spp
 The pecan-tree borer
 The walnut of pecan caterpilla...
 The fall web-worm
 Coleophora sp.
 The hickory-shuck worm
 The twig girdlers
 The oak pruner
 The live-oak root borer
 The hickory-nut weevil
 The hickory-bark borer
 The painted hickory borer
 The white ant
 The cottony scale
 The pecan eulecanium
 General practice in the pecan...
 Spraying and spraying apparatu...
 The outlook for pecan culture from...
 Acknowledgements
 Back Cover






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 79
Title: Insects of the pecan
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026692/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insects of the pecan
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. <281>-318, <7> leaves of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gossard, H. A ( Harry Arthur ), 1868-1925
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1905
 Subjects
Subject: Pecan -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.A. Gossard.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026692
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921781
oclc - 18156898
notis - AEN2249

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 277
    Front Matter
        Page 278
    Table of Contents
        Page 281
        Page 282
        Page 283
        Page 284
    Errata
        Page 279
        Page 280
    The pecan bud-moth
        Page 285
        Page 286
        Page 286a
        Page 287
        Page 288
        Page 288a
        Page 289
        Page 290
        Page 291
    The pecan case-bearer
        Page 292
        Page 292a
        Page 293
        Page 294
        Page 295
    Other bud-worms
        Page 296
    Catocala spp
        Page 296
        Page 297
        Page 298
        Page 298a
    The pecan-tree borer
        Page 299
    The walnut of pecan caterpillar
        Page 300
        Page 300a
        Page 301
    The fall web-worm
        Page 302
        Page 302a
        Page 303
    Coleophora sp.
        Page 304
    The hickory-shuck worm
        Page 305
    The twig girdlers
        Page 305
    The oak pruner
        Page 306
        Page 307
    The live-oak root borer
        Page 308
    The hickory-nut weevil
        Page 308
    The hickory-bark borer
        Page 309
        Page 310
    The painted hickory borer
        Page 311
    The white ant
        Page 312
    The cottony scale
        Page 313
        Page 314
    The pecan eulecanium
        Page 315
    General practice in the pecan orchard
        Page 315
    Spraying and spraying apparatus
        Page 315
    The outlook for pecan culture from the entomological standpoint
        Page 316
        Page 317
    Acknowledgements
        Page 318
        Page 319
    Back Cover
        Page 320
Full Text


BULLETIN No. 79.


FLORIDA *

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION.


Insects of the Pecan.


I


Nests of Pecan Case Bearer, Acrobasis nebulella.
BY H. A. GOSSARD
(Formerly Entomologist of the Florida Station; now with the Ohio Experiment Station.


The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon appli -
cation to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.


St. Augustine, Fla.:
THE RECORD COMPANY.
1905.


APRIL, 1905.
















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILSON, President .............. .. .. Jacksonville
C. A. CARSON, Vice-President. ....... ....... .... Kissimmee
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary... ....... .... ... .Brooksville
F. E H ARRIS .. ........................ ............ Ocala
E. D. BEGGS ...................................... Pensacola
J. R. PARROTT. ............................... Jacksonville
F. M. SI ONTON..... ....... ................ ....... Tampa



STATION STAFF.


ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D........ ............ Director
*CHAS. M. CONNER, B. S. ...... Vice-Director and Agriculturist
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D.............. Chemist
E. H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D.. .......... Entomologist
F. M. ROLS, M. S.... .. .......... Botanist and Horticulturist
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S. ............ .Veterinarian
A. W. BLAIR, A. M ....................... .Assistant Chemist
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M. S.............. Assistant Chemist
F. C. REIMER, B. S............ .... Assistant Horticulturist
S. A. ROBERT, B. S..... ...... Assistant in Field Experiments
W. P. JERNIGAN....... .......... Auditor and Bookkeeper
H. T. PERKINS .............. .... Stenographer and Librarian
JOHN F. MITCHELL....... ......... Foreman Station Farm
F. M. STEARNS ......... Gardener, Horticultural Department
*Superintendent Farmers' Institutes,



















CONTENTS.



rhe Pecan Bud Moth ........................................................................285
The Pecan Case Bearer.................................................................292
Other Budworms...............................................................................296
Catocala spp. ...................................................................... .......296
Pecan Tree Borer ............................................................................299
The Walnut or Pecan Caterpillar ........................................... .........300
The Fall Web Worm .......................................... ...................302
Coleophora sp.................... .............. .............................................304
The Hickory Shuck Worm.................................... ......... ................305
The Twig Girdlers............................................................... ...305
The Oak Pruner.............................................................................306
The Live Oak Root Borer ............................... .............................. 308
The Hickory Nut Weevil..... ...........................................................308
The Hickory Bark Borer......................... ...................................309
The Painted Hickory Borer................................................................311
The White Ant................... .....................................................312
The Cottony Scale..........................................................................313
The Pecan Eulecanium......................................................................315
General Practice in the Pecan Orchard .............. ..... ..............315
Spraying and Spraying Apparatus........................................ .............315
The Outlook for Pecan Culture ............. ................................ .......316
Acknowledgements........................................................................... ...318


























I,~u


PLATE I.
Defoliated by Bud-worm and Case-bearer.
(Two or three weeks after vernation.)


Je -.







Owing to irregularities in issue ill the last three bul-
letins of the Station, there is a confusion in the numbering
of the pages, Nos. 78 and 79 both being numbered consec-
utively with No. 77, and No. 80 beginning with independent
numbering. In order to correct this and bring the num-
bering in consecutive order again, for those who desire to
bind the bulletins, the paging of this number begins
where it should begin had the paging been in its proper
order. Those who desire can make this correction by
beginning the title page of No. 79 with :30:l and continuing
consecutively through No. 89.











THE PECAN BUD-MOTH.
(Proteopteryx deludana Clemens.)
No other insect except the pecan case-worm, Acrobasis
nebulella, has done so much damage to pecans in Florida for the
past two or three years as has this bud-worm. More often than
not it is found working in conjunction with the Acrobasis, and
when this is the case, only careful observation will distinguish
between the two species which have some habits in common, such
as entering the buds; also at first sight their respective methods
of fastening and webbing leaves together are not greatly dif-
ferent. This bud-worm is a very close relative of the northern
bud-worm, Tmetocera ocellana, injurious to apple and
other fruit trees. Both belong in the same family
and so similar are their life histories that if the names
of their food-plants were interchanged and the dates for their
appearing were slightly altered, an account of the one would read
very much like that of the other. In some orchards the depreda-
tions of this insect, combined with the damage inflicted by the
case-worm, cuts off one-half the yield of nuts.
DESCRIPTION.
MoTH.-The wing-expanse of the adult is about five-eighths
of an inch; length from front to tip of folded wings about five-
sixteenths of an inch; length of body about one-fourth inch.
The front wings are grayish in color, marked with blackish-
brown patches and streaks; in well marked specimens a chain of
three such patches makes a zigzag from the base of the wing
across its middle to the tip. Along the middle of the hind margin
is a rather indistinct patch of gray, becoming distinct when the
wings are closed because of the formation of a whitish angle b;
the junction of the two patches, one from either wing, the point
of the angle being directed toward the head. The grayish front
i, irglTi of the wing is marked by a series of blackish-brown
streaks and splashes from the base to the tip. Iridescent patches
are shown here and there, especially in the area along the outer
margin between the tip and the anal angle. When the wings
are closed the posterior ends are so folded that the general outline
of the body is that of an overturned boat; looking at the posterior








Bulletin No. 79


end a double, imperfectly formed cylinder is seen at the dorsal
:margin, somewhat resembling the muzzle of a double-barrelled
gun. In the depression just beneath this cylinder on either side,
the outer surface of the wing shows one of the conspicuous black-
ish-brown markings of the zigzag. Hind wings dusky-gray,
darker along the outer margin. Head and palpi gray, sprinkled
.with dark-brown.
PUPA.-The pupa is light-brown in color, slightly over one-
fourth inch in length and is cased in a tube of dead leaves, lined
with silk. The upper surface of each abdominal segment is
armed with two rows of minute teeth, directed backward.
LARVA.-The caterpillar, when full grown and -expanded as
in crawling, is slightly more than one-half of an inch in length.
There are five pairs of prolegs. The true legs, and prolegs also,
are light yellowish-green like the body. The contents of the
intestinal canal show blaclkish-brown or reddish-brown through
the body. The head is light brown with the anterior border of
the mouth parts tipped with black. Thoracic shield is light
brown with posterior border and lateral edges tinged with
.blackish.
EGGs.-The eggs are minute, flattened, semi-transparent, iri-
ilescent specks, less than a millimeter in diameter, found on the
:under sides of the leaflets. Perhaps no better comparison can be
-made than to adopt the one bestowed on the eggs of the apple
;bud-moth and liken them to minute fish scales or very small
drops of water.
LIFE HISTORY.
The moth has been obtained as early as the 21st of April,
-but the greater part of the brood does not appear until after the
-first week in May. They are abundant by May 20th and a few
lingerers may be found as late as the 10th of June. As a whole,
the brood comes about a week or ten days earlier than the pecan
case-worm moth, but for two or three weeks of each spring the
mnoths of the two species may be found together in the same
,orchards. The bud-moth is most frequently found on the tree
trunk where its coloration so effectually hides it that it often
escapes discovery, even when the practiced observer is looking
straight at it and is but a few feet, or even but a few inches, away.

























































PLATE II.
Summer Work of Pecan Bud-Moth (ProlIeotery deludana) on leaves.


I


00gs1b--







Insects of the Pecan


It invariably settles to rest with its head downward, and when
disturbed goes off with a flight so rapid the eye can hardly fol-
low it. After a short circuit it usually returns and alights on the
trunk it has just left. Occasionally moths may be started from
fence posts or from weeds near pecan trees. I have also found
them resting on the trunks of isolated walnut trees and presume
they were bred on these. They fly little in the daytime, apparently
laying their eggs at night. The eggs are laid on the under sides
of the leaflets, and upon hatching the young caterpillars at once
commence feeding on the outer skin of the leaflets and, so far as
observed, always on the under side. In a very short time each little
caterpillar makes for itself a tiny blackish-brown tube of silk,
the particles of excrement being used for filling. This little
tube is always started alongside the midrib or one of the larger
veins, often in the angle made by a vein with the midrib. As
growth proceeds, the caterpillar as gradually enlarges its tube,
giving it a winding, tortuous course over the leaf-surface away
from the midrib or vein that furnished the starting point. These
tubes are fastened to the leaves throughout their entire lengths
and remain upon them until they fall in autumn. At the larger
end of the tube which is kept open, a broadened net-work of silken
threads, excrementitious matter and pubescence from the leaf is
spread out, tent-like, to protect the body of the caterpillar while
it is feeding. The larva only eats through to the upper epider-
mis which is left intact, causing a brownish patch to appear as
the damaged tissues wither, the thin epidermis becoming white
and paper-like in autumn or, perhaps, broken through in places;
from the effects of weathering. The beginnings of these tubes-
may be found in June, but they do not become conspicuous until
July and August. In September the little caterpillars begin to,
leave their tubes and migrate to the buds where they spend the
winter. Part of them will remain upon the leaves until early
November, but the great majority of them have gone into winter
quarters long before this. At the side of the bud, preferably
where the bud scale furnishes shelter on one side and the twig
on the other, the caterpillar spins a small, tough, oval, brown -"co-
coon," lined with white silk, and in this ensconces itself for the
winter. Where the caterpillars have been numerous, as many
as a dozen of these tiny hibernating "cocoons," scarcely larger







Bulletin No. 79


than pin-heads, may be found snugly pressed against a single
bud. When the buds begin to swell in spring, the hungry cater-
pillars come out to feed. 'Sometimes one eats directly through
its winter case into the bud, never exposing itself for a moment to
danger from parasites or poisonous sprays; but usually they
come from their cases at some other point and feed on the outer
leaves of the bud before disappearing in its interior. They com-
mence to issue from their retreats by the middle of March, most
of them coming out during the last half of this month and the
first week in April. The date of emergence doubtless varies
with the season, but may be depended upon to agree quite closely
with the opening of the buds. Early damage to pecan buds is
due more to this species than to any other, but within a week or
two after commencing work it is joined by the pecan case-worm
which has just about the same natural capacity for inflicting dam-
age. Both species together, or either one alone, is capable of pre-
venting a tree from getting into foliage for several weeks after
its normal time. After the trees are in full leaf the caterpillars
may be found singly, each with one side of a leaf folded over it
and fastened to form a tube, or sometimes two leaves are
fastened together with silken bonds and the caterpillar feeds be-
tween them. As fast as the leaves it has attacked become brown
and die, it draws fresh leaves to the dead ones and fastens them
there, thus gradually making a very conspicuous nest. Whether
or not the petioles of these leaves are eaten, thus causing prema-
ture wilting, I have not determined, but presume this to be the
case. Somewhere in this nest of leaves a silken-lined cocoon is
prepared, within which the larva transforms to the brown chrysalis
or pupa. The duration of the pupal period is from ten to fifteen
days. When ready to emerge the insect usually drags its chrys-
alis shell with it for a little way, and after freeing itself the moth
leaves the empty chrysalis with the head end slightly protruding
from the cocoon.
Dyar says the moth is distributed over the South Atlantic
States where it is not uncommon.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-Many specimens of Spilochalcis vittata
have been reared from the insect's nests. Several other uniden-
tified parasites were obtained.
























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PLATE IV.--"GETTING THEIR PICTURES TAKEN."
Trees show right stage of vernation for spraying with arsenicals in spring.


IL ,


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Insects of the Pecan


REMEDIES.
ARSENICALS.-The first experiments tried for the control of
this pest were similar to the measures usually employed to subdue
the northern bud-worm. In the spring of 1902 an extensive
orchard was treated with a Paris green spray, an attempt being
made to make the application just when the buds were opening
so as to get the worms when they took their first meal in spring.
Practically, the method was fraught with many difficulties. In
the first place the trees were very irregular in leafing out,
adjacent trees often being a week or more apart in their ver-
nation. It was, therefore, impossible to treat all the trees at
the most favorable stage of development without going over the
orchard more than once. Again the spring rains coming on at
just this season made it very difficult to get the work done at all,
and, when done, the rain was apt to undo it before twenty-four
hours had passed. Nevertheless, in one instance where rain fell
during the night, perhaps twelve hours or less after spraying
ceased, an examination of results was made a few days later and
it appeared that about fifty per cent. of the worms had been killed;
however, the remaining worms were sufficiently numerous to
work great damage, and the observer would never have sus-
pected, a few weeks later, that a big fraction of them had been
killed. While the orchard seemed to have been considerably
benefitted and was injured considerably less than during the pre-
ceding year, when no spraying was done, the results were far
from satisfactory.
In 1903 Bowker's Disparene and Swift's Arsenate of Lead
were tried under very similar conditions in a different orchard.
Again the results left much to be desired. The same remedies
were used on the bottom parts of a half dozen trees on the station
grounds at the time when the buds were partially opened; a few
weeks later the contrast between the foliage near the bottoms and
at the tops of some of the trees suggested that considerable good
had been done, but similar contrasts are sometimes seen on
trees that have not been sprayed at all. For spring work it is evi-
dent that two or three applications of poison should be made at
intervals of not more than a week apart.
In order to avoid troubles incident to the rainy season of
spring, irregular vernation, etc., a different plan was adopted for







Bulletin No. 79


1904. Experiments with both spraying and dusting were
planned for the months of July, August and September. The
young larvae are feeding upon the leaves during all of this period
and it is always possible to find a favorable time for application
during these months. It seemed that if a persistent spray, such
as Disparene, were thoroughly applied so as to cover the bottom
sides of the leaves, the young worms would surely be destroyed
before fall. Two or three applications might be necessary, but
the plan looked feasible. Upon my removal to. Ohio this work
was turned over to Dr. Sellards, the new entomologist of the
Florida station, but he arrived at his post too late to carry out the
experiments planned.
LIME-SALT-SULPHUR WASH.-From the results obtained
by the use of this mixture against the northern bud-worm, the
cigar case-maker, the apple bucculatrix and all similar pests
that enclose themselves in silken cases or cocoons for the winter,
it seems probable that this will eventually prove to be the remedy
best suited to the exigencies of combat with this insect and the
other case-bearing insects herein described. This wash should
not be applied until the trees are thoroughly dormant in midwin-
ter, which usually means about the middle of December. Spraying
may be done any time between this date and the time when the
leaves come out. The peach-worm or peach-twig borer, Anarsia
lineatella, is controlled in California by a lime-salt-sulphur spray
used just about the time the buds commence to swell, though the
same application is effective in midwinter. The larvae mi-
grate from their silken winter retreats to the buds at this time,
which is likewise true of our pecan insect. The.soluble elements of
this wash are very caustic for the first few days after its applica-
tion, and it is probable that such worms as are not killed in their
cocoons will be destroyed very soon after they emerge. "The
spring rains might help rather than interfere with the action of
this wash. If midwinter work turns out unsatisfactorily, spring
spraying should be tried. This wash is an excellent fungicide
and, besides destroying so many injurious insects, may be ex-
pected to remedy the blights and leaf diseases in marked degree.
FUMIGATION.-One of the chief obstacles to the successful
budding and grafting of pecans is this bud-worm. I have seen
sticks carrying more than a dozen buds, among which not one







Insecs -of the Pecan


was clean, and most of them had from a half-dozen to a dozen
or more winter cocoons attached to them. It is readily seen
that the chances for a bud to survive the attacks of all these
worms is not great. In a fumigating experiment, a large number
of such infested buds were put into the fumigating box and fumi-
gated for 30 minutes, using 0.16 grains of cyanide of potassium
per cubic foot of space enclosed. After this treatment, March
26th, these buds were carefully budded into proper stocks by
Professor H. H. Hume. Over 90 per cent. of them started into
growth in the most promising manner; but in a few days the
worms attacked them and out of 27 buds examined, 16, or 60 per
cent., had worms visibly at work. The final showing was much
worse than this, because all the worms had not issued at the date
of examination. Not over 15 or 20 per cent. of the buds sur-
vived to' produce trees. This strength of gas is wholly inef-
fective against this stage of the insect. I have further noticed that
the little case-worms commonly found on orange trunks are not
affected by the California doses of gas, used under oiled tents
for an hour. 'Whether or not a dose sufficiently strong to kill
the protected worms can be found that will not injure the
vitality of the buds is a question for solution.
NURSERY PRACTICE.-When buds have been received that
are infested and must be used it may be doubted if there is any
more certain or economical method of handling them than to re-
move the cocoons with the point of a knife. Possibly the bud-
sticks can be immersed in lime-salt-sulphur wash before the
buds are removed, but it is an unanswered question as to how
such treatment will affect the life and growing power of the buds.
The buds from young trees are always less infested than those
from old trees and from the entomological standpoint are, there-
fore, to be preferred. The worms are not often found working
on trees of one season's growth in the nursery row. They become
more frequent on two-year-old trees and increasingly common
as the trees are older and larger.
I believe it is entirely practicable for a man to pass down
the nursery rows during July, August and the first half of Sep-
tember, and collect by hand into a basket every leaflet that has
a worm feeding on it. Illustrations of such attacked leaflets
have already been shown. These leaflets should be burned.







Bulletin No. 79


This method will insure clean stock, since no worms will go to
the buds if they are destroyed before they quit the leaves. All
trees used for budwood and grafts may be treated in similar
manner, thus insuring the character of the buds and grafts taken
from them.

THE PECAN CASE-BEARER.
(Acrobasis nebullela Riley.)
This case-worm is a very close relative of the rascal leaf
crumpler, Mineola indigenella, which it very much resembles in
appearance, life history and habits. Dr. Riley in his fourth re-
port on the insects of Missouri described it as a variety of in-
digenella. No other insect in Florida is more destructive to the
pecan and only the bud-worm, Proteopteryx deludana, rivals it
as an economic insect in the pecan orchard. It seems to be found
wherever pecans are grown throughout the State and is probably
found wherever the pecan grows wild. It was first described by
Riley from a specimen bred from wild crab.

DESCRIPTION.
LARVA.-When expanded the full grown larva is five-eighths
of an inch long, color dark green, head dark brown or blackish,
prothoracic shield lighter with brownish green area above.
Second thoracic segment has a well defined tubercle on the up-
per surface of each side, skin of thorax doubled into four cres-
centic folds directed alternately forward and backward, a pair
each to the second and third segments. Legs shining blackish.
Four pairs of abdominal prolegs short, hardly more than tuber-
cles. Fifth or last pair of prolegs longer, armed along the bor-
der with numerous minute hooks by means of which the cater-
pillar clings to the silken lining of its case, rendering difficult
the attempt to draw it therefrom, such effort sometimes threat-
ening to tear the body in twain.
PUPA.-The pupa is three-eighths of an inch or less in
length, color glistening mahogany brown; dorsal surface mi-
nutely punctate.
MoTH.-The adult moth has a wing-expanse of .6 to .75
of an inch, leAgth of body .3 to .375 of an inch. General color
of insect gray, marked with whitish, cinnamon-brown and black.





























7.


4. 8.


PLATE III.-BUD-WORM AND CASE-BEARER.
Proieopteryx deludana: 1, Moth, slightly enlarged, on surface of a leaf; 2, Caterpillar, natural
size. about mature: 3, Part of leaf cut away to show tortuous tube of young larva; 4, Nests
of dead leaves in which mature larva, and puple are found; 5, Folded leaf, rolled back to
show chrysalis in silky cocoon. .crobasis nebulella: 6, Moth, natural size, resting on leaf; 7,
Caterpillar, natural size, about mature; 8, Winter cases, perhaps of this species but
very probably of Coleophora, clusteredl on twig, slightly enlarged; 9, Cases of grown
worms, attached to leaves and twigs, enlarged.







Insects of the Pecan


A row of seven or eight crescentic or linear black spots. is found
near the outer margin of the fore-wing. About one-fourth the
length of the wing inward from the margin is a gray wavy line,
rendered clear by a dusky background on either side of it. Slightly
nearer the base than the outer termination of the costal margin
is a.triangular dusky spot, and just outside it toward the margin
are two small black spots, the one behind the other. Not far
from the base is a splotch of light cinnamon-brown inclining to
yellow and at the.base is a whitish or, in some specimens, grayish
area, which again in other individuals merges into dark color.
The hind wings are light at the base, becoming dusky gray to-
ward the outer margin, a slender double line of black appearing
at the fringe. Head, shoulders, thorax and sometimes upper
parts of legs silky white, or in other specimens the color passes
from white through all gradations to dusky gray. Tibize and
tarsi variable, but some of them always spotted or ringed with
white and black.

LIFE HISTORY AND HABITS.
There is but one brood per year, the moths appearing from
the first of May until the first of July, the bulk of them coming
as a general rule during the first half of June. The moths are
found in the mulch and trash at the bases of trees, on low weeds
in the orchard, and upon the leaves and branches where they can
hide in the thick foliage. When pursued in the mulch they
deftly slip downward among the straws, and owing to their
quickness and protective coloration generally elude even a very
skillful chase. When alarmed into taking wing, they make a
short and somewhat jerky flight to a tree trunk or to nearby
foliage or weeds. The position or angle of rest is apparently
determined altogether by the position in which the insect hap-
pens to alight. This habit readily distinguishes it from the
bud-moth, often associated with it in the pecan orchard, by the
latter's habit of invariably adjusting itself, head downward,
on the bark.
Its summer history agrees well with that of its twin relative,
the leaf crumpler of the apple and other orchard trees, Mineola
indigenella, the eggs soon hatching, after which the young cater-
pillars commence feeding on the younger leaves, especially those







Bulletin No. 79


just opened at the terminal ends of branches. In July they are
readily discovered concealed in these terminal tufts, the black-
ened, ragged border of eaten spots among the cluster of leaves
betraying their presence very quickly after they commence feed-
ing. Before long, each constructs a tube about its body, weaving
into it the particles of its brownish or blackish excrement, bits
of disintegrated bark, and such debris with silken threads of
its own manufacture. The case which is considerably longer
than the body of the caterpillar is well lined with white silk.
While the case is in the formative period it is of compara-
tively flimsy texture and more or less curved, but, if the usual
order of development is followed, long before the worm
matures the case becomes quite straight, the distal or
unattached end always being larger than the attached one.
The larval habit and the case formation seems to be intermediate
between that of Mineola indigenella and the walnut case-bearer,
Mineola juglandis. Through this open, larger end, the worm pro-
trudes itself to feed, most of its depredations, at least with speci-
mens more than half matured, being done at night. When mature
in May, the case is so tough and dense that it tears with the great-
est difficulty and at this time is usually of a grayish-slate color. Be-
fore the leaves fall in autumn the insect probably attaches its case
to a suitable spot on a branch and here the winter is passed. They
do not come forth in the spring quite so early as the bud-worm,
but sometime during the last week in March or the first half
of April they appear on the leaves with seeming suddenness, their
cases at the dates when I have observed them being from one-
half to three-fourths of an inch long. If they are numerous,
the trees will have a struggle to put forth leaves as fast as they
are devoured. They often enter the buds and, in case of termi-
nals, cut off growth, compelling the development of lateral
branches as occurs following damage by the twig-girdler.
Sometimes the caterpillar bores for a considerable distance into
tender twigs. Bloom buds are destroyed along with leaf buds.
Numbers of the caterpillars sometimes enter an opening leaf
cluster and tie together into a coherent mass as large as a goose
egg such leaves as are opened, and add to them others as fast
as they appear, or as much of them as is undevoured. Through
the mass are scattered the cases containing larve and pupoe,







Insects of the Pecan


perhaps as many as a dozen moths eventually hatching from the
mass. I have seen trees kept defoliated and struggling for six
weeks or more to leaf out in the spring, the trouble at times
being almost wholly due to this species, again being caused by
it and the bud-worm, working conjointly. Later in the spring
a very characteristic habit is for the insect to attach its case to
the main leaf stalk, then tie over it, from each side, the opposite
leaflets of a pair, the tip ends of the leaflets, or of one of them,
being first eaten, consumption proceeding toward the base; thus
protection and food are provided for at the same time. Some-
times two or three cases are sheltered in this manner by the same
pair of leaflets.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-From the larvae and pupae have
emerged in my breeding cages a Tachinid fly, two or three ichneu-
mon flies and a very minute hymenopteran which, from recol-
lection, I think to have been a braconid. Part of these parasites
were lost in the confusion of moving to another State and I can
only be sure of the identity of Pimpla conquisitor and Spilochalcis
vittata among them. The cumulative benefits of parasitic attack
were illustrated by a few trees on the station grounds, which dur-
ing April and May, three years ago, were well-nigh unable to get
into foliage; for the past two years they have been in much better
condition, due almost wholly to parasites. Some correspondents
report having observed birds pecking them from out the buds and
eating them.
REMEDIES.-It seems certain that whatever remedies are
found efficient against the preceding species will also control this
one. The life histories of the two pests run so nearly parallel
that the only marked difference in their time schedules is a little
earlier appearance of the bud-worm moths than of those of the
case-worm. This variation is scarcely more than a fortnight or
ten days. The larve of both species are feeding from June
until September or October and can possibly be reached by
arsenical poisons during this period. Arsenate of lead promises
best results among the arsenicals. From midwinter until the
leaves begin to open both species are quiescent and probably
vulnerable to the lime-salt-sulphur wash. In March and April
the larvae again become active and are to some extent amenable
to treatment with poisons just when the buds are opening. Two







Bulletin No. 79


or three spring treatments are advised where winter treatment
has been omitted.

OTHER BUD-WORMS.
In his report on injurious insects for the year 1902, made in
the Yearbook of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1902,
Mr. Chittenden mentions three species of moths belonging in
the same family with the pecan case-worm, viz: Acrobasis
rubrifasciella, Pack., Acrobasis angusella, Grt., and Acrobasis
palliolella, Rag., doing injury to pecan buds in different localities
in Georgia. Not enough is known of these bud-worms to war-
rant more than a surmise that the remedies which have already
been recommended for species of similar habits will prove ef-
fective against these.

CATOCALA SPP.
(Catocala piatrix Grote and others.)
It is probable that several species of Catocala feed on the
pecan. I have observed at least two species, and many of those
recorded for the hickory and walnut probably feed on pecan
also. The general body color is grayish and so closely mimics
the color of the bark that the caterpillars may escape observation,
even' when one is looking straight at them from a very short
distance. They hide by day in crevices in the bark, lying very
flat and close to the trunk. This habit, joined to their great
size and leathery-looking skin, has suggested to some of our
orchardists the name of "alligator worms" for them. The only
species I have reared, and one of the commonest of these "al-
ligators" is Catocala piatrix, of which the following is a de-
scription:
LARVA.-Length when full grown and extended on the bark,
over three inches. Middle of body swollen, tapering
smoothly toward each end. When younger, -the gray ground
color is tinged with bluish. In mature specimens, a black stripe
extends along the middle of the back, its continuity being more
or less broken by narrowing at the joints. On each side of this
dorsal stripe is a broader stripe surrounding within its darkest
expanded areas small grayish spots; agreeing pretty well with
the course of each of these lateral stripes is a row of light pi-







Bulletin No. 79


or three spring treatments are advised where winter treatment
has been omitted.

OTHER BUD-WORMS.
In his report on injurious insects for the year 1902, made in
the Yearbook of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1902,
Mr. Chittenden mentions three species of moths belonging in
the same family with the pecan case-worm, viz: Acrobasis
rubrifasciella, Pack., Acrobasis angusella, Grt., and Acrobasis
palliolella, Rag., doing injury to pecan buds in different localities
in Georgia. Not enough is known of these bud-worms to war-
rant more than a surmise that the remedies which have already
been recommended for species of similar habits will prove ef-
fective against these.

CATOCALA SPP.
(Catocala piatrix Grote and others.)
It is probable that several species of Catocala feed on the
pecan. I have observed at least two species, and many of those
recorded for the hickory and walnut probably feed on pecan
also. The general body color is grayish and so closely mimics
the color of the bark that the caterpillars may escape observation,
even' when one is looking straight at them from a very short
distance. They hide by day in crevices in the bark, lying very
flat and close to the trunk. This habit, joined to their great
size and leathery-looking skin, has suggested to some of our
orchardists the name of "alligator worms" for them. The only
species I have reared, and one of the commonest of these "al-
ligators" is Catocala piatrix, of which the following is a de-
scription:
LARVA.-Length when full grown and extended on the bark,
over three inches. Middle of body swollen, tapering
smoothly toward each end. When younger, -the gray ground
color is tinged with bluish. In mature specimens, a black stripe
extends along the middle of the back, its continuity being more
or less broken by narrowing at the joints. On each side of this
dorsal stripe is a broader stripe surrounding within its darkest
expanded areas small grayish spots; agreeing pretty well with
the course of each of these lateral stripes is a row of light pi-







Insects of the Pecan


liferous spots. Top of head blackish, front lighter, its sides
striped with light and dark brown. Ventral surface flesh-colored
with a black spot to each segment. There is a blackish stig-
matic line on each side. The two interior pairs of abdominal
legs are only from one-third to one-half the size of the two pos-
terior pairs. When at rest the insect lies very close to the bark.
Besides pecan, feeds on walnut, hickory and persimmon.
PUPA AND COCOON.-The cocoon is made by fastening sev-
eral leaves to the outside of a rather thin, silken oval or egg-
shaped case, within which the dark brown pupa, powdered with
a white bloom, lies for about three weeks, at the close of which
period the moth appears.
MoTH.-The moth has fore-wings of a dark, wood-brown
or blackish-brown color, slightly silky. Near the base of each
wing is a black tranverse line and outside of this, at a dis-
tance of about one-fourth or one-third the length of the wing,
is another tranverse, wavy black line. The space between these
two lines is shaded into dusky. About the middle of the front
border is another dusky patch extending back to the center and
near the outer border, back a little from the apical angle, is a
third small dusky. splotch. Located within the second dusky
area is a dark, kidney-shaped spot, and immediately behind this
a pale spot of quite similar shape. Just outside the dusky spot
is another angled tranverse line, forming a heavy, black M.
Along the outer border is a scalloped double line of black with
light brown or gray between. The hind wings are deep yellow
with two transverse black bands, the outer one nearly twice as
broad as the inner one; bases and inner margins dusky; a yel-
lowish fringe extends along the outer border. The body length
is about one and one-fourth inches, wing-expanse about three
inches. Distributed over the eastern United States.
Catocala viduata Guenee (?).
Another catocala caterpillar found about as abundantly as
C. piatrix in Florida pecan orchards is probably C. viduata
Guenee which has been reared by Mr. Herrick. I did not rear
the adult moth, but from my notes furnish this description, which
seems to agree pretty well with that of Mr. Herrick:
LARVA.-Length when grown about two and one-fourth
inches, the body not so tapering as that of C. piatrix. Head







Bulletin No. 79


striped with gray and brown, a black spot at base of each an-
tenna. A brown stripe extends along the back or dorsum, ex-
pansions of the same occurring at the anterior and posterior
end of each segment, the expanded portion surrounding a small
darker spot. A darker stripe, splotched with black, borders the
dorsal brown stripe on each side. The under surface is of a
deep flesh color, a deeper reddish spot being located on each
segment; the two segments preceding those which bear the pro-
legs, and the anterior two segments bearing prolegs, have each
a black spot in the center of the deeper red, the two posterior
ones being much larger than the anterior two. First two pairs
of prolegs smaller than the others, but difference not so great
as in C. piatrix. Hide has a tough, leathery appearance, making
the appellation "alligator worm" quite appropriate.
PuPA.-The pupa and cocoon are very similar to those of
the former species.
Mr. Herrick gives the following description of the moth of
C. viduata:
MoTII.-"The adult insect is a rather large moth of sober
but soft and velvety hues. The body is usually stout and about
one-inch long and is light gray in color. The wings have an ex-
panse of two and three-quarter inches and in some specimens
of three inches, or even a trifle more. The hind wings are
dark-brown above, growing lighter towards the body, and edged
with a narrow band of white. The front wings are gray above,
with a dark stripe, describing an imperfect are of a circle across
the front and outer corners. These wings are crossed trans-
versely with light and dark wavy lines. When the wings are
folded and the hind ones are covered by the fore-wings, the moth
shows a remarkable resemblance to the bark of hickory and pecan
trees. On the under side the front wings are crossed by three
dark, wide, wavy lines, while the hind wings are crossed by two
only. Distributed over the South Atlantic States."
REMEDIES.-These larvae are most in evidence in April and
early May, most of them having disappeared before the first of
June. They may be poisoned by arsenical sprays thoroughly
applied in April, or they may be gathered by hand from the
trunks of the trees during or just after a rain. The rain darkens
the bark and the lighter bodies of the caterpillars become con-




















































































4, 5.
PLATE V. -THE PENITENT CATOCALA AND THE PECAN-TREE BORER.
Catocala piatrix: 1, Adult moth, reduced one-third; 2, Caterpillar against oak bark, slightly
reduced; 3, Leaves, enclosing cocoon of same. Sesia scitula (after Herrick): 4, Female Moth
above male moth below, enlarged; 5, Two newly set buds destroyed by larves of the borer.







Insects of the Pecan


spicuous against the dark background. The worms feed at night
and will collect under bands of burlap tied around the trees so
as to produce some loose folds beneath which they can readily
hide. They should be collected the following morning and de-
stroyed by crushing or they can be dropped into a vessel contain-
ing kerosene. An astonishing number will sometimes collect
under a single band in one night.


THE PECAN-TREE BORER.
(Sesia scitula Harris.)
This insect, named by Professor Herrick, of the Mississippi
Agricultural Experiment Station, the Pecan-tree Borer, has not
often been reported in Florida. In one instance damage to newly
inserted buds was. described to me in such a manner that there
can be little doubt that the injury was caused by this insect.
The adult is a clear or transparent-winged moth, somewhat
wasp-like in appearance, similar to the moth of the peach-tree
borer. The wing-expanse is from three-fourths to four-fifths:
of an inch and the body length about three-eighths of an inch.
The general body color is bluish black, conspicuously marked
with yellow. On each side of the thorax, between the wings, is.
a yellow line, and there is a narrow yellow ring on each of the
second and the fourth segments, the latter having its entire un-
der side yellowed. The tuft at the end of the abdomen is black,
in the female being edged on each side with yellow. The legs
are marked with yellow, also the wings have some yellow mark-
ings on the outer margin, most noticeable in the female. The
hind wings are transparent with blue-black markings.
HABITS.-The young borer is apt to gain entrance to the
sapwood through some wound in the bark, such as a graft-union,
and here it feeds, sometimes completely girdling the sapwood
above and below the wound. It is said to prefer to attack buds
that have been budded on old, large trees. As a general rule
the burrows ascend the tree in a spiral about the trunk, so com-
plete girdling is unusual, but growth sometimes ceases above
the groove, new limbs being shot out from below. When girdling
is more or less complete, bridge grafting may be of service. The
eggs are laid early in the year, probably during April and early







Bulletin No. 79


May. Whether there is more than one brood is unknown.
Larvae may be found in the burrows in winter and pupe are de-
veloped the following spring. The cocoons, made of excrement
and bits of bark fastened together with silk, are spun in the bur-
rows. The moths may be found on the wing during April.
This insect is found in Canada and probably in all of the Ameri-
can States east of the Mississippi river. Besides pecans it is re-
corded to feed on oak, chestnut, dogwood and probably on
hickory and willow.
REMEDIES.-The only certain and reliable remedy is to keep
a close watch on trees that have been newly budded or wounded
in any way, dig the borers out and kill them. Possibly a liberal
application of grafting wax with which white arsenic or Paris
green has been mixed will afford some protection. Over the
grafting wax a repellant, such as carbolized fish-oil soap may be
spread. Such a repellant may be prepared as follows: With
eight gallons of water dilute one gallon of whale-oil soap to
which one pint of crude carbolic acid has been added.
The addition of two or three pounds of lime to this mixture will
increase its permanency.
Any barking of the trees or wounds inflicted in course of
,cultivation may be closed with poisoned wax bound to the wound
with rags or preferably with wax cloth, such as grafters use;
,or fresh cow dung may be poisoned with arsenic or mixed with
.tobacco dust and bound on in similar fashion. This insect must
not be confused with the bud-worms previously described which
attack the leaflets before the buds have opened.


THE WALNUT OR PECAN CATERPILLAR.
(Datana interrigma Grote and Robinson.)
Sometimes in midsummer and again in the fall of the year
large bunches of caterpillars from one and one-half inches to two
inches long collect in a writhing mass on the trunks of pecan trees
and after moulting their skins, which are left adhering to the
trunk, reascend the tree and again begin feeding.
The caterpillars are the larvae of a buff-colored moth having
four tranverse brown stripes on the fore-wings; the head is
light brown, the prothorax darker brown; the body length is a





















































I=


PLATE VI.-WORK OF WALNUT CATERPILLAR AND FALL WEB-WOVIM.
Tree defoliated in autumn by colony of Datana interrigma. The conspicuous nests are the aban-
doned webs left by an earlier colony of Ilyphantria cunea.


/ 0








Insects of the Pecan


little over one-half inch, the wing expanse from tip to tip of the
outspread wings one inch and three-quarters. The eggs are
laid in clusters of several hundred on the under surface of the
leaves, usually those of the lower branches. These eggs vary
in color with age from light greenish to glistening marble-white.
The eggs hatch within a week and the gregarious habit of the
caterpillars is exhibited from the first. Upon hatching the
general body color is light with reddish markings on the back.
At a later stage more red appears and when the worms attain
the length of an inch four light longitudinal stripes appear on
each lateral half of the b6dy, the first and third, counting from
the middle line of the back, being but faintly indicated. After
passing the fourth moult the general color is blackish with two
white lines running along either side of the body, the broadest
one below the spiracles, and the body is covered with dirty white
hair:
In common with other species belonging in the,genus Da-
tana, the caterpillars are not easily shaken from their feeding
-places and when alarmed will raise both ends of their bodies
from their supports, maintaining their hold exclusively by means
of the middle prolegs. When about to moult for the last time
they descend to the trunk of the tree and collect in a single mass
.as previously mentioned. The cast skins of the mass, webbed
together, may remain clinging to the bark for several weeks
or even months after the moulting occurs. Within a few hours
:after nmo:ultint they reascend the tree and feed for a short time,
then descend to the ground and burrow a few inches beneath the
surface where they construct earthen cocoons in which the pupal
:stage is passed. Two broods per year have been observed in
Florida and more careful attention to the insect would possibly
have discovered three. I have observed the caterpillars of the
first brood feeding as early as May 14th, and these must have
hatched a few days earlier. The adult is a buff-colored
moth with four'tranverse brown stripes crossing the fore-wings.
It has a wing-expanse of about one and three-fourth inches.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-The eggs are attacked by a hymenop-
terous parasite and the caterpillars by Tachina flies and 'doubt-
less also by various hymenoptera. Some birds are fond of the
,caterpillars, the yellow-billed cuckoo or rain crow, Coccyzus







Bulletin No. 79


americana, being reported as a specially valuable consumer of
them.
REMEDIES.-The eggs may be found on the leaves among
the lower branches and destroyed before they hatch. Careful
observation will usually discover the young colony while it is
yet confined to a few leaves- and the whole can be gathered and
destroyed with ease. At a later time a careful lookout will en-
able the grower to kill the colony when it is massed on the trunk
to moult. Here they may be destroyed by crushing or by a
kerosene spray. A lighted knot of resinous pine or kerosene
torch will be effective against the worms wherever they are massed
together, either on the trunk or on the branches. Spraying with
the arsenites, such as Paris green or arsenate of lead, will prove.
efficient.

THE FALL WEB-WORM.
(Hyphantria cunea Drury.)
Every pecan grower would doubtless recognize this insect
from its name alone, even if no description of it and its work
was included. The webs are especially conspicuous in autumn,
those of the spring brood attracting less attention.
The winter is passed in the pupa state, the moths appearing
with the opening of the buds in spring. The eggs are laid in,
clusters of, 400 to 500 on the leaves, probably as early as March
in some cases, but chiefly during April. The eggs are of a pale-
delicate green color, covered with white down from the abdomen
of the female. The eggs hatch in a week or ten days into very
hairy, large-headed caterpillars which always live in webs.
that are enlarged as the need for greater pasturage is felt.
These webs are noticeable enough in May, loosely enclosing
many leaves and twigs. The worms when full grown are about
an inch long and are clothed with long white and black hairs
projecting from numerous black tubercles. To pupate, the
matured caterpillars hide beneath trash on the ground, under-
the loose bark of trees, in cavities in the tree-trunk, in fence
corners, or perhaps most often just beneath the surface of very
loose soil. The cocoon is of thin, flimsy, almost transparent
texture, composed of a slight web of silk with a few hairs and
sand grains intermixed. The pupa is of a very dark brown.




























9r



d


.4' I
/i\ I \


/


5.
PLATE VII.
1, Moth otjWailnut;Caterpillar, Datana interrigma, about natural size (after Herrick); 2, Caterpillar
o fDatana i .; ..: .... .* showing characteristic aTtitude when disturbed. 3, Fall Web-worl' ly-
phantria cur. i i n. Farmers' bulletin No,. 99, U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau Entomology); a and b,
caterpillars of same; c, pupa; d, molll (a, b, c, d, all enlarged); 4, Eulecanium sp. 5, Cottony
scale, Pulvinaria innumerabilis.


I_' __,ae








Insects of the Pecan


color, a little more than half an inch long, with a slight pro-
jecting band or bulge near the middle. The pupa state lasts
about a week for the summer brood of moths and.several months
for the early spring brood.
The moths are sometimes pure milk-white in color, with
tawny-yellow and blackish markings on the legs and feet, while
others have few or many black and brown spots scattered over
the wings. There is so great a range of variation in the mark-
ings that the different individuals appear to belong to as many
different species, but breeding experiments have proved them to
be identical. The females measure from one and one-fourth
inches to one and three-eighth inches across the expanded wings,
the males a trifle less. The second or summer brood of moths
appear in June or July. The webs of the second brood of
worms are very noticeable in August, September and October.
Most of them will have gone into the ground to hibernate be-
fore the close of September, but the unsightly webs persist in
the tree tops for many weeks longer. This brood often defo-
liates large limbs and not infrequently a large part of the tree-
top.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-Because of their hairiness, few birds
will eat the caterpillars. The cuckoos probably feed on them
as they readily eat hairy caterpillars of various kinds. Toads
eat them and a few spiders are on record as devourers of them.
Among predaceous insects, the wheelbug, Arilus cristatus, preys
on them, so do some of the Mantidoe or Rear-horses. Several
.species of Pentatomidae or "stink bugs" kill them and suck the
body juices. A minute hymenopteran parasitizes the eggs, and
several species of the same order of insects attack the caterpil-
lars; also, some of the Tachina or flesh flies feed on them.
REMEDIEs.-The small webs of the young caterpillars may
be removed from. young trees and the worms destroyed before
much damage is done. On older trees, a fat pine knot, or rag or
asbestos torch saturated with kerosene, may be fastened to a
long pole, lighted, and used as a torch to burn the web. Any
of the arsenical sprays will be effective if freely used. Spray
until the leaves are covered with mist, but stop before dripping
commences, is the theoretical rule; practically, some dripping is
very likely to occur if the work is thoroughly done.







Bulletin No. 79


COLEOPHORA SP.
An unidentified species of Coleophora is at times a most
serious insect, judging from reports of correspondents and the
specimens of damage sent in. While it was thus reported but
twice during my six years' service as entomologist of the Florida
station, it was found in small numbers upon almost every tree I
examined for the purpose of finding it. In winter the empty cigar-
shaped cases, about one-half inch in length or perhaps a trifle
more or less, may be found attached to the bark of the trunk
and limbs. The distal or unattached end of the case is always
flattened and square when the larva is about matured, as is also
the attached end, but possibly in less degree. The cases are
generally of a light brown color, though some are darker and
suggest the color of a light cigar wrapper. The larvae carry
their cases about with them wherever they go, holding them at
an angle approaching 90 degrees to the surface to which they
are attached. One side of the leaf epidermis is uneaten and fre-
quently the larva feeds like a miner, thrusting its head through
an opening in the epidermis of one side and eating out the pulp
between the two epidermal skins for a radius equal to its body's
length. These eaten spots become whitish or brownish in color
and are somewhat suggestive of a blight or spot disease. The
moth is a beautiful little creature, with light brown silky wings,
the front margins of the fore-wings each being bordered with
a white or silvery line. Both pairs of wings are heavily fringed.
The moths issue in late May and early June.
REMEDIES.-The lime-salt-sulphur wash applied in winter
after the trees have become entirely dormant, preferably about
the time the buds commence to swell, will doubtless destroy many
of them. Arsenate of lead or Paris green has proved effective
against other species of the same genus when applied during
their feeding period and the same poisons will doubtless be ef-
fective against this marauder. It may be wise to add an
arsenical poison to the lime-salt-sulphur wash if the application
is made late, that is, after the insects have commenced activity.








Insects of the Pecan


THE HICKORY-SHUCK WORM.
(Grapholitha caryana Fitch.)
A small white caterpillar about three-eighths of an inch
long, sometimes mines the shucks of the developing nuts, caus-
ing them to cease growth and shrivel up, many prematurely
falling. I have noticed its work in only two or three Florida
orchards. Fitch describes the moth as follows: "Sooty black,
the fore-wings with reflections of tawny yellow, blue and purple;
their outer edge black, with oblique triangular whitish streaks
placed at equal distances apart. A very oblique faint silvery
blue streak extends inwards from the points of two of these
white streaks, namely, the fourth and sixth ones from the tip of
the wing; while the usual white spot on the inner margin of
the wings is wanting. Expanse of wing .60 inch."
The moth is supposed to issue in the fall and hibernate
over winter, laying its eggs in spring. No remedy can be sug-
gested without fuller knQwledge of its life history, except to
keep the infested nuts picked up as fast as they fall and burn
them.

THE TWIG GIRDLERS.
(Oncideres cingulatus Say.)
(Oncideres texana Horn.)
Every pecan grower knows the girdler. In the fall of the
year, during September and October, few pecan trees escape
having some of their smaller branches girdled, causing them to
break off and drop to the ground. The cut is circular and quite
smooth, only a few woody fibers remaining uncut to support the
twig until the wind snaps it off. This cut is made by a dark-
gray, long-horned beetle, between one-half and three-fourths
of an inch long, its back or wing-covers sprinkled over with
faint tawny-yellow dots. It is covered with short grayish hairs,
thickest on the head and thorax, and forming a broad band or
lighter colored portion on the front part of the wing covers.
The antenna or horns are about the length of the body in the
female, somewhat longer in the male. This description applies
to the Florida species,O. cingulatus, which has been taken in
the act of girdling. I have not encountered the other species,
0. texana, in Florida, but it is said to be the more destructive of
the two in Mississippi. It resembles 0. cingulatus, but has red








Insects of the Pecan


THE HICKORY-SHUCK WORM.
(Grapholitha caryana Fitch.)
A small white caterpillar about three-eighths of an inch
long, sometimes mines the shucks of the developing nuts, caus-
ing them to cease growth and shrivel up, many prematurely
falling. I have noticed its work in only two or three Florida
orchards. Fitch describes the moth as follows: "Sooty black,
the fore-wings with reflections of tawny yellow, blue and purple;
their outer edge black, with oblique triangular whitish streaks
placed at equal distances apart. A very oblique faint silvery
blue streak extends inwards from the points of two of these
white streaks, namely, the fourth and sixth ones from the tip of
the wing; while the usual white spot on the inner margin of
the wings is wanting. Expanse of wing .60 inch."
The moth is supposed to issue in the fall and hibernate
over winter, laying its eggs in spring. No remedy can be sug-
gested without fuller knQwledge of its life history, except to
keep the infested nuts picked up as fast as they fall and burn
them.

THE TWIG GIRDLERS.
(Oncideres cingulatus Say.)
(Oncideres texana Horn.)
Every pecan grower knows the girdler. In the fall of the
year, during September and October, few pecan trees escape
having some of their smaller branches girdled, causing them to
break off and drop to the ground. The cut is circular and quite
smooth, only a few woody fibers remaining uncut to support the
twig until the wind snaps it off. This cut is made by a dark-
gray, long-horned beetle, between one-half and three-fourths
of an inch long, its back or wing-covers sprinkled over with
faint tawny-yellow dots. It is covered with short grayish hairs,
thickest on the head and thorax, and forming a broad band or
lighter colored portion on the front part of the wing covers.
The antenna or horns are about the length of the body in the
female, somewhat longer in the male. This description applies
to the Florida species,O. cingulatus, which has been taken in
the act of girdling. I have not encountered the other species,
0. texana, in Florida, but it is said to be the more destructive of
the two in Mississippi. It resembles 0. cingulatus, but has red








Bulletin No. 79


instead of tawny-yellow spots on the wing covers. In the Year-
book of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1902, Mr.
Chittenden reports both species injuring pecan, especially in
Alabama and South Carolina.
The beetles work very quietly and are inclined to make no
movement when they are discovered, unless an attempt is made to
carry them off, when they manifest some interest in effecting
an escape. The twigs are girdled for the purpose of assisting
the young to develop. Before or immediately after girdling the
twig, the female deposits one or several eggs beneath the bark,
one under each of several buds as the rule, and the cut is made be-
low these eggs so they will be in the part of the limb that falls.
Perhaps the primary purpose in cutting the twig is to kill it, since
the larva seem best adapted to living in dead but not too much
decayed wood. The moisture absorbed from the ground by
the fallen limb also is doubtless of distinct value to the growing
larva and quiescent pupa. The insect requires one year, perhaps
in some cases two, to complete its life-cycle, all the preliminary
stages being passed in the fallen twig from which the adult
'beetle emerges in autumn, usually in September.
'REMEDY.-Pick up and burn the fallen limbs in fall and
winter. Since the beetle breeds on so many other trees than
pecan, such as hickory, walnut, persimmon, etc., this can be only
a partial remedy; but where it has been tried on trees partially
but not wholly isolated from the native forest, the trees in some
instances having become badly stocked with the pest through
continuous neglect, the gain in yield of nuts has sometimes
proved very surprising.

THE OAK PRUNER.
(Elaphidion villosum Fab.)
Sometimes pecan twigs, when smartly bent, will snap off
-with a clean, square cut across the branches as if they were hol-
low glass tubes, breaking at cracked or weakened places. An
-examination of such a broken stem shows that its woody part,
with the exception of a few fibers and the bark, has been cut
:across as if with a saw by a soft yellowish-white grub which
can often be found in a burrow in the severed part. Since the
uncut bark is the chief support left forthe branch, any stiff
wind or even its own weight will break it off as soon as it has be-








Insects of the Pecan


come deadened. While I have not personally bred the beetle
from the larva which commonly affects pecan twigs in this man-
ner in Florida, the larva is apparently the same as the one af-
fecting oak and occasionally orange twigs, and Mr. Herrick, of
the Mississippi Experiment Station, has bred the Oak Pruner,
Elaphidion villosum, from pecan twig. Besides oak and orange
this insect works in hickory, chestnut, apple, plum, peach, grape,
wistaria, and a number of other plants.
The adult is a longicorn beetle, of slender, cylindrical form,
over one-half inch in length and about one-eighth of an inch in
width. It is of a dull black color, tinged with brown Dn the
wing covers, especially toward their tips. The underside of
the body and the legs are chestnut colored. Over all parts of
the body can be found short grayish hairs. Some small gray
spots on the wing covers and a whitish dot on each side of the
thorax are formed by dense collections of gray hairs at these
points. Coarse round punctures are thickly sprinkled over the
upper surface of the thorax and wing covers.
The larva, when grown, is about three-fifths of an inch
long, tapering backwards from the neck. The body is divided
by deep grooves into twelve rings or segments. There are three
-pairs of feet. The color is yellowish-white, the front of the head
being blackish. Probably about midsummer, with a possible
variation of two months in each direction from this date, the
parent beetle deposits her eggs, preferably on a small twig of
the preceding year's growth. Upon hatching, the young larva
commences to eat the tender wood just beneath the bark, and
later enters the center of the twig and works toward its base.
In this manner it works its way into the main limb which may be
of considerable size and feeds within it for a period of about
three years. The burrow thus becomes several inches in length
in many cases. Just before transforming to pupae some, but
not all of the larvae, cut the wood for the purpose of dropping
the branches as before described. Limbs in which the immature
larvae are working often break off with ragged end when bent
with the hand.
REMEDY.-Pick up and burn all fallen branches. Similar
attention should be given nearby oak and hickory limbs which
have fallen.







Bulletin No. 79


THE LIVE-OAK ROOT BORER.
(Mallodon melanopus Linn.)
While the insect is very common in Florida, it has never
been observed or reported to me as a pecan insect. Mr. Herrick
reports it from Mississippi as having been found working at
the roots of the pecan. Sooner or later it will doubtless be found
inflicting similar damage to the pecan in Florida. Normally,
the very large grub of this insect, which becomes over three
inches long, works on the roots of the live oak tree. The adult
is one of our largest, long-horned beetles, dark brown in color
and often over two inches long.
REMEDIES.-Keep a watch on the roots of pecan trees, es-
pecially those under six years old, and if the grubs are present
destroy them. If not too far in the wood they may be dug out.
Flexible wires can sometimes be run into their burrows and
they may thus be killed. Again, wads of cotton can be. saturated
with chloroform or bisulphide of carbon and thrust into the bur-
rows, the openings being at once stopped with clay-mud, putty,
or similar substance.

THE HICKORY-NUT WEEVIL.
(Balaninus caryae Horn.)
Only occasionally have I found pecan nuts in Florida with
holes bored in them, suggesting the work of the hickory-nut
weevil; and I have given the insect no attention further than a
mere notice. However, since it may become more destructive
within the State in future years, it merits a brief treatment.
The adult is a small curculionid or snout beetle, blackish-
brown in color, and nearly one-half inch long. It is reported
to be a very serious pest of the pecan in Missouri and Texas,
destroying a considerable quantity of nuts each year. The fe-
male uses her snout, terminating in a pair of biting jaws, to ex-
cavate a hole through the tender shuck in the early part of the
season, and at the bottom of the hole deposits an egg. The
young grub feeds on the kernel until fall, when it bores a round
hole out through the shell, then.goes into the ground and pupates
preparatory to passing the winter.
REMEDIES.-It is said that heating the nuts to a tempera-
ture of 125 degrees to 150 degrees Fahrenheit will kill the grubs







Bulletin No. 79


THE LIVE-OAK ROOT BORER.
(Mallodon melanopus Linn.)
While the insect is very common in Florida, it has never
been observed or reported to me as a pecan insect. Mr. Herrick
reports it from Mississippi as having been found working at
the roots of the pecan. Sooner or later it will doubtless be found
inflicting similar damage to the pecan in Florida. Normally,
the very large grub of this insect, which becomes over three
inches long, works on the roots of the live oak tree. The adult
is one of our largest, long-horned beetles, dark brown in color
and often over two inches long.
REMEDIES.-Keep a watch on the roots of pecan trees, es-
pecially those under six years old, and if the grubs are present
destroy them. If not too far in the wood they may be dug out.
Flexible wires can sometimes be run into their burrows and
they may thus be killed. Again, wads of cotton can be. saturated
with chloroform or bisulphide of carbon and thrust into the bur-
rows, the openings being at once stopped with clay-mud, putty,
or similar substance.

THE HICKORY-NUT WEEVIL.
(Balaninus caryae Horn.)
Only occasionally have I found pecan nuts in Florida with
holes bored in them, suggesting the work of the hickory-nut
weevil; and I have given the insect no attention further than a
mere notice. However, since it may become more destructive
within the State in future years, it merits a brief treatment.
The adult is a small curculionid or snout beetle, blackish-
brown in color, and nearly one-half inch long. It is reported
to be a very serious pest of the pecan in Missouri and Texas,
destroying a considerable quantity of nuts each year. The fe-
male uses her snout, terminating in a pair of biting jaws, to ex-
cavate a hole through the tender shuck in the early part of the
season, and at the bottom of the hole deposits an egg. The
young grub feeds on the kernel until fall, when it bores a round
hole out through the shell, then.goes into the ground and pupates
preparatory to passing the winter.
REMEDIES.-It is said that heating the nuts to a tempera-
ture of 125 degrees to 150 degrees Fahrenheit will kill the grubs







Insects of the Pecan


and thus stop their work before they have entirely ruined the
kernel. Nuts should be gathered early and heated at once to
secure satisfactory results. If the nuts are placed in an air-
tight chamber and fumigated with bisulphide of carbon, one
pound to each 1000 cubic feet of space enclosed, for a period of
-18 hours, the grubs will be destroyed. Keep fire away from
carbon disulphide or an explosion and conflagration will follow.
All nuts must be gathered from the ground and subjected to
treatment, and should any hickory nuts be in the near neighbor-
hood, they should be treated likewise, if possible.

THE HICKORY-BARK BORER.
(Scolytus quadrispinosus Say.)
This insect is recorded as an enemy of pecan in the more
northern pecan sections and either it or an insect with very simi-
lar habits has been reported to me in Florida. Unfortunately
I was unable to procure specimens of the damage to make the
identification certain. With so many other insects in Florida
that have a far northern range, it seems exceedingly probable
that this one is also present.
The beetle attacks the various species of hickory, making
long narrow channels beneath the bark which radiate from a
larger central vertical chamber from one-half an inch to an inch
in length. The vertical chamber is excavated by the female
which places her eggs, varying in number from 20 to 40 or 50,
on each side of it. The larvae, when hatched, feed on the inner
bark, each one following a separate track which is marked dis-
tinctly on the wood. At first these channels run transversely but
at a later stage lengthwise along the trunk. The ever-enlarging
burrows are always partially filled with sawdust-like excrement
which is of the same color as the bark. The soft, yellowish,
grub-like larva, when full grown, is slightly less than one-fourth
of an inch in length and entirely legless. The head is darker with
brownish jaws. The winter is passed in the larval stage, the
pupa developing in April or May. Some beetles probably issue
in June in Florida, though the bulk of them may be expected
during July and August as in the northern States. The eggs are
deposited soon after the beetles appear.
The adult beetle is entirely black, or black with brown wing-







Bulletin No. 79


covers, and is a little less than one-fifth of an inch in length; the
wing covers have about ten strike, produced by small, deep, contig-
uous punctures, the spaces between the strike having a single row
of minute, well-nigh imperceptible punctures. The head is more or
less hidden by long fox-colored hair, more dense in the male
than in the female.
The beetles bore into the trees in May, June and July,
the males to procure food and the females for the purpose of
oviposition. The burrows run obliquely upward and small
branches as well as twigs are attacked. Twigs are commonly
entered at the axil of a bud of a leaf, the damage often causing
the leaf to drop and the twig to die and break off. The eggs
are deposited in July, August and September in northern latitudes,
and the same period, with one or two preceding months added,
will probably be nearly correct for Florida.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-Two minute hymenopterous parasites
are recorded as preying on the larvae and these probably do much
to check over-multiplication. Woodpeckers do good service in
finding and consuming them. The yellow-bellied sapsucker, Sphy-
rapicus various, however, is a woodpecker that pecks holes in trees
for the purpose of imbibing sap from them. It should be shot
without scruple when observed at work on a pecan or other
valuable tree. It often pecks one or several rows of holes en-
tirely round the trunk and does more damage in a day than bark-
beetles are apt to do in a year. By weakening the trees it attacks,
bark-beetles are invited to follow, for they prefer weakened
trees. Generally speaking, the other woodpeckers are good
friends and merit encouragement.
REMEDIES.-Since weakened trees are most subject to at-
tack, though perfectly healthy ones are not wholly exempt, the
best preventive of damage is to fertilize properly and cultivate
well. Such stimulation will often enable a tree already attacked
to throw off the insects and recover. If the trunk and limbs are
well sprayed with whitewash to which Paris green has been
added just before the egg-laying period begins, it will hinder in
some degree the deposition of eggs and the entrance of the young
larvae into the tree. Or a heavy spray of carbolized whale-oil or
soft soap, prepared as directed in the section on the Painted Hick-
ory Borer, may be used instead, during the same period. Pieces of








Insects of the Pecan


soap tied to the main limbs and trunk during the egg-laying period
for the rains to dissolve and carry down may at times be helpful.
If the beetles are detected at the outset of their attack, a sponge
may be saturated with kerosene emulsion or creosote oil and tur-
pentine, then fastened to the end of a pole, and the affected spots
can be lightly painted with the preparation. Dr.. Hopkins reports
good results in saving hickory timber from the ravages of this
beetle by girdling a few trees in August. The beetles flocked to
these trees to lay their eggs, but the wood was burned for fire-
wood the following winter and the brood destroyed. When a
pecan orchard is badly attacked, the unaffected trees can prob-
ably be saved by girdling and afterwards destroying a number of
the weaker ones. In Florida this girdling would probably be
best performed in June or early July.

THE PAINTED HICKORY BORER.
(Cyllene pictus Drury.)
This insect, said to bore into pecan trees as well as hickory,
doubtless will someday be recorded as attacking the pecan in
Florida. Thus far, I have heard nothing to suggest that it has
already made such' a record.
The adult is a velvety-black, long-horned beetle with a num-
ber of pale yellow transverse bands across the wing-covers and
thorax. The second band on the wing-covers, back from the yel-
lowish line at the shoulders, is formed into the similitude of the
letter W. The beetle may be expected to appear in April and
May and deposit its eggs in the rough bark. Upon hatching,
the larva at once bore through into the sapwood where they
feed for a while, later penetrating the solid heartwood. The
pupa state is passed in the burrow.
REMEDIES.-When the borers are once beneath the bark they
are difficult to destroy. Flexible wire probes thrust into the bur-
rows can be used to kill some of them. Chloroform or carbon
disulphide may be injected into the burrows by means of a spring
bottom can, or wads of cotton may be saturated with these liquids
and stuffed into the burrows, the outside openings to the tunnels
being closed with clay-mud or putty to confine the fumes.
Should the insects become very numerous it will likely be
best during April, May, June and possibly July to keep the trunks







Bulletin No. 79


and larger limbs coated with a repellant prepared as follows:
dissolve one gallon of soft fish-oil soap in eight gallons of water
and add one pint of crude carbolic acid, two or three pounds of
lime and one-fourth pound of Paris green or white arsenic.
Scrape the trees so as to remove all the rough bark possible and
apply with a spray pump. The work can be done with a paint
brush, but is slower. It may be necessary to make two or three
applications to render the coating effective through so long a
period. Chunks of hard whale oil soap fastened in the crotches
of the trunk and larger limbs would be gradually dissolved by
the rains and carried over the bark, thus affording a measure of
protection.

THE WHITE ANT.
(Termes flavipes Koll.)
All Floridians are familiar with these insects under the
-name of woodlice, white ants, or Termites. The orange growers
have long known their capacity for mischief and the pecan
orchardists as well must make their acquaintance. Thus far
they have not caused much annoyance to the pecan men, I think,
but are common enough to deserve mention.
They work in colonies and when they have once gained en-
trance to the heart of a growing tree are apt to destroy it by
mining out the interior, while leaving the outside intact. Thus
the damage they do is apt to elude observation. A careful look-
out should be kept on trees planted on newly cleared land or land
that has upon it a considerable amount of decaying wood, for here
the insects are apt to be plentiful and may attack the newly
planted trees.
REMEDIES.-White ants shun the light and hence can be
greatly discouraged by the removal of the earth from about the
attacked parts, thus exposing them to light and air. With a knife
cut away so far as possible and remove all dead wood and bark,
exposing the galleries. This treatment should be supplemented
by following some of the succeeding directions.
If the nest can be reached, it may be deluged with boiling
water or carbon disulphide may be poured into it and the earth
banked over it until the fumes have reached the entire colony.
Not more than one or two ounces of carbon disulphide should be







Insects of the Pecan


injected about the roots of a tree from two to three inches in
diameter at the base. Larger trees can stand more, perhaps three
or four ounces, the last figure being a large dose. A light, dry,
loose soil, from which the liquid will evaporate readily, needs a
larger dose than a heavy, moist soil. So far as possible give
the treatment when the soil is dry and loose. The carbon-disul-
phide treatment is somewhat dangerous to the trees.
If the nest is outside the tree, a few holes may be opened to
it with a sharpened stick into which the liquid is poured, the holes
afterwards being closed. If the nest is inside the trunk, open
holes to it with a gimlet or auger-bit and introduce the liquid
with a medicine dropper or through a funnel. Some correspond-
ents report good results from using tobacco dust plentifully
in the nests and about the roots of attacked trees. Possibly
cyanide of potassium, finely crushed, and scattered in the nests
would be effective, since it is excellent for the destruction of the
nests of genuine ants. Pyrethrum is known to be very effective
against these insects and may be used like tobacco dust, mixed
with the soil about the nest. Pyrethrum loses its efficacy in a few
days.
When the bottoms of trees have been girdled or greatly
weakened they may sometimes be helped by bridge grafts, that is
scions may be inarched between the root below the wound and
the bark above, thus re-establishing the connection between the
two. The difficulty in making successful grafts of the pecan
may render this attempt futile in many cases. However, it is,
perhaps, feasible in most cases to plant young stocks close to the
injured tree and graft in the stocks above the destroyed bark,
thus sustaining the life of the trunk until the missing portion is
replaced. In all cases it is wise to apply a poultice of cow dung
to the wounded areas. A little tobacco dust mixed in with the
dung would probably discourage any new coming ants from
starting a colony in the poultice.


THE COTTONY SCALE.
(Pulvinaria innumerabilis Rathvon.)
In Aprif and May this scale is conspicuous because of the
large white cottony masses of fluff that cover the egg-sac. While







Bulletin No. 79


not usually a dangerous insect, at times it becomes sufficiently
numerous to demand a little attention.
A single female lays from 1,000 to 2,000 eggs in the cottony
covering, and the young, when hatched, fix themselves along the
ribs of the leaves or upon the younger twigs. The winged males
appear in midsummer, mate with the females and die. The
females are attached to the twigs, usually to the underside during
the winter.
NATURAL ENEMIES.-The two-stabbed lady-bug, Chilocorus
bivulnerus, feeds upon the scale in all its stages. The carnivor-
ous caterpillar, Loetilia coccidivora, feeds in the egg-nest, de-
stroying nearly all the eggs in the mass before seeking a new lot
of eggs. Very minute hymenopterous parasites can be bred from
the insects in great numbers.
REMEDIES.-A little prompt pruning and burning in the
spring as soon as the cottony masses appear will often save the
need of later notice. When pruning would involve the de-
struction of too much wood or for any reason is impracticable,
apply kerosene emulsion, diluted one to nine with water, with
a spray pump or by means of a brush. Since the eggs are
not killed it will be necessary to repeat the application two or
three times at intervals of two or tree weeks so as to destroy
the young as fast as they appear. A single application can be
made most effective by diluting the emulsion with soapsuds, one
pound of whale-oil soap being dissolved in nine gallons of water
for mixture with one part of emulsion. Apply thoroughly after
the young begin to appear. The soap will mat the cottony fluff,
rendering it difficult for the young to escape from the nest upon
hatching from the eggs.
Any of the contact sprays, such as lime-salt-sulphur wash,
whale-oil soap used at the rate of one pound in two or three gal-
lons of water, or kerosene emulsion will be effective if applied in
winter. Such sprays should not be used until the trees are thor-
oughly dormant, from midwinter until the buds commence to
swell in spring, otherwise the nut crop may possibly be reduced
because of injury to bloom buds.







Insects of the Pecan


THE PECAN EULECANIUM.
(Eulecanihm sp.)
A soft, brownish, hemispherical scale insect, of rare occur-
rence on pecan. Should it ever become numerous, the remedies
and treatment suggested for the preceding species will prove
effective.

GENERAL PRACTICE IN THE PECAN ORCHARD.
An important means of overcoming insect attacks is to cul-
tivate well and fertilize freely. Thrifty trees will grow and
bear in spite of attacks that would kill trees already sickly; this
is especially true when they are attacked by such insects as bark-
borers. Spraying can hardly be omitted. Fungus diseases or
blights as well as insect pests make this necessary. The lime-
salt-sulphur wash is a fungicide as well as an insecticide and
successfully controls some forms of leaf disease, such as peach
curl. The following insects will probably be held in good control
by making one or two sprayings during the dormant period:
the bud-worm, the case-worm, coleophora, the cottony and all
other scales; when leaf diseases are added, the advisability of
using the wash is readily understood. Where this winter spray-
ing has been done it is possible that summer treatment will be
needed only in special cases. When the necessity is apparent, one
or two sprayings with Bordeaux mixture, combined with arsenate
of lead, will probably control fungus diseases and leaf-feeding
insects for the remainder of the year.


SPRAYING AND SPRAYING APPARATUS.
Recipes for the different mixtures will be found in Bulletin
76 of the Florida Station and in Farmers' Bulletin No. 127 of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A list of pump factories
is given in Bulletin 76.
When trees are not 'over 30 feet high, the spraying can be
done with elongated extension rods from an elevated platform
built for the spray wagon. Descriptions of such outfits, with il-
lustrations of them, are found in various publications, for ex-
ample in the excellent bulletin on Insects Injurious to the Pecan,
published by the Mississippi Experiment Station, Agricultural







Insects of the Pecan


THE PECAN EULECANIUM.
(Eulecanihm sp.)
A soft, brownish, hemispherical scale insect, of rare occur-
rence on pecan. Should it ever become numerous, the remedies
and treatment suggested for the preceding species will prove
effective.

GENERAL PRACTICE IN THE PECAN ORCHARD.
An important means of overcoming insect attacks is to cul-
tivate well and fertilize freely. Thrifty trees will grow and
bear in spite of attacks that would kill trees already sickly; this
is especially true when they are attacked by such insects as bark-
borers. Spraying can hardly be omitted. Fungus diseases or
blights as well as insect pests make this necessary. The lime-
salt-sulphur wash is a fungicide as well as an insecticide and
successfully controls some forms of leaf disease, such as peach
curl. The following insects will probably be held in good control
by making one or two sprayings during the dormant period:
the bud-worm, the case-worm, coleophora, the cottony and all
other scales; when leaf diseases are added, the advisability of
using the wash is readily understood. Where this winter spray-
ing has been done it is possible that summer treatment will be
needed only in special cases. When the necessity is apparent, one
or two sprayings with Bordeaux mixture, combined with arsenate
of lead, will probably control fungus diseases and leaf-feeding
insects for the remainder of the year.


SPRAYING AND SPRAYING APPARATUS.
Recipes for the different mixtures will be found in Bulletin
76 of the Florida Station and in Farmers' Bulletin No. 127 of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A list of pump factories
is given in Bulletin 76.
When trees are not 'over 30 feet high, the spraying can be
done with elongated extension rods from an elevated platform
built for the spray wagon. Descriptions of such outfits, with il-
lustrations of them, are found in various publications, for ex-
ample in the excellent bulletin on Insects Injurious to the Pecan,
published by the Mississippi Experiment Station, Agricultural







Insects of the Pecan


THE PECAN EULECANIUM.
(Eulecanihm sp.)
A soft, brownish, hemispherical scale insect, of rare occur-
rence on pecan. Should it ever become numerous, the remedies
and treatment suggested for the preceding species will prove
effective.

GENERAL PRACTICE IN THE PECAN ORCHARD.
An important means of overcoming insect attacks is to cul-
tivate well and fertilize freely. Thrifty trees will grow and
bear in spite of attacks that would kill trees already sickly; this
is especially true when they are attacked by such insects as bark-
borers. Spraying can hardly be omitted. Fungus diseases or
blights as well as insect pests make this necessary. The lime-
salt-sulphur wash is a fungicide as well as an insecticide and
successfully controls some forms of leaf disease, such as peach
curl. The following insects will probably be held in good control
by making one or two sprayings during the dormant period:
the bud-worm, the case-worm, coleophora, the cottony and all
other scales; when leaf diseases are added, the advisability of
using the wash is readily understood. Where this winter spray-
ing has been done it is possible that summer treatment will be
needed only in special cases. When the necessity is apparent, one
or two sprayings with Bordeaux mixture, combined with arsenate
of lead, will probably control fungus diseases and leaf-feeding
insects for the remainder of the year.


SPRAYING AND SPRAYING APPARATUS.
Recipes for the different mixtures will be found in Bulletin
76 of the Florida Station and in Farmers' Bulletin No. 127 of
the U. S. Department of Agriculture. A list of pump factories
is given in Bulletin 76.
When trees are not 'over 30 feet high, the spraying can be
done with elongated extension rods from an elevated platform
built for the spray wagon. Descriptions of such outfits, with il-
lustrations of them, are found in various publications, for ex-
ample in the excellent bulletin on Insects Injurious to the Pecan,
published by the Mississippi Experiment Station, Agricultural







316 Bulletin No. 79

College, Miss.; Bulletin No. 101, Cornell University Experiment
Station, Ithaca, New York; Farmers' Bulletin 127, already men-
tioned. For a discussion of the merits of different types of
spraying apparatus, Bulletin No. 243, of the New York State
Experiment Station, Geneva, New York, is recommended.
Even with powerful pumps and the best apparatus, when
spraying trees from 35 to 60 feet high, it will probably be neces-
sary to resort to a long ladder, up which the operator can carry
a very long hose; then with an extension rod the tops of the
tallest trees can be well sprayed. This method is slow but ef-
fective in my experience.
Before trees are in leaf, I have used 3 or 4 gallons of Paris
green spray per tree on trees about 25 feet tall. After the
trees are leaved out, double this amount of spray or more would
be required.

THE OUTLOOK FOR PECAN CULTURE FROM THE
ENTOMOLOGICAL STANDPOINT.
To some people the list of insect enemies herein given may
seem a formidable one; yet a little reflection will remind the
dubious that the list of pests affecting any of the standard fruits,
such as apple or orange, is far larger than this one; furthermore,
such lists for many fruits include such pests as San Jose scale,
an insect far more dangerous and difficult to fight than any yet
recorded on pecan. No one in an apple country is so foolish as
to be deterred from apple culture because of threatening insects,
yet nearly every pecan pest has its parallel among apple pests,
and the list of pecan insects might be multiplied many times and
we would still find the parallel holding good in the apple list. The
appended parallel columns prove the foregoing statements and
show a great preponderance in favor of the comparative im-
munity of the pecan from attack:








Insects of the Pecan


PECAN PESTS.
Pecan Bud Worm, Proteopteryx delu-
dana.
Other Pecan Bud Worms (three
species):
Acrobasis rubrifasciella,
Acrobasis angusella,
A crobasis palliolella.
Pecan Case Worm, Acrobasis nebulella.
Walnut Caterpillar, Datana interrigma.
Fall Web Worm, Ilyphantria cunea.
Coleophora sp.
Catocala piatri.r.
Catocala viduata.
Pecan Tree Borer, Sesia scitula.
Painted Hickory Borer, Cyllene picts.
Live Oak Root Borer, Mallodon mela-
nopus.
Oak Pruner, Elaphidion villosutm.
Twig Girdler, Oncideres cingulatus.
Hickory Bark Borer, Scolytus quadri-
spilosus.
Hickory Shuck Worm, Grapholitha ca-
ryana.
Hickory Nut Weevil, Nalaninus caryn'.
White Ant, Termesflaripes.
Cottony Scale, Pulvimaria innumera-
bills.
Eulecanium sp.


APPLE PESTS.
Apple Bud Worm, Tmetocera ocellana.
Other Apple Bud Worms (three
species):
E.cartema malana,
Grapholithla Irunivora,
S, ."".. .T ', pyricolana.
Leaf Crumpler, Mineola indigenella.
SApple Datana, Datana mninistru.
Fall Web Worm, Ilyphantria cunea.
Pistol Case Bearer, Coleoptora malico-
rella.
Cigar Case Bearer, Coleophora fletcher-
ella.
Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar, MIala-
cosoma americana.
Forest Tent Caterpillar, Malacosoma
disstria.
Flat-headed Borer, < ..' ..i 'femo-
rata.
SRound-headed Borer, Saperda candida.
Broad-necked Prionus, Prionus lati-
collis.
Oak Pruner, Elaphidion villosurm.
Twig Girdler, Oncideres cingulatus.
Fruit Bark Beetle, Scolytus rugulosus.
SCodling Moth, Cydia pomonella.
Plum Curculio, Conotrachel's nenuphar.
Apple Curculio, Anthonomus quadri-
gibbus.
Apple Root Louse, Schizoneura Idnigera.
San Jose Scale, Aspidiotus perniciosus.


i Scurfy Bark Louse, Chionaspis furfurus.

Whoever is familiar with the habits of the insects listed in
the foregoing columns, will at once recognize that the apple list
contains the greatest number of serious pests; and when it is re-
membered that among the rather serious apple pests not listed
are the Oyster Shell Bark-louse, Fall Canker-worm, Spring
Canker-worm, Resplendent Shield-bearer, two or three-species
of Aphis, and the apple Maggot, the disparity is still more evi-
dent; to these is yet to be added a number of species, perhaps of
less importance, yet requiring vigorous treatment at times, such
as the Buffalo Tree-hopper, the Apple-twig Borer, the Seventeen
Year Locust, the White-Marked Tussock-moth and the Palmer
worm; several scores of other insects are known to infest apple,
yet apple culture is a great and remunerative business. We,







318 Bulletin No. 79

therefore, do not fear for the future of the pecan business. The
pecan is a close relative of the hickory and walnut, and for the
most part has identically the same insect enemies. In the end,
we expect the pecan to prove itself as hardy and as immune
from insect attack as its relatives. Insect damage is probably
worst while the young orchards are coming into bearing. The
uninterrupted food supply furnished by large orchards composed
wholly of pecans, encourages excessive multiplication of pests,
while their natural enemies follow them more slowly, being un-
able to strike a balance until several years have passed. We be-
lieve it will be easier to grow pecans than apples or oranges, but
pecan orchardists and nurserymen should familiarize themselves
with pecan enemies in order to obtain most satisfactory results.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.
In the preparation of this bulletin I am specially indebted to
Prof. F. C. Reimer who prepared a considerable number of the
prints for the illustrations; to Mr. J. S. Houser who furnished
negative of Catocala moth; to Prof. H. H. Hume for negatives of
moth of case-bearer and of P1. I; to Dr. L. O. Howard for deter-
mination of P. conquisitor and S. vittata; also for confirmation
of determination of P. deludana and for other favors; to Dr. H.
G. Dyar, through the kindness of Dr. Howard, for determination
of A. nebulella; to Prof. G. W. Herrick for loan of figs. 4 and 5,
P1. V, and figs. 1 and 3, P1. VII; to the pecan growers of Florida
for ever ready help and cooperation; and to Dr. Andrew Sledd,
Director of the Florida Station, whose interest and' courtesy have
made the publication possible.









The following publications of the Florida Experiment Station
are available for free distribution, and may be secured by ad-
dressing the director of the Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Lake City, Fla.:


22 Fertilizers........................ pp.48
24 Annual Report ................... 32
25 Leeches and Leeching........ 17
26 Big Head.......................... 19
27 Pineapple.......................... 14
28 Liver Fluke-Southern Cattle
Fever............................ 15
30 The Culture of Tobacco........ 28
33 Orange Groves................... 33
34 Insect Enemies.................. 96
36 Insects Injurious to Grain...... 31
37 Pineapple.......................... 15
38 Tobacco in Florida............. 63
39 Strawberries.................... 48
40 The Fall Army Worm........... 8
41 The San Jose Scale............. 30
42 Some Strawberry Insects....... 55
43 A Chemical Study of Some
Typical Florida Soils......... "128
51 Some Common Florida Scales.. 24
52 Baking Powders................. 15
53 Some Citrus Troubles........... pp. 35
55 Feeding With Florida Feed
Stuffs........................... 95
56 The Cottony Cushion Scale..... 124


57 Top-working of Pecans.........
58 Pomelos...........................
59 Cauliflower.......................
60 Velvet Beans....................
61 Two Peach Scales.............
62 Peen-to Peach Group...........
63 Packing Citrus Fruits...........
64 Texas Fever and Salt Sick.....
65 The Kumquats...................
66 The Mandarin Orange Group..
67 The White Fly...................
68 Pineapple Culture. I. Soils...
70 Pineapple Culture. II. Va-
rieties..........................
71 Japanese Persimmons...........
72 Feeding Horses and Mules on
Home-Grown Feed-Stuffs....
73 The Honey Peach Group.......
74 Anthracnose of the Pomelo...
75 Potato Diseases.................
76 Insecticides and Fungicides...
77 Equine Glanders and Its Erad-
ication..........................
78 Forage Crops-The Silo.....


PRESS BULLETINS.


1 Directions for Preparation of Bor-
deaux Mixture.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture.
3 Seed Testing.
4 The White Fly.
6 Nursery Inspection (part I).
7 Nursery Inspection (part II).
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in
the Spring and Held for Fall Plant-
ing.
9 Sore Head.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot.
11 Vinegar.
12 Seed Beds and Their Management.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods.
18 Cantaloupe Blight.
19 Cut Worms.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer.
23 Protection Against Drought.
24 Orange Mites.
25 Roup.
26 Lumpy Jaw.


I 27 Cover Crops.
28 Moon Blindness.
29 Food Adulteration.
30 Dehorning Cattle.
31 Coffee.
32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
34 Ox Warbles.
35 Butter.
36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
37 Velvet Bean.
38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
ulations.
39 Lung Worms in Swine.
40 and 41 Glanders.
42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
diments.
43 How to Feed a Horse.
44 Tree Planting.
45 The Sugar Cane Borer.
46 Selecting Seed Corn.
47 The Rabid Dog.
48 Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals
49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
50 Insect Pests to Live Stock.


" 48
" 43
" 20
" 24
" 32
" 22
Folio
pp. 31
" 14
" 32
" 94
" 35

" 32
" 48

" 16
" 20
" 20
" 16
" 44

" 39
" 17























































Cocoon of Megalopyge opercularis on Pecan twig. Not a serious pest.




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