• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Historical
 Insect control in general
 Precautions
 Insects attacking celery in the...
 Insects attacking celery in the...
 A general spray program
 Acknowledgement
 Literature Cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 486
Title: Insects attacking celery in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026690/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insects attacking celery in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 37 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wilson, J. W ( John Wallace ), 1902-
Hayslip, Norman C ( Norman Calvin ), 1916-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1951
 Subjects
Subject: Celery -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 37.
Statement of Responsibility: by J.W. Wilson and N.C. Hayslip.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026690
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925747
oclc - 18266208
notis - AEN6403

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Historical
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Insect control in general
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Precautions
        Page 9
    Insects attacking celery in the seedbed
        Page 10
        Aphids
            Page 10
        Mole crickets
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Garden fleahopper
            Page 14
        Insects of minor importance
            Page 15
        Flea beetles
            Page 15
        Springtails
            Page 16
    Insects attacking celery in the field
        Page 17
        Cutworms
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Armyworms
            Page 19
        Green celery worm
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Celery leaf-tier
            Page 22
            Page 23
        Wireworms
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Red spider mite
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Tortricid
            Page 28
        Insects of minor importance
            Page 29
        Celery loooper
            Page 29
        Celery caterpillar
            Page 30
        Serpentine leaf miner
            Page 30
        Southern green stink bug
            Page 31
            Page 32
    A general spray program
        Page 33
        Seedbed insect control
            Page 33
        Field insect control
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Compatability of insecticides with fungicides and nutrients
            Page 36
    Acknowledgement
        Page 37
    Literature Cited
        Page 37
Full Text



December 1951


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

(A Contribution from the Central Florida and Everglades
Experiment Stations)











Insects Attacking Celery in Florida

By J. W. WILSON and N. C. HAYSLIP

Entomologists, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations



















Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT T STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 486









BOARD OF CONTROL
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Hollis The'-i.rt. N!;mm;
Eli H. in.'", J,-:l. i-n,' .l.
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. En .l:1. Jr rT Lauderdale
W Glenn MIII.r, 1I .ro ,.n..l ..
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President3
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
Geo. F. Baughman, M.S., Business Mgr.s
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant8

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
U. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant
D. C. Kimmel, Ph.D., Assistant
A. L. Larson, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
W. E. McPherson, M.S., Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr.
Statistician a
J, B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 3
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.8
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
R. E. Choate, B.S.A.E., Asso. Agr. Eng.s
A. M. Pettis, B.S.A.E., Asst. Agr. Eng.2
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist s
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. More, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.' a
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist3
J. E. Pace, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.3
S. John Folks, M.S., Asst. An. Hushb
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.s
John D. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.s
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman a
DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.13
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Hush.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Hush.2
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.8
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.2
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editors
L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor3
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. D. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologistls
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush."3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist's
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologists
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyors
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist *
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist3o
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
James H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil
Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist s
Fred E. Koehler, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Micro-
biologist
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, IY.V,M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
G. E. Batte, D.V.M., Asso. Parasitologist









BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. C. Rhoads, M.S., Entomologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. W. Faville, Ph.D., Asst. Bacteriologist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist'
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. Ent.-Path.
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
I. Stewart, M.S., Asst. Biochemist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugar Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant-Chemist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asat. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
R. H. Webster, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst, Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge

GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.



FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist 4

Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist

Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.

Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2

1Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave.









Contents
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................-............................... 5

HISTORICAL ........................................--.... 5

INSECT CONTROL IN GENERAL ..................................... .. .. ... 7

PRECAUTIONS ........................... ........ ... ...... ..... 9

INSECTS ATTACKING CELERY IN THE SEEDBED .............................................. 10
A phids ......................................................................................... 10
M ole Crickets ................-.......- ............ ........... 11
Garden Fleahopper ............................................................ ....................... 14
Insects of M inor Im portance ....................................... ............................ 15
Flea Beetles ........................................... -...................... 15
Springtails ....................................-.... ..-........ ...........---. 16
Burrow er Bug ..............................................-...................... 17

INSECTS ATTACKING CELERY IN THE FIELD .....................- ...--- ............--..... 17
Cutw orm s ........................................... ............................. ...................... 17
A rm yw orm s ..................................... ..... ......................... ..................... 19
Green Celery W orm ..............................................................-. 20
Celery Leaf-Tier ............................................ -...................... 22
W ireworm s ....................---- .....................-......................------ 24
R ed Spider M ite ................................ ........ ................... ...................... 26
T ortricid ............................................................................... ...................... 28
Insects of Minor Importance .........-...--..- -- ... ................ ---29
Tarnished Plant Bug ............................................................. 29
Celery Looper ........................... -...--. .-----------... 29
Celery Caterpillar ............................................................ 30
Serpentine Leaf M iner ............................ .......... ................. 30
Southern Green Stink Bug ............................................ .............. ... 31
T hrips ......................... --.-........ ----- ..................... 33

A GENERAL SPRAY PROGRAM ......-------.......................-....................... 33
Seedbed Insect Control ........................................ ............... ........ 33
Field Insect Control ................................................... .............................. 34
Compatibility of Insecticides with Fungicides and Nutrients ................ 36

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ..................................-....--------......... ....... 37

LITERATURE CITED ........................................ ... ...................... 37









Insects Attacking Celery in Florida

By J. W. WILSON and N. C. HAYSLIP

Introduction
Celery is one of the more important fresh vegetables produced
by Florida growers for out-of-state markets. In common with
all other crops, celery has its share of insect enemies. Under
present growing conditions and market demands, the control of
these insects by chemicals is essential in the production of a
market-acceptable product. In recent years, a number of very
potent insecticides have been introduced and now are used
generally in growing most vegetable crops. The introduction of
these chemicals has placed in the hands of growers weapons of
heretofore undreamed effectiveness. While general use of these
chemicals has well recognized advantages, the very potency
which makes them such effective insecticides imposes some
necessary restrictions on their use.
Synthetic chemicals have revolutionized methods of insect con-
trol and created some confusion. More and more chemicals use-
ful in insect control are being introduced continually. These
additions to the array of weapons available in the battle against
insect enemies make it difficult to prepare a bulletin on insect
control. Those who refer to this bulletin should remember that
it was prepared during a time of rapid changes and that some
new developments may have transpired since its preparation.
However, there is a very definite need to make available the
information which has been accumulated. Although the authors
have not given tables showing results of experimental trials or
other details involved in experimental work, the material in this
bulletin is based on carefully planned and executed experiments
conducted at the Central Florida and Everglades Experiment
Stations. This bulletin will review briefly the life history and
habits of insects that attack celery, and present available infor-
mation on their control.

Historical
Quaintance (5)1 in 1896 discussed insects affecting celery.
Major insects discussed included the tarnished plant bug and
celery caterpillar. Others he listed were flea beetles, the zebra
1 Figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of this
bulletin.









Insects Attacking Celery in Florida

By J. W. WILSON and N. C. HAYSLIP

Introduction
Celery is one of the more important fresh vegetables produced
by Florida growers for out-of-state markets. In common with
all other crops, celery has its share of insect enemies. Under
present growing conditions and market demands, the control of
these insects by chemicals is essential in the production of a
market-acceptable product. In recent years, a number of very
potent insecticides have been introduced and now are used
generally in growing most vegetable crops. The introduction of
these chemicals has placed in the hands of growers weapons of
heretofore undreamed effectiveness. While general use of these
chemicals has well recognized advantages, the very potency
which makes them such effective insecticides imposes some
necessary restrictions on their use.
Synthetic chemicals have revolutionized methods of insect con-
trol and created some confusion. More and more chemicals use-
ful in insect control are being introduced continually. These
additions to the array of weapons available in the battle against
insect enemies make it difficult to prepare a bulletin on insect
control. Those who refer to this bulletin should remember that
it was prepared during a time of rapid changes and that some
new developments may have transpired since its preparation.
However, there is a very definite need to make available the
information which has been accumulated. Although the authors
have not given tables showing results of experimental trials or
other details involved in experimental work, the material in this
bulletin is based on carefully planned and executed experiments
conducted at the Central Florida and Everglades Experiment
Stations. This bulletin will review briefly the life history and
habits of insects that attack celery, and present available infor-
mation on their control.

Historical
Quaintance (5)1 in 1896 discussed insects affecting celery.
Major insects discussed included the tarnished plant bug and
celery caterpillar. Others he listed were flea beetles, the zebra
1 Figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of this
bulletin.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


caterpillar (Mamestra picta) and "other species of cutworms."
This early bulletin on vegetable insects was followed in 1917 by
Watson's (8) bulletin. Here the list of insects attacking celery
is increased to include celery looper, celery leaf-tier, plant lice
and cabbage root maggot. The "Florida Truck and Garden In-
sects" bulletin was revised several times (8, 9). Each revision
lists additional insects that attack celery.
The development and spread of the celery industry in Florida
naturally has helped add to the list of insects attacking celery.
For example, during the 1920's the celery leaf-tier was of major
importance in the Sanford area. Since the early 1930's, how-
ever, this insect has not been of economic importance there and
it never was in other celery-producing areas in the state.
The celery industry in Florida dates back before 1895, when
Mr. S. O. Chase grew celery in his home garden. After the
1895 freeze destroyed a large part of the citrus plantings
around Sanford, growers began to seek other crops adapted to
the area. Mr. J. N. Whitner was familiar with the home
planting of celery in Mr. Chase's garden. During the fall of
1897 Mr. Whitner obtained enough plants from Kalamazoo,
Michigan, to plant three-quarters of an acre, from which a
return of $1,300.00 was realized. Four carloads of celery were
shipped from the Sanford area during the winter of 1899. From
this early start the industry grew rapidly.
The first real insect threat came during the 1923-24 growing
season when the celery leaf-tier became very abundant. Dust
applications of arsenate of lead were used to control it. During
the 1926-27 growing season the Food and Drug Administration
stopped the shipment of celery for a period, due to excessive
arsenical residues. This led to the use of pyrethrum dust as a
control for the celery leaf-tier. Another development resulting
from excessive arsenical residues was the washing of harvested
celery before it was packed for shipment. Previously, most
celery had been packed unwashed in the field.
Soon after the successful cultivation of celery in the Sanford
area, plantings were made in the vicinity of Manatee, Florida.
Celery plantings are now being made in a number of locations
over the state, including Sanford, Oviedo, Zellwood, Lake Hart,
Sarasota, the Everglades, Marion County and Island Grove.
Total acreage for the 1949-50 season (6) was 9,500, with a yield
of 6,170,000 crates valued at $12,295,000.
With the expansion of the acreage some insect problems have







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


arisen which may be limited to one area. As an example, Tor-
trix ivana Fernald has been causing some damage during the
past few years in the Everglades area. In general, however,
the insect problems and their control measures are the same in
all areas of the state.

Insect Control in General
A number of factors enter into the successful use of chemicals
to control insects. In the first place, the person responsible for
control of insects on a particular crop cannot follow a spray
program blindly, no matter how carefully or in what detail such
a spray program may be drawn up. Growers must make fre-
quent inspections of the crop, recognize insects that may attack
it and prescribe the correct control measures. Frequent crop
inspections are necessary to detect insect infestations before they
develop to destructive levels. In many cases insects have caused
severe damage before the growers were aware of their existence.
The most effective use of chemical control is not obtained when
the insecticide is applied after considerable damage is apparent
in the crop. Since no insecticide is available which will control
effectively all insects attacking celery, it is equally necessary
to identify correctly the insects present and to prescribe the
insecticide that will control them most effectively.
Thorough application of the insecticide is another very im-
portant factor in its successful use. Most insect infestations
develop on the under sides of leaves or on other protected parts
of the plants. Therefore, a thorough, even coverage with the
insecticide on all parts of affected plants will give most effective
control. To obtain this even coverage, arrange some of the
nozzles so that the spray material is directed against both sides
of the leaves. Some insecticides now available act as fumigants,
others as contact and stomach poisons. If the insecticides are
applied to the exposed parts of the plant they can be only
partially effective. In some sections spray booms with all of
the nozzles directed straight down are used. Because of the
practice of arranging nozzles in this fashion, growers often are
applying more insecticide than is needed and then frequently
complain that the insecticide is not effective. The additional
pipe, hose and nozzles required to direct some of the spray to
the under sides of the leaves make the original cost of the spray
boom higher. However, the savings obtained in amount of in-
secticide used and the more effective control of insect and dis-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ease infestations more than offset the higher initial cost of the
spray boom. In addition to the poor control obtained with
ineffective spray booms, there is the tendency to build up un-
necessary residues.2
A spray boom might be designed so that it can be lowered
when the plants are small and raised as they grow larger. One
nozzle might be placed directly over the center of the row to
spray straight down, one on each side to spray downward at a
45' angle, and another lower nozzle on each side of the row to
spray upward at 15 angle (Fig. 1). While the plants are small,
the straight-down nozzle and the two lower, upward-spraying
nozzles will deliver sufficient spray to all parts of the plants.
After the plants are about two-thirds grown all five nozzles
should be used. When three nozzles with number 2 disks are in
use and the tractor driven at about four miles per hour, 75 to 80
gallons of spray material will be required to spray an acre.
When five nozzles are in use, about 125 gallons of spray per acre
will be required.
An additional feature of effective spray equipment for celery
is a sprayer pump capable of delivering the required amount of
spray at a pressure of 300 to 325 pounds per square inch. Spray-
ing pressure should be watched carefully by the grower. If the
sprayer is operated at less than 300 pounds pressure per square
inch, the force is insufficient to break the spray into fine enough

SThe Food and Drug Administration has been holding extensive hearings
on the effects of chemical additions and poisonous residues on fresh fruits
and vegetables. While the necessity for use of insecticides has been well
established, it seems certain that definite, low-level tolerance restrictions
will be established. It is most important, therefore, that excessive residues
be avoided.

Fig. 1.-A spray boom with five nozzles to the row, showing the
arrangement of these nozzles to obtain effective coverage of the plants.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


droplets and drive them into all parts of the plant. If the
machine is operated at a pressure of much over 300 pounds the
spray may be broken too fine, resulting in excessive drift of the
spray particles and poor coverage of the plant. Spray passing
through the disk opening at high speed gradually wears the
edges of the openings and makes them larger. Wettable pow-
ders wear disks more rapidly than emulsions. Thus, disks should
be replaced at intervals as necessary.
Too many growers with large acreages have placed the opera-
tion of their spray machines in the hands of unskilled or irre-
sponsible men in an effort to keep down expenses. The operation
of a power sprayer should be in the hands of a skilled and
dependable worker who recognizes the importance of his job.
Formulations by different manufacturers of the same insecti-
cide sometimes vary between rather wide limits in the percent-
age or amount of active ingredient contained in a gallon of the
concentrated material. For this reason the amounts of materials
suggested for the control of some insects is sometimes given as
the amount of the actual chemical to be applied to an acre. All
labels are required by law to show the percent of the actual
chemical in the insecticide. Many labels also give the amount
of active ingredient in pounds per gallon. For the convenience
of readers of this bulletin, a dilution table for all insecticides
recommended is included at the end of the section on Field
Insect Control.

Precautions
Most insecticides, new and old, are more or less poisonous to
man. But most of the reported cases of insecticide poisoning
have resulted from carelessness in handling. When the neces-
sary care is exercised in handling insecticides no harm comes to
the user. An itemized list of precautions is included as a guide.
1. Realize the poisonous character of the chemicals being
used. This should encourage an attitude of carefulness.
2. Read the labels on the containers and become familiar with
the nature of the insecticides, the insects they will control and
the correct dosages.
3. Exercise every care to avoid breathing the dusts of wet-
table powders and dust formulations and the mist of the dilute
spray.
4. If liquid or dust formulations accidentally come in contact
with any part of the body, wash the contaminated parts







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


thoroughly with water. Remove promptly any contaminated
clothing.
5. Personnel engaged in spraying operations should take a
bath and change into fresh clothing immediately following each
day's spraying.
6. In case symptoms of poisoning develop, call a doctor im-
mediately.
7. Use the insecticide at the recommended dosage and do not
make more applications than are required.
8. Bury or burn empty insecticide containers.
9. Discontinue applications of insecticides four weeks before
harvest. A thorough larvicide treatment at this time should
protect the crop from worms until harvest.

Insects Attacking Celery in the Seedbed
Aphids
Many species of aphids may be found on celery and two of
these, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis rhamni Fonsc., usually
cause economic losses. Because aphids multiply very rapidly
under favorable conditions, they are capable of causing serious
damage in both seedbed and field, if control measures are not
taken promptly. These two aphids may be found in celery fields
every year and, during seasons favorable for their development,
several applications of insecticides will be required to prevent
serious losses. The presence of aphids in celery seedbeds may
be recognized by the curling of young leaves. The under sides of
these curled leaves usually are crowded with small green and
black aphids, some of which may be winged. They range in size
from very small, newly born individuals to mature females. On
older plants in the field curling of the leaves is not so pronounced.
This means that the celery field should be examined closely at
regular intervals to detect aphids in time to prevent severe
damage. Since aphids transmit virus diseases to celery, their
control is extremely important.
Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid, is a general feeder attacking,
in addition to celery, watermelon and other cucurbits, cotton,
citrus, okra, strawberry, beet, spinach, eggplant, asparagus,
bean, and many ornamentals. This aphid also is found on many
wild plants, especially shepherds purse, pepper-grass, pigweed
and dock. It is distributed generally throughout the United
States and is particularly destructive in the South.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


thoroughly with water. Remove promptly any contaminated
clothing.
5. Personnel engaged in spraying operations should take a
bath and change into fresh clothing immediately following each
day's spraying.
6. In case symptoms of poisoning develop, call a doctor im-
mediately.
7. Use the insecticide at the recommended dosage and do not
make more applications than are required.
8. Bury or burn empty insecticide containers.
9. Discontinue applications of insecticides four weeks before
harvest. A thorough larvicide treatment at this time should
protect the crop from worms until harvest.

Insects Attacking Celery in the Seedbed
Aphids
Many species of aphids may be found on celery and two of
these, Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis rhamni Fonsc., usually
cause economic losses. Because aphids multiply very rapidly
under favorable conditions, they are capable of causing serious
damage in both seedbed and field, if control measures are not
taken promptly. These two aphids may be found in celery fields
every year and, during seasons favorable for their development,
several applications of insecticides will be required to prevent
serious losses. The presence of aphids in celery seedbeds may
be recognized by the curling of young leaves. The under sides of
these curled leaves usually are crowded with small green and
black aphids, some of which may be winged. They range in size
from very small, newly born individuals to mature females. On
older plants in the field curling of the leaves is not so pronounced.
This means that the celery field should be examined closely at
regular intervals to detect aphids in time to prevent severe
damage. Since aphids transmit virus diseases to celery, their
control is extremely important.
Aphis gossypii, the melon aphid, is a general feeder attacking,
in addition to celery, watermelon and other cucurbits, cotton,
citrus, okra, strawberry, beet, spinach, eggplant, asparagus,
bean, and many ornamentals. This aphid also is found on many
wild plants, especially shepherds purse, pepper-grass, pigweed
and dock. It is distributed generally throughout the United
States and is particularly destructive in the South.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Under Florida climatic conditions aphids reproduce asexually
throughout the year. That is, males are not produced, and the
females upon maturity simply begin to bring forth living young.
When succulent plants are available and other conditions are
favorable the newly born aphid will complete its development in
four to eight days. Under these same conditions a mature female
will live from eight to 20 days, producing three to six young
each day. During periods of low temperatures development is
very much slower, mature females live longer and produce fewer
young per day. When aphids become crowded on a plant winged
forms are produced and these fly to other plants to establish
new colonies. The life history and habits of A. rhamni are
similar, in general, to those of the melon aphid.
Nicotine sulfate (40 percent) at the rate of 1 pint to 100
gallons of water, with a good spreader, for many years has been
the standard chemical for the control of aphids. In recent years
some of the new insecticides have come into general use because
they control other insects as well as aphids and are often more
effective against aphids. Most of these new insecticides can be
combined with the fungicides applied to celery, with the excep-
tion of bordeaux mixture. Some DDT emulsion formulations
are not physically compatible with zineb. One pound of 15 per-
cent or 1/ pound of 25 percent wettable parathion to 100 gallons
of water will give excellent control of aphids and red spiders.
One pint of 20 percent tetraethyl pyrophosphate to 100 gallons
of spray also is excellent for aphid control. Special care should
be taken not to spill either of these materials on the body or
clothing, as they are readily absorbed through the skin. One
quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion in 100 gallons also is effective
against aphids and the young stages of cutworms. If aphids
become abundant in the seedbed and good coverage on the under
sides of the leaves of small, closely spaced plants with a liquid
is difficult, a dust containing 1 percent parathion can be applied
at the rate of 30 pounds per acre. Areas adjoining the seedbeds
should be kept free of weeds, since they often support aphid
populations and virus diseases which may be transmitted to
the celery.

Mole-Crickets
Mole-crickets have been so named because they belong to the
cricket family and are subterranean insects with front legs
resembling those of moles. These modified front legs enable







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


mole-crickets to burrow through the soil. Uprooting young
plants and drying out the top layer of soil are a major part of
the damage they cause. Four species of these insects are found
in Florida. They are the Southern mole-cricket, Scapteriscus
acletus R. & H.; the Changa, S. vicinus Scudder; the short-
winged mole-cricket, S. abbreviates Scudder; and the Northern
mole-cricket, Gryllotalpa hexadactyla Perty. The first two
species, which are most abundant on sandy soils, are the two
which usually cause economic losses (Fig. 2). The short-winged
species is abundant along the lower East Coast and in the Ft.
Myers area. The Northern mole-cricket is found on organic
soils. According to observations made by Hayslip (2), most of
the surface burrowing so destructive in seedbeds is produced by
the Southern mole-cricket. The Changa appears to spend more
of its time deeper in the soil and causes less damage through
surface burrowing. On the other hand, the Changa has been
observed feeding on the roots and stems of vegetable plants and
on developing peanuts.


Fig. 2.-The most widespread and destructive
Puerto Rican (Scapterisus vicinus Scudd.); Right,
R. & H.).


mole-crickets. Left,
Southern (S. acletas







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


The adult mole-cricket is about 11/4 inches in length and about
3/8 inch in width. The Southern mole-cricket is brownish-gray
with white or greenish markings on the sides of the abdomen,
while the Changa is reddish to creamy brown with darkened
areas. These color differences cannot be relied upon to distin-
guish the species because of variations in both species. Mole-
crickets are nocturnal insects, though some individuals may be
active on the surface of the soil on cloudy days. The Changa
and the Southern mole-crickets deposit their eggs in sealed
chambers located from one inch to one foot below the soil sur-
face, depending upon moisture conditions. In the Plant City
area egg deposition for both species has been observed to begin
during March, reaching a peak in May and ceasing in July for
the Changa and September for the Southern mole-cricket. Egg
cells contained from one to 50 eggs, averaging 22. The eggs
hatched in from 11 to 37 days, depending upon temperature.
The newly hatched nymphs remained in the egg chamber for
several days. During this time they fed upon egg shells and
unhatched eggs. Stronger individuals also fed upon weaker
ones. Young nymphs grew rapidly during the summer. Adults
of the new generation began to appear in September. Nymphs
that did not complete their development by the time cold weather
set in went through the winter as nymphs, completing their
development during the early spring.
The most important factor noted in the biological control of
these insects was cannibalism among the newly hatched nymphs
in the egg chamber. A predacious bug and two fungus diseases
also have been observed attacking mole-crickets.
As has already been indicated, principal economic losses due
to mole-crickets occur in seedbeds. However, newly trans-
planted seedlings suffer considerably in heavily infested fields.
Mole-crickets are attracted to wheat bran and were killed by
poisoned wheat bran baits until the hydrocarbon insecticides
were developed. Soon after the release of DDT, Kelsheimer (3)
developed methods of control based upon the use of this chemical.
He recommended for seedbeds 10 to 30 pounds of actual DDT per
acre, which may be mixed with the fertilizer and applied when the
seedbeds are being prepared. Later, DDT was found to be
slower in its action and less effective than chlordane. As a re-
sult of more recent experiments 2 to 5 pounds of technical
chlordane per acre is recommended now. Seedbeds should be
treated at least two days prior to seeding. Chlordane formulated







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


either as an emulsion or as wettable powder may be used as a
seedbed drench at the rate of 1/4 pint of 48 percent emulsion or 5
ounces of 40 percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water,
applied with a sprinkling can, to 1,000 square feet of seedbed.
Where the soil is dry this method of treatment is most successful.
A concentrated spray may be applied with a power sprayer,
thus saving time. If this method is used, 121/2 pounds of 40
percent wettable powder per 100 gallons of water should be
applied to one acre. Five percent chlordane dust may be ap-
plied at the rate of 21/2 pounds per 1,000 square feet, or 100
pounds per acre. If concentrated spray or dust treatments are
used the seedbeds should be watered immediately for best results.
When impractical to over-head irrigate after treatment, applica-
tions should be made when the soil is moist and warm.
For mole-cricket control in a field where celery is to be trans-
planted, a spray, dust or poisoned bait may be used. For spray,
21/ pounds of 40 percent wettable chlordane mixed in 100 gallons
of water and applied to one acre is recommended. For dust, 20
to 30 pounds of 5 percent chlordane dust is recommended. Five
pounds of 40 percent wettable chlordane in 100 pounds of wheat
bran is recommended for use as a poisoned bait. After mixing
the chlordane and wheat bran, add water or molasses plus water
in sufficient quantity to slightly moisten the bait. Broadcast
evenly at the rate of 25 to 50 pounds per acre just prior to
sundown.
When using chlordane formulations containing percentages of
active ingredient different from those recommended, use at a rate
which will result in the application of the same amount of actual
chlordane per acre. Since mole-crickets are most active in the
upper surface of the soil during warm, moist periods, best con-
trol can be obtained during these periods.

Garden Fleahopper
The garden fleahopper, Halticus bracteatus (Say), is a small
black plant bug with minute spots on the wings. There are two
forms of the female of this insect, the short-winged and long-
winged, illustrated in Fig. 3. Both adults and nymphs feed on
the leaves of plants:by sucking the plant juices from punctures
usually made on the under sides of the leaves. Small grayish-
white spots appear on the leaves where the feeding punctures
have been made and when the insects are abundant, the leaves
may die. In addition to celery, other plants which are attacked







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


include beans, beets, cabbage, corn, cowpeas, cucumber, eggplant,
lettuce, peas, pepper, potato, squash, sweet potato, various
legumes, ornamentals and many weeds. Damage to celery is
confined to young plants in the seedbed.








ab

Fig. 3.-Garden fleahopper; a, Short-winged female; b, full-winged
female; c, male; d, head of male in outline. Eight times natural size.
(From U. S. Bur. of Ent.)

Eggs are deposited by the adult female in feeding punctures
on the under sides of the leaves. Greenish nymphs hatch out in
a few days and grow rapidly to blackish adults. Several genera-
tions a year are produced under Florida climatic conditions.
The garden fleahopper is readily controlled by an application
of 5 percent DDT dust at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre.
A spray composed of 2 pounds of 50 percent DDT wettable
powder or 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water also may be used.

Insects of Minor Importance
Flea Beetles
Flea beetles are small, oval insects belonging to the family of
leaf-eating beetles. This group of insects has well developed
hind legs which enable them to jump considerable distances
quickly when disturbed. Flea beetles (Fig. 4) are destructive
only occasionally in celery seedbeds, but when they become abun-
dant, considerable damage to the young seedlings may result
from their feeding on the leaves. Small clusters of orange-
colored eggs are laid by the female beetles at the base of the
plant or on the soil nearby. The young larvae hatch and feed
on the under surfaces of leaves, becoming 1/4 to ,/3 inch long in
two to four weeks. The pupal or resting stage of about 10 days
is passed in the soil, after which the new generation of adults
emerges.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


include beans, beets, cabbage, corn, cowpeas, cucumber, eggplant,
lettuce, peas, pepper, potato, squash, sweet potato, various
legumes, ornamentals and many weeds. Damage to celery is
confined to young plants in the seedbed.








ab

Fig. 3.-Garden fleahopper; a, Short-winged female; b, full-winged
female; c, male; d, head of male in outline. Eight times natural size.
(From U. S. Bur. of Ent.)

Eggs are deposited by the adult female in feeding punctures
on the under sides of the leaves. Greenish nymphs hatch out in
a few days and grow rapidly to blackish adults. Several genera-
tions a year are produced under Florida climatic conditions.
The garden fleahopper is readily controlled by an application
of 5 percent DDT dust at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre.
A spray composed of 2 pounds of 50 percent DDT wettable
powder or 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water also may be used.

Insects of Minor Importance
Flea Beetles
Flea beetles are small, oval insects belonging to the family of
leaf-eating beetles. This group of insects has well developed
hind legs which enable them to jump considerable distances
quickly when disturbed. Flea beetles (Fig. 4) are destructive
only occasionally in celery seedbeds, but when they become abun-
dant, considerable damage to the young seedlings may result
from their feeding on the leaves. Small clusters of orange-
colored eggs are laid by the female beetles at the base of the
plant or on the soil nearby. The young larvae hatch and feed
on the under surfaces of leaves, becoming 1/4 to ,/3 inch long in
two to four weeks. The pupal or resting stage of about 10 days
is passed in the soil, after which the new generation of adults
emerges.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


To control these insects, either apply 30 to 40 pounds per acre
of a 5 percent DDT dust or spray with 2 pounds of 50 percent
wettable DDT or 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion per 100
gallons of water.


e
Fig. 4.-Strawberry flea beetle: a, Adult; b, eggs
view of young larva; e, dorsal view of larva; f, pupa.
(From U. S. Bur. of Ent.)


on leaf; c, side
Greatly enlarged.


Springtails

Springtails are minute insects sometimes found in enormous
numbers in celery seedbeds. They are also found in decaying
vegetable matter, on the surface of stagnant water and in other
moist places. These insects are wingless and generally have a
muscular appendage at the tip of the abdomen which enables
them to spring into the air. Although they have been found
occasionally on celery seedbeds in large numbers, springtails
have not been observed to cause any damage to young celery
plants.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Burrower Bug
A burrower bug, Cyrtomenus sp., has been observed damaging
celery seedbeds on peat and muck soils in the Everglades. The
insect appears to cause most of its damage by tunneling through
the soil surface, damaging the young seedlings and causing the
soil to dry out. Little is known about this insect; however,
preliminary trials indicate that chlordane may be an effective
control.


Insects Attacking Celery in the Field

Cutworms
Several kinds of cutworms attack celery, both in the seedbed
and after the plants have been transplanted to the field. The
black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.), is one of the common
species which feeds upon a wide variety of vegetables and grasses.
This cutworm is especially destructive in seedbeds and to re-
cently transplanted seedlings because of its habit of cutting off
young plants at or near the ground surface.
Other species of cutworms are known as climbing cutworms
because of their habit of feeding on the upper portion of the
plants. The green celery worm, Platysenta sutor (Guen.), is an
example of this type of cutworm which feeds upon the tender
leaves and fleshy stems of celery. The granulate cutworm, Feltia
subterranean (F.), is another which damages celery by feeding
on the inside of the petioles and in the heart of the celery plant
(Fig. 5). Other members of the cutworm group may be found
feeding on celery.
Most adult moths of the cutworm family lay their eggs on the
stems or leaves of the host plant. Some others lay their eggs on
the ground. Among the latter is the black cutworm, which
prefers to lay its eggs on low spots in the field. The eggs hatch
during the warmer months in three to five days. The young
larvae usually remain just below the surface of the ground
during the day and feed at night. Full grown larvae are 11l
to 2 inches in length. The time required to complete larval
growth is from two to three weeks during summer. When the
larva has completed its growth it crawls into the ground and
constructs a cell in which it passes the pupal, or resting, stage.
This stage lasts from seven to 10 days. At the end of this time
the adult moth emerges and after a period of two to three days







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Burrower Bug
A burrower bug, Cyrtomenus sp., has been observed damaging
celery seedbeds on peat and muck soils in the Everglades. The
insect appears to cause most of its damage by tunneling through
the soil surface, damaging the young seedlings and causing the
soil to dry out. Little is known about this insect; however,
preliminary trials indicate that chlordane may be an effective
control.


Insects Attacking Celery in the Field

Cutworms
Several kinds of cutworms attack celery, both in the seedbed
and after the plants have been transplanted to the field. The
black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.), is one of the common
species which feeds upon a wide variety of vegetables and grasses.
This cutworm is especially destructive in seedbeds and to re-
cently transplanted seedlings because of its habit of cutting off
young plants at or near the ground surface.
Other species of cutworms are known as climbing cutworms
because of their habit of feeding on the upper portion of the
plants. The green celery worm, Platysenta sutor (Guen.), is an
example of this type of cutworm which feeds upon the tender
leaves and fleshy stems of celery. The granulate cutworm, Feltia
subterranean (F.), is another which damages celery by feeding
on the inside of the petioles and in the heart of the celery plant
(Fig. 5). Other members of the cutworm group may be found
feeding on celery.
Most adult moths of the cutworm family lay their eggs on the
stems or leaves of the host plant. Some others lay their eggs on
the ground. Among the latter is the black cutworm, which
prefers to lay its eggs on low spots in the field. The eggs hatch
during the warmer months in three to five days. The young
larvae usually remain just below the surface of the ground
during the day and feed at night. Full grown larvae are 11l
to 2 inches in length. The time required to complete larval
growth is from two to three weeks during summer. When the
larva has completed its growth it crawls into the ground and
constructs a cell in which it passes the pupal, or resting, stage.
This stage lasts from seven to 10 days. At the end of this time
the adult moth emerges and after a period of two to three days







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the female moth begins to lay eggs. During the cooler months
the time required to complete these various stages is prolonged
considerably. In the central and southern parts of the state all
stages can be found any month of the year. Thus, the various
generations overlap to such an extent that there are no distinct
broods as in colder climates.


Fig. 5.-Celery injured by cutworms.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Where an area of ground with a heavy growth of grass and
weeds is to be planted it is advisable to plow such land at least
a month before planting time. This early plowing gives the
material turned under time to decay, making a better seedbed,
and causes many of the cutworm larvae present at the time of
plowing to starve. A poison bran bait made with paris green
will be effective for applications prior to seeding, where it is
necessary to apply a poison bran after plowing under the cover
crop. If cutworms attack young plants in the seedbed apply a
bait consisting of 4 pounds of 50 percent wettable chlordane or
toxaphene in 100 pounds of wheat bran. Moisten with about 21/2
gallons of water and scatter the bait evenly at the rate of 30 to
40 pounds per acre. This bait should be applied late in the after-
noon so that it will be attractive to the cutworms when they come
out to feed at night. Chlordane or toxaphene bait is suggested
for seedbeds because there is considerable danger of burning
young plants with paris green bait. For the control of cutworms
after the plants are transplanted to the field a spray consisting
of 3 pounds of 50 percent wettable toxaphene or 1 pound of
technical toxaphene, in the form of an emulsion, to 100 gallons
of water and applied at the rate of 80 to 125 gallons per acre is
suggested. One quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons
of water applied at the rate of 80 to 125 gallons per acre is
effective against young stages of cutworms. Chlordane, either
as a wettable powder or as an emulsion, at the rate of 1 pound of
technical chlordane to 100 gallons of water is another satis-
factory insecticide.

Armyworms
A number of armyworms may attack celery, but the one most
common in Florida is the fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda
(A. & S.). This is a member of the family of night-flying moths
and its life history is similar to that of cutworms. The fall
armyworm moth lays its eggs in masses of 50 or more eggs which
are covered with scales from the female's abdomen. These egg
masses are conveniently placed on the leaves of the plant upon
which the young larvae will feed. The larvae feed upon the
leaves and stems of celery plants, completing their growth in
from 20 to 30 days during warm periods. When ready to pupate,
full grown larvae burrow about one inch below the soil surface
and construct the pupal cell. About 10 days are spent in the
pupal stage, after which the adult moth emerges.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The fall armyworm is host to a number of parasites and
predators, but under a system of intensive cultivation these
natural enemies cannot be relied upon to control this insect.
The fall armyworm may be controlled effectively with a spray
containing 1 to 2 quarts of 25 percent DDT emulsion in 100
gallons of water, applying 100 to 125 gallons per acre at a pres-
sure of 300 pounds Iper square inch. Commercial emulsions of
toxaphene vary from 4 to 8 pounds of technical toxaphene per
gallon. If a toxaphene emulsion is used add enough of the
emulsion to 100 gallons of water to give 1 pound of the technical
toxaphene and apply to one acre as in the case of the DDT spray.
When dusts are preferred, a 5-percent DDT dust or 10 percent
toxaphene dust, applied at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre at
a time of very little air movement, may be used.

Green Celery Worm

The green celery worm, Platysenta sutor (Guen.), is another
member of the night-flying moth family which has become
destructive in celery fields of central and southern Florida in
recent years. This worm (Fig. 6) gets its name from its general
color scheme which is a light green with a longitudinal, narrow
white stripe along each side of the back. The full grown larva
is about 11/2 inches long. It feeds on leaves and stems of celery.
It may occur in both seedbed and field, but usually is most de-
structive in the field. Because this worm only recently has been
found to be of economic importance in celery plantings, very little
information has been accumulated on its life history. The adult
moth resembles soniewhat the other members of the night-flying
moth family in size and general coloration. Eggs are laid singly
on the foliage of the celery plant, hatching a few days after
being deposited. The full grown larva burrows into the soil and,
after a resting stage of about 10 days, the adult moth emerges
to produce another generation.
Growers soon found that the green celery worm was not con-
trolled by applications of DDT. In fact, it was soon after DDT
began to be generally used that infestations of this insect became
serious. It is possible that, as in the case of some other insects,
applications of DDT eliminated the parasites which had been
holding the green celery worm in check and thus encouraged
destructive infestations of this insect. Applications of 3 to 4
pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene to 100 gallons of water
at the rate of 100 to 125 gallons per acre at a spray pump pres-






Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


sure of 300 pounds per square inch will give excellent control of
this insect. The emulsifiable formulation of toxaphene also may
be used at the rate of 1 pound of the technical toxaphene to 100
gallons of water. A spray containing 3 pounds of benzene hexa-
chloride (10 percent gamma isomer) to 100 gallons of water also
will control the green celery worm. Applications of benzene
hexachloride to celery do not affect the taste or eating quality
of celery. If potatoes are planted on land where celery has been
treated the previous season with benzene hexachloride, however,
the potatoes will not be marketable because of the benzene hexa-
chloride flavor, and beans also might be affected. Due to these
possible hazards, benzene hexachloride is not recommended for
celery.


Fig. 6.-Larvae of the green celery worm showing the variation and range
of the color pattern.









'I







I '".






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Celery Leaf-Tier
The celery leaf-tier, Phlyctaenia rubigalis (Guen.), which
caused heavy losses in the Sanford area during the 1920's, has
not been present in sufficient numbers to warrant special control
studies since the newer organic insecticides appeared. For this
reason no information on the effect of the newer materials has
been obtained in Florida. The present spray programs for
celery may hold it in check.















Si1








Fig. 7.-Celery petioles showing characteristic injury by celery leaf-tier
larvae.

Eggs of this insect are difficult to find in the field, being small,
almost transparent and scale-like. They are usually deposited on
the under sides of leaves in groups of from 1 to 15, slightly
overlapping each other. The young larva is whitish in color with
a black head. As it feeds (Fig. 7) the worm becomes light green
and later develops a pair of longitudinal white stripes on the
back. When mature it is about % inch long. The larva makes
a cell among the leaves where it transforms into a brown pupa
about % inch in length. A small brown moth (Fig. 8) with faint





Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


irregular lines on the wings emerges from this pupa. Features
distinguishing this species are brush-like palpi in the shape of
a snout and two rows of small black spots on the under side of
a cream-colored abdomen.


j


C D D
Fig. 8.-The celery leaf-tier, A, eggs; B, mature larva; C, pupae;
D, adult. A, highly magnified; others magnified from 2 to 3 times.
Since the leaf-tier feeds primarily on young leaves and petioles
in the heart of the celery, chemical control must be applied in
such a way as to reach the feeding areas inside the plant. As a







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


result of investigations .in the Sanford area in the early 1930's
(7), fresh pyrethrum dust applied to dry plants on a calm day
was recommended. Best control was obtained when the dusting
pipes were inserted a few inches inside the tops of the celery.
This method of dusting has been tested recently on a similar
problem using DDT dust, and control was increased materially.
The possibility of spreading virus diseases by dragging the pipes
through the celery tops may make this operation hazardous.
Celery refuse should be plowed under immediately following
harvest to destroy insects remaining in the celery strippings
and crowns.

Wireworms
Wireworms cause widespread and severe damage in peat and
muck soils of Florida and may become a pest on certain sandy
soils. Many species of wireworms occur in this state. The most
destructive one in the Everglades area is Melanotus communis

Fig. 9.-A wireworm feeding upon corn. Wireworms also attack celery in
the same manner at the crown of the plant.


S.i










.. A,







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Gyll. Wireworms occur throughout most of the world and inflict
heavy losses to a wide variety of cultivated crops. Celery often
is attacked by the larvae which live in the soil and attack the
plants through the roots and crown, causing the celery to wilt
and die. The larvae are hard, smooth, yellowish brown and look
quite similar to a short segment of wire from 1 to 11 inches in
length (Fig. 9). If freshly wilted plants are removed carefully
and the surrounding soil examined, the wireworms often can
be found. Mature larvae form soft pupae in the soil which later
transform into adult click beetles. These hard-shelled and
streamlined beetles are brownish, grayish or nearly black in
color, depending on the species. The head and thorax of the
beetles fit closely against the wing cover and, when upon its back,
the adult will flip into the air in an effort to land right side up-
thus the name "click" beetle. Adult click beetles are reported to
live about one year, with the larval stage of the various species
requiring from one to six years. All of the larval stage and most
of the adult stage is spent in the soil. Trapping records obtained
in the Everglades indicate that heavy click beetle flights occur in
the spring and summer. During these periods eggs are deposited
on and in the soil.
Clean cultivation or flooding in spring and summer months
should reduce the wireworm infestation by discouraging egg
deposition during the period of heavy click beetle flights. Obser-
vations indicate that spring corn should not be grown on land
intended for a future celery crop, since wireworms seem to in-
crease under this rotation.
Chemicals often reduce the damage caused by wireworms. Of
the insecticides tested, chlordane has been most satisfactory.
While much remains to be learned concerning the use of chemi-
cals against wireworms, it appears that 3 to 6 pounds of technical
chlordane per acre should be incorporated in the upper few
inches of soil two to four weeks before transplanting. The in-
secticide may be sprayed, dusted or mixed with fertilizer and
broadcast over the area, followed by a thorough light disking
immediately after application.
If the chlordane is not applied well in advance of planting it
may be mixed thoroughly with the fertilizer and drilled beneath
the row or sprayed a few inches deep in the row just ahead of
the transplanter. This method of treatment will reduce the
amount of damage but it does not always give commercially
satisfactory results.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Red Spider Mite
Most celery growers are familiar with red spider mites because
few seasons pass without parts of celery fields becoming infested
with this pest. Red spider mites usually become abundant during
dry, warm portions of the growing season. Under Florida con-
ditions serious infestations of mites may develop during Decem-
ber, January and February. For years the red spider found on
celery has been identified as the common red spider (Tetranychus
bimaculatus Harvey), but recently specimens of red spider col-
lected from celery were identified by Dr. E. W. Baker, Division
of Insect Identification, Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quar-
antine, USDA, as Septanychus tumidus (Banks).
This red spider is not an insect but an eight-legged mite,
purplish-red in color, pear-shaped, somewhat narrower at the
posterior end than at the front, and less than 1/25 inch in length.
The adult male is shorter and narrower across the body than the
female. Adults and young nymphs feed on the under sides of
leaves, causing s all grayish spots to appear where the plant
juices have been withdrawn. Adults spin a web, and when the
infestation becomes very severe the affected plants will turn
brown and will be covered with this fine web. Eggs are laid
singly on the under sides of leaves and held in place by the web.
Six-legged nymphs hatch out in three to four days and begin feed-
ing. After two to four days the first-stage nymph molts or
sheds its skin and the eight-legged second-stage nymph appears.
This second nym hal stage also lasts two to four days, then
another molt occurs and the adult emerges. All of these stages
are directly affected by the prevailing temperature, .being con-
siderably prolonged by lower temperatures.
Sulfur dust at the rate of 30 to 40 pounds per acre, or wettable
sulfur at the rate of 10 pounds to 100 gallons of water per acre,
has been the standard control for red spiders. Under certain
conditions sulfur has disadvantages. Sulfur is most effective
when the temperature is 80' F. or higher. Often during the
celery growing season temperatures are below the optimum
range for sulfur to be most effective. As a result, control ob-
tained by sulfur is not entirely satisfactory. Preliminary ex-
periments conducted during the 1950-51 growing season indi-
cated that 1 to 2 pounds of 15 percent wettable parathion applied
to an acre in 100 gallons of water will give excellent control of
red spider mites, even when temperatures are in the 60' to 70' F.
range. These tests also showed that a number of new chemicals






Insects Attacking Celery in Florida 27

are very promising miticides. It is possible that after further
experimental work some of these materials will replace the
chemicals available at present. Some of these chemicals also
showed promise as aphicides.


Fig. 10.-Celery stems severely damaged by feeding activities
of a celery tortricid larva.


,I- ."I







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Tortricid
In 1948 the larvae of a tortricid moth, Tortrix ivana Fernald,
were found causing severe damage to celery in the Everglades.
Since that time this insect has been observed attacking celery in
many sections of the Everglades. Its importance as a pest of
celery in this area has made advisable a special study of its
habits and life history. According to Genung,3 the brownish
bell-shaped moth lays irregular, shingled masses of eggs. The
pale yellowish or greenish egg masses are difficult to locate on
the stems and leaves. A field-collected egg mass contained 25
eggs, and a female reared and bred in the laboratory laid three
egg masses of 33, 36 and 46 eggs. Newly hatched larvae feed
almost exclusively on leaves and require about 16 days to attain
full growth. Older larvae, which feed on the bud area and bore
into the stalks, usually are covered by a protective webbing
(Fig. 10). Full grown larvae average % inch in length.
The worms pupate among the leaves after pulling them to-
gether with webbing. The pupae are greenish with light brown
areas immediately after transformation, but in a few days they
become entirely brown. Pupae range from 1/ to % inch in
length. The pupal stage lasts about six to seven days. The
moths have a zig-zag type of flight and when flushed try to light
and hide quickly. Cage-reared moths averaged about % inch
in length.
Since feeding occurs in the buds and stems of celery under a
protective webbing which covers the larvae, control is difficult
on large plants. Thorough spraying into the buds of celery is
essential for good control. A nozzle near the ground, spraying
slightly upward into each side of the celery row, aids in getting
the spray into the buds. Three additional nozzles per row should
thoroughly cover the outer leaves from above the plants. A
spray containing 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion in 100
gallons of water to an acre is recommended.
In one case where sprays failed to control this insect, success-
ful control was obtained by inserting dusting pipes a few inches
into the tops of the plants and applying 25 pounds per acre of 5
percent DDT dust as the pipes were dragged through the celery.
This method caused no mechanical damage to the crop but might
spread virus diseases.

3 Genung, W. G., Assistant Entomologist, Everglades Experiment Sta-
tion, unpublished notes on life history of a celery tortricid.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Insects of Minor Importance
Tarnished Plant Bug
The tarnished plant bug, Lygus oblineatus (Say) (Fig. 11),
is a widely distributed insect commonly found on many weeds.
The cultivated plants which it has been reported to attack in
addition to celery include
beet, chard, bean, potato,
cabbage, cauliflower, tur-
nip, salsify, cucumber, cot-
ton, tobacco, alfalfa and
m a n y flowering plants.
The adult is a small, brown-
ish, fattened insect belong-
ing to the family of plant
bugs and has piercing-
sucking mouth parts. Both Fig. 11.-Tarnished plant bug. Im-
d t f mature stages. Four times natural size.
nymphs and adults feed (From U. S. Bur. of Ent.)
upon the tender stems of
celery, causing scarred and discolored areas called "black joint"
by Metcalf and Flint (4).
Infestations of this insect in celery fields are rare, but if it
becomes abundant it can be controlled readily with an applica-
tion of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water applied to an acre. A 5 percent DDT dust at the rate of
30 to 40 pounds per acre also may be used.

Celery Looper
The celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kby), is a very close
relative of the cabbage looper. The full grown celery looper is
about 11/2 inches in length and a uniform light green in color.
Both species get the name looper from the fact that they have a
pair of slender legs on each of the three segments just back of
the head and a pair of stout prolegs on each of the last three
segments. This arrangement of legs gives the larva a looping
type of locomotion. When the larva becomes full grown it spins
a cocoon of delicate white threads, which is usually attached to
the under side of the leaf upon which it has been feeding. After
about two weeks the adult moth emerges. The moth is nocturnal
in its habits and for this reason is not often noticed. The small,
round, greenish-white eggs are laid singly on the leaves of the
plant upon which the larva will feed.







Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


Insects of Minor Importance
Tarnished Plant Bug
The tarnished plant bug, Lygus oblineatus (Say) (Fig. 11),
is a widely distributed insect commonly found on many weeds.
The cultivated plants which it has been reported to attack in
addition to celery include
beet, chard, bean, potato,
cabbage, cauliflower, tur-
nip, salsify, cucumber, cot-
ton, tobacco, alfalfa and
m a n y flowering plants.
The adult is a small, brown-
ish, fattened insect belong-
ing to the family of plant
bugs and has piercing-
sucking mouth parts. Both Fig. 11.-Tarnished plant bug. Im-
d t f mature stages. Four times natural size.
nymphs and adults feed (From U. S. Bur. of Ent.)
upon the tender stems of
celery, causing scarred and discolored areas called "black joint"
by Metcalf and Flint (4).
Infestations of this insect in celery fields are rare, but if it
becomes abundant it can be controlled readily with an applica-
tion of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water applied to an acre. A 5 percent DDT dust at the rate of
30 to 40 pounds per acre also may be used.

Celery Looper
The celery looper, Anagrapha falcifera (Kby), is a very close
relative of the cabbage looper. The full grown celery looper is
about 11/2 inches in length and a uniform light green in color.
Both species get the name looper from the fact that they have a
pair of slender legs on each of the three segments just back of
the head and a pair of stout prolegs on each of the last three
segments. This arrangement of legs gives the larva a looping
type of locomotion. When the larva becomes full grown it spins
a cocoon of delicate white threads, which is usually attached to
the under side of the leaf upon which it has been feeding. After
about two weeks the adult moth emerges. The moth is nocturnal
in its habits and for this reason is not often noticed. The small,
round, greenish-white eggs are laid singly on the leaves of the
plant upon which the larva will feed.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A spray containing 3 to 4 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxa-
phene to 100 gallons of water and applied to an acre as recom-
mended for the control of cutworms is an effective control for
the celery looper. This insect may be controlled readily also by
the use of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water per acre, or 30 to 40 -pounds per acre of 5 percent DDT
dust.

Celery Caterpillar
The larva of the celery caterpillar, Papilio polyxenes Fabr., is,
according to Watson (9), "a rather common feeder on celery
and related crops." For some reason this insect has not been
observed feeding on celery in recent years. The larva is banded
with black and yellow. When disturbed it thrusts out two
reddish, horned appendages from the first body segment just
back of the head. This organ gives off an offensive odor and is
used as a protective mechanism.
Since no infestations have been observed in recent years there
has been no opportunity to test the newer insecticides. Watson
(9) recommends 2 pounds of arsenate of lead to 100 gallons of
water for its control. Applications of DDT and toxaphene for
the control of other insects may have prevented the development
of noticeable numbers of celery caterpillars.

Serpentine Leaf Miner
The serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.), within
recent years has b come a major pest of many cultivated crops,
causing severe damage to beans, tomatoes and potatoes. While
celery does not seem to be a preferred host for this leaf miner,
light infestations are rather common and an occasional heavy
infestation occurs.
A report on this insect was made by Wolfenbarger (10) in
1947. The adult is a very small fly, about 1/20 inch long, which
punctures the leaves in feeding and deposits tiny eggs inside
them. The eggs hatch into small larvae which proceed to tunnel
inside the leaves as they feed, thus the name "leaf miner" (Fig.
12). Small yellowish pupae are sometimes found on the leaf, but
Wolfenbarger reports that most larvae drop to the soil to pupate.
The entire life cycle requires three to four weeks, with the egg
stage lasting three to five days, the larval stage five to seven days,
and the pupal stage eight to 12 days.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


A spray containing 3 to 4 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxa-
phene to 100 gallons of water and applied to an acre as recom-
mended for the control of cutworms is an effective control for
the celery looper. This insect may be controlled readily also by
the use of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of
water per acre, or 30 to 40 -pounds per acre of 5 percent DDT
dust.

Celery Caterpillar
The larva of the celery caterpillar, Papilio polyxenes Fabr., is,
according to Watson (9), "a rather common feeder on celery
and related crops." For some reason this insect has not been
observed feeding on celery in recent years. The larva is banded
with black and yellow. When disturbed it thrusts out two
reddish, horned appendages from the first body segment just
back of the head. This organ gives off an offensive odor and is
used as a protective mechanism.
Since no infestations have been observed in recent years there
has been no opportunity to test the newer insecticides. Watson
(9) recommends 2 pounds of arsenate of lead to 100 gallons of
water for its control. Applications of DDT and toxaphene for
the control of other insects may have prevented the development
of noticeable numbers of celery caterpillars.

Serpentine Leaf Miner
The serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza pusilla (Meig.), within
recent years has b come a major pest of many cultivated crops,
causing severe damage to beans, tomatoes and potatoes. While
celery does not seem to be a preferred host for this leaf miner,
light infestations are rather common and an occasional heavy
infestation occurs.
A report on this insect was made by Wolfenbarger (10) in
1947. The adult is a very small fly, about 1/20 inch long, which
punctures the leaves in feeding and deposits tiny eggs inside
them. The eggs hatch into small larvae which proceed to tunnel
inside the leaves as they feed, thus the name "leaf miner" (Fig.
12). Small yellowish pupae are sometimes found on the leaf, but
Wolfenbarger reports that most larvae drop to the soil to pupate.
The entire life cycle requires three to four weeks, with the egg
stage lasting three to five days, the larval stage five to seven days,
and the pupal stage eight to 12 days.






Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


One pound of 15 percent wettable parathion (or equivalent)
per 100 gallons of water to an acre will give excellent control
of leaf miners. Toxaphene and chlordane are fairly effective
also.


Fig. 12.-Celery leaves with feeding tunnels of the serpentine leaf miner.

Southern Green Stink Bug
The adult Southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.)
(Fig. 13), is a large, light green, piercing and sucking insect







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 13.-Light and dark colored forms of the southern green stink bug
(Nezara viridlda), fifth instar, enlarged about 4 diameters. (After Jones,
Bull. 689, U. S. D. A.)

about 1/ inch long and 1/3 inch wide. The insect is rather hard
and slightly flattened. It is oval in shape with well developed
legs and wings. According to Drake (1), a single female de-
posits several clus-
ters of eggs (Fig.
14) ranging from
46 to 126 eggs per
cluster. These
compact, neatly ar-
ranged, glued, bar-
rel-shaped eg gs
hatch in as little
as four days into
highly colored
nymphs which
change color pat-
terns as they grow
and molt. The
Fig. 14.-Eggs and nymphs of the southern ny m p h a stage
green stink bug (Nezqra viridula) showing gre- (Fig. 13) may be
various habit during first instar. Enlarged. completed in 24
(After Drake, 7.) days, but cool

weather materially reduces the rate of growth. There are four
to five generations each year. Several parasites and predators
have been found to help keep this pest in balance.
Both adults and nymphs damage cultivated plants by piercing
and sucking plant juices. They feed upon a wide variety of
cultivated and wild vegetation, being attracted to legumes and






Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


crucifers. The most obvious damage to celery is to the develop-
ing petioles, where light or "cloudy" spots occur. These spots
gradually darken, making the celery less attractive for market-
ing, and sometimes distort the plants.
A spray containing toxaphene or chlordane may be used to
control this insect. Enough wettable powder to give 1 pound of
technical material should be mixed with 100 gallons of spray
and applied to one acre.

Thrips
Thrips are small, slender insects usually less than 1/8 inch in
length. Celery is sometimes damaged by thrips but these insects
are not considered a major pest. Many species attack fruits,
flowers, vegetables and field crops. Thrips have three slender
appendages with which they lacerate the epidermis of the plant.
The sap is then sucked up through the mouth. The resulting
damage on celery is a fine, shallow, rough, brownish series of
scars on the celery stems and veins of the leaves.
These insects are very active when disturbed and some have
wings fringed with long hairs for flight. They often turn up
their tails as if to sting. Eggs are laid on the surface of the
plants or inserted into slits made by a sharp ovipositer, depend-
ing upon the species involved. Infestations often become abun-
dant during warm, dry weather.
Thrips are controlled with DDT or toxaphene. One quart of
25 percent DDT emulsion per 100 gallons of water applied to one
acre will give good control. If toxaphene is used, a wettable
powder at the rate of 1 pound of technical toxaphene per 100
gallons of spray per acre is suggested.


A General Spray Program

Seedbed Insect Control
Mole-crickets and aphids are the principal insects which attack
celery in the seedbed. If seedbeds must be located on land known
to be infested with mole-crickets, control measures should be
applied two to seven days before planting. Two to five pounds
of technical chlordane per acre, applied either as a dust and
thoroughly mixed into the upper few inches of the soil or as a
wettable powder or emulsion and sprinkled on the soil surface,
will control this insect. Mole-crickets are controlled more






Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


crucifers. The most obvious damage to celery is to the develop-
ing petioles, where light or "cloudy" spots occur. These spots
gradually darken, making the celery less attractive for market-
ing, and sometimes distort the plants.
A spray containing toxaphene or chlordane may be used to
control this insect. Enough wettable powder to give 1 pound of
technical material should be mixed with 100 gallons of spray
and applied to one acre.

Thrips
Thrips are small, slender insects usually less than 1/8 inch in
length. Celery is sometimes damaged by thrips but these insects
are not considered a major pest. Many species attack fruits,
flowers, vegetables and field crops. Thrips have three slender
appendages with which they lacerate the epidermis of the plant.
The sap is then sucked up through the mouth. The resulting
damage on celery is a fine, shallow, rough, brownish series of
scars on the celery stems and veins of the leaves.
These insects are very active when disturbed and some have
wings fringed with long hairs for flight. They often turn up
their tails as if to sting. Eggs are laid on the surface of the
plants or inserted into slits made by a sharp ovipositer, depend-
ing upon the species involved. Infestations often become abun-
dant during warm, dry weather.
Thrips are controlled with DDT or toxaphene. One quart of
25 percent DDT emulsion per 100 gallons of water applied to one
acre will give good control. If toxaphene is used, a wettable
powder at the rate of 1 pound of technical toxaphene per 100
gallons of spray per acre is suggested.


A General Spray Program

Seedbed Insect Control
Mole-crickets and aphids are the principal insects which attack
celery in the seedbed. If seedbeds must be located on land known
to be infested with mole-crickets, control measures should be
applied two to seven days before planting. Two to five pounds
of technical chlordane per acre, applied either as a dust and
thoroughly mixed into the upper few inches of the soil or as a
wettable powder or emulsion and sprinkled on the soil surface,
will control this insect. Mole-crickets are controlled more






Florida IAaricultural Experiment Stations


readily when the oil is warm and moist, since they are most
active near the su face during these periods.
In addition to stunting the ,young celery seedlings, aphids
transmit mosaic. It is, therefore, highly important to keep
aphid infestations to an absolute minimum. Seedbed plants in-
oculated with mosaic by aphids mnay be transplanted to the field
before symptoms of the disease develop. Since it is the winged
aphids migrating to the seedbeds from virus-affected host
plants which transmit mosaic, aphicides must be applied reg-
ularly to seedbeds and adjoining areas. One pound of 15 percent
wettable parathioi per 100 gallons of water, or 1 percent
parathion dust should be applied at weekly intervals to the
seedbeds and to at least a 50-foot border surrounding them. One
pint of 20 percent tetraethyl pyrophosphate or 1 pound of lindane
(25 percent gamma isomer) to 100 gallons of spray also will
control aphids. This schedule will not always prevent mosaic,
since aphids sometimes drift in from long distances. However,
growers who foll w a preventive program will reduce their
chances of mosaic infection. Close and frequent examination of
the seedlings will Idisclose winged aphid migrations, and treat-
ments should be made at frequent intervals during these flight
periods. An efficient power sprayer or power duster should be
used in such a manner as to cover thoroughly the close-growing
celery plants. Seedbed areas should be kept free of all weeds
and grass to eliminate aphids and mosaic-affected plants.

Field Insect Control
The problem of insect control in celery fields may be ap-
proached in two ways: 1, with the idea of preventing the de-
velopment of injurious infestations or 2, control of infestations
as they appear in the field. The authors prefer the latter method,
provided the grower is able to make frequent inspections and
take immediate action upon the detection of an insect infestation;
and, provided he will apply a thorough worm treatment four
weeks before har est. If this method is followed, the cost of
production ordina ily will be lower than where the first method
is practiced. An their objection to the practice of preventive
control is that it tends to build up unnecessary residues of in-
secticides upon the marketable portion of the celery plant. (See
footnote on page 8).
Where the practice of controlling the insect populations as
they occur is followed, no definite spray program can be sug-








Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


gested. The grower must be in a position to maintain close
supervision of the growing crop and take the proper control
measures before the insect population reaches destructive levels.
This pre-supposes an ability to recognize and identify correctly
insects that occur in celery fields and a familiarity with the
proper control measures for the particular insect which may be
present. In this connection County Agents and representatives
of commercial insecticide companies offer a service which is of
great value to growers.


TABLE 1.-QUANTITIES OF INSECTICIDAL CONCENTRATE TO BE ADDED TO
MAKE 100 GALLONS OF SPRAY.


Insecticide





Nicotine Sulfate
Parathion ...

Parathion ........

Tetraethyl
pyrophosphate
Tetraethyl
pyrophosphate
DDT ..................

DDT ..................

Chlordane ........

Chlordane ......

Toxaphene ........

Toxaphene ........

Toxaphene ........

Toxaphene ........

Toxaphene ........

Benzene
hexachloride .

Lindane ......... I

Lindane ...........


Type of
Formulation





liquid ...... ....
wettable
powder ........
wettable
powder ........

liquid ..............

liquid ..........
emulsifiable
concentrate
wettable
powder ..........
wettable
powder ..........
emulsifiable
concentrate ..
wettable
powder ..........
emulsifiable
concentrate
emulsifiable
concentrate ..
emulsifiable
concentrate
emulsifiable
concentrate ..

wettable
powder ........
wettable
powder ......
emulsifiable
concentrate


I I
U1






I 40

S15
15


0 0

.4 W





1 pint

1 pound

1 pound
1 pint
I
S1/ pint

1 quart

2 pounds

2 pounds








1 pint

1 pint


3 pounds

1 pound

11/2 pints


0









0.15

0.125
0.15

0.125




0.50

1.00

1.00

1.00-2.00

1.20-1.60

1.05

1.00

1.00

1.00


0.30

0.25

0.28






Florida agricultural Experiment Stations


For the benefit of those who wish to follow the preventive
method of control the following program is suggested. If cut-
worms or wireworms are present control measures should be
taken before the crop is transplanted. Chlordane should be
applied several weeks before setting. To control cutworms only,
a poisoned bait containing toxaphene or paris green should be
applied several days before transplanting. Blanket spraying or
dusting for cutworms with toxaphene also is recommended. If
cutworms are found to be damaging the newly set plants, con-
trol measures with toxaphene or chlordane spray or dust must
be taken immediately. After the celery plants have become well
established and are growing vigorously (about two weeks after
transplanting), begin making applications at two-week intervals
of 1 quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion to 100 gallons of water
and apply 75 gallons per acre while the plants are small, in-
creasing to 125 gallons per acre when the plants are about two-
thirds grown. These applications of DDT emulsion will give
good control of light aphid infestations and young stages of the
various cutworms and thrips. If the aphid population increases
make one or two applications of 1 pound of 15 percent wettable
parathion to 100 gallons of water. When the celery reaches the
half-grown stage apply 3 pounds of 40-percent wettable toxa-
phene to 100 gallons of spray at two-week intervals for worm
control.
Discontinue application of all preventive insecticides not later
than four weeks before harvest, to allow weathering and growth
to reduce the amount of insecticide residue on the plants.

Compatability of Insecticides With Fungicides and Nutrients
All insecticides 'recommended in this bulletin are compatible
with fungicides commonly used on celery for disease control.
Some DDT emulsions are not physically compatible with zineb
but appear to be compatible with nabam. Most of the insecti-
cides break down in alkaline solutions and therefore should not
be included in such sprays. The organic insecticides should not
be used with lime or lime-bearing materials such as bordeaux
mixtures. Tetraethyl pyrophosphate is unstable in water and
should be applied immediately after mixing.
Only a limited amount of information is available on the com-
patibility of insecticides with nutrients. However, many
growers have mi ed manganese sulfate and zinc sulfate with
insecticides successfully. Other growers have combined nitrate








Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


of soda or nitrate of potash with several of the newer organic
insecticides with no apparent trouble. It is suggested, however,
that if a serious insect problem exists, the plant nutrient should
be left out since they may reduce slightly the effectiveness of the
insecticide in certain combinations.


Acknowledgments
In the preparation of this manuscript the authors have drawn freely
upon the information on the life history and habits of some of the insects
discussed, as given in the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
370, and Destructive and Useful Insects (Second Edition) by Metcalf and
Flint (4). Data upon which the chemical control of wireworms is based
were generously furnished by Walter H. Thames of the Everglades Experi-
ment Station. The authors are also indebted to R. W. Ruprecht, R. V.
Allison and A. N. Tissot for reading the manuscript and making numerous
helpful suggestions.
Many of the illustrations were taken from Bulletin 370, which were
originally furnished by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture. Several others were taken from
Circular S-15 and Bulletin 251 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations and from Florida Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin 67. For
other illustrations, the authors are indebted to Grant E. Averill and J. W.
Wilson.

Literature Cited
1. DRAKE, CARL J. The southern green stink bug in Florida. The Quar-
terly Bull. of the State Plant Board of Fla. IV: 2: 41-94. 1920.
2. HAYSLIP, N. C. Notes on the biological studies of mole-crickets at
Plant City, Florida. The Fla. Ent. 26: 3: 33-46. 1943.
3. KELSHEIMER, E. G. Control of mole-crickets. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Circ. S-15. 1950.
4. METCALF, C. L., and W. P. FLINT. Destructive and useful insects, their
habits and control (Second Edition). McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany. 1939.
5. QUAINTANCE, A. L. Insect enemies of truck and garden crops. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 34. 1896.
6. SCRUGGS, FRANK H. Florida State Marketing Bureau annual fruit and
vegetable report, 1949-50 season. Fla. State Marketing Bur. 1950.
7. STONE, W. E., B. L. BOYDEN, C. B. WISECUP and E. C. TATMAN. Control
of the celery leaf-tier in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 251.
1932.
8. WATSON, J. R. Florida truck and garden insects. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 134. 1917; revised 1919 (Bul. 151); revised 1931 (Bul. 232).
9. WATSON, J. R., and A. N. TISSOT. Insects and other pests of Florida
vegetables. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 370. 1942.
10. WOLFENBARGER, D. 0. The serpentine leaf miner and its control. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 639. 1947.








Insects Attacking Celery in Florida


of soda or nitrate of potash with several of the newer organic
insecticides with no apparent trouble. It is suggested, however,
that if a serious insect problem exists, the plant nutrient should
be left out since they may reduce slightly the effectiveness of the
insecticide in certain combinations.


Acknowledgments
In the preparation of this manuscript the authors have drawn freely
upon the information on the life history and habits of some of the insects
discussed, as given in the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
370, and Destructive and Useful Insects (Second Edition) by Metcalf and
Flint (4). Data upon which the chemical control of wireworms is based
were generously furnished by Walter H. Thames of the Everglades Experi-
ment Station. The authors are also indebted to R. W. Ruprecht, R. V.
Allison and A. N. Tissot for reading the manuscript and making numerous
helpful suggestions.
Many of the illustrations were taken from Bulletin 370, which were
originally furnished by the Bureau of Entomology and Plant Quarantine,
United States Department of Agriculture. Several others were taken from
Circular S-15 and Bulletin 251 of the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations and from Florida Agricultural Extension Service Bulletin 67. For
other illustrations, the authors are indebted to Grant E. Averill and J. W.
Wilson.

Literature Cited
1. DRAKE, CARL J. The southern green stink bug in Florida. The Quar-
terly Bull. of the State Plant Board of Fla. IV: 2: 41-94. 1920.
2. HAYSLIP, N. C. Notes on the biological studies of mole-crickets at
Plant City, Florida. The Fla. Ent. 26: 3: 33-46. 1943.
3. KELSHEIMER, E. G. Control of mole-crickets. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Circ. S-15. 1950.
4. METCALF, C. L., and W. P. FLINT. Destructive and useful insects, their
habits and control (Second Edition). McGraw-Hill Book Com-
pany. 1939.
5. QUAINTANCE, A. L. Insect enemies of truck and garden crops. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 34. 1896.
6. SCRUGGS, FRANK H. Florida State Marketing Bureau annual fruit and
vegetable report, 1949-50 season. Fla. State Marketing Bur. 1950.
7. STONE, W. E., B. L. BOYDEN, C. B. WISECUP and E. C. TATMAN. Control
of the celery leaf-tier in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 251.
1932.
8. WATSON, J. R. Florida truck and garden insects. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 134. 1917; revised 1919 (Bul. 151); revised 1931 (Bul. 232).
9. WATSON, J. R., and A. N. TISSOT. Insects and other pests of Florida
vegetables. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 370. 1942.
10. WOLFENBARGER, D. 0. The serpentine leaf miner and its control. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 639. 1947.




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