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 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Insecticides
 Fungous diseases and their...
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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 76
Title: Insecticides and fungicides
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026687/00001
 Material Information
Title: Insecticides and fungicides
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 201-243, 6 p. of plates : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Gossard, H. A ( Harry Arthur ), 1868-1925
Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1904
 Subjects
Subject: Fungicides   ( lcsh )
Insecticides   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.A. Gossard and H. Harold Hume.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026687
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921047
oclc - 18156801
notis - AEN1488

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Front Matter
        Page 203
    Table of Contents
        Page 204
    Insecticides
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
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        Page 227
        Page 228
        Page 229
        Page 230
        Page 231
        Page 232
        Page 233
    Fungous diseases and their control
        Page 234
        Page 235
        Page 236
        Page 237
        Page 238
        Page 239
        Page 240
        Page 241
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    Back Matter
        Page 250
Full Text





BULLETIN NO. 76.


FLORIDA

AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION



Insecticides and Fungicides,


By H, A, GOSSARD and H. HAROLD HUME.
(Recently officers of the Florida Station! now respectively with the Ohio and North Carolina Stations,)


The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon application
to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.


Jacksonville, Fla.,
INDUSTRIAL RECORD PUB. CO.
1904.


NOVEMBER, 1904.











BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILSON, President ..................... Jacksonville.
C. A. CARsoN, Vice-President ...................... Kissimmee.
F. L. STRINGER, Secretary .........................Brooksville.
F. E. HARRIS ..................... .............. .. Ocala
E. D. BEGGS .................................. Pensacola.
J. R. PARROTT .................. ................ Jacksonville.
F. M. SIMONTON ..................................... Tampa.



STATION STAFF.


ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D. ....................... Director.
*C. M. CONNER, B. S. ........... Vice-Director and Agriculturist.
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D. ............... Chemist.
E H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D.....................Entomologist.
F. M. ROLFS, M. S., ................. Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAs. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S..................Veterinarian.
A. W. BLAiT, A. M., ........................Assistant Chemist.
R. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M. S. ............... Assistant Chemist.
F. C. REIMER, B. S .................... Assistant Horticulturist.
W. P. JERNIGAN .....................Auditor and Bookkeeper.
A. TYLER ......................... Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN F. MITCHELL .................... Foreman Station Farm.
JOHN H. JEFFRIES .......... Gardener, Horticultural Department.
S. A. ROBERT, B. S., ..............Assistant in Field Experiments.
*Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.















CONTENTS.




INSECTICIDES.


INTRODUCTORY ............. 205
INTERNAL POISONS ....... 208
Arsenic Bran Mash .......... 208
Criddle Mixture ............. 208
Arsenite of Lime ............ 209
Paris Green ................. 210
Resin-Lime-Paris Green Mixt're 211
Green Arsenoid .............. 212
Some Commercial Arsenicals.. 213
London Purple .............. 213
Arsenate of Lead ............ 213
Arsenite of Lead ............ 214
Borax and Phosphorus ....... 215
White Hellebore ............. 215
Cyannide of Potassium ...... 215

CONTACT INSECTICIDES ... 210
Whale Oil Soap ............. 216


Other Soaps-Thrip Juice ... 217
Kerosene Emulsion ........... 218
Kerosene-Milk Emulsion ..... 219
Mechanical Mixtures of Water,
Kerosene and Petroleum .... 220
Resin W ash ................. 221
Lime-Salt-Sulphur Wash .... 223
Lime-Sulphur-Soda Wash .... 225
Bisulphide of Lime ........... 226
Soda-Sulphur Spray ......... 227
Whale Oil Soap-Sulphur Spray 227
Pyrethrum, Buhach, Persian or
Dalmatian Insect Powder .. 228
Tobacco ..................... 229
Dust Spraying .............. 29
GASES USED IN FUMIGATION-
Bisulphide of Carbon ........ 230
Hydrocyanic Acid Gas ....... 231


FUNGOUS DISEASES AND THEIR CONTROL.


EFFECT OF FUNGI ON THE
PLANT ................. 235

METHOD OF CONTROL ....... 235

SPRAYING ................... 236
SPRAYING MIXTURES ....... 237
Bordeaux Mixture ........... 237
Weak Bordeaux Mixture ..... 238
Soda Bordeaux .............. 238
Bordeaux Mixture and Paris
Green ..................... 239


Copper Sulphate Solution .... 239
Ammoniacal Copper Carbonate 239
Potassium Sulphide Solution .. 239
Crude Carbolic Acid and Salt 240
Lime, Crude Carbolic Acid and
Salt ..... ... ............ 240
Formalin .................... 240
Corrosive Sublimate .......... 241

DUST SPRAYS-

Bird Formula ............... 241
Maxwell Formula ........... 242













Insecticides.
H. A. GOSSARD.

Introductory.
The wide-awake agriculturist has frequent need to refer to
manuals of spraying which furnish information concerning in-
secticides, fungicides and apparatus. "The Spraying of Plants,"
by E. G. Lodeman, published by The Macmillan Co., New York,
gives a history of spraying in both Europe and America. It con-
tains much instructive matter and is a valuable addition to any
agricultural library. Weed's "Insects and Insecticides." is also
a useful volume for reference. "Smith's Economic Entomology,"
published by J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, devoted to the
entire subject of Practical Entomology, is one of the most help-
ful volumes published.
Of the bulletins published by the United States Department
of Agriculture which, if available at all, are furnished free to ap-
plicants, the following are named as especially good in one or
more particulars: Farmers' Bulletin, No. 127, "Important In-
secticides"; Farmers' Bulletin No. 146, "Insecticides and Fungi-
cides"; and Farmers' Bulletin No. 172, "Scale Insects and Mites
on Citrus Trees." They may be obtained without cost by apply-
ing to the Secretary of Agriculture at Washington or to members
of Congress.
Many of the manufacturers of spraying apparatus prepare
each year a brief manual containing formulae for the mixing of
the more important sprays, and also furnish reliable information
regarding spraying apparatus.










BULLETIN NO. 76.


By consulting the following manufacturers of spraying ma-
chinery, devices suited to nearly every kind of insecticidal and
fungicidal operations may be obtained:
Field Force Pump Co., Elmira, N. Y.; Wm. Stahl, Quincy,
Ill.; Gould Mfg. Co., Seneca Falls, N. Y.; "Friend Mfg. Co.,"
Gasport, N. Y.; Deming Co., Salem, O.; F. E. Myers & Co., Ash-
land, 0.; Spramotor Co., Buffalo, N. Y.; Morrill & Morley, Ben-
ton Harbor, Mich.; Niagara Spraying Co., Middleport, N. Y.;
Hardie Spray Pump Co., Detroit, Mich.; Leggett & Bro., 301
Pearl St., N. Y.; Thos. Woodason, 451 East Cambria St., Phila-
delphia, Pa.; Dust Sprayer Mfg. Co., 510 Broadway, Kansas
City, Mo.; Dust Sprayer Co., St. Louis, Mo.; Hillis Dust Spray
Mfg. Co., McFall, Mo.; E. C. Brown & Co., Rochester, N. Y.;
The Pierce-Loop Sprayer Co., Northeast, Pa.; Dayton Supply Co.,
Dayton, O.
For insecticidal practice, insects are distinguished as those
which bite off and chew their food, and those which pierce plant
or animal tissues and suck the juice from thence. Of the first class
we have familiar examples in the grasshopper, the caterpillar and
the beetles; of the second, in the squash bug, plant lice or aphids,
mosquitoes, scale insects, etc. The biting insects are destroyed by
feeding them stomach poisons with their food; the sucking class,
by means of penetrating preparations which kill by contact; and
both classes to some extent by subjecting them to the inhalation of
poisonous gases, or they are driven off by materials possessing dis-
agreeable qualities and known as repellants. The biting insects
leave holes and ragged edges where they have eaten as evidence of
the character of their mouth parts, while the sucking ones usually
cause the leaves to become minutely spotted or speckled with white,
any severe case of puncturing being followed by wilting down and
drying up of the leaves.









































Sucking Insects,


Biting Insects.


PLATE I.









BTiLETIN NO. 76.


Internal Poisons.
White arsenic or arsenious acid ( As, 03 ) is the active prin-
ciple in most insect poisons. It must always be chemically com-
bined with some element as lime, lead or copper, that will keep
it in suspension in water, never permitting it to go into solution,
or it will penetrate the leaf tissues, killing them, causing what is
known as burning of the foliage.
1. Arsenic Bran Mash,

White arsenic, 1 lb., or Paris green, 1 lb.; syrup, 2 qts.; bran,
50 to 75 Ibs. Thin the syrup with water, then mix well with the
other materials and add enough more water to make a wet but
not sloppy mash; 2 to 4 lbs. of dissolved sugar may be used instead
of the syrup.
For grasshoppers, cut-worms and crickets. Scatter mash where
grasshoppers are abundant, and for cut-worms put a teaspoonful
near the base of each plant. If on the first night after plowing the
field, the bait is scattered and left for two or three days, the cut-
worms, having nothing else to feed on, will come to the surface,
devour it and be practically exterminated before the crop is
planted. Scattered upon cabbages it is good to destroy cabbage
worms. Wire worms may be poisoned to some extent by putting
Paris green or white arsenic on slices of Irish potato or some simi-
lar vegetable and using for a bait.
2. Criddle Mixture.
The most successful remedy yet tried in some of the Canad-
ian provinces and Northwestern States for young grasshoppers-
not so effective against the old ones-is the Criddle mixture:
1 part, by measure, of Paris green; 120 parts, by measure, of
horse droppings, preferably fresh; 1 lb. of salt should be added








INSECTICIDES.


when the droppings are not fresh. First mix the Paris green into
a paste with water, then add more water and stir with the drop-
pings until a homogeneous mass, damp, but not dripping when
ladled, is obtained. If salt is used, dissolve in water before adding.
Said to be much more effective if spread in hot, sunny weather.
3. Arsente of Lime.
Cheapest of all the arsenical sprays; equal to Paris green in
efficiency; cannot be readily adulterated; used as a spray for all
biting insects. When properly made, will not burn foliage at ordi-
nary strength; remains in suspension better than Paris green or
London purple and combines readily with Bordeaux mixture,
furnishing an effective and cheap combination of insecticide and
fungicide.
W hite arsenic .........................1 lb.
Lim e .............................. 2 lbs.
W ater ............................. 3 gals.
Boil together for full 40 minutes after the boiling point is
reached. As a precaution against danger of burning, slake an
additional pound of lime, add to it 3 or 4 gallons of water and
pour it into the arsenic and lime mixture obtained from the above
formula. Before diluting, strain through a coarse cloth or sieve
to take out the lumps that would otherwise clog the nozzle. Di-
lute to 250 gallons before applying to ordinary foliage. Potatoes
will stand a dilution of from 150 to 200 gallons, while peaches
and cucurbits should not be sprayed with a dilution of less than
300 to 400 gallons. Perhaps a safer formula for tender vegetation
is as follows, but it is nearly twice as expensive:
W hite arsenic ........................ 2 Ibs.
Sal. soda ......................... ..8 Ibs.
Rain water .......................... 2 gals.
Boil these ingredients for 15 minutes after the boiling point









BULLETIN NO. 76.


is reached. This should be labelled "poison" and kept as a stock
solution. This can be kept for use as needed up to a six months'
limit, but is risky if kept longer because of chemical disintegration
by which soluble arsenic is freed. When ready to spray, slake 2
lbs. of lime, dilute with two gallons of water, strain and add to
it one pint of the stock solution. Stir well and dilute to 40 gal-
lons, again stirring thoroughly. Double this strength may be used
on potatoes without injury, but 2 additional lbs. of lime should
be used with each additional pint of stock solution used. Should
the arsenic-soda solution be used without the lime, disastrous re-
sults will follow to foliage. The jugs and containers in which the
arsenicals' referred to under this heading, "Arsenite of Lime,"
are boiled and kept, should never be used for other purposes.

4. Paris Green.

When not adulterated, a good insecticide. Good Paris green
should contain between 55 per cent. and tiO per cent. of arsenious
acid (58.65 per cent. being the theoretical standard), of which not
more than 4 per cent., or at most 5 per cent., should be free, other-
wise foliage will be scorched. The only way to determine the per-
centage of free acid is to have an analysis made by a competent
chemist. The excess, often found, indicates that the manufac-
turers have an inferior article which they try to bring up to grade
by the addition of white arsenic. Gypsum is often umed as an
adulterant to increase the weight. To test for gypsum, take 1-4
teaspoonful and add to a drinking glass of water; stir well and
add 6 tablespoonfuls of ammonia stirring for five minutes. Since
pure Paris green is soluble in ammonia, if sample is correct, no
undissolved residue will remain in the water.












INSECTICIDES. 211

Paris green ........................... 1 lb.
Lump lime .......................... 2 lbs.
Water ..................... 160 to 200 gals.
The poison should first be put into enough water to form a
paste and then must be added to one or two lbs. of slaking or
freshly slaked lime which neutralizes the free arsenic. An excess
of lime will do no harm. For sensitive foliage, such as peach and
bean, dilute to 200 gallons; for hardier plants, to 160 gallons.
Potatoes will stand 1 Ib. to 80 gallons; while for toma toes and
conifers it is perhaps best not to use it at all, but to substitute
arsenate of lead. Paris green should be very finely crystallized
and must be kept agitated while the spray is being applied to
prevent the poison from settling to the bottom. The finer the
poison the more quickly it will act when subjected to the diges-
tive action of the insect. When possible, select a cool afternoon,
toward evening, to do the spraying, as warm water has great
capacity for putting arsenic into solution. Paris green is very
conveniently applied with Bordeaux mixture, the Bordeaux in-
stead of water, in the same quantity, being the dilutant; the burn-
ing qualities of the insecticide are completely neutralized by the
Bordeaux.
Applied in the dry way, the powder is best diluted with about
20 times its own weight of flour or lime. Flour is better than lime
as a carrier, since insects are not repelled from it as from lime,
but it costs more. The dust may be shaken from a cheese cloth
sack or applied with a powder gun.

5. Resin-Lime Paris Green Mixture.
In spraying with the arsenites, other than arsenate of lead,
upon smooth-leaved plants, it is difficult to make the poison adhere.











BULzETIN NO. 76.


By using the following preparation, a persistent, adhesive spray
is obtained:
Pulverized resin ...................... 5 lbs.
Concentrated lye ..................... 1 lb.
Fish or other animal oil ........... 1 pint.
W ater .............................. 5 gals.
Heat the oil and resin with a gallon of water until the resin
is softened; add the lye, stir well, and put in the remaining 4
gallons of water, boiling for two hours or longer; add enough
water to make 5 full gallons and keep as a stock solution.
For use take of this resin stock solution, 1 gallon; whitewash,
or milk of lime, 3 gallons; Paris green, 1-4 lb.; water, 16 gallons.
Stir the Paris green into the whitewash while it is slaking or
after it is slaked, then add to the water, then pour in the resin
solution. This is desirable for use on cabbages before they begin
to head, and on cauliflower before the flower is exposed. At later
stages of growth, for cabbage worms, use mixture of pyrethrum
and flour.

6. Green Arsanoid.

Chemically, this is arsenite of copper, and, physically, is
amorphous or uncrystallized Paris green. It is cheaper than Paris
green and stays in suspension far better, but contains almost
double the amount of soluble arsenic, hence, to be safely used,
must always be combined with a sufficient quantity of lime. Many
prefer it before Paris green.
Green arsenoid ...................... 1 lb.
Fresh lump lime ..................... 3 lbs.
W ater ..................... 160 to 200 gals.
Safe and desirable to use with Bordeaux.











INSECTICIDES.


7. Some Commercial Arsenicals.
According to the California Station, Pink arsenoid is arsenite
of lead; contains less free soluble arsenic than Green arsenoid, but
has a smaller total percentage of arsenic and is a safe and cheap
preparation. White arsenoid is barium arsenite; contains a dan-
gerously high percentage of free arsenious oxide, all of which is
more or less soluble. It is a substance that is dangerous to fol-
iage. Gray arsenoid is a mixture of the calcium and copper arse-
nites and contains too much soluble arsenic to be entirely safe,
but with lime added as a neutralizing agent, it is perhaps to be
preferred before London purple. Laurel green is a mixture of
inert matter with a relatively small proportion of arsenite of cop-
per, dear at any price. Paragrene is objectionable because of an
excess of free soluble arsenic.
8. London Purple.
Chemically, arsenite of calcium, but very variable in per-
centage of free arsenic present. Remains well in suspension and
can be used with Bordeaux. Must be handled with great care and
at best is somewhat unreliable. Should be neutralized with a
sufficiency of lime as in case of Paris green. Use 1 lb. of London
purple to 160 or 200 gallons of water. Its use is not recommended.
9. Arsenate of Lead.
On sensitive foliage, the safest of all arsenicals. Contains no
free arsenic, hence does not burn the tenderest plants. It is also
very persistent in remaining upon foliage for long periods of
time, even when drenched by hard rains. If applied on a fair day,
so it has time to dry on the foliage, it will adhere for months.
Needs some stirring while being applied, but remains in suspen-
sion better than any other of the arsenical poisons. Especially
useful in the garden.











BULLETIN NO. 76.


Acetate of lead .......................24 oz.
Arsenate of soda ......................10 oz.
W ater ............................ 3 gals.
The acetate of lead should be guaranteed to contain about 60
per cent. of available lead oxide, and the arsenate of soda should
be 6 to 8 per cent. pure, with chlorine present not to exceed 2 or
3 per cent. Dissolve the 24 ozs. acetate of lead in two gallons of
warm water in a wooden pail, and in a separate pail of wood dis-
solve the 10 ozs. arsenate of soda in 1 gallon of hot water and when
the two solutions are fully dissolved, pour together into the spray
tank containing 100 gallons of water. The fine, whitish, precipi-
tate formed is arsenate of lead, which will remain in suspension
a dozen times as long as Paris green. A mixture of several times
this strength can be used without any danger whatever to foliage.
Some commercial brands of arsenate of lead are upon the mar-
ket. Bowker's Disparene, made by the Bowker Insecticide Co., of
New York; Swift's arsenate of lead, prepared by the Merrimac
Chemical Co., Boston Mass.; and the Adler Co.'s goods are all safe
and reliable compounds. They do not remain in suspension so well
as the home-made mixtures and for extensive work are, perhaps, less
desirable. They are very convenient, however, for use in a small
garden where a quick, ready-made, perfectly safe preparation is
wanted. The home-made mixture should not be kept as a stock
solution, or it will lose much of its power to remain well in sus-
pension.
10. Arsenite of Lead.
Sodium arsenite ......................12 oz.
Lead acetate ..................... ... 4 lbs.
Dissolve the lead acetate in two gallons of warm water, like-
wise the sodium arsenite in one gallon of warm water. Pour the











INSECTICIDES.


two solutions together into a spray tank containing from 50 to 150
gallons of water, according to the strength desired and a compound
will be obtained as harmless to foliage as the arsenate of lead and
also capable of remaining in suspension longer than any other ar-
senical.

J1. Borax and Phosphorus.
Put together in a mortar equal parts of borax and chocolate
and crush to a fine powder. Scatter where cock-roaches will find
it. If a mortar is not at hand wrap the materials in a cloth
and beat well with a hammer until each particle of chocolate has
a particle of borax adhering to it. Or, spread powdered borax on
bread, slices of sweet potato, or banana peelings, and put in places
frequented by roaches. Better than borax for roaches is a phos-
phorus paste. This may be spread upon bread or bits of paper and
put in the way of the insects. Phosphorus paste is sold on the
market under various names, as Electric Paste, etc.

13. White Hellebore.
Occupies an intermediate position between stomach poisons
and contact insecticides; loses its poisonous properties after being
'exposed to the air for a few days and therefore can sometimes b
used to advantage upon fruits or plants that are soon to be eaten.
Must be kept in tight receptacles and should not be kept too long
before being used. Is especially useful against slugs, or the lar-
vae of saw flies. Apply as a spray in the evening (many worms
feed at night), one ounce in three gallons of water, or as a powder
with a blow-gun or from a cheese-cloth sack.

Cyanide of Potassium.
Acts both as a poison and as an inhalant. If this .,u stance
be powdered and thrown into the nests of ants which hav,' been











BULLETIN NO. 76.


somewhat disturbed by a little stirring most of the Jo'onJ will
destroy themselves in attempting to remove the obnoxious stuff
and the remainder will move elsewhere. Can sometimes be used
near the roots of plants where bi-sulphide of carbon would be dan-
gerous. This is a deadly poison and poultry or anything else pick-
ing up and swallowing particles of it will be killed.


Contact Insecticides.

14. Whale 011 Soap.
For safety, efficiency and general range of usefulness whale
oil soap is hardly second to any contact insecticide. It is useful
against all forms of plant lice and scale insects. Upon the mar-
ket are found hard whale oil soaps and similar soft soaps. The
hard soaps have caustic soda for their alkaline constituent while
caustic potash furnishes the base for the soft soaps. Potash forms
a stronger chemical union with fatty acids than caustic soda, and
hence potassium hydroxide, or lye is less apt to separate out from
a potash spray than is a sodium hydroxide from a soda soap spray;
there is, therefore, less likelihood of damage to plant tissues from
the potash soaps. Potash soaps seem to give much better results
on orange trees, especially, than soda soaps. Such soaps should
not contain over 30 per cent. of water. Potash is also a fertilizer,
and possibly acts in some degree as a stimulant to plants when
applied even in such small quantity as is contained in a soap spray.
The potash soaps go into solution in water much more readily than
the soda soaps unless the latter are kept at a high temperature.
When possible use rain water for dilution, or, if hard water must
be used, first "break" it with lye, otherwise a stringy, lime-stearin
precipitate will form, interfering materially with satisfactory










INSECTICIDES.


work. Among Florida horticulturists, Leggett's Anchor soap has
long been in favor as a representative of the hard soaps, and
Good's Potash soap, especially the No. 3, is liked by the orange
growers. For soft-bodied insects, such as plant lice, use one pound
of any good soap in six or seven gallons of water; for scale insects,
white fly, etc., on orange, peach and hardwood trees, use one
pound in from two to four gallons of water. For Florida condi-
tions one lb. to three gallons is usually strong enough for scales,
unless it be upon the trunks and larger limbs. Use weaker solu-
tions in summer. Most scale insects and eggs of plant lice upon
deciduous plants are to be found in greatest numbers in winter
near the points where new growth will start in the spring; hence,
liberal pruning of these is advised before the use of any contact
insecticide.
The following is a formula given by Lodeman for making a
whale oil soap:
True potash lye ...................... 1 lb.
Fish oil ............................. 3 pts.
Rain water ......................... 3 gais.
Dissolve the lye in boiling water, then add the oil and boil
for at least two hours longer. When boiling is finished, there
should be two gallons of soap; if necessary, add water to make
exactly two gallons. For insects, such as plant lice, use this soap
at the rate of 1 lb. in 9 or 10 gallons of water; for scale insects,
one lb in five to six gallons of water.

15. Other Soaps. Thrip juice.
Any ordinary laundry soap is useful against soft-bodied in-
sects, such as plant lice, and some correspondents report satis-
factory success in keeping scales from orange trees by using on










BULLETIN NO. 76.


them each week the soapsuds derived from the family laundry.
Fir-tree oil soap possesses twice the killing power of ordinary
whale oil soap, when diluted to the same degree.
Hammond's Thrip Juice, made by Benjamin Hammond, at
Fish-kill-on-Hudson, N. Y., is seemingly a very concentrated pot-
ash-tar soap and is'used quite extensively by some of our best or-
ange growers against young scale; sulphur solutions readily com-
bine with it, giving an insecticide effective against the various
mites as well as young scale.

16. Kerosene Emulsion.
A very penetrating insecticide-one of the most efficient
against all sucking insects.
Whale oil soap, or Hard soap (chipped), 1-2 lb.
W ater ..............................1 gal.
K erosene ............................2 gals.
Whale oil soap is to be preferred but ordinary laundry soap
may be used. Dissolve in one gallon of boiling water and while
soap solution is boiling hot, pour into it, away from the fire, two
gallons of kerosene. Commence agitation immediately, with a
force pump, pumping the liquid back into itself until a thick,
creamy mass is obtained. If the emulsion does not form within
10 or 15 minutes the whole may be reheated to the boiling point
over a fire out-of-doors. The time necessary for emulsifying de-
pends upon the quantity of mixture made, and if the proportions
given are multiplied several times, the period of agitation must
be continued longer. No free oil should appear on the surface
when the mixture is completed.
Soft, clean water should be used from which all dirt particles
have been removed otherwise they will become centers for the col-
lection of free oil. If only hard water is available it should be










INSECTICIDES.


"broken" with lye before being used, or what is perhaps better,
an emulsion may be made with milk. Dilute the emulsion ob-
tained from the above formula with 27 gallons of water, or nine
parts of water to one part of the emulsion for scale insects; for
plant lice it may be diluted twice as much. If the emulsion is well
made it can be kept for a long time as a stock preparation in
closed jars. For tender plants dilution should be one part of the
emulsion to 15 or 20 of water.
Kerosene sprays of any description should not be allowed to
collect about the base of the trees or in the crowns of the plants
to which they are applied. It is sometimes best to bank the trees
with earth before spraying and should the earth become saturated
with kerosene remove it from contact with the tree within an hour
or two after the application is made.
Bright, sunshiny, breezy days are to be preferred for making
kerosene applications so the volatile oils will evaporate at once.
In our humid climate, even a much diluted emulsion, if used on a
cloudy day at the beginning of a cloudy week, is liable to cause
disastrous results, especially to tender vegetation and citrus trees.
Use a fine Vermorel nozzle in making kerosene applications.
Kerosene emulsion is an excellent remedy for lice upon live
stock, used at the rate of 1 pint of emulsion to 12 or 15 parts of
water. The mixture may be applied with a spray pump, and
rubbed into the hair of the animals with the fingers or a brush. It
is usually best to make two or three applications two or three weeks
apart, though one thorough treatment will often suffice.

17. Kerosene-Milk Emulsion.
Kerosene ........................... 2 gals.
Milk, sour .......................... 1 gal.
Pour together and chAn by means of a pump, as in case of










BULLETIN NO. 76.


soap emulsions. If a thick butter does not appear after five min-
utes' churning, add a little vinegar and churn again. If sweet
milk is used, the vinegar must be added. Milk emulsion ferments
after a short time and therefore cannot be kept as a stock solution.
It is usually recommended where rainwater is not procurable for
making soap emulsion or where small quantities of spray are de-
sired.
18. Mechanical Water Mixtures of Kerosene and Petroleum.
Of the kero-water pumps, designed to effect a given dilution
of oil with water at the time of application, the Gould Kerowater
pumps and the Spramotor pumps are the best; in fact, are about
the only ones that can be recommended, and even these must be
often tested while in use to ascertain if the actual percentage of
oil being thrown tallies.with the setting of the gauge. This is done
by pumping a small quantity of the liquid into a graduated glass
tube and waiting for the oil and water to separate. When set at
10 per, cent. or 15, per cent. these machines are often found to be
throwing from 20 to 30 per cent. of oil. They are chiefly useful in
fighting San Jose and related scales.
Crude petroleum having a specific gravity of from 43 to 45
degrees on the Beaume oil scale when diluted with from 75 to
80 per cent. of water is excellent for scale insects, if applied dur-
ing the winter months, while the trees are dormant and devoid of
leaves. Crude petroleum is to be preferred before kerosene for
winter applications, because of the heavy, non-volatile oils which
persist upon the bark for many weeks, killing such young scales
as come in contact with it, and preventing any of them from mak-
ing a set upon the bark for months after the application is made.
Crude petroleum must not be used on trees in leaf, or upon ever-
green trees. For summer applications against scale, a 15 per cent.










INSECTICIDES.


mechanical mixture of refined kerosene with 85 per cent. of water
is excellent. A few correspondents report the satisfactory use of
kerowater pumps in orange groves, but, because of their unrelia-
bility in mixing a definite percentage of oil great caution should be
observed in using them in this way. The regular kerosene emul-
sion is much safer, for anyone not an expert, to use upon any tree
or plant in leaf. Use all precautions given in the paragraph upon
kerosene emulsion. Always apply with a fine Vermorel nozzle.

19. Resin Wash.
1. Resin, pulverized ....................20 lbs.
Caustic soda, granulated, 98 per cent. 41-4 lbs.
Fish oil ............................. 3 pts.
Water, for final bulk ...............150 gals.
A somewhat cheaper formula is the following:
2. Resin, pulverized .................... 20 lbs.
Crude caustic soda, 78 per cent. .........4 lbs.
Fish oil ..........................2 1-2 pts.
Water for final bulk .... 100 gals. to 150 gals.
Ordinary commercial resin, such as is bought by the barrel in
Florida, is satisfactory, and the 78 per cent. caustic soda is of the
quality used in soap factories. The crude soda comes in drums
of from 112 to 200 lbs. each.
Another formula which has given good satisfaction to some
growers because of the convenience of quickly obtaining the ma-
terials without ordering them from a distance, and of keeping the
soda indefinitely without special precautions is as follows:
Resin, pulverized .................... 20 lbs.
Fish oil .......................... 3 1-2 pts.
Caustic soda (Star Ball potash, pulverized) 71bs.
Water for final*bulk .............. 100 gals.










BULLETIN NO. 76.


As a smothering wash, the first formula is probably equal to
the second, or third, but its contact effects are less satisfactory. If
the wash is to be used in summe; the dilution given in the first
formula is about right, but for winter use better results are se-
cured by diluting to 100 gals. instead of 150.
The details of preparation are the same no matter which for-
mula is used. Procure a large iron kettle, a hog-scalding vat is
excellent, and another smaller kettle for hot water. If a large ket-
tle of from 25 to 40 gallons capacity is unavailable, a number of
smaller ones can be used, the materials being divided between
them as they are weighed out and measured. Heat in the large
kettle 13 or 14 gallons of water, having previously placed in the
bottom the materials given in one of the formulae. If the water
is hot before the materials are put in, add the resin and fish oil
first and then the soda, in small lots, to prevent, a sudden boiling
over. Boiling is best continued for two or three hours over a hot,
but not too brisk fire. One hours' boiling or less will give a mix-
ture which can be used, but re~ttlts will not be as satisfactory as
when the wash is thoroughly cooked. Whenever there is a tend-
ency for the liquid to boil over subsidence will quickly occur if
a pint or more of water from the water kettle which is kept warm
but not boiling, is added. Never add cold water while the wash is
cooking, if you desire results that are certain. Increase the quan-
tity of solution by gradual additions of warm water until a stock
solution of 30 gallons is obtained. For use, this is to be diluted to
150 gallons in case of the first formula, to 100 gallons with the
second, and 100 gallons with the third. The stock solution may
be kept for a time and used as desired, but the wash is best used
as fast as made. Any sediment or settling in the stock solution
indicates that cooking was incomplete 'and must be repeated.









INSECTICIDES.


Where a steam pump is possessed or a head of steam is available,
a set of barrels may be arranged with steam pipes leading through
them and resin wash can be prepared rapidly and in large quan-
tity by boiling with steam. The stock solution should be strained
before diluting it to remove any particles or trash that would clog
the pump nozzle. Apply with a coarse nozzle.
Resin wash is useful on all scale insects, plant lice, etc., but is
especially used against the soft scales, or Lecaniums, and White
Fly. Three or four applications of this spray to citrus trees within
so short a period as three or four months give the trees a severe
shock. Two thorough applications during the winter with possibly
an additional one in the summer, are all the trees should be ex-
pected to stand, and this treatment should not extend through a
continuous period of several years; if continuous treatment must
be given make part of the sprayings with a high-grade potash soap.
If cooking is incomplete the resin wash will be exceptionally in-
jurious and if applied to young fruit under three months old, re-
sults are sometimes disastrous. It is best not to use this wash at
all on trees in bloom or on those carriyng young fruit.

20. Lime-Salt-Sulphur Wash.
Has long been the favorite spray for scale insects on decidu-
ous trees in California, and is now preferred throughout the coun-
try as a winter application for all kinds of scales on dormant de-
ciduous trees.
Profs. Alwood and Phillips, of Virginia, furnish the follow-
ing directions for its preparation (Bulletin 141, Va. Exp. Sta.) :
Lime, unslaked ..................... 30 lbs.
Flowers of sulphur ................. 30 Ibs.
Salt .............................. 10 lbs.
W ater ........................ 100 gals.









BULLETIN NO. 76.


"When cooked and diluted, it should test 1.052 to 1.054 on
the hydrometer, or about 7 per cent. on the ordinary Beaume acid
spindle.
"Proceed as follows to make the wash for small orchard work:
Put 4 to 5 gallons of hot water in an iron kettle (20 gallon capac-
ity), add 15 lbs. of sulphur and mix briskly with lime, adding
boiling water as needed to bring the entire,mass into a thick paste.
Work the mass into a perfectly homogeneous paste, then add water
enough to make 10 or 12 gallons, and boil for 30 to 40 minutes.
It is better to add hot water, as the cooking will thus proceed more
rapidly, but if cold water is used, the resulting wash will be the
same. Add the salt, 5 lbs., when the paste is diluted. When the
wash is cooked, strain and dilute to 50 gallons. This will be best
accomplished by pouring it into the barrel already partly filled
with water. Hot or cold water may be used, at the convenience of
the operator, as there will be no marked difference in the result.
"The quantity sufficient for 100 gallons of wash may be
cooked in a 25-gallon kettle, but this is rather concentrated and
needs attention. In whatever manner the wash is cooked, it should
be stirred occasionally. With two kettles for cooking, mounted on
arches or tripods, one man with convenient water supply, can
readily make 100 to 150 gallons wash per hour. It is necessary
for rapid work to have one large kettle solely for use as a supply
of hot water. One needs a stout stirrer for each kettle, used to
cook the wash in, and several long-handled sheet-iron dippers,
which hold about one gallon each for use in handling the prepara-
tion. The cost of the ingredients to make the lime-sulphur wash
by the above formula, is about 1 cent per gallon,-which renders its
abundant use on plants very cheap in comparison with soap or the
kerosene washes.









INSECTICIDES.


"It is very important to strain the wash as it is run into the
spray tanks. The pumps will better resist corrosion by this wash
if they are made of iron rather than of brass. Copper machinery
cannot be used at all wilh this wash. The pumps and fittings, of
whatever material, should always be washed with clean water after
each day's use."
If trees are cut back severely they can be treated with a cer-
tainty not possible otherwise. It is difficult indeed to spray a
bushy-topped tree, 5 to 7 years old, so as to coat all the twigs, and
large trees are proportionally more difficult to treat. Cut-back
trees can be treated by hand-mopping or with spray machinery.
A rag mop or heavy paint or whitewash brush may be used.
This wash must never be used upon trees in leaf, nor even dur-
ing the winter season until they have become dormant. The first
spraying should not be done until after the middle of December
and the second one is best made just before the tree starts into
growth in the spring. The spring application will remain upon the
trees and prevent the young scales from setting before late sum-
mer. This wash is very caustic to the touch and the operator
should provide himself with rubber gloves. Horses exposed to
the spray should be blanketed.

21. Lime-Sulphur-Soda Wash.
The soda in this formula is designed to boil the sulphur and
thus save time. The cos* of materials is greater than when the
preceding formula is used, but this is offset, in a measure, by the
saving in time.
Lime, unslaked ..................... 30 lbs.
Flowers of sulphur ......... ........ 15 IDs.
Caustic soda ..................... 4 to 6 lbs.
Water, ......................... 50 gallons.


225









BULLETIN NO. 76.


While the 20 lbs. of lime is being slaked with water, stir
in one-half of the sulphur. Add the remainder of the lime and
as it slakes stir in the remainder of the sulphur, adding more
water as needed. As soon as boiling ceases, add one-third the
caustic soda and before the boiling it causes is past, add another
one-third of the caustic soda. The proper color for the finished
wash is a brick red, and soda should now be added in small lots
until the correct color appears. From 4 to 6 lbs. will usually
bring the desired color, but if the lye is weak, it may be neces-
sary to use more than this. Warm water will give a better mix-
ture than if cold is used. This formula has the same range of
usefulness as the preceding one, though it is possibly not quite
equal to it in effectiveness. The directions given with the lime-
salt-sulphur wash apply here.
22. Bisulphide of Lime.
Lump lime, unslaked ............... 5 lbs.
Flowers of sulphur ................... 5 lbs.
W ater ....... ..................... 4 gals.
Boil all of these ingredients together until they combine,
forming a'brownish liquid. This is to be diluted to 100 gallons
for use. Use for six-spotted mite, rust-mite of the orange, and
red spider; quite effective against these insects, but is also a fungi-
cide, destroying the diseases that keep scale insects in check;
hence, when used in an orange grove, excessive multiplication of
scale insects frequently follows. Experiences with this wash seem
contradictory, suggesting a possibility that the particular develop-
mental condition of the fungus at the time of making the applica-
tion needs to be considered. When used upon orange, follow in
two or three weeks with some penetrating insecticide such as whale
oil scap, or Thrip Juice. It is usually better to combine sulphur









INSECTICIDES.


with a soap or Thrip Juice spray for use against mites, red spider
and scale at the same time. Not very effective against the purple
mite; most valuable for red spider (T. bimaculatus) on garden
plants.
23. Soda-Sulphur Spray.
Caustic soda (98 per cent.) ......... 10 lbs.
Flowers of sulphur .................. 20 lbs.
W ater ............................ 20 gals.
Mix the sulphur to a paste, not sloppy, with cold water in
a barrel; add to this wet sulphur 10 lbs. of caustic soda, and as it
boils, add gradually 20 gallons of water to prevent burning, not
adding enough at any time to drown the boiling. This is the stock
solution; when ready to spray, put 40 gallons of water in another
barrel and stir init one-half gallon of the stock solution from which
all sediment has been removed by straining. Used against purple
mite, six-spotted mite and rust mite; for purple mite, young scale
and the newly hatched larvae of white fly, use at the rate of one
gallon of stock solution to 50 gallons of spray.

24. Whale-Oil-Soap-Sulphur Spray.
The difficulty of killing purple mite with the ordinary sul-
phur solutions and the tendency of these to act as fungicides,
thereby removing the natural checks upon scale increase, has led
to the use of combinations that will destroy both mites and scales
at the same time. Many growers obtain excellent results against
rust mite, six-spotted mite, puple mite, scale insects and white
fly by combining sulphur and soap spray, or sulphur and Ham-
mond's Thrip Juice. The combination is sometimes made by first
mixing the sulphur into a paste with water and then adding to
the spray tank at the rate of one or two lbs. to 50 gallons of soap










BULLETIN NO. 76.


spray, bn the more satisfactory method and the one commonly
used, is to make a soda-sulphur solution, according to the preced-
ing formula, and then add one-half gallon of the stock solution to
40 gallons of soap or Thrip Juice spray. Especially useful to
orange growers.

25. Pyrethrum, Buhach, Persian or Dalmation Insect Powder.

Kept at all drug stores and is derived from the pulverized
blossoms of the Pyrethrum plant. Acts on insects through their
breathing pores as a kind of narcotic, and is not poisonous to man
or to the higher animals. Useful to scatter about for driving
away roaches, fleas, flies, etc. It may be mixed with an equal
quantity of flour and, if kept corked up in a bottle over night, all
parts of the mixture will be effective. Good to use for cabbage
worms on headed cabbages, and on fruits which are so nearly ma-
tured that the use of arsenicals is undesirable. If the air of a
closed room be thoroughly filled with the dust, blown from a pow-
der gun, the flies and mosquitoes will fall to the floor, and may be
then swept up and burned. A decoction is sometimes made bj
boiling one ounce in twc gallons of water for ten minutes, this
being used as a spray. The dry powder may be sifted between
the sheets of beds, suspected to contain bed-bugs, and the sleeper
will be but little disturbed. If the powder is moistened and
molded into small cones which are then dried in the oven, a cone
may be lighted at the apex in the evening and will smoulder
slowly, filling the air with smoke and stupefying or killing all mos-
quitoes in the room, if air currents are not too brisk. Two or
three cones are sufficient for an evening. Only fresh Pyrethrum
can be relied upon.










INSECTICIDES.


26. Tobacco.
Tobacco dust, mixed with other fertilizer, is very generally
used by pineapple growers for the control of mealy bugs. When
used as a top dressing for soils in cucumber and melon patches it
has a perceptible effect in interfering with the multiplication of
plant lice. It is reported to be efficient for driving "wood-lice"
(white ants) from about the roots of trees.
Tobacco decoction is made by boiling one lb. of stems or of
dust in one or two gallons of water until a dark brown liquid is
obtained. When boiling is finished, add water to make two or
three gallons of solution; the efficiency of the spray will be in-
creased by adding one lb. of whale oil soap to every fifty gallons
of decoction. If the dust is used, strain out the sand particles to
prevent clogging of the pump nozzle. The solution will not harm
the tenderest foliage, and is effective against plant lice. "Rose-
leaf" insecticide, an extract of tobacco prepared by the Kentucky
Tobacco Product Co., Louisville, Ky., is very concentrated and a
better decoction than is usually obtained by ordinary boiling.

27. Dust Spraying.
Within the past two or three years some of our largest grow-
ers of oranges have used the dust sprayers for distributing sulphur
for rust mite. The Cyclone and the Jumbo machines are the ones
chiefly used for this purpose. Other dusting machines are made
by the Hillis Dust Spray Co., McFall, Mo., while the "Whirlwind"
is made by J. J. Kiser, Stanberry, Mo. The mixtures applied are
generally one-half lime dust and one-half flowers of sulphur, but
sometimes 1-3 lime dust, 1-3 tobacco dust and 1-3 flowers of sul-
phur are used. Dry Bordeaux is also spread with these machines.
The comparative rapidity of the work, because of no water hav-










BuuIwTZr No. 76.


ing to be hauled about, is the great item in favor of the dust
sprayer. Where dusting has been done regularly for mites, with
no spraying at all for other insects, the application has in several
instances acted as a fungicide, and the very life of the trees was
threatened because of the onslaughts of scales, no longer checked
by the ever-present diseases that destroy them. It should never
be forgotten that materials which, in a dry climate, are reco:.-
mended as being insecticides and which are such under dry con-
ditions, may, in Florida, become great promoters of insect multi-
plication. Where dusting is the main practice it is best to give
an occasional treatment with soap-sulphur solution to correct the
evils sometimes entailed by dry dusting.

Gases Used in Fumigation.

28, Bisulphide of Carbon.
A volatile liquid,. whose fumes are heavier than air. When
mixed with air the fumes are very explosive, and no fire of any
kind should be brought near them. For fumigating a building
containing growing plants, not more than one pint to 1,000 cubic
feet of space should be used. To destroy weevils in grain in tight
bins, use about one Ib. to the ton of grain, or the liquid can be
poured directly on the grain. If bins are somewhat open, cover
with a blanket. Fumigate for 24 to 30 hours, after which the bins
should be thoroughly aired. No live stock should be left in a
building which is being fumigated.
Ants' nests may be destroyed by pouring the liquid into holes
made by thrusting a sharpened stick into the top of the nest to
the depth of 10 or 12 inches. Close the holes and cover for an hour
with a wet blanket. Sometimes the holes are made to a greater










INSECTICIDES.


depth and the operator, standing at a considerable distance, lights
the gas with a taper fastened to the end of a pole. The explosion
drives the gas into the furthermost galleries of the ants.

29. Hydrocyanic Ac:d Gas.

For a full description of the methods of using this gas ref-
erence should be made to Prof. W. G. Johnson's "Fumigation
Methods," published by Orange Judd Co., New York. The gas
is chiefly used for destroying scale insects on citrus trees, but is
useful in fumigating rooms and buildings for the purpose of
destroying vermin, mosquitoes, etc., as well as for cleansing nur-
sery stock suspected of harboring undiscovered scales. The gas is
a deadly poison to all animal life and must be used very carefully
by the operator.
For dormant, deciduous nursery trees, uprooted and packed
in fumigating house, the following formula is used:
.For each 100 cubic feet of space enclosed-
Cyanide of Potassium (98 per cent.) ... 1 oz.
Sulphuric acid ................. 1 liquid oz.
W after .......................... 2 liquid ozs.
Place the water in an earthenware or wooden receptacle
high enough to prevent splashing out of the chemicals when in
action; pour in the acid, and when everything is ready, drop in
the cyanide of potassium, close the door and keep it closed for at
least 40 minutes. Thoroughly ventilate the room before entering.
Greenhouses may be fumigated with the above formula for every
350 cubic feet of space.
Orange trees under tents may be treated as given in the fol-
lowing table, prepared by the Horticultural Commissioners of
Riverside County, California:












BULLETIN NO. 76.


C Tyanide C. P. Sulphuric Acid
Height of Tree Diameter of Tree Water 9 r Cent.) (66 Per Cent.)
Feet Feet Ozs. Ozs. Ozs,
6 4 2 1 1
8 6 3 1% 1%
10 8 5 2% 2Y
12 14 11 5 5%
16 16 17 8 9
20 16-20 22 10 12
Z0-24 18-22 30 14 18
24-30 20-28 34 16 18
30-86 25-30 52 24 28


The cost of fumigating trees, labor included, and not consider-

ing the cost nor wear on the tents, is about equal to the cost of

giving the trees three sprayings with resin wash.









































Power Sprayer. Orange Grove of Manatee Lemon Company.
PT A'TP nI'




*


Fungous Diseases and Their Control.

H. HAROLD HUME.
Diseased conditions in plants may be due to a number of dif-
ferent causes. They may be the result of untoward conditions of
soil or climate. They may be brought about by physiological dis-
turbances within the plant or they may be caused by the attacks
of parasitic fungi. For the present we shall confine our atten-
tion to that class of diseases caused by the attacks of fungoua
enemies.
A fungus (plural fungi) is a plant possessed of different
parts or organs, corresponding in some measure to the parts of
ordinary plants. The part of the fungus which fills the purpose
of the root system in higher plants is termed the mycelium. The
part of the fungus corresponding to the seed is the spore. Leaves
there are none, and fungi never possess chlorophyll, the green
coloring matter of higher plants. The stem parts upon which the
spores are frequently borne are known by a number of different
names, such as conidiophore, sporophore, etc. Sometimes the
spores are borne inside conseptacles of different kinds, sizes and
shapes.
The mycelium, in those fungi parasitic upon plants, lives and
grows in some part of the plant attacked. It makes its way
through or between the cells of the plant and absorbs its foods
from them. After vegetating for a period of time spores are gen-
erally produced. These germinate on the leaves, fruit or other
parts of the plant under favorable condition, and again produce
Ihe disease. On the approach of winter or of seasons inimical to











INSECTICIDES.


their growth, many fungi produce special kinds of spores or spec-
ial parts to tide them over these unfavorable periods. These parts
can withstand great extremes of heat, or cold, as the case may
be, without injury.
No part of a plant is immune from the attacks of parasitic
fungi. The roots, stems, leaves, flowers or fruits may be affected.
When roots, or the internal parts of the plant are attacked, con-
trol is much more difficult than when the external portions are
affected.

Effect of Fungi on the Plant.
Plants attacked by fungi are affected in many ways and mal-
formations very frequently result. Leaves attacked usually be-
come dark brown in spots or over the whole surface. Often they
are distorted and wrinkled. As a result they are shortly rendered
useless as the food providing organs of the plant. Any interfer-
ence with the water or food carrying parts of the plant results
in wilting. Diseased or dead areas are frequently produced on
the trunks or stems of both woody and herbaceous plants. Often
on the branches of woody plants large knot-like excrescences are
produced. Fruits when attacked usually decay rapidly. Some-
times the pulpy parts dry up and adhere closely to the pit, core or
inner parts.

Method of Control.
While spraying is perhaps the most important means of con-
trolling fungous diseases of plants, there are many other methods
'of greater or less importance to which attention should be given.
1. Dead or diseased plants or parts of plants should be
promptly removed and destroyed. Frequently these contain
spores, by means of which fungous diseases are spread.


__










BULLETIN NO. 76.


2. All wounds made in pruning trees or shrubs should be
painted with white lead paint to prevent fungi from gaining a
foothold.
3. Rotation of crops should be practiced. Many diseases
are confined to single kinds of plants or to groups closely re-
lated. Cabbage, cauliflower, collards and brussels sprouts for in-
stance are closely related. A disease which attacks one is almost
certain to attack any other one of the group. So with Irish pota-
toes, tomatoes and egg plants. Such crops should not follow one
another in rotation, neither should any one of them be planted
year after year on the same ground. Diseases are certain to ac-
cumulate, if this be done. If land becomes infested by disease,
it is usually best not to plant crops subject to the disease for
three or four years.
4. Conditions and soils particularly favorable to disease
should be avoided.
Varieties should be selected which are not subject to disease.
Fruit trees which are susceptible to a disease on the roots, may
frequently be worked to advantage on disease-resistant stocks.
6. Plants should not be set from disease infested ground into
new ground.

Spraying,

General directions for making mixtures: Iron vessels should
not be used in preparing the various mixtures. Glass, wood or
crockery is best.
Strain all mixtures thoroughly to prevent clogging the pump
and nozzles.
Prepare mixtures carefully. Do not do the work in a slip'
shod manner. Use good materials.











INSECTICIDES.


Spraying Mixtures,

30. Bordeaux Mixture.
Copper Sulphate .................... 5 lbs.
Lime (unslacked) ................... 5 lbs.
Water ............................ 50 gals.
Dissolve the copper sulphate in two (2) gallons of water,
place it in barrel No. 1 and add water to make twenty-five gallons.
Slack the lime, reduce it to a very thin paste, place it in barrel
No. 2 and add water to make twenty-five gallons. To mix the so-
lutions of lime and copper sulphate, dip a bucketful from both
barrels, Nos. 1 and 2, and pour together into the barrel of the
spray pump. The two mixtures should flow together as they are
poured in. The best arrangement is to have the barrels, Nos. 1
and 2 elevated and use a piece of rubber hose to run the liquids
into the pump barrel.
If a large amount of spraying is to be done, a somewhat dif-
ferent policy should be pursued. Too much time would be taken
up in preparing the ingredients in small quantities. Instead large
amounts of copper sulphate should be dissolved and large quanti-
ties of lime slacked beforehand. This may be done as follows:
In a fifty-gallon barrel place about forty gallons of water.
Put 100 lbs. of copper sulphate in a sack and suspend it in the
water. As soon as dissolved, fill up to the fifty gallon mark. When
well stirred, each gallon will contain two pounds of copper sul-
phate. Each time some of the solution is dipped out, the height
of the remaining portion should be marked on the inside of the
barrel. Before taking more of the solution out of the barrel any
amount of water lost by evaporation should be made good by fill-
ing up to the mark last made.











BULLETIN NO. 76.


As soon as procured the lime should be slacked, placed in a
barrel and kept covered with an inch or two of water. In this
way it can be kept indefinitely.
To prepare Bordeaux mixture from these stock solutions, dip
out 2 1-2 gallons of the copper sulphate solution, place it in barrel
No. 1 and dilute to twenty-five gallons. From the slacked lime
take five lbs. or a little more to allow for the water it contains,
reduce to a thin paste, place it in barrel No. 2 and add water to
make twenty-five gallons. Pour the contents of barrels Nos. 1 and
2 together as already directed.
Tests: If free copper be present, severe injury may be done
to the foliage or other tender parts of the plants. Sufficient lime
should be added to neutralize it. Dip out a small quantity in a
porcelain saucer or shallow bowl and holding it on a level with
the mouth blow the breath gently into it. If a thin pellicle forms
on the surface more lime must be added. Add and test until it
does not form. An excess of lime will not hurt. Another test is
to dip the blade of a clean knife into the mixture. If a thin film
of copper forms on it after holding it there a minute or so, more
lime must be added.
31. Weak Bordeaux Mixture.
Copper sulphate ..................... 2 lbs.
Lime .............................. 4 lbs.
W ater ........................... 50 gals.
For peaches and Japanese plums in foliage.
32. Soda Bordeaux.
Copper sulphate ..................... 5 lbs.
W ashing soda ....................... 4 lbs.
W ater ............................. 50 gals.
Dissolve the copper and washing soda in separate receptacles











INSECTICIDES.


and pour them together as in making ordinary Bordeaux mix-
ture. It is said that this mixture has proved considerably more
effective than the Bordeaux.
33. Bordeaux Mixture and Paris Green,
Paris green at the rate of four ounces to fifty gallons of Bor-
deaux mixture may be used for the destruction of biting insects.
34, Copper Sulphate Solution.
Copper sulphate ...................... 1 Ib.
W ater ............................. 25 gals.
Sometimes used as a winter spray. It is injurious to foliage
and should only be applied before the buds swell.
35. Ammoniacal Copper Carbonate,
Copper Carbonate .................... 5 oz.
Ammonia (26 degrees) ............... 3 pts.
W ater ............................ 50 gals.
Mix the copper carbonate with a little water so as to form
a paste. Add the ammonia and when the copper carbonate is dis-
solved a deep blue liquid will be formed. Pour this liquid into
the fifty gallons of water. If so desired, the copper carbonate
dissolved in the ammonia as above, may be kept in a tightly stop-
pered glass bottle or stone jar and diluted as desired for use. It
will keep indefinitely if kept tightly corked.
Ammoniacal copper carbonate is preferable to Bordeaux mix-
ture for use on ripe or ripening fruits, or wherever the stains of
Bordeaux mixture would be objectionable.
36. Potassium Sulphide Solution.
Potassium Sulphide ................... 1 oz.
W ater ........................... 2 gallons.
Dissolve the potassium sulphide in the water and use the solu-











BULLETIN NO. 76.


tion immediately or keep in a tightly corked glass bottle for later
use.

37. Crude Carbolic Acid and Salt.
(For Foot Rot.)
Crude Carbolic Acid ................. 1 gal.
Water ............................. 1 gal.
Cut away the diseased wood and sprinkle the solution over the
cut surfaces and the adjoining parts of the roots or trunk.

38. Lime, Crude Carbolic Acid and Salt.
(For Foot Rot.)
Unslacked lime ..................... 1 peck.
Crude carbolic acid ................... 4 ozs.
Salt ................................ 3 lbs.
W ater ............................. 2 gals.
Slack the lime in the two gallons of water, add the crude
carbolic acid and stir in the salt. If too thick, add a little more
water. Cut out the diseased parts and paint with the solution.

39. Formalin.
(For Potato Scab and Sterile Fungus.)
Formalin .......................... 8 oz.
Water ............................ 15 gals.
Soak the tubers in this mixture for two hours.

40. Formalin.
(For Oat Smut.)
Formalin ........ ................. 1 pint.
W ater ............................. 50 gals.
Soak the grain in this mixture for one hour and a half.











INSECTICIDES.


41. Corrosive Sublimate.
(For Potato Scab and Sterile Fungus.)
Corrosive Sublimate ................... 2 oz.
W after ............................ 15 gals.
Dissolve the corrosive sublimate in two gallons of hot water,
then dilute to 15 gallons. Place the seed potatoes in a sack and
allow them to soak in the mixture for one and a half hours. It is
best to treat the potatoes two or three weeks before planting them,
or they may even be stored for a longer period.

Dust Sprays,

42. Bird Formula.

The following formula for Bordeaux powder is recommended
by Prof. R. M. Bird in Bulletin 60 of the Missouri Experiment
Station:
Materials required to make seventy pounds of a stock powder:
Four pounds of copper sulphate (blue stone); four pounds of
good quick lime; two and a half gallons of water ,which is to be
added to the quick lime; sixty pounds of air-slaked lime, which has
been sifted through the fine sieve mentioned below.
Directions: 1. Break up into small lumps about seventy or
eighty pounds of quick-lime and spread it out so that it will be-
come air-slaked. When slaked and perfectly dry sift it through the
fine sieve (100 meshes).
2. Completely dissolve four pounds of copper sulphate in
two and a half gallons of water. The easiest way is to suspend
the sulphate in a coarse bag just below the surface of the water
until it is dissolved.
3. Pour gradually two and a half gallons of water over four











BULLETIN NO. 76.


pounds of good quick-lime in such a manner as to slake it to the
finest powder and give a good milk of lime solution; let it cool
4. Put sixty pounds of the sifted, air-slaked lime into a shal-
low box-one in which the material can be well worked with a hoe
or shovel.
5. Pour the well stirred milk of lime and the copper sulphate
solution at the same time into the third vessel containing the lime
and stir it until the whole is thoroughly mixed. It will have a
deep blue color and be thick. This is so finely divided that it will
remain in suspension for hours.

43. Maxwell Formula.
The following combined fungicide and insecticide known as
the Maxwell formula is given by Prof. John Craig in Bulletin 216
of the Cornell Experiment Station:
Fresh lime ....................... 1 barrel.
Copper sulphate .................... 25 lbs.
Concentrated lye ..................... 5 lbs.
Powdered sulphur .................. 25 lbs.
Paris green .......................... 6 lbs.
Spread lime in large shallow box, breaking it into as small
lumps as possible. Dissolve the copper sulphate in six gallons
boiling water; also dissolve the lye in five gallons hot water. Keep
separate. Sprinkle copper sulphate solution over the lime; fol-
low with lye solution. If the lime does not all crumble to a dust,
use clear water to finish. Screen the lime through a fine sieve, rub
the sulphur through the sieve, add the Paris green and thoroughly
mix with lime. Lime should crumble to powder, not to granules.
Copper sulphate must be used hot, or the copper will reerys-
tallize. Mixing should be done out of doors or in separate building
as lime in slaking becomes very hot.









INSECTICIDES.


Explanation of Plates.
Plate III.-Fig. 5, Triplex Power Sprayer, Gould Mfg. Co.; Fig.
6, Niagara Spraying Cart, Field Force Pump Co.

Plate IV.-Fig. 7, Gasoline Engine Spraying Machine, Deming Co.
Fig. 8, "Friend" Pump, "Friend" Mfg. Co.; Fig. 9,
Lowell Glass Tank Sprayer, Lowell Specialty Co., Lowell,
Mich.; Fig. 10, "Monarch" Two-Cylinder Spray Pump,
Gould Co.

Plate V.-Fig. 11, Steel Barrel Cart, F. E. Myers & Bro.; Fig. 12,
.Double Tube Sprayer, F. E. Myers & Bro.; Fig. 13,
"Handy" Knapsack Pump, Gould Mfg. Co.; Fig. 14,
"Success" Kerosene Sprayer, Deming Co.

Plate VI.-Fig. 15, Lowell Fountain Compressed Air Sprayer,
Lowell Specialty Co.; Fig. 16, "Century" Sprayer, Dem-
ing Co.; Fig. 17, "Premier" Bucket Pump, Gould Co.;
Fig. 18, Double Acting Barrel Pump, F. E. Myers &
Bro.; Fig. 19, Good News Compressed Air Sprayer,
Field Force Pump Co.

Plate VII.-Fig. 20, Jumbo Dust Sprayer, Leggett & Bro.; Fig.
21, Bamboo Extension Rod, Gould Co.; Fig. 22, Double
Vermorel Nozzle, Field Force Pump Co.; Fig. 23, "Mis-
try" Nozzles, adjustable at any angle, Gould Mfg. Co.

Plate VIII.-Fig. 24, Single Vermorel Nozzle, Deming Co.; Fig.
25, Bordeaux Nozzle, Deming Co.; Fig. 26, Hop Nozzle,
F. E. Myers & Bro.; Fig. 27, Vermorel Nozzle, F. E.
Myers & Bro.; Fig. 28, Double Vermorel Nozzle, Gould
Co.


























THE NIAGARA
SPRAYING CART.


b,
PLATE II.







aJ


^la -^


S 10.
PLATE IV,



























































PLATE V.

































1516
16.


PLATE VL


t4 E
GOO NE\D
SPRAYF-Ft
D I 6N5
..........












































PLATE VII.


A~uy-lr, 'Ce~l=-ll~dPi~





























tri














The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by
addressing the director of the Experiment Station, University of
Florida, Lake City, Fla.:


Fertilizers....................... pp.48
Annual Report ................. 32
Leeches and Leeching .......... 17
Big Head ........................... 19
Pineapple....................... 14
Livdr Fluke Southern Cattle
Fever ............... .. ..... 15
The San Jose Scale................ 28
The Culture of Tobacco.......... 28
Cotton and Its Cultivation ........ 4
Orange Groves.................. 33
Insect Enemies ................... 96
Insects Injurious to Grain ........ 31
Pineapple ....................... 15
Tobacco in Florida............... 63
Strawberries ...... ..............." 48
The Fall Army Worm............. 8
The San Jose Scale.............. 30
Some Strawberry Insects......... 55
A Chemical Study of Some Typi-
cal Florida Soils ............. 128
Some Common Florida Scales.... 24
Baking Powders. ................. 15
Some Citrus Troubles............." 85


Pecan Culture .................. p 31
Feeding With Florida Feed Stuffs 95
The Cottony Cushion Scale....... 48
Top-working of Pecans........... 124
Pom elos........................... .. 43
Cauliflower ........ ................. 20
Velvet Beans ..................... 24
Two Peach Scales. ................. 32
Peen-to Peach Group............ 22
Packing Citrus Fruits.............. Folio
Texas Fever and Salt Sick...... pp. 31
The Kumquats ................. 14
The Mandarin Orange Group.... 32
The White Fly ................. 94
Pineapple Culture. I. Soils...... 35
Cultivation of Citrus Groves...... 30
Pineapple Culture. I. Varieties 32
Japanese Persimmons ............ 48
Feeding Horses and Mules on
Home-Grown Feed-Stuffs..... 16
The Honey PeachGroup.......... 20
Anthracnose of the Pomelo...... 20
Potato Diseases .................. 16


PRESS BULLETINS.


1 Directions for Preparation of Bordeaux
Mixture.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture.
3 Seed Testing.
4 The White Fly.
5 Basic Slag.
6 Nursery Inspection (part 1).
7 Nursery Inspection (part 2).
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in
the Spring and Held for Fall Planting.
9 Sore Head,
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot.
11 Vinegar.
12 Seed Beds and Their Management.
13 Treatment for San Jose Scale.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods.
18 Cantaloupe Blight.
19 Cut Worms.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
21 Parturient Paralysis.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer,
23 Protection Against Drought.
24 Orange Mites.
25 Roup.


26 Lumpy Jaw.
27 Cover Crops.
28 Moon Blindness.
29 Food Adulteration.
30 Dehorning Cattle.
31 Coffee.
32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
34 Ox Warbles.
35 Butter.
36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
37 Velvet Bean.
38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
ulations.
39 Lung Worms in Swine.
40 and 41 Glanders.
42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
diments.
43 How to Feed a Horse.
44 Tree Planting.
45 The Sugar-cane Borer. "
46 Selecting Seed Corn.
47 The Rabid Dog.
48 Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals.
49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
50 Insect .Pests to Live Stock.




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