• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Other insects damaging crucife...
 A suggested insect control...
 Methods of applying insecticid...
 Sanitation
 Precautions
 Natural control factors
 Acknowledgement
 Reference






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 534
Title: Insects attacking cabbage and other crucifers in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026689/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insects attacking cabbage and other crucifers in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 57 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hayslip, Norman C ( Norman Calvin ), 1916-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Cabbage -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cruciferae -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 57.
Statement of Responsibility: N.C. Hayslip ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026689
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926378
oclc - 18272508
notis - AEN7049

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Major insects damaging crucifers - aphids
            Page 5
            Page 6
        Armyworms
            Page 7
            Page 8
        Cabbage looper
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Cabbage webworm
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Cutworms
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Diamondback moth
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Imported cabbageworm
            Page 20
            Page 21
        Mole-crickets
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
    Other insects damaging crucifers
        Page 26
        Corn earworm
            Page 26
        Cross-striped cabbageworm
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Cucumber beetles
            Page 28
        Flea beetles
            Page 28
        Grasshoppers
            Page 29
        Gulf-white butterfly
            Page 29
        Harlequin bug
            Page 30
        Leaf miners
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
        Salt-marsh caterpillar
            Page 34
        Southern cabbageworm
            Page 34
            Page 35
        South green stink bug
            Page 36
        Vegetable weevil
            Page 36
        Wireworms
            Page 37
            Page 38
    A suggested insect control program
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Methods of applying insecticides
        Page 41
    Sanitation
        Page 42
    Precautions
        Page 42
    Natural control factors
        Page 43
        Some insect parasites of insects affecting crucifers
            Page 43
            Wasps
                Page 43
                Page 44
                Page 45
            Flies
                Page 46
        Some insect predators of insects attacking crucifers
            Page 47
            True bugs
                Page 47
                Page 48
                Page 49
            Beetles
                Page 50
                Page 51
                Page 52
            Predaceous flies
                Page 53
            Predaceous wasps
                Page 54
        Diseases of insects affecting crucifers
            Page 55
        Birds
            Page 56
    Acknowledgement
        Page 57
    Reference
        Page 57
Full Text


December 1953


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA











Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other

Crucifers in Florida



N. C. HAYSLIP, W. G. GENUNG, E. G. KELSHEIMER and
J. W. WILSON














Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 534









BOARD OF CONTROL
Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee

EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President,
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Filield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., F'arm Superintendent

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 13
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economists
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist 3
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist3
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant 4
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
F. T. Calioway, M.S., Agr. Statistician
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist

AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 1
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer

AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate2
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant3
Y. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant3
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
I. M. Wolford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandmanis
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist a
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A, M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. a
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Physiologist

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist s
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman 3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.S
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.a
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Husb. 8
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3
J. \. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., \Asistant Editor 3

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist 1
L C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. BIratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist 1'
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. H.ilsey. M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford D. Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hart.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist18
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Aer., Poultry Husb.1
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.8

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist1 3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist 3
0. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist3
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist *
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist'
H. L. Breland, Ph.D.. Asst. Soils Chem.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist
VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian 1
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian -
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)










BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D'., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stears, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. WV. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist a
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
W. Grierson-Jakon-c, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiol.
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J.-F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. fort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
. Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
U. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.


F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Husb.

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist 2

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M: Walter, Ph.D., Plant Patholoeist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Short.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesbnrg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. in Chg.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charge
1 Head of Department
In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
On leave









CONTENTS


PAGE


INTRODUCTION ....... ... .......... .........

MAJOR INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS ..... .....

A p h ids ............. ... ........ .. ......

A rm yw orm s ............ ....- .... ..........--

Cabbage Looper .. ..... -.... ... ..... .............

Cabbage Webworm .... ..... ..- .....

Cutw orm s ................ -.. .. ............... .

Diam ondback M oth ..... .. ............... .......

Imported Cabbageworm .....- ... .....

M ole-crickets .............. ........- .......... .. .. ..

OTHER INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS ......... .......

Corn Earworm ...- ...- .. ... ..

Cross-striped Cabbageworm ................

Cucum ber Beetles .......... --.. ...... .. ...........--......

F lea Beetles ........ -.. ... ............... .

Grasshoppers .. .. .. ..... ... ...

Gulf W hite Butterfly .. ................. ............ .- ..-- .

H arlequin Bug ............. --.... ....... .... .

L eaf M iners ........... ......... ..... .... .. ........

Salt-marsh Caterpillar ..............

Southern Cabbageworm .................. ...... .....

Southern Green Stink Bug ....... .........

Vegetable W eevil .............. .......

W ireworms .-............. ...----- -.. -

A SUGGESTED INSECT CONTROL PROGRAM .. ............

METHODS OF APPLYING INSECTICIDES ... ..............

SANITATION ........... -- --.. ----.... ........- ..

PRECAUTIONS ......... .... ... .............. .....

NATURAL CONTROL FACTORS ....................................... ..

Some Insect Parasites of Insects Affecting Crucifers .

W asps .............. ----.. ...... ...... --

F lies .. ............. .. .... .... .... .. ...... .....

Some Insect Predators of Insects Affecting Crucifers

True Bugs ...... .......... .- .... .... .-

B eetles .... ..- ... -. ..--... ..........

Predacious Flies ............. .. .... ..........

Predacious W asps ...................................... ... ..

Diseases of Insects Affecting Crucifers ................--

B irds ... .......-....--- -.. ...- ...... ..


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

REFERENCES ..........


.-..-.- ...... ... ....- 5

-..-.-.-.. -- -... ..... 7
.- .... ....-.. ... 9

.. ............. 12

S-.- .... ... ... 14

..................... 18

-.- .....- ........ 20

..- ................. 22

... -- .... .... 26

....- .......... ...... 26

...-....-............ 26

........................ 28

.. .. .....---...- 28

..-.. ... .............. 29

................ ..... 29

...... .............. 30

....................... 31

......--...............-- 34

.................... 34

.-. ... ......-- ... 36

...... ........ 36

..................... 37

-..-..................... 39

. .- ............ 41

.. ....... ........ 42

-. .........---.. 42

.. .............- 43

..- ... ............. 43

.- ............... 43

....-............... 46

...................... 47

.. ............... 47

-. ... ........ 50

.................... 53

....- ............. 54

-...-................ 55

..- ........ ......... 56

... .................. 57

.... .............-... 57


II








Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other

Crucifers in Florida

N. C. HAYSLIP, W. G. GENUNG, E. G. KELSHEIMER and
J. W. WILSON

INTRODUCTION
Cabbage is one of Florida's major vegetable crops. It is grown
in many sections of the State for shipment to Northern markets.
In addition to its value as a commercial crop, cabbage is planted
extensively in home gardens. In the 1951-52 season, 15,500 acres
of cabbage yielded 164,300 tons, at a total marketed value of
$9,644,000. Leading counties in commercial production were
Palm Beach, St. Johns, Seminole, Putnam, Flagler and Glades,
in the order named. Cauliflower, broccoli and other crucifers
are grown commercially and in the home garden to a limited
extent. Insects attacking cabbage also attack these crops, and
the control recommendations are the same in most instances.
A large number of insect species attack cabbage and other
crucifers in Florida. Many of these pests occur in such large
numbers that the entire crop may be destroyed if control meas-
ures are not used. Great strides have been made in the chemi-
cal control of insects in recent years, and the cabbage producer
can usually place his crop on the market completely free of
insects and insect damage by using the correct chemicals at the
proper time and in the proper manner.
The purpose of this bulletin is to acquaint growers with the
description, habits and control of the insects most commonly
found on cabbage and other crucifers. Used as a reference, it
should aid in the proper identification of the insects and the
selection of effective control measures.

MAJOR INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS
APHIDS
Description.-Aphids are soft-bodied insects with four trans-
parent, delicate wings, or without wings. They average about
the size of a pin head (Fig. 1), and have piercing-sucking mouth-
parts with which they draw sap from plants. There are many
species of aphids; however the principal ones attacking crucifers
are the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.), the cabbage
aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and the turnip aphid, Rho-








Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other

Crucifers in Florida

N. C. HAYSLIP, W. G. GENUNG, E. G. KELSHEIMER and
J. W. WILSON

INTRODUCTION
Cabbage is one of Florida's major vegetable crops. It is grown
in many sections of the State for shipment to Northern markets.
In addition to its value as a commercial crop, cabbage is planted
extensively in home gardens. In the 1951-52 season, 15,500 acres
of cabbage yielded 164,300 tons, at a total marketed value of
$9,644,000. Leading counties in commercial production were
Palm Beach, St. Johns, Seminole, Putnam, Flagler and Glades,
in the order named. Cauliflower, broccoli and other crucifers
are grown commercially and in the home garden to a limited
extent. Insects attacking cabbage also attack these crops, and
the control recommendations are the same in most instances.
A large number of insect species attack cabbage and other
crucifers in Florida. Many of these pests occur in such large
numbers that the entire crop may be destroyed if control meas-
ures are not used. Great strides have been made in the chemi-
cal control of insects in recent years, and the cabbage producer
can usually place his crop on the market completely free of
insects and insect damage by using the correct chemicals at the
proper time and in the proper manner.
The purpose of this bulletin is to acquaint growers with the
description, habits and control of the insects most commonly
found on cabbage and other crucifers. Used as a reference, it
should aid in the proper identification of the insects and the
selection of effective control measures.

MAJOR INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS
APHIDS
Description.-Aphids are soft-bodied insects with four trans-
parent, delicate wings, or without wings. They average about
the size of a pin head (Fig. 1), and have piercing-sucking mouth-
parts with which they draw sap from plants. There are many
species of aphids; however the principal ones attacking crucifers
are the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulz.), the cabbage
aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) and the turnip aphid, Rho-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


palosiphum pseudobrassicae (Davis). The green peach aphid
and the cabbage aphid are most common on cabbage. The green
peach aphid is pale yellowish-green in color. The turnip and
cabbage aphids are similar to each other, being grayish
green in color and often covered with a whitish waxy coating.


4 0


0 I-V
e'w3 r


Fig. 1.-Section of a cabbage leaf showing a mixed colony of cabbage and
turnip aphids. (About natural size.)

Nature of Damage.-The green peach aphid attacks cabbage
primarily before the crop begins to head, while the cabbage
aphid may appear during any stage of growth. These insects
multiply very rapidly and are often found in large masses on
the cabbage plants. They injure the plant by sucking juices
from it, causing a yellowing and curling of the leaves and stunt-
ing and death of the plant. Young seedlings are often severely
damaged or killed outright. The distortion of the leaves (Fig. 2)
provides protection for the aphids against insecticide applica-
tions. The larger, heading plants give protection from spray
and dust inside the cupped leaves and beneath leaves lying on
the soil. Mature cabbage infested with aphids has no, or a
greatly reduced, market value.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


Control.-To be assured of effective aphid control, the insects
must be detected soon after they migrate into the planting, and
control measures applied promptly. The Suggested Insect Con-
trol Program (page 39) should keep the crop free of aphids.
If this program is not used a careful and frequent inspection
of the plants for aphids is recommended.
When aphids are found, treat with TEPP or parathion. One-
half pint of 40-percent TEPP, or 1 to 2 pounds of 15-percent
parathion per 100 gallons of spray, or 1 percent TEPP or 1 to
2 percent parathion dust are recommended. Since aphids move
around very little and are killed primarily by direct contact
with the insecticide, a thorough coverage is necessary. Experi-
ments in the Sanford area indicate that dusts are more effective
than sprays for controlling the cabbage aphid. The green peach
aphid, being more easily controlled, is killed equally well with
sprays or dusts.



L-V











Fig. 2.-Left, normal cabbage plant; right, plants stunted by aphids.
ARMYWORMS
Description.-The fall armyworm, Laphygma frugiperda (A.
and S.), is the most common armyworm attacking cabbage in
Florida. The adult is a moth with about 11/-inch wing spread
(Fig. 3). The hind wings are grayish white and the front pair
dark gray, mottled with lighter and darker splotches and having
a noticeable whitish spot near the extreme tip. These moths are
active at night and not generally noticed during the day. Each
female deposits about 1,000 eggs in masses of 50 or more on the
leaves. The eggs are covered with hairs or scales from the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


moth's body. The worms grow to a length of about 11/ inches
(Fig. 4).


'p


Fig. 3.-Upper left,
armyworm; lower left,
cotton cutworm. Adult


yellow striped armyworm; upper right, Southern
dark phase fall armyworm; lower right, larger
moths, slightly enlarged.


Fig. 4.-Larvae of the fall armyworm. (About 1%a times natural size.)


r.


ahwnm






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


The full-grown larvae vary greatly in color, ranging from
light brown or green to almost black. They have three yel-
lowish-white hair lines down the back from head to tail. On
each side is a dark stripe followed below by a wavy yellow one
splotched with red. The fall armyworm can be distinguished
from the true armyworm by the more prominent white inverted
Y on the front of the head, and by the more prominent black
spots from which the fine, scattered hairs of the body arise. The
mature larvae dig into the soil to transform into pupae from
which the adult moths emerge in about two weeks.
Nature of Damage.-The moths may lay eggs on the culti-
vated crop, or the worms may migrate into the plantings from
adjoining fields. In either case these insects are capable of
severe damage by devouring leaves, stems and buds of the plants.
Serious losses are caused by the worms moving in from ad-
joining fields, since they are sometimes overlooked until heavy
damage is done. Migrating worms have been known to destroy
entire crops over a weekend.
Control.-Grass and weed areas adjoining cabbage plantings
should be destroyed, since armyworms often build up in these
areas and may migrate into the planting. If worms are found
in these border areas they may be treated with DDT or toxa-
phene. Two pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT, 1 quart of 25
percent DDT emulsion, or 2.5 pounds of 40 percent wettable
toxaphene may be used in 100 gallons of water and applied to
each acre of cabbage to control armyworms. About 35 pounds
per acre of 5 percent DDT or 10 percent toxaphene dust may
be used if dusting is preferred.

CABBAGE LOOPER
Description.-The larval stage of the cabbage looper, Tricho-
plusia ni (Hbn.), is easily detected in cabbage plantings. These
larvae hatch from small round greenish-white eggs which are
deposited by the adult moth singly on the upper surface of the
leaves. Newly-hatched larvae are small, greenish and slender,
but they grow rapidly until they attain a length of about 11/4
inches. The worms can then be identified by their shape and
color (Figs. 5 and 6). They are pale green in color with a
narrow white stripe along each side of the body, and two others
along the middle line of the back. The body tapers toward the
head, and has three pairs of slender legs near the head and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


three pairs of thick prolegs near the rear end. They derive
their name from the looping method of movement.
Two to four weeks after hatching the worms spin cocoons
where they transform into the pupal stage and remain for about
two weeks before emerging as adult moths. The greenish to
brownish pupae, inside the thin cocoons of white tangled threads,
are about 3/4 inch long. The cocoons are attached to leaves.
Adult moths are grayish-brown in color, about 1 inch long,
with a wingspread of nearly 11/3 inches (Fig. 6). The mottled
brownish front wings each have a small silvery spot near the


Fig. 5.-Leaf damage caused by cabbage looper. Note worm on lower
right corner and in the insert. (Insert is about natural size.) An adult
is shown in Fig. 6.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


i7

A


Fig. 6.-Adults and larvae of cabbage caterpillars. A, imported cab-
bage worm; B, cabbage looper; C, diamondback moth; D, corn earworm.
(Drawings courtesy USDA.)


A.


//






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


middle, similar to the figure "8". The moths are active only at
night.
Nature of Damage.-Feeding of the very young larvae can
be detected by the presence of small holes in the leaves. Fre-
quently these holes do not completely penetrate the leaf. In a
short time the worms are large enough to make rather large
irregular holes in the leaves (Fig. 5). They then work toward
the more tender leaves in the center of the plant, frequently bor-
ing into the developing head. The feeding damage and the
excrement left make infested heads of cabbage unmarketable.
When damage is limited to the wrapper leaves, the market value


of such cabbage is reduced.
Control.-Cabbage loopers are
solution (1 quart of 25 percent


easily controlled with DDT
emulsion per 100 gallons of
water) or 5 percent DDT
dust applied at the rate
of 25 to 35 pounds per
acre. Treatments should
be made before the
worms penetrate into the
cupping leaves and form-
ing heads where they are
more difficult to control.
An application of DDT
made as the heads begin
to form should give ade-
quate protection from
loopers until the crop is
harvested, and result in
very little DDT residue
on the harvested crop.


S CABBAGE WEBWORM
Description. The
adult cabbage webworm,
Fig. 7.-Adult cabbage webworm moths. Hellula undalis (F.), is
(About three times natural size.) He a una .),
a gray moth with the
forewings mottled with black, white, and brownish yellow (Fig.
7). The wing expanse is about 5/8 inch. From the eggs, gen-
erally deposited in the buds of cabbage, hatch young cater-
pillars which feed on the under side of leaves. When full grown
the caterpillars measure about % inch in length, are dull yel-






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


lowish-gray in color, and are striped with five broad brownish-
purple longitudinal bands (Fig. 8). They cover themselves with
webs upon which excrement and dirt collect (Fig. 9). The
larvae transform into pupae which are about 1/4 inch long. The
pupae are found in the buds, on the sides of the stems, or just
beneath the soil surface.
Nature of Damage.-This insect is a pest in seedbeds and
fields. Small caterpillars eat off the epidermis on the under-
side of the leaves in small irregular patches. Larger larvae
often burrow into the stems, leaves and buds. Major damage
results from the insect's attack upon the buds of the plants,
stopping their growth or killing them. Where buds are killed,
cabbage often produces worthless "suckers" around the stem.
Control.-A spray containing one quart of 25 percent DDT
emulsion or 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT per 100 gallons
of water may be used for this insect. A 5 percent DDT dust
may be used at the rate of 25 to 35 pounds per acre. Sprays
and dusts should be applied in such a manner as to give thorough
coverage in the buds of the plants.


Fig 8.-Cabbage webworms feeding upon young cabbage plant. Note injury
concentrated around bud. (About twice natural size.)






14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

CUTWORMS
Description.-A number of cutworm species are common in
Florida. However, the black cutworm, Agrotis ypsilon (Rott.),
and the granulate cutworm, Feltia subterranean (F.) (Fig. 10),
are among the more important ones attacking cabbage in Flor-

Fig. 9.-Cabbage webworm damage to cabbage. Note webbing
scattered over bud.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


ida. The black cutworm attacks a wide range of cultivated and
wild plants, and is one of the most destructive of all cutworms.
This species prefers moist soils in which the worms may be
found fully extended a few inches below the soil surface near
damaged plants.





















Fig. 10.-Top row, adult black cutworm moths; bottom row, adult granulate
cutworm moths. (About natural size.)

The body is of uniform width, and loose-jointed in appearance.
The color varies from a dark to a pale gray. Mature larvae are
11/4 to 13/4 inches in length and have coarse, shiny skin granules
and black spiracles. The brown pupae are found in the soil.
They are /8 to 7/8 inch long and about 7/16 inch broad.
The adult moth has dark forewings and white hind-wings
with dark margins (Fig. 10). The wing expanse is about 11/2 to
2 inches. The white, circular eggs are deposited on leaves and
stems near the ground in groups of 1 to 30. The eggs hatch in
5 to 15 days, the larval stage requires three to four weeks and
the pupal stage from 12 to 36 days. Development is more rapid
in warm weather than during cold periods. Their life cycle may
be completed in as little as 6 or 7 weeks during periods when
high temperatures prevail.
The granulate cutworm, while differing in some respects from
the black cutworm, has a similar life cycle and will not be dis-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cussed in detail. The larvae have a rough granulate skin and a
dusty appearance (Fig. 11). They burrow very shallowly in the
soil, often with the back exposed.
Nature of Damage.-Cutworm larvae and adults are active at
night. The larvae rest in the soil, and the adults rest in pro-
tected places among the plants during the day. When large
numbers of cutworms occur in areas of limited plant food they
assume armyworm migrating habits and feed both night and
day.
In many instances cutworms are present in the soil when the
crop is planted, and they immediately begin feeding upon newly-
transplanted cabbage or
young germinating seed-
lings. Where weeds and
grasses are plowed under it
is likely that cutworms are
present. After the soil is
plowed these worms are left
with no food except the
transplanted cabbage plants,
which they readily attack.
Cutworm larvae some-
times migrate into cultivated
fields from adjoining areas.
However, migration into cul-
tivated fields is primarily by
the adult moth, which de-
posits eggs on the leaves and
Fig. 11.-Common cutworms-the stems near the ground. These
larger cotton cutworm, left, and the eggs hatch into tiny larvae
granulate, right. (About l1/ times nat- w b f
ural size.) which begin feeding upon
the plants. Small plants are
often cut in two near the soil surface and left lying there. The
leaves are also eaten, especially where they come in contact with
the soil. Large leaves touching the soil may be found to have
irregular holes eaten in them (Fig. 12). Heading cabbage is
eaten into and the cutworms sometimes remain in these heads
during the day (Fig. 13). If the soil around freshly-damaged
plants is examined, the worms can be found beneath the soil
surface. Losses result principally from reduced stands and
sometimes from damaged leaves and heads.







Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


'ig. 12.-Cutworm damage to ca


iage leaves which were next to ground.


Fig. 13.-Cutworm inside heading cabbage, which has been opened to
show the worm.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Control.-Plowing under weeds and grasses at least one month
before planting aids in reducing the number of cutworms in the
soil. If cutworms are present, control measures should be taken
several days before seeding or transplanting the crop in the field.
A broadcast application of 20 to 30 pounds per acre of wheat
bran containing 2.5 percent toxaphene will give good control.
Dust or spray applications of toxaphene are also effective.
Twenty-five to thirty-five pounds per acre of 10 percent toxa-
phene dust, or 4 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene per
100 gallons of water, with 100 gallons per acre applied, is sug-
gested. Apply bait in late afternoon. Dust when the air is
calm, preferably late afternoons or early evenings.
If the insecticides are not applied before planting, the entire
field should be examined daily for signs of cutworm damage to
new transplants or young seedlings. If damage is found, spray
at once with 2.5 pounds of 40 percent toxaphene, or equivalent,
per acre in 100 gallons of water, 3 nozzles per row. A freshly-
mixed toxaphene-wheat bran bait may be used if preferred.
It is sometimes advisable to both spray and apply poisoned bait
where serious infestations are present.

DIAMONDBACK MOTH
Description.-The diamondback moth, Plutella maculipennis
(Curt.), is a small grayish moth about %1/ inch long with folded
wings (Fig. 6). In the male these wings form a row of three
diamond-shaped yellow spots where they meet down the middle
of the back. The hind wings have a fringe of long hairs. The
tiny yellowish-white eggs are glued to the leaves singly or in
groups of two or three eggs. The eggs hatch in a few days,
and the small greenish larvae begin feeding on the underside of
the leaves.
The larval stage ranges from 10 days during warm weather
to a month during cold periods. Full-grown larvae rarely exceed
/3 inch in length, and are pale yellowish-green in color. They
have fine erect black hairs over the body and are extremely
active when disturbed, wriggling around or dropping on a
silken thread. The pupal stage is spent in a loosely woven
cocoon in which the pupae can easily be seen (Fig. 14). They
are usually attached to the underside of the leaves. The moths
emerge from these cocoons in one to two weeks.
Nature of Damage.-The worms eat many small holes in the
cabbage leaf, giving it a shot-hole appearance. Most feeding






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


occurs on the undersides of the leaves, and in many cases the
feeding areas do not extend through the entire leaf, the insects
leaving the thin upper epidermis intact (Fig. 14). While an
individual larva does not consume much food, in Florida they
build up in such large numbers that they cause serious damage
to the crop.


Fig. 14.-Cabbage leaf damaged by larvae of diamondback moth. Larva
(left) and pupa (right) are shown in the inserts, about natural size. Adult
stage is shown in Fig. 6.

Control.-This insect is readily controlled with DDT. Twenty
to thirty pounds per acre of 3 to 5 percent DDT dust; 1 quart






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of 25 percent DDT emulsion or 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable
DDT per 100 gallons of water per acre is suggested for control.
Applications every 10 days to two weeks will usually hold these
insects in check.

IMPORTED CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The adult imported cabbageworm, Pieris rapae
(L.), is an attractive white butterfly with two or three black
spots on the wings. The butterfly has a wing expanse of about
13/% inches, and the tips of the front wings are grayish in color
(Figs. 6 and 15). The ovipositing female glues the individual
egg to the under sides of the leaves, depositing several hundred
eggs scattered about the field. The eggs are small, shaped like
a short, thick bullet, deep yellow in color, and have ridges
running both lengthwise and crosswise.

















Fig. 15.-Imported cabbageworm adults (above), larva (lower left) and
chrysalis (lower right). Slightly enlarged. See also Fig. 6.

The eggs hatch in about one week, producing small greenish
caterpillars which reach a length of about 1 inch in approxi-
mately two weeks. These caterpillars are velvety green, with
an orange stripe down the middle of the back and another broken
stripe along each side of the body. They have three pairs of
slender legs and five pairs of fleshy prolegs. The full-grown
larvae fasten their tails with silk to some support; spin silken
girdles about the middle of their bodies and change to the pupal






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers 21

stage (Fig. 15). After one to two weeks the adults emerge
from the pupae.


"'r Af.C .r













t
'Dr


Fig. 16.-Cabbage plant damaged by imported cabbageworm.


N-000






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Nature of Damage.-The young caterpillars feed on the under
surface of the leaves, later eating large irregular holes in the
leaves and the outer layers of the cabbage heads. They leave
greenish to brown pellets (excrement) scattered about in the
plants (Fig. 16).
Control.-One quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion or 2 pounds
of 50 percent wettable DDT per 100 gallons applied at the rate of
75 to 150 gallons per acre, or 20 to 35 pounds per acre of 5
percent DDT dust has been suggested for control. There is
some evidence that this insect may have resistance to DDT and
preliminary tests indicate that better results may be obtained
with 1.5 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene plus 0.5 pound
of 15 percent wettable parathion in 100 gallons of water. Treat-
ments should be made while the plants are small, since the in-
sects are more difficult to reach in larger plants.

MOLE-CRICKETS
Description.-Four species of mole-crickets have been found
in Florida: the Southern mole-cricket, Scapteriscus acletus R. &
H.; the change, S. vicinus Scudd.; the short-winged mole cricket,
S. abbreviatus Scudd.; and the Northern mole-cricket, Gryllo-
talpa hexadactyla Perty. The Southern and change mole-crick-
ets are found in many parts of the state in sandy soils (Figs. 17
and 18). The short-winged species occurs most frequently in
the Fort Myers area and along the Lower East Coast. The
Northern mole-cricket is usually found in the organic soils of
Florida.
Mole-crickets spend their entire life cycle primarily in the
soil; however, the adults and nymphs will come to the soil
surface, and the adults often fly and are attracted to lights.
Mole-crickets are nocturnal in habit; that is, they are active at
night or on very cloudy days, remaining quiet in their lateral
tunnels during the day.
The adult mole-crickets average about 11/4 inches in length
and about 8/8 inch in width. Their bodies are well adapted for
burrowing, the strong shovel-like forelegs serving to dig the
tunnel and the greatly enlarged prothorax serving to shape and
firm the soil. The fore-wings overlap and are rounded on the
ends. The color pattern of mole-crickets varies with the species
involved. The Southern mole-cricket is brownish-gray with
white and greenish markings, while the change is reddish to
creamy brown with darkened areas. The short-winged mole-







Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


Fig. 17.-Widespread and destructive mole-crickets (slightly enlarged).
Changa, left, and Southern, right. (Photograph by D. G. A. Kelbert.)


Fig. 18.-Newly hatched mole-cricket nymphs (greatly enlarged.)
change, and right, the Southern mole-cricket.


Left,


I.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cricket is identified by the fore-wings, and has a general dark
and light mottled appearance. The Northern mole-cricket is
much darker than the other species, being a reddish-brown, with
longer abdomen and cerci.
Mole-crickets deposit eggs in peanut-shaped cells in the soil
in groups of 10 to 70. Each female makes several egg cells
over a period of one to three months. The eggs are found from
about one inch to one foot beneath the soil surface, depending
upon the moisture, temperature and soil type. The oval eggs
are gray or brownish when first deposited and are about 1/8 to
1/16 inch in diameter (Fig. 19). As the nymphs develop inside
the eggs the color changes to a milky white or light brown. The
eggs lie free in the cells.



















Fig. 19.-Mole-cricket eggs taken from egg cell in soil and placed on white
sand for photograph.

Nature of Damage.-Mole-crickets cause damage to plants by
uprooting the young seedlings and drying out the upper soil
surface. These insects also feed upon the plants, often chew-
ing off the stems at the soil surface and pulling the plants down
into their burrows. Mole-crickets are especially destructive to
seedbeds and fields which are seeded. Newly-transplanted cru-
cifers are often damaged as a result of mole-crickets burrowing
around them, causing the soil and roots to dry out. When
transplants are watered the moisture attracts the mole-crickets







Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


around the plants. Mole-crickets are also attracted into the fer-
tilizer bands which are placed near cabbage plants. Most dam-
age from these insects can be expected during warm, moist
weather. During cold weather they lie inactive in their deeper
burrows, and in dry soil they seldom burrow at the surface.
Field Control.-Chlordane is highly effective in controlling
mole-crickets, and may be used in baits, dusts or sprays. Treat-
ments should be made several days before seeding or trans-
planting.
Baits.-Five pounds of 40 percent chlordane mixed with 100
pounds of wheat bran and moistened slightly with water or
diluted molasses should be broadcast at the rate of 25 to 50
pounds per acre just prior to sundown. The bait should be used
the same day it is mixed for best results. Prepared baits can
be purchased from various agricultural supply houses. Since
no water is used in these commercial mixtures they can prob-
ably be stored for some time before using. Mixtures which
contain at least 25 percent wheat bran are suggested. Baits
should be applied when the soil is warm and moist. Do not
apply poisoned baits if a rain is expected within 36 hours. Baits
can be broadcast by hand or from an airplane.
Spray.-Chlordane may be applied in a spray, using a power
sprayer. The nozzles should be arranged to give a complete,
even coverage of the entire soil surface. For field control 2.5 to
5 pounds of 40 percent wettable chlordane mixed in 100 gallons
of water and applied to one acre of warm moist soil will often
give satisfactory results. However, where heavy infestations
occur and a rapid kill is desired, the dosage should be doubled
(5 to 10 pounds per 100 gallons of water applied to one acre).
Dust.-Twenty-five to 50 pounds per acre of 5 percent chlor-
dane dust may be used if the soil is warm and moist. For heavy
populations where a more rapid kill is desired, a 10 percent dust
applied at the same rate should be used. Make applications in
the late afternoon when the air is calm.
Seedbed Control.-For seedbeds, a heavier application of chlor-
dane is recommended. It may be applied as a concentrated
spray, a dust, or as a seedbed drench, the latter being more
effective. Treatments should be made several days before seed-
ing. If a concentrated spray is desired, use 12.5 pounds of 40
percent wettable chlordane per 100 gallons and apply to one
acre of moist warm soil. If the soil is dry and this treatment







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is used, the plot should be over-head irrigated after applying
the chlordane. One hundred pounds per acre of 5 percent chlor-
dane dust may be used in place of the concentrated spray. The
seedbed drench is the most reliable method for mole-cricket con-
trol, but the application is slow and requires considerable labor.
For this method of treatment use 1/4 pint of 48 percent chlordane
emulsion or 5 ounces of 40 percent wettable per 100 gallons of
water. Apply with a sprinkling can to 1,000 square feet of seed-
bed. The seedbed drench is especially recommended for dry
soils.
OTHER INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS
CORN EARWORM
Description.-The corn earworm, Heliothis armigera (Hbn.)
sometimes attacks cabbage. The adult moth has a wing expanse
of about 11/2 inches (see Fig. 6). The front wings are light
grayish-brown with irregular darker gray lines and a dark area
near the wing tips. The hind wings are white with some dark
areas. The moths are active during cloudy days and at dusk.
They deposit their eggs singly during warm evenings. Each
moth will lay from 500 to 3,000 eggs.
The eggs are yellowish, ridged, and hemispherical in shape
and will hatch in from 2 to 10 days. The worms feed upon the
leaves until they are nearly 2 inches long. These larvae vary
greatly in their color pattern, some specimens being highly
colored. They may range from light green or pink to brown or
nearly black. They are marked from head to tail with light
and dark stripes, the head being yellow and the legs are dark.
After two to four weeks the worms go into the soil to pupate.
In another 10 to 25 days the moths emerge.
Nature of Damage.-The larvae feed upon the leaves and
smaller stems of the plants, leaving irregular holes or cut mar-
gins on the leaves.
Control.-Two pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT per acre in
100 gallons of water, or 25 to 35 pounds of 5 percent DDT dust
per acre, will control this insect.

CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The adult cross-striped cabbageworm, Ever-
gestis rimosalis (Guen.), is a pale yellow moth with a brown-
ish-black pattern on the forewings and partially transparent







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is used, the plot should be over-head irrigated after applying
the chlordane. One hundred pounds per acre of 5 percent chlor-
dane dust may be used in place of the concentrated spray. The
seedbed drench is the most reliable method for mole-cricket con-
trol, but the application is slow and requires considerable labor.
For this method of treatment use 1/4 pint of 48 percent chlordane
emulsion or 5 ounces of 40 percent wettable per 100 gallons of
water. Apply with a sprinkling can to 1,000 square feet of seed-
bed. The seedbed drench is especially recommended for dry
soils.
OTHER INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS
CORN EARWORM
Description.-The corn earworm, Heliothis armigera (Hbn.)
sometimes attacks cabbage. The adult moth has a wing expanse
of about 11/2 inches (see Fig. 6). The front wings are light
grayish-brown with irregular darker gray lines and a dark area
near the wing tips. The hind wings are white with some dark
areas. The moths are active during cloudy days and at dusk.
They deposit their eggs singly during warm evenings. Each
moth will lay from 500 to 3,000 eggs.
The eggs are yellowish, ridged, and hemispherical in shape
and will hatch in from 2 to 10 days. The worms feed upon the
leaves until they are nearly 2 inches long. These larvae vary
greatly in their color pattern, some specimens being highly
colored. They may range from light green or pink to brown or
nearly black. They are marked from head to tail with light
and dark stripes, the head being yellow and the legs are dark.
After two to four weeks the worms go into the soil to pupate.
In another 10 to 25 days the moths emerge.
Nature of Damage.-The larvae feed upon the leaves and
smaller stems of the plants, leaving irregular holes or cut mar-
gins on the leaves.
Control.-Two pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT per acre in
100 gallons of water, or 25 to 35 pounds of 5 percent DDT dust
per acre, will control this insect.

CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The adult cross-striped cabbageworm, Ever-
gestis rimosalis (Guen.), is a pale yellow moth with a brown-
ish-black pattern on the forewings and partially transparent







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is used, the plot should be over-head irrigated after applying
the chlordane. One hundred pounds per acre of 5 percent chlor-
dane dust may be used in place of the concentrated spray. The
seedbed drench is the most reliable method for mole-cricket con-
trol, but the application is slow and requires considerable labor.
For this method of treatment use 1/4 pint of 48 percent chlordane
emulsion or 5 ounces of 40 percent wettable per 100 gallons of
water. Apply with a sprinkling can to 1,000 square feet of seed-
bed. The seedbed drench is especially recommended for dry
soils.
OTHER INSECTS DAMAGING CRUCIFERS
CORN EARWORM
Description.-The corn earworm, Heliothis armigera (Hbn.)
sometimes attacks cabbage. The adult moth has a wing expanse
of about 11/2 inches (see Fig. 6). The front wings are light
grayish-brown with irregular darker gray lines and a dark area
near the wing tips. The hind wings are white with some dark
areas. The moths are active during cloudy days and at dusk.
They deposit their eggs singly during warm evenings. Each
moth will lay from 500 to 3,000 eggs.
The eggs are yellowish, ridged, and hemispherical in shape
and will hatch in from 2 to 10 days. The worms feed upon the
leaves until they are nearly 2 inches long. These larvae vary
greatly in their color pattern, some specimens being highly
colored. They may range from light green or pink to brown or
nearly black. They are marked from head to tail with light
and dark stripes, the head being yellow and the legs are dark.
After two to four weeks the worms go into the soil to pupate.
In another 10 to 25 days the moths emerge.
Nature of Damage.-The larvae feed upon the leaves and
smaller stems of the plants, leaving irregular holes or cut mar-
gins on the leaves.
Control.-Two pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT per acre in
100 gallons of water, or 25 to 35 pounds of 5 percent DDT dust
per acre, will control this insect.

CROSS-STRIPED CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The adult cross-striped cabbageworm, Ever-
gestis rimosalis (Guen.), is a pale yellow moth with a brown-
ish-black pattern on the forewings and partially transparent






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


hind-wings. The wing expanse is about 1 inch, and the body
length is less than 1/ inch. The scale-like, light yellow eggs are
laid in masses, usually on the under side of the leaf in groups
of 10 to 20 eggs.
Newly hatched larvae are gray with small black tubercles and
large round heads. Mature larvae are bluish-gray and have
three or more distinct transverse black stripes for each segment
above, and are somewhat green and yellow mottled on the lower
or ventral surface. Long black hairs are present, each grow-
ing out of the prominent black tubercles. The mature larva is
about two-thirds of an inch long and is rather slender. The pupa
is less than one-half inch long and is found near the soil surface
inside an earthen cocoon.
Nature of Damage.-The larvae feed on the leaves, buds and
into the heads of cabbage (Fig. 20). The worms are most active
on the lower surfaces of the leaves and in the tender buds. At
times they will completely kill the plant.
Control.-While no recent experimental work with the newer
insecticides has been conducted in Florida, DDT seems to be
effective against this pest. Two pounds of 50 percent wettable
powder per 100 gallons of water, or 35 pounds per acre of 5 per-
cent DDT dust, is suggested for control.

Fig. 20.-Cross-striped cabbageworm feeding on cabbage. Note worms
at end of arrow.

'^ .^ -'t ^'^ W SWFm
^i^ ^BS







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CUCUMBER BEETLES
Description.-The most important of the cucumber beetles
attacking cabbage is the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica
balteata Lec. This beetle is yellowish-green with three bright
green stripes or bands running across the wing covers, and
averages slightly less than 1/ inch in length. Eggs are de-
posited in the ground around the roots of the plants. After
pupation in the soil the adults emerge and begin feeding upon
the plants.
Nature of Damage.-The young larvae bore into the roots and
underground parts of the stems. Adult cucumber beetles cause
the most damage by feeding upon the leaves of young plants.
Older plants and heading broccoli may also be damaged by these
insects.
Control.-Toxaphene or chlordane applied at the rate of 2.5
pounds of 40 percent wettable or equivalent per acre in 100
gallons of water is suggested for spraying. Five percent chlor-
dane or 5 to 10 percent toxaphene dust is also effective when
applied at the rate of 25 to 35 pounds per acre.

FLEA BEETLES
Description.-A group of small, hard beetles which have en-
larged hind legs and which jump similar to fleas when disturbed
are called "flea beetles." The adults range in length from about
1/16 to 1/ inch, depending upon the species involved. Most
cabbage-feeding forms of flea bettles are quite small, none meas-
uring more than 1/8 inch in length.
Eggs of flea beetles are so small that they are never seen by
the grower. These eggs are often deposited in tiny cavities
gnawed in the stem of the plant, or laid singly on the leaves.
The larvae are mostly whitish, slender, round worms 1/8 to 1/3
inch long when full grown. They have tiny legs and brownish
heads, and feed upon roots and underground stems. The larvae
usually pupate in the soil.
Nature of Damage.-Flea beetles eat small rounded or irregu-
lar holes in the leaves, giving the appearance of shot-holes.
Small plants usually are attacked most severely, and it is these
seedlings or newly-transplanted crops which should be watched.
If the small shot-holes are found the adult flea beetles may be
seen on the leaves, provided they are approached with care to
prevent disturbing them.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


CUCUMBER BEETLES
Description.-The most important of the cucumber beetles
attacking cabbage is the banded cucumber beetle, Diabrotica
balteata Lec. This beetle is yellowish-green with three bright
green stripes or bands running across the wing covers, and
averages slightly less than 1/ inch in length. Eggs are de-
posited in the ground around the roots of the plants. After
pupation in the soil the adults emerge and begin feeding upon
the plants.
Nature of Damage.-The young larvae bore into the roots and
underground parts of the stems. Adult cucumber beetles cause
the most damage by feeding upon the leaves of young plants.
Older plants and heading broccoli may also be damaged by these
insects.
Control.-Toxaphene or chlordane applied at the rate of 2.5
pounds of 40 percent wettable or equivalent per acre in 100
gallons of water is suggested for spraying. Five percent chlor-
dane or 5 to 10 percent toxaphene dust is also effective when
applied at the rate of 25 to 35 pounds per acre.

FLEA BEETLES
Description.-A group of small, hard beetles which have en-
larged hind legs and which jump similar to fleas when disturbed
are called "flea beetles." The adults range in length from about
1/16 to 1/ inch, depending upon the species involved. Most
cabbage-feeding forms of flea bettles are quite small, none meas-
uring more than 1/8 inch in length.
Eggs of flea beetles are so small that they are never seen by
the grower. These eggs are often deposited in tiny cavities
gnawed in the stem of the plant, or laid singly on the leaves.
The larvae are mostly whitish, slender, round worms 1/8 to 1/3
inch long when full grown. They have tiny legs and brownish
heads, and feed upon roots and underground stems. The larvae
usually pupate in the soil.
Nature of Damage.-Flea beetles eat small rounded or irregu-
lar holes in the leaves, giving the appearance of shot-holes.
Small plants usually are attacked most severely, and it is these
seedlings or newly-transplanted crops which should be watched.
If the small shot-holes are found the adult flea beetles may be
seen on the leaves, provided they are approached with care to
prevent disturbing them.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


Control.-Twenty to 30 pounds per acre of 3 to 5 percent DDT
dust, or 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT, or 1 quart of 25
percent DDT emulsion per acre in 100 gallons of water is recom-
mended for control of flea beetles.

GRASSHOPPERS
Description.-The adult grasshopper deposits its eggs in the
soil in masses nearly one inch long and in the upper few inches
of soil. Each egg mass consists of from about 20 to over 100
eggs cemented together. From about 8 to 25 egg masses may
be deposited by a single female. The nymphs hatching from
these eggs look similar to the adults except that they are smaller
and have no wings. The grasshopper populations in parts of
Florida are probably reduced by heavy rainfall which results in
low areas being flooded during parts of each year.
Nature of Damage.-Grasshoppers usually migrate into culti-
vated crops from adjoining weed and grass areas. They eat
the leaves and stems of plants, and are capable of producing
heavy damage if they are abundant.
Control.-The use of chlordane or toxaphene as suggested for
cucumber beetles is effective for grasshopper control.

GULF WHITE BUTTERFLY
Description.-The adult Gulf white butterfly, Pieris monuste
Linn., is large, some specimens measuring almost three inches
across the expanded wings. The upper side of the wings of the
male butterfly is almost white, but has darkened areas along
the outer edge of the forewings. The female is a dull bluish
or purplish gray-winged butterfly with a prominent dark spot on
each forewing, and darkened outer edges of the wings.
The mature larvae measure about one and one-half inches and
are greenish-yellow with longitudinal stripes of a purplish hue
along each side of the back. They have distinct black dorsal
tubercles each of which bears a single short black hair. The
head is relatively small and contains black tubercles with rather
long white hairs. The light yellowish-tan chrysalis, or resting
stage, is about one inch long (Fig. 21).
Nature of Damage.-This insect is most common during late
spring and summer. The large worms feed upon leaves and
stems of the plants and into the outer layers of cabbage heads.
They are especially fond of collards, which are often grown in
the late spring or summer.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


Control.-Twenty to 30 pounds per acre of 3 to 5 percent DDT
dust, or 2 pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT, or 1 quart of 25
percent DDT emulsion per acre in 100 gallons of water is recom-
mended for control of flea beetles.

GRASSHOPPERS
Description.-The adult grasshopper deposits its eggs in the
soil in masses nearly one inch long and in the upper few inches
of soil. Each egg mass consists of from about 20 to over 100
eggs cemented together. From about 8 to 25 egg masses may
be deposited by a single female. The nymphs hatching from
these eggs look similar to the adults except that they are smaller
and have no wings. The grasshopper populations in parts of
Florida are probably reduced by heavy rainfall which results in
low areas being flooded during parts of each year.
Nature of Damage.-Grasshoppers usually migrate into culti-
vated crops from adjoining weed and grass areas. They eat
the leaves and stems of plants, and are capable of producing
heavy damage if they are abundant.
Control.-The use of chlordane or toxaphene as suggested for
cucumber beetles is effective for grasshopper control.

GULF WHITE BUTTERFLY
Description.-The adult Gulf white butterfly, Pieris monuste
Linn., is large, some specimens measuring almost three inches
across the expanded wings. The upper side of the wings of the
male butterfly is almost white, but has darkened areas along
the outer edge of the forewings. The female is a dull bluish
or purplish gray-winged butterfly with a prominent dark spot on
each forewing, and darkened outer edges of the wings.
The mature larvae measure about one and one-half inches and
are greenish-yellow with longitudinal stripes of a purplish hue
along each side of the back. They have distinct black dorsal
tubercles each of which bears a single short black hair. The
head is relatively small and contains black tubercles with rather
long white hairs. The light yellowish-tan chrysalis, or resting
stage, is about one inch long (Fig. 21).
Nature of Damage.-This insect is most common during late
spring and summer. The large worms feed upon leaves and
stems of the plants and into the outer layers of cabbage heads.
They are especially fond of collards, which are often grown in
the late spring or summer.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Control.-One quart of 25 percent DDT emulsion or 2 pounds
of 50 percent wettable DDT per 100 gallons of water applied at
the rate of 75 to 150 gallons per acre, or 20 to 35 pounds per acre
of 5 percent DDT dust, is suggested for control of this insect.

HARLEQUIN BUG
Description.-The harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica
(Hahn), is a highly-colored red and black spotted stink bug
which feeds upon cabbage and other crops. It is most abundant
in northwest Florida, but also occurs in other parts of the state.
The adult is flat and shield-shaped and about 3/8 inch long (Fig.
22). The female deposits masses of eggs, usually on the under
side of the leaves. The eggs look very much like tiny white
kegs standing on end in double rows. The eggs hatch in from
four days to about four weeks, depending upon the temperature.
The nymphs are also highly colored. They grow into adults in
four to nine weeks.
Nature of Damage.-Both the adults and nymphs feed upon
the plants. They have long, slender piercing-sucking mouth-
parts with which they puncture the leaves and stems to with-
draw plant juices. Small plants will wilt, turn brown and some-
times die, and older plants will be stunted. Light irregular spots
occur in the leaves and stems where the plant sap has been

Fig. 21.-Gulf white butterfly. Upper: Larva (left) and chrysalis
or resting stage. Lower: Adult female (left) and male. (Larva and
chrysalis almost twice natural size; adults slightly enlarged.)






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


removed, and close inspection will reveal a small puncture in the
center of this light or "cloudy" spot (Fig. 22).


Fig. 22.-Adult harlequin bug on cabbage leaf. Note whitish feeding
spots where insects withdrew sap. Upper inserts show side view (left)
and top view (right) of egg mass. Lower insert shows immature (nymph)
harlequin bug. (All slightly enlarged.)

Control.-Ten percent toxaphene dust applied at 30 to 40
pounds per acre, or 2.5 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxaphene
per 100 gallons of water applied to each acre, is suggested for
control of this insect.
LEAF MINERS
Description.-The adult serpentine leaf miner, Liriomyza pu-
silla (Meig.), is a small fly about 1/20 inch long, yellowish be-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


neath and black on top. These flies puncture the leaves and
deposit very small eggs in some punctures. The eggs are re-
ported to hatch in three to five days into tiny maggots which
tunnel beneath the surface of the leaves. The young larvae are
nearly colorless, but become yellowish as they grow older. On
close inspection they can be seen inside the leaf. The pupae are
yellowish to orange in color and about 1/20 inch long. These
pupae are sometimes found attached to the leaf, but are more
frequently found on the surface of the soil below the plants.
The larval stage requires five to seven days and the pupal stage
eight to twelve days.
Nature of Damage.-The adult fly punctures the leaves and
withdraws plant sap, leaving tiny white dots scattered over the
leaves where the plant juice has been removed. The small
maggots hatching from the eggs in the leaves begin feeding on
the tissue between the leaf surfaces, leaving winding light-
colored trails or "mines" which increase in diameter as the
maggots grow larger. (Fig. 23). If examined closely the insect
can be seen through the epidermis near the large end of the


Fig. 23.-Section of a cabbage leaf showing sernrntine leaf miner tunnels
and tissues killed by the insect.






























Ig


'*i .


Fig. 24.-Top, eggs (extreme left) and adult (near center) of salt
marsh caterpillar. (About 1/ natural size.) Bottom, egg mass and newly
hatched caterpillars. (About twice natural size.)


r,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tunnel, and can be lifted out with the point of a knife. Leaf
miners cause dead areas in the leaves which are sometimes mis-
taken for a disease. If leaves with dead areas are held toward
the sun the tunnels can often be seen.
Control.-One to 2 pounds of 15 percent wettable parathion
per 100 gallons of water, or 1 to 2 percent parathion dust, is
suggested for control of this insect. Other chemicals which are
satisfactory but less effective than parathion include toxaphene,
chlordane and lindane.

SALT-MARSH CATERPILLAR
Description.-There are several species of woolly bear cater-
pillars. Of these the salt-marsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea
(Drury), is sometimes a pest of cabbage. The adult female
moth has wings which are white on the top and which have a
tinge of yellow on the bottom. The wings and abdomen are
marked with a number of small scattered black dots (Fig. 24).
In the male the hind wings are yellow on both sides. The
spherical eggs are laid in patches on the leaves (Fig. 24). The
caterpillars are very hairy and range up to 2 inches in length
(Fig. 25). These large worms crawl rapidly and can often be
seen crossing the highways or fields as if they are in a hurry.
The pupal stage is spent in a cocoon covered with silk and hairs
from the caterpillar's body.
Nature of Damage.-Observations indicate that most damage
to cabbage and other crucifers results from a migration of cater-
pillars into the field from adjoining areas. Since it is often the
larger migrating caterpillars that attack a crop, they are rather
difficult to bring under control before they cause extensive dam-
age. The fast-crawling worms feed upon the border plants,
stripping them of leaves and stems as they move into the field.
Control.-A mixture containing 15 percent toxaphene and 5
percent DDT in a dust, or 20 percent toxaphene dust, has been
reported to give good control of this caterpillar. In cage tests
2 percent parathion dust was effective. When the caterpillars
are migrating from adjoining areas it is usually advisable to
treat the borders as well as the planted crop in order to kill the
worms before they reach the cabbage.

SOUTHERN CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The Southern cabbageworm, Pieris protodice
B. and L., adult male and female butterflies are quite different







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tunnel, and can be lifted out with the point of a knife. Leaf
miners cause dead areas in the leaves which are sometimes mis-
taken for a disease. If leaves with dead areas are held toward
the sun the tunnels can often be seen.
Control.-One to 2 pounds of 15 percent wettable parathion
per 100 gallons of water, or 1 to 2 percent parathion dust, is
suggested for control of this insect. Other chemicals which are
satisfactory but less effective than parathion include toxaphene,
chlordane and lindane.

SALT-MARSH CATERPILLAR
Description.-There are several species of woolly bear cater-
pillars. Of these the salt-marsh caterpillar, Estigmene acrea
(Drury), is sometimes a pest of cabbage. The adult female
moth has wings which are white on the top and which have a
tinge of yellow on the bottom. The wings and abdomen are
marked with a number of small scattered black dots (Fig. 24).
In the male the hind wings are yellow on both sides. The
spherical eggs are laid in patches on the leaves (Fig. 24). The
caterpillars are very hairy and range up to 2 inches in length
(Fig. 25). These large worms crawl rapidly and can often be
seen crossing the highways or fields as if they are in a hurry.
The pupal stage is spent in a cocoon covered with silk and hairs
from the caterpillar's body.
Nature of Damage.-Observations indicate that most damage
to cabbage and other crucifers results from a migration of cater-
pillars into the field from adjoining areas. Since it is often the
larger migrating caterpillars that attack a crop, they are rather
difficult to bring under control before they cause extensive dam-
age. The fast-crawling worms feed upon the border plants,
stripping them of leaves and stems as they move into the field.
Control.-A mixture containing 15 percent toxaphene and 5
percent DDT in a dust, or 20 percent toxaphene dust, has been
reported to give good control of this caterpillar. In cage tests
2 percent parathion dust was effective. When the caterpillars
are migrating from adjoining areas it is usually advisable to
treat the borders as well as the planted crop in order to kill the
worms before they reach the cabbage.

SOUTHERN CABBAGEWORM
Description.-The Southern cabbageworm, Pieris protodice
B. and L., adult male and female butterflies are quite different






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


in color pattern. The wings are white, with a few dark spots
in the male and a considerable number of dark spots in the
female, especially along the border of each wing. The adults
are similar to the imported cabbageworm in size and shape. The
larvae hatching from eggs deposited on the leaves have alter-
nating longitudinal stripes of bright yellow and dark greenish-
purple, and they are covered with many black spots. The chrysa-
lis (resting stage) is attached to the plant, and it is from this
that the butterfly emerges.
Nature of Damage.-The larvae feed upon the leaves and
stems of the plants, eating holes into them, or in cases of heavy
infestations, they may completely defoliate the crop.


C


Fig. 25.-Salt marsh caterpillar, or woolly bear, feeding on cabbage plant.
(About % natural size.)


L;






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Control.-The use of DDT spray or dust, as suggested for
the control of the imported cabbageworm, will give good con-
trol of the Southern cabbageworm.

SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG
Description.-The adult Southern green stink bug, Nezara
uiridula (L.), is light green in color, smooth, hard bodied, and
measures about 1/2 inch long and % inch wide (Fig. 30). It is
oval in shape and has piercing and sucking mouth-parts. The
female deposits barrel-shaped eggs in clusters glued to the
leaves. These eggs will hatch in four days during warm weather
into highly colored nymphs, which change in color pattern as
they grow. The nymphs will mature in about 24 days during
warm weather.
Nature of Damage.-The nymphs and adults feed upon cruci-
fers by piercing the leaves and stems and withdrawing plant sap.
The damage appears as cloudy spots with tiny holes in the cen-
ters where the beaks were inserted. Small plants are stunted
and distorted as a result of stink bug damage.
Control.-A spray or dust containing toxaphene or chlordane
may be used to control this insect. One pound of actual toxa-
phene (2.5 pounds of 40 percent) in 100 gallons of water applied
to each acre, or a 5 percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate
of 25 to 35 pounds per acre is suggested.

VEGETABLE WEEVIL
Description.-The vegetable weevil, Listroderes costirostris
obliquus Klug, is generally restricted to North Florida, and is
not reported to be a pest in Central or South Florida. The adult
weevil is a hard-bodied insect about % inch long. The color
varies from light brown to dark brown, with several small light
gray or yellowish markings. This weevil is covered with buff
and gray scales and scattered short hairs, and has a pale gray
V-shaped marking across the folded wing covers. The head has
a short broad snout.
The smooth, shiny, spherical eggs are laid in the crowns of
the plants, on leaves or stems, or in the soil near the base of
the plants. These eggs are slightly less than 1 mm. in diam-
eter and are usually laid singly. The mature light to dark
green or cream colored grubs live in or above the soil. They
are slightly less than 1/ inch long, and their heads which are






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Control.-The use of DDT spray or dust, as suggested for
the control of the imported cabbageworm, will give good con-
trol of the Southern cabbageworm.

SOUTHERN GREEN STINK BUG
Description.-The adult Southern green stink bug, Nezara
uiridula (L.), is light green in color, smooth, hard bodied, and
measures about 1/2 inch long and % inch wide (Fig. 30). It is
oval in shape and has piercing and sucking mouth-parts. The
female deposits barrel-shaped eggs in clusters glued to the
leaves. These eggs will hatch in four days during warm weather
into highly colored nymphs, which change in color pattern as
they grow. The nymphs will mature in about 24 days during
warm weather.
Nature of Damage.-The nymphs and adults feed upon cruci-
fers by piercing the leaves and stems and withdrawing plant sap.
The damage appears as cloudy spots with tiny holes in the cen-
ters where the beaks were inserted. Small plants are stunted
and distorted as a result of stink bug damage.
Control.-A spray or dust containing toxaphene or chlordane
may be used to control this insect. One pound of actual toxa-
phene (2.5 pounds of 40 percent) in 100 gallons of water applied
to each acre, or a 5 percent toxaphene dust applied at the rate
of 25 to 35 pounds per acre is suggested.

VEGETABLE WEEVIL
Description.-The vegetable weevil, Listroderes costirostris
obliquus Klug, is generally restricted to North Florida, and is
not reported to be a pest in Central or South Florida. The adult
weevil is a hard-bodied insect about % inch long. The color
varies from light brown to dark brown, with several small light
gray or yellowish markings. This weevil is covered with buff
and gray scales and scattered short hairs, and has a pale gray
V-shaped marking across the folded wing covers. The head has
a short broad snout.
The smooth, shiny, spherical eggs are laid in the crowns of
the plants, on leaves or stems, or in the soil near the base of
the plants. These eggs are slightly less than 1 mm. in diam-
eter and are usually laid singly. The mature light to dark
green or cream colored grubs live in or above the soil. They
are slightly less than 1/ inch long, and their heads which are






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


patterned with brown dotted lines vary from light yellow to
brown.
Nature of Damage.-The adults usually feed upon the foliage
of plants at night and hide under leaves and other objects on
the soil during the day. As the temperature rises in the sum-
mer the adults become inactive. The grub or larval stage is the
most destructive. These grubs feed upon buds, stems and roots
of many cultivated and wild plants, and are especially attracted
to turnips, carrots and cabbage.
Control.-Two to 3 pounds of 50 percent wettable DDT per
100 gallons of water or 40 to 50 pounds per acre of 5 percent
DDT dust is suggested for the control of this weevil.

WIREWORMS
Description.-The adult of the wireworm is a hard, stream-
lined, smooth brownish beetle known as a "click beetle." This
beetle gets its name from its ability to snap its body when
caught between the fingers, or as a means of turning over when
it falls on its back. If laid on a flat surface on its back the
beetle will click its body, jumping several inches into the air
and often landing in an upright position.
The female click beetle deposits her eggs in or on the soil
around roots of plants. Trapping records obtained in the Ever-
glades area indicate that heavy click beetle flights occur in the
spring and summer, at which time maximum egg deposition
occurs. The eggs hatch into small larvae. These worms range
from 1 to 11/2 inches in length. They are hard, smooth, yellow-
ish-brown and appear similar to a short piece of jointed wire
(Fig. 26). The larvae remain in the soil and when mature they
transform into soft pupae in soil cells. Later adult click beetles
emerge.
Nature of Damage.-While wireworms have been a serious
problem more often on the organic soils of the Everglades area,
they also attack crops on marl and sandy soils. Wireworms
attack the stems and roots of growing plants. They burrow into
stems and roots, making a tunnel. Young plants are usually
killed as a result of this feeding; plants wilt and die within a
few days. If these wilted plants are carefully removed from
the soil, the insects can sometimes be found inside the stems or
in the soil near the stems.
Control.-Wireworms are difficult to control. However, cer-
tain cultural practices and the use of chemicals in the soil often





38 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

result in satisfactory commercial control. Weeds and grass,
as well as certain cover crops, are attractive to the adult click
beetles, which deposit eggs in the soil around them. The wire-
worms then feed upon the roots and stems of these wild or
cultivated plants. When the soil is plowed preparatory to plant-
ing, the weeds and grasses are destroyed, but the wireworms
can live for some time without food, and will attack the crop
when it is planted.
Since the adults are known to disperse more in the spring
and summer it is desirable to keep peat and muck soils free of
all plants by disking and, if possible, by flooding during as much
of this period as is practical. These cultural control practices
are practical on the muck soils of the Everglades; however,
water is not accessible for flooding on many sandy soils, and
clean culture is against good soil fertility practices on these
sandy soils. Areas known to be heavily infested with wire-
worms should not be planted to cabbage if other land is available.
Fig. 26.-A wireworm feeding on corn. Wireworms attack crucifers in a
similar manner. (About 1%/ times natural size.)

ap'


.Nx






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


If infested land must be planted the soil should be treated
at the rate of 3 to 6 pounds of actual chlordane per acre two
to four weeks before planting. The insecticide may be sprayed,
dusted or mixed with fertilizer and broadcast over the area. Fol-
low this with a thorough light disking immediately after applica-
tion. Chlordane may be mixed thoroughly with the fertilizer
and drilled beneath the row or sprayed a few inches deep in the
row just ahead of the planter. It should be pointed out that the
control methods described have not always given satisfactory
commercial control, but in many cases they have reduced losses.

A SUGGESTED INSECT CONTROL PROGRAM
Since cabbage is nearly certain to be attacked by insects dur-
ing some stage of growth, it is advisable for the grower to set
up a program to protect his crop should insects appear. The
control program is especially recommended for those who cannot
make frequent and thorough field inspections for early detection
of insect infestations.
In scne cases the producer may save on insecticides by treat-
ing with the proper insecticide only when insects are known to
be present. If this latter method is adopted the grower must
make frequent and careful inspections of his crop in order to
detect insect infestations before they inflict serious damage.
It should be pointed out that no hard and fast schedule can be
made to work for every crop. If a particular insect becomes
abundant, it may be necessary to deviate from the schedule in
order to control that insect. Many other factors are involved
in controlling insects; these should be considered before select-
ing and applying insecticides.
Soil Preparation.-Mole-crickets, cutworms and wireworms
may be present in the soil feeding upon weeds and grasses.
Plowing and disking will not destroy these insects, but early
plowing may reduce the cutworm population. It is therefore
suggested that the weeds and grasses be destroyed at least one
month before planting. If wireworms or mole crickets are pres-
ent, 3 to 5 pounds of actual chlordane per acre should be applied
to the soil in a spray or dust and disked into the upper few
inches. For mole-crickets, a wheat bran bait containing 2 per-
cent chlordane may be broadcast at the rate of 25 to 50 pounds
per acre in the late afternoons when the soil is moist and warm.
Treatments for wireworms should be made one to two weeks






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


before planting. Cutworm and mole-cricket treatments should
be applied a few days before planting.
Seedbeds and Seeded Fields.-Insects most likely to destroy
germinating and young seedlings are mole-crickets, cutworms,
wireworms, aphids, and leaf miners. Careful and frequent
field and seedbed inspections should be made in order to detect
the presence of these insects. For control of mole-crickets treat
with a 2 percent chlordane-wheat bran bait in the late after-
noon, or apply 2 pounds actual chlordane per acre as a spray or
dust. For cutworms use 2.5 pounds of 40 percent wettable toxa-
phene per acre in 100 gallons of water; dust with 25 pounds
per acre of 10 percent toxaphene, or apply 25 pounds per acre
of 2.5 percent toxaphene-wheat bran bait in the late after-
noon. For aphids and leaf miners 25 pounds of 1 percent para-
thion dust per acre, or 1 pound of 15 percent wettable parathion
per acre in 100 gallons of water is recommended. Tests have
shown dusting to be superior to spraying for the control of the
cabbage aphid.
Transplants and Thinned Plants.-Insects most likely to ap-
pear include cutworms, cabbage loopers, aphids, cabbage web-
worms, diamondback moths, imported cabbageworms, and army-
worms. If cutworms are present, a toxaphene spray, dust, or
poisoned bait should be applied as described under "Seedbeds
and Seeded Fields." After the cutworms are eliminated, a
regular schedule is suggested, alternating DDT and parathion
every week to 10 days. DDT may be used as an emulsion (1
quart per 100 gallons), a wettable powder (2 pounds 50 percent
per 100 gallons) or a dust (5 percent). Parathion may be used
as a wettable powder (1 pound of 15 percent per 100 gallons)
or a dust (1 percent).
Recent experiments indicate that a more satisfactory control
may be obtained by using a mixture of DDT or toxaphene (50
percent wettable-1 pound per 100 gallons) and parathion (15
percent wettable-1/2 pound per 100 gallons) every 10 days to
two weeks. A dust containing 1 percent parathion and 3 percent
DDT should give similar control. The DDT in each schedule is
included for the control of worms, while the parathion is most
effective against aphids and leaf miners. If aphids are not
controlled satisfactorily with parathion spray, parathion dust
should be used.
Pre-Heading Treatment.-In order to reduce the need for in-
secticides prior to harvest time when an undersirable residue






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


may remain on the harvested heads, a pre-heading treatment is
recommended whether insects are present or not. This applica-
tion should be made when the cabbage is cupping, or about four
weeks before harvest. A spray containing 1 pound of 15 percent
parathion wettable and 2 pounds of 50 percent DDT wettable per
100 gallons is recommended. If a dust is preferred, one con-
taining 1 percent parathion and 3 percent DDT is suggested.
If aphids appear later than two weeks before harvest, TEPP
may be used for control, at the rate of 1 pint 20 percent TEPP
per 100 gallons of water, or in a freshly-mixed dust containing
1 percent TEPP. This insecticide leaves no undesirable residue,
but it is not effective against worms. The late worm treatments
may be made with pyrethrum and rotenone, if needed.
Post-Harvest.-Crop residues should be thoroughly disked
down immediately after harvest, as diseases may spread and
insects may migrate into younger plantings.

METHODS OF APPLYING INSECTICIDES
Most insecticides are applied as sprays, dust, or poisoned
baits, depending upon the insect or insects present. In order to
obtain satisfactory control and to prevent waste of insecticides,
careful attention should be given to the method of application.
Generally speaking, tractor-drawn power sprayers and power
dusters are most satisfactory for the control of insects that
attack cabbage and other crucifers. Airplane application is
satisfactory for some insects and serves as a quick method of
treatment. If fields are too wet for ground equipment, airplanes
are useful. Hand spraying is usually inferior to power spray-
ing, but hand dusting can be satisfactory. Poisoned baits may
be scattered by hand or from airplanes.
When the power sprayer is used three nozzles per row should
be so arranged as to give complete plant coverage, with one
nozzle directly above the plants and the other two placed to
spray into each side of the row. A spreader-sticker is necessary
with most insecticides because of the waxy leaves which are
difficult to wet with spray.
Dusts should be applied when the plants are dry and when
there is little or no air movement. The dust should be released
directly above each row, or from each side of the row if two dust
nozzles per row are used.
Airplane dusting requires periods when the air is calm. The
swaths should be close enough together to get an even dis-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tribution of the insecticide. Airplane spray applications can be
made when there is a moderate wind, but calm conditions are
more desirable. Airplane applications of poisoned baits can
be very effective providing the swaths are close enough together.
Knapsack sprayers may be used for small cabbage plantings;
however, it is difficult to get good plant coverage. Rotary-type
hand dusters will give a good plant coverage, and if hand appli-
cators are to be used the duster is preferred to the sprayer.
Regardless of the type of equipment used, it should be remem-
bered that insect control will be no better than the coverage
obtained, and that good efficient equipment is a cheap invest-
ment.
SANITATION
A large number of insect and disease problems would be elimi-
nated or reduced if crop remains were thoroughly destroyed
by plowing or disking immediately following harvest. Insects
and diseases which build up on old plantings will often migrate
or be transmitted to younger plantings. Roadways and ditch
banks should be kept free of weeds since these serve as hosts to
a number of insects attacking cabbage. It is sometimes ad-
visable to apply insecticides to the area bordering the planted
crop in order to prevent insect migration into the field.

PRECAUTIONS
Insecticides are poisons and must be handled with care. Para-
thion and TEPP are especially hazardous to the operator apply-
ing them. Careless handling of these insecticides may result
in serious illness or death. All materials recommended in this
bulletin can be used safely if the following precautions are fol-
lowed:
1. Read precautions on the manufacturer's label and care-
fully follow directions for use.
2. Do not work with insecticides in a confined area.
3. Wear protective clothing and gloves.
4. Do not breathe spray mist or dust; work from the wind-
ward side and wear a mask when needed to keep the materials
out of the mouth, nose and eyes.
5. Do not remain in spray or dust for prolonged periods; take
a bath and change clothes after the operation is over.
6. Burn or bury empty insecticide containers and store un-
used insecticides in a safe place, away from children and animals.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tribution of the insecticide. Airplane spray applications can be
made when there is a moderate wind, but calm conditions are
more desirable. Airplane applications of poisoned baits can
be very effective providing the swaths are close enough together.
Knapsack sprayers may be used for small cabbage plantings;
however, it is difficult to get good plant coverage. Rotary-type
hand dusters will give a good plant coverage, and if hand appli-
cators are to be used the duster is preferred to the sprayer.
Regardless of the type of equipment used, it should be remem-
bered that insect control will be no better than the coverage
obtained, and that good efficient equipment is a cheap invest-
ment.
SANITATION
A large number of insect and disease problems would be elimi-
nated or reduced if crop remains were thoroughly destroyed
by plowing or disking immediately following harvest. Insects
and diseases which build up on old plantings will often migrate
or be transmitted to younger plantings. Roadways and ditch
banks should be kept free of weeds since these serve as hosts to
a number of insects attacking cabbage. It is sometimes ad-
visable to apply insecticides to the area bordering the planted
crop in order to prevent insect migration into the field.

PRECAUTIONS
Insecticides are poisons and must be handled with care. Para-
thion and TEPP are especially hazardous to the operator apply-
ing them. Careless handling of these insecticides may result
in serious illness or death. All materials recommended in this
bulletin can be used safely if the following precautions are fol-
lowed:
1. Read precautions on the manufacturer's label and care-
fully follow directions for use.
2. Do not work with insecticides in a confined area.
3. Wear protective clothing and gloves.
4. Do not breathe spray mist or dust; work from the wind-
ward side and wear a mask when needed to keep the materials
out of the mouth, nose and eyes.
5. Do not remain in spray or dust for prolonged periods; take
a bath and change clothes after the operation is over.
6. Burn or bury empty insecticide containers and store un-
used insecticides in a safe place, away from children and animals.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


NATURAL CONTROL FACTORS

The value of parasitic and predaceous insects, as well as
insect-feeding birds, should not be overlooked as a contributing
factor in insect control. Diseases of insects are also often of
considerable importance in the reduction of crop pests. It should
be understood that natural control of insects attacking cruci-
fers cannot be depended upon entirely to eliminate injurious
insects. However, it can be definitely stated that without these
natural control factors our insect control problems would be
much greater, if not insurmountable. Several important species
of parasites, predators and birds which affect insects injurious
to cabbage and related crops are discussed here to aid in the
recognition and evaluation of these beneficial species.

SOME INSECT PARASITES OF INSECTS
AFFECTING CRUCIFERS
Parasites are usually entirely dependent on an individual host
in the larval stage, living in or on the host and slowly consum-
ing its tissue. Different parasite species affect their hosts
differently, killing fairly quickly in some cases and so slowly
in other instances that the pupal stage may be reached before
death ensues. In certain instances, where adult insects or
fairly advanced stages are parasitized, only the hosts' repro-
ductive ability may be destroyed.

WASPS
Meteorus vulgaris (Cress.) (Fig. 27). This Braconid wasp
is an enemy of cutworms and armyworms. In the Everglades
area it has been reared from the grandulate cutworm and the
fall armyworm. The adult parasite is 1/8 inch or more in length,
with a wing spread of about 14 inch. Several wasps may
emerge from a single worm.
Copidosoma truncatellum (Dalm.). This minute Encyrtid
wasp (Fig. 28) is a parasite of the cabbage looper. This is a
polyembryonic species; so called because each parasite egg pro-
duces many larvae inside the host. By the time the host larva
is killed it appears to be entirely filled with the parasites. The
body wall is stretched and swollen in order to contain the hun-
dreds of tiny insects. The parasite egg is laid in the egg of






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


NATURAL CONTROL FACTORS

The value of parasitic and predaceous insects, as well as
insect-feeding birds, should not be overlooked as a contributing
factor in insect control. Diseases of insects are also often of
considerable importance in the reduction of crop pests. It should
be understood that natural control of insects attacking cruci-
fers cannot be depended upon entirely to eliminate injurious
insects. However, it can be definitely stated that without these
natural control factors our insect control problems would be
much greater, if not insurmountable. Several important species
of parasites, predators and birds which affect insects injurious
to cabbage and related crops are discussed here to aid in the
recognition and evaluation of these beneficial species.

SOME INSECT PARASITES OF INSECTS
AFFECTING CRUCIFERS
Parasites are usually entirely dependent on an individual host
in the larval stage, living in or on the host and slowly consum-
ing its tissue. Different parasite species affect their hosts
differently, killing fairly quickly in some cases and so slowly
in other instances that the pupal stage may be reached before
death ensues. In certain instances, where adult insects or
fairly advanced stages are parasitized, only the hosts' repro-
ductive ability may be destroyed.

WASPS
Meteorus vulgaris (Cress.) (Fig. 27). This Braconid wasp
is an enemy of cutworms and armyworms. In the Everglades
area it has been reared from the grandulate cutworm and the
fall armyworm. The adult parasite is 1/8 inch or more in length,
with a wing spread of about 14 inch. Several wasps may
emerge from a single worm.
Copidosoma truncatellum (Dalm.). This minute Encyrtid
wasp (Fig. 28) is a parasite of the cabbage looper. This is a
polyembryonic species; so called because each parasite egg pro-
duces many larvae inside the host. By the time the host larva
is killed it appears to be entirely filled with the parasites. The
body wall is stretched and swollen in order to contain the hun-
dreds of tiny insects. The parasite egg is laid in the egg of






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


NATURAL CONTROL FACTORS

The value of parasitic and predaceous insects, as well as
insect-feeding birds, should not be overlooked as a contributing
factor in insect control. Diseases of insects are also often of
considerable importance in the reduction of crop pests. It should
be understood that natural control of insects attacking cruci-
fers cannot be depended upon entirely to eliminate injurious
insects. However, it can be definitely stated that without these
natural control factors our insect control problems would be
much greater, if not insurmountable. Several important species
of parasites, predators and birds which affect insects injurious
to cabbage and related crops are discussed here to aid in the
recognition and evaluation of these beneficial species.

SOME INSECT PARASITES OF INSECTS
AFFECTING CRUCIFERS
Parasites are usually entirely dependent on an individual host
in the larval stage, living in or on the host and slowly consum-
ing its tissue. Different parasite species affect their hosts
differently, killing fairly quickly in some cases and so slowly
in other instances that the pupal stage may be reached before
death ensues. In certain instances, where adult insects or
fairly advanced stages are parasitized, only the hosts' repro-
ductive ability may be destroyed.

WASPS
Meteorus vulgaris (Cress.) (Fig. 27). This Braconid wasp
is an enemy of cutworms and armyworms. In the Everglades
area it has been reared from the grandulate cutworm and the
fall armyworm. The adult parasite is 1/8 inch or more in length,
with a wing spread of about 14 inch. Several wasps may
emerge from a single worm.
Copidosoma truncatellum (Dalm.). This minute Encyrtid
wasp (Fig. 28) is a parasite of the cabbage looper. This is a
polyembryonic species; so called because each parasite egg pro-
duces many larvae inside the host. By the time the host larva
is killed it appears to be entirely filled with the parasites. The
body wall is stretched and swollen in order to contain the hun-
dreds of tiny insects. The parasite egg is laid in the egg of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the cabbage looper, but its development is not completed until
the host hatches from the egg and becomes a full grown looper.


Fig. 27.-Adult wasp, Meteorus vulgaris, an important parasite of cutworms
and armyworms. (About 25 times natural size.) Original.

Horogenes insularis (Cress.). This is an Ichneumonid wasp
that sometimes seems to be of importance in reducing popula-
tions of the diamondback moth and the cabbage looper. It is
about 3/16 inch in length and has a wing spread of 1/4 inch or
more. The destruction of cabbage loopers in untreated experi-
mental plots was attributed to the activity of this species.
Trichogramma minutum Riley. This and other species of
Trichogramma are tiny egg parasites of many insect pests.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


They are found most often attacking eggs deposited by moths
and butterflies. T. minutum has often been reared in labora-
tories for use in biological control of injurious insects.


Fig. 28.-Adult wasp, Copidosoma truncatellum, an important parasite
of the cabbage looper. This wasp is only about half the size of a pin head.
Original.



-, St-


Fig. 29.-Aphids parasitized by a tiny Braconid wasp. Bodies are bloated
and tan. Note exit hole in aphid in center. (About twice natural size.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Diatretus rapae (Curt.). An important enemy of cabbage
and turnip aphids, this little Braconid's activity can be detected
by the brown bloated bodies of aphids. A small round hole is
made in the aphid's body when the mature wasp emerges.
Parasitized aphids are depicted in Fig. 29. Other parasites
related to this species affect aphids similarly.






























Fig. 30.-Top, adult feather-legged flies, parasites of the Southern green
stink bug. (About 2 times natural size.) Bottom, parasitized stink bugs
with parasite eggs on upper and lower body surfaces. (About twice natural
size.)
FLIES

Archytas piliventris (Wulp.). This, and the remaining para-
sitic species discussed, are true, or two-winged flies. A. piliven-
tris, belonging to the family Larvaevoridae is an enemy of army-
worms and cutworms. These parasites are grayish in color with
numerous body bristles and often materially aid in reducing






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


worm populations. When the flies attempt to deposit their
eggs, the host larvae try to avoid being parasitized by violent
twisting and turning.
Eucelatoria rubentis (Coq.) is another member of this family
that parasitizes armyworms and related forms.
Trichopoda pennipes Fab. (Fig. 30) is an important member of
the family Tachinidae, and probably the most important natural
enemy of the Southern green stink bug as well as of many
other plant bugs, especially those in the families Pentatomidae
(common stink bugs) and Coreidae (squash bugs, leaf-footed
bugs and similar forms). This fly is commonly called the
feather-legged fly because of the plumose appearance of the
hind legs. The white eggs are stuck on the bodies of the hosts
(Fig. 30), and upon hatching the maggots enter the host's body
and feed upon the tissues. Death, or destruction of the repro-
ductive powers, results from the parasites' feeding.
Many thousands of parasitized bugs have been collected in
Florida in an attempt to establish the feather-legged fly in sev-
eral areas of the world where stink bugs are a problem. The
flies vary in size, averaging about 1/2 inch in length and about
%3/ inch across the expanded wings. The abdomen is usually
reddish brown with a black tip. The wings are blackish with
a lighter center area.

SOME INSECT PREDATORS OF INSECTS
ATTACKING CRUCIFERS
A predator usually kills the host quickly, consuming the in-
dividual entirely or in part at one feeding period. If the preda-
tor is larger than the host a number of individuals may be eaten.

TRUE BUGS
Many species of true bugs, especially those in the families
Pentatomidae and Reduviidae, are predators of considerable
importance. They feed heavily on the larval stages of moths
and butterflies but also attack beetles, plant bugs and other in-
sects. Some of the predaceous Pentatomid bugs will feed on
plant juices when insect hosts are scarce, and a few members
of this family that are usually plant feeders may occasionally
act as predators.
Podisus maculiventris Say. (Fig. 31) is an especially bene-
ficial species and often occurs in large numbers. The host is






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


worm populations. When the flies attempt to deposit their
eggs, the host larvae try to avoid being parasitized by violent
twisting and turning.
Eucelatoria rubentis (Coq.) is another member of this family
that parasitizes armyworms and related forms.
Trichopoda pennipes Fab. (Fig. 30) is an important member of
the family Tachinidae, and probably the most important natural
enemy of the Southern green stink bug as well as of many
other plant bugs, especially those in the families Pentatomidae
(common stink bugs) and Coreidae (squash bugs, leaf-footed
bugs and similar forms). This fly is commonly called the
feather-legged fly because of the plumose appearance of the
hind legs. The white eggs are stuck on the bodies of the hosts
(Fig. 30), and upon hatching the maggots enter the host's body
and feed upon the tissues. Death, or destruction of the repro-
ductive powers, results from the parasites' feeding.
Many thousands of parasitized bugs have been collected in
Florida in an attempt to establish the feather-legged fly in sev-
eral areas of the world where stink bugs are a problem. The
flies vary in size, averaging about 1/2 inch in length and about
%3/ inch across the expanded wings. The abdomen is usually
reddish brown with a black tip. The wings are blackish with
a lighter center area.

SOME INSECT PREDATORS OF INSECTS
ATTACKING CRUCIFERS
A predator usually kills the host quickly, consuming the in-
dividual entirely or in part at one feeding period. If the preda-
tor is larger than the host a number of individuals may be eaten.

TRUE BUGS
Many species of true bugs, especially those in the families
Pentatomidae and Reduviidae, are predators of considerable
importance. They feed heavily on the larval stages of moths
and butterflies but also attack beetles, plant bugs and other in-
sects. Some of the predaceous Pentatomid bugs will feed on
plant juices when insect hosts are scarce, and a few members
of this family that are usually plant feeders may occasionally
act as predators.
Podisus maculiventris Say. (Fig. 31) is an especially bene-
ficial species and often occurs in large numbers. The host is






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


pierced by the bug's beak and the body fluids withdrawn. Com-
monly called the spined soldier bug, this species has been found
feeding in fairly large numbers on cabbage loopers and imported
cabbageworms. It is grayish brown and often overspread with
a reddish color along the margins and hind 1/ of the wing covers.
The humeri (shoulders) bear a pair of sharp spines at right
angles to the body.
















Fig 31.-A spined soldier bug feeding on a caterpillar. (About three
times natural size.)

Podisus mucronatus Uhler (Fig. 32) is another member of
this important genus, and at times is fairly plentiful. It is
a yellowish species, peppered with fine dark spots that show
up under magnification as fine punctures. The spines on the
shoulders are inclined to the front and are usually dark brown
or black. This species has also been found feeding on the vari-
ous caterpillars that attack cruciferous crops.
Two predaceous Pentatomids somewhat similar to each other
in color are Stiretrus anchorago (Fab.) and Euthyrhynchus
floridanus (L.), commonly known as the Florida predaceous bug
(Fig. 32). These are dark blue species with orange to red mark-
ings. They appear to be entirely predaceous but are not as
abundant as the species of Podisus. Stiretrus anchorago has
a blue phase that is usually considered a subspecies under the
name S. anchorago violacious Say. The Florida predaceous bug,
with blunt spines that are inclined slightly backward on the
shoulders, is about /1, inch in length. S. anchorago is usually
less than 1/ inch long.






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


\






Fig. 32.-Predaceous stink bugs, caterpillar enemies. Top, Stiretrus
anchorage color variations. Bottom left, Florida predaceous bug, Euthy-
rhynchus floridanus; bottom center, Podisus mucronatvs; bottom right,
Podisus maculiventris. (All slightly enlarged.)

Zelus bilobus Say. (Fig. 33) is probably the most plentiful
of the Reduviid bugs on low vegetation in Florida. Being en-
tirely predaceous, this species feeds on many kinds of insects.
This bug is elongate, bright orange, long legged and has dark
wings. It has a short, stout, curved beak which is typical of
the family. This and other members of the Reduviid family will
bite fiercely if handled. Z. bilobus has been noted feeding on
cabbage loopers and imported cabbageworms.
Other Reduviid bugs that may prey on vegetable crop insects
include the wheel bug, Arilus cristatus (L.) (Fig. 33), a large,
easily recognized species because of the half cog wheel shaped
outgrowth in the middle of the pronotum. Sinea diadema (Fab.)
(Fig. 33) is a small gray species with two rows of projections





Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


on the head that give a crown-like (diadem)
fore legs are armed with several stout spines.



i,


appearance. The

,


I x


Fig. 33.-Reduviid bugs, caterpillar enemies. Top, wheel bug, Arilus
cristatus. Bottom left, Sinea diadema. Bottom right, Zelus bilobus. (All
about twice natural size.)
BEETLES
Many species of beetles prey on insects that feed on cabbage
and related crops. They range in size from the larger ground
beetles of the genus Calosoma, specimens of which are over 1
inch in length, to the ladybeetles in the genus Scymnus, only


Z~""






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


about 1/16 inch in length. Members of these two groups feed
almost entirely on harmful insects.
Beetles of the genus Calosoma from abroad have been em-
ployed in the biological control of introduced caterpillars. Two
native species of Florida are C. scrutator Fab. and C. sayi Dej.
(Fig. 34). The former species has green wing covers, dark
blue-black thorax and head, with a purplish band around the
wing covers. The latter species is black with fine coppery dots
on the wing covers, and often has a subdued greenish tinge.
C. sayi is much more abundant than C. scrutator. Both species
feed heavily on cutworms and armyworms, and C. sayi often
climbs tall plants or even trees in its search for caterpillars.






















Fig. 34.-Three kinds of ground beetles that are predators of cutworms.
Left, Calosoma scrutator; center, Calosoma sayi; right, Scnrites subter-
raneus. (All about twice natural size.)

Scarites subterraneus Fab. (Fig. 34) is an elongate black
ground beetle that feeds on cutworms. Its larvae, like those
of the Calosomas, are often killed through feeding on cutworms
which have been poisoned with insecticides.
Caleida decora Fab. is placed in the family of ground beetles
but is found almost entirely on plant foliage, where it seeks its
insect hosts. The species has been found commonly on collards,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


where it was observed to feed heavily on young imported cab-
bageworms. The beetle is slender, elongate, with shining bluish-
green wing covers and reddish-brown thorax, and is about 1/4
inch in length.
The species of ladybeetles found in the United States (with
the exception of two species in the genus Epilachna) are wholly
beneficial feeding on aphids,
scale-insects, mealybugs, white-
flies and spider mites. Some of
the aphid-feeding species are
useful to the grower of crucifers.
Ladybeetles are more generally
known and appreciated by grow-
ers than are most of the other
beneficial insects.
The blood-red ladybeetle, Cy-
cloneda sanguine immaculate
Fab. (Fig. 35), is not blood-red
in color, but has dull orange un-
spotted wing covers and a black
thorax with variable white
TopFi. t, pot-- top ri ladyetl- markings. This is one of the most
vergent; bottom left, blood red; bot- important aphid-feeding species
tom right, nine-spotted. (All about in Florida. The convergent lady-
twice natural size.)
beetle, Hippodamia convergens
Guer. (Fig. 35), is more elongate than the blood-red ladybeetle.
It also has dull orange or orange-brown wing covers, but has
black spots that vary in size and number; the thorax is black
with two white lines that converge to the rear. Like the blood-
red, it is an important aphid-feeding species.
The spotted ladybeetle Ceratomegilla fuscilabris floridanus
Leng. (Fig. 35), is an orange-pink color on both the wing covers
and thorax. The wing covers have black spots and the thorax has
two elongate black spots of variable size. This is also a very
valuable aphid-feeding species but is not as important as the
above two species. Scymnus collaris Melsh. and Scymnus termi-
natus Say. are two small black hairy ladybeetle species that are
sometimes quite plentiful in aphid infestations. The thorax of
S. collaris is mostly light brown, and the apex of the wing cover
is also brown. S. terminatus is black except for the tip of the
wing covers. Other aphid-feeding species include the various
sub-species of Exochomus marginipennis, Psyllobora sp., and





Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


Coccinella novemnotata Hbst. C. novemnotata, the nine-spotted
ladybeetle, may be found in extreme north Florida (Fig. 35).
PREDACEOUS FLIES
Among the important predators of aphids are the larvae of
certain species of the family Syrphidae. The somewhat slug-
shaped maggots are stout toward the rear of the body and taper-
ing toward the front. These insects are often plentiful in colonies
of aphids and feed heavily on them. The adults of most species
are brightly colored and are sometimes called nectar flies because
they frequently visit flowers. They are also called hover flies
because of their habit of hovering in flight.
Another group of flies which are predaceous as adults, and in
some instances as larvae, are the robber or assassin flies. Some
Fig. 36.-Top, predaceous flies called assassin flies (about twice natural
size). Bottom, Polistes wasps, predators of many kinds of caterpillars.
(About 1%1 times natural size.)


A


Sii


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


species superficially resemble bumblebees. Adults have long,
strong legs with which they grasp their prey, and a stout pro-
boscis with which they stab the victim. They feed on both bene-
ficial and injurious insects. Some species of these asilids are
quite plentiful. Typical examples are shown in Fig. 36.

PREDACEOUS WASPS
Many species of paper-making wasps in the family Vespidae
are valuable predators. Members of the genus Polistes (Fig. 36)
feed upon many kinds of caterpillars, including the imported cab-
bageworm and cabbage looper. They macerate the host until it
is often indistinguishable as to species. Hornets and yellow
jackets of the genus Vespa or Vespula also are known to be partly
predaceous.
The family Sphecidae includes many species that are hunters
of caterpillars, grasshoppers and other insects. They are largely
digging wasps. The genus Sphex includes species which feed
upon grasshoppers. Fig. 37 shows a female Sphex with five of
the six nymphs of a long-horned grasshopper, with which she
provisioned a single burrow. The prey is either paralized or

Fig. 37.-A digger wasp (below) and five long-horned grasshoppers with
which she provisioned her nest. (About 112 times natural size.)



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17






Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


killed outright before being placed in the burrow for her young
to feed upon.

DISEASES OF INSECTS AFFECTING CRUCIFERS

Insects are attacked by many diseases which are caused by
virus, fungus and bacterial organisms. Virus infections known
as polyhedral diseases are com-
mon among insects. Examina-
tion of blood from cabbage
loopers at the Everglades Exper-
iment Station showed what ap-
peared to be polyhedral (many-
sided) bodies in specimens killed
by the infection in 1951. Within
a few days the epidemic caused
a tremendous reduction of loop-
ers. The same pattern was re-
peated in the late spring and
early summer of 1952.
During 1952 a disease similar
in its effects destroyed a con-
siderable part of a heavy popu-
lation of imported cabbage-
worms. Specimens were sent to
Dr. Edward A. Steinhaus, insect
microbiologist at the University
of California, Berkeley. He de-
termined that these larvae were
killed by polyhedral disease, thus
confirming previous determina-
tions. Larvae killed by this type
of infection became distended
and a rapid liquefaction of the
body contents took place, result-
ing in a discoloration and a body
wall which was easily broken. Fig. 38.-Top, grasshopper kill-
This disease seems to be the ed by a fungus disease, showing
to be the typical position and appearance.
greatest single factor in the late- Bottom, larva and pupa of the im-
ported cabbageworm killed by a
season disappearance of cabbage polyhedral disease.
loopers in the Everglades.
Fungus diseases of insects are abundant and in certain in-
stances have been effectively employed in biological control of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


injurious forms. The grower of vegetable crops may encounter
insects affected by some of these organisms. Aphid populations
are often materially reduced by some of these organisms during
warm, humid weather. One common fungus disease of aphids
results in a flattened tan or brownish appearance of the infected
insect. This organism is probably Empusa fresenii Now.
Grasshoppers are commonly affected by various fungi (Fig.
38) of the genera Empusa, Entomopthora and Sporotrichum.
Grasshoppers infected with organisms of this type are a common
sight in Florida. They climb to the top of weed stalks or tall
grasses and wrap the fore legs around the stems or blades and
die in this position, where they remain until they disintegrate
or are blown away. This type of disease seems especially preva-
lent in the Everglades region. The fungous growth can be seen
extruding from the insect's body. The habit of climbing to a
high point on the vegetation prior to death aids in the spread of
the spores. In the Everglades, grasshoppers in the genera
Schistocerca, Melanoplus, Paroxya and Dichromorpha have been
found infected with this type of organism.

BIRDS
It would seem a major omission to leave birds out of any gen-
eral discussion of insect enemies. No attempt will be made to
minimize the destructiveness of birds to certain crops such as
sweet corn, rice and other grain crops. However, stomach con-
tents examination of boat-tailed grackles, red-winged black-
birds and meadow larks-killed in the Everglades during al-
leged depredations in germinating corn-have shown such pre-
ponderance of cutworms, armyworms and grasshoppers in these
analyses that any unnecessary shooting would seem inadvisable.
Consider also that, except for a brief period of the year, these
birds do no injury at all, but feed almost entirely on harmful
insects. Blackbirds and grackles have been noted feeding on
the various worms that affect cabbage. They and meadow larks
are among the most relentless foes of Lepidopterous larvae and
grasshoppers. There is evidence that a flock of grackles com-
pletely eliminated a heavy concentration of green stink bugs
in a few days. These bugs are relished by few birds. Any
destruction of birds should be made only after careful consid-
eration, as a study of their habits and an examination of the
stomach contents of killed birds will testify to their largely
beneficial nature.







Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are indebted to Dr. A. H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in
Charge of the Potato Investigations Laboratory in Hastings, for his part
in initiating the preparation of this bulletin, and for his direct contributions
toward the preparation of the manuscript, including several of the illustra-
tions. An expression of appreciation is due Mr. Grant E. Averill for his
cooperation in photographing much of the material used in the illustrations,
Dr. A. N. Tissot, head of the Department of Entomology, Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, for his assistance in supplying information used
in the preparation of the manuscript, and Mr. G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
of the Florida State Plant Board, Gainesville, Florida, for compiling a list
of insects of crucifers in Florida.
Considerable information on the life history and habits of the insects
was obtained from Destructive and Useful Insects (Third Edition) by
Metcalf and Flint. Other information was obtained from the various
publications listed below.

REFERENCES
1. CHITTENDEN, F. H. Some insects injurious to vegetable crops. USDA
Div. of Ent. Bul. No. 33, New Series. 1902.

2. CLAUSEN, CURTIS P. Entomophagous insects. McGraw-Hill. 1910.
3. HAYSLIP, N. C. Notes on the biological studies of mole-crickets at Plant
City, Florida. The Florida Ent. 26: 33-46. 1943.
4. HIGH, M. H. The vegetable weevil. USDA Circ. No. 530. 1939.
5. KELSHEIMER, E. G. Control of mole-crickets. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ.
S-15. 1950.
6. METCALF, C. L., and W. P. FLINT. Destructive and useful insects, their
habits and control. Third Ed. McGraw-Hill. 1951.
7. SCRUGGS, FRANK H. Annual fruit and vegetable report, 1951-52 season.
Florida State Marketing Bureau. 1952.
8. SWEETMAN, HARVEY L. The biological control of insects. Comstock
Publishing Company. 1936.
9. WOLFENBARGER, D. O. The serpentine leaf miner and its control. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 639. 1947.







Insects Attacking Cabbage and Other Crucifers


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are indebted to Dr. A. H. Eddins, Plant Pathologist in
Charge of the Potato Investigations Laboratory in Hastings, for his part
in initiating the preparation of this bulletin, and for his direct contributions
toward the preparation of the manuscript, including several of the illustra-
tions. An expression of appreciation is due Mr. Grant E. Averill for his
cooperation in photographing much of the material used in the illustrations,
Dr. A. N. Tissot, head of the Department of Entomology, Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station, for his assistance in supplying information used
in the preparation of the manuscript, and Mr. G. W. Dekle, Entomologist
of the Florida State Plant Board, Gainesville, Florida, for compiling a list
of insects of crucifers in Florida.
Considerable information on the life history and habits of the insects
was obtained from Destructive and Useful Insects (Third Edition) by
Metcalf and Flint. Other information was obtained from the various
publications listed below.

REFERENCES
1. CHITTENDEN, F. H. Some insects injurious to vegetable crops. USDA
Div. of Ent. Bul. No. 33, New Series. 1902.

2. CLAUSEN, CURTIS P. Entomophagous insects. McGraw-Hill. 1910.
3. HAYSLIP, N. C. Notes on the biological studies of mole-crickets at Plant
City, Florida. The Florida Ent. 26: 33-46. 1943.
4. HIGH, M. H. The vegetable weevil. USDA Circ. No. 530. 1939.
5. KELSHEIMER, E. G. Control of mole-crickets. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ.
S-15. 1950.
6. METCALF, C. L., and W. P. FLINT. Destructive and useful insects, their
habits and control. Third Ed. McGraw-Hill. 1951.
7. SCRUGGS, FRANK H. Annual fruit and vegetable report, 1951-52 season.
Florida State Marketing Bureau. 1952.
8. SWEETMAN, HARVEY L. The biological control of insects. Comstock
Publishing Company. 1936.
9. WOLFENBARGER, D. O. The serpentine leaf miner and its control. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 639. 1947.




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