• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Source and maintenance of...
 Housing of experimental animal...
 Reduced resistance and P....
 Some specific conditions under...
 Virulency of P. boviseptica for...
 Summary
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 322
Title: Hemorrhagic septicemia
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026677/00001
 Material Information
Title: Hemorrhagic septicemia the significance of Pasteurella boviseptica encountered in the blood of some Florida cattle
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 24 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sanders, D. A ( Dorsey Addren )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Pasteurella   ( lcsh )
Hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 24.
Statement of Responsibility: by D.A. Sanders.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026677
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924548
oclc - 18213510
notis - AEN5175

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Literature
            Page 5
            Page 6
    Source and maintenance of P. boviseptica
        Page 7
    Housing of experimental animals
        Page 8
        Exposure of cattle to P. boviseptica
            Page 8
            Page 9
    Reduced resistance and P. boviseptica
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Some specific conditions under which P. boviseptica occur in the tissues of cattle
        Page 12
        Pseudorabies and P. boviseptica
            Page 12
        Acute anaplasmosis and p. boviseptica
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Chronic anaplasmosis and P. boviseptica
            Page 15
        Shipping fever and P. boviseptica
            Page 16
        Enzootic pneumonia and P. boviseptica
            Page 17
            Page 18
        Field studies of enzootic pneumonia and P. boviseptica
            Page 19
        Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning and P. boviseptica
            Page 19
        Omphalophlebitis of calves and P. boviseptica
            Page 20
    Virulency of P. boviseptica for the crow
        Page 21
        Discussion
            Page 21
            Page 22
    Summary
        Page 23
        Acknowledgements
            Page 23
    Literature cited
        Page 24
Full Text



Bulletin 322


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director









HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA:

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF Pasteurella boviseptica
ENCOUNTERED IN THE BLOOD OF SOME
FLORIDA CATTLE


By D. A. SANDERS






TECHNICAL BULLETIN








Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


July, 1938









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie. Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W.' Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
O. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy.
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY-
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Head of Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Spec., Fumigation Res.
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold. M.S.. Assistant Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
John A. Granger, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Bntomologist

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. II. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Sam O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R, W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist, Celery Inv.
W B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.

















CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION ....................................... ............. 5
LITERATURE ..................................-- -----------... 5
SOURCE AND MAINTENANCE OF P. boviseptica ............................................. 7
HOUSING OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS ....--......-........-..--.-- ------- ..-.. 8
EXPOSURE OF CATTLE TO P. boviseptica ...................... --....--............. 8
REDUCED RESISTANCE AND P. boviseptica ............................................. ..... 10
SOME SPECIFIC CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH P. boviseptica OCCUR IN THE
TISSUES OF CATTLE ...................................... .............. ........ 12
Pseudorabies and P. boviseptica ..........................-- .......... ...-- -.. 12
Acute Anaplasmosis and P. boviseptica .............................. ............. 13
Chronic Anaplasmosis and P. boviseptica ............................................. 15
Shipping Fever and P. boviseptica ---------....................... -. ....... 16
Enzootic Pneumonia and P. boviseptica ..................... ..................... 17
Field Studies of Enzootic Pneumonia and P. boviseptica .................... 19
Crotalaria spectabilis Poisoning and P. boviseptica ............................ 19
Omphalophlebitis of Calves and P. boviseptica ...................................... 20
VIRULENCY OF P. boviseptica FOR THE CROW ..............................----- 21
D ISCUSSION ............................................... ... ......................... 21
SUMMARY ........................................- .......--........ 23
A CKNOWLEDGMENTS .......................................----...................... 23
LITERATURE CITED .............................. ........ ............ ----- ---- ------------24









HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA:

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF Pasteurella boviseptica
ENCOUNTERED IN THE BLOOD OF SOME
FLORIDA CATTLE

By D. A. SANDERS

The Pasteurella or hemorrhagic septicemia group of organ-
isms is widely distributed. They have been reported to occur
in soil, in slow flowing and stagnant water, in dead organic
matter, within the digestive and respiratory tracts of wild and
domestic animals, and in the blood and tissues of laboratory
animals that succumb after exposures to these organisms.
Samples of heart blood and portions of internal organs of
cattle that have died on the range and from cattle in dairy
herds in various sections of Florida, frequently have been sent
to the veterinary laboratories of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for diagnostic purposes. The usual history
accompanying such material showed that the disease was spo-
radic in occurrence and that affected animals exhibited lesions
suspicious of hemorrhagic septicemia. Organisms isolated from
this material, upon detailed study of their cultural, morpholog-
ical and biochemical characteristics together with the patho-
genicity for small experimental animals, showed that they
belonged to the Pasteurella group. These organisms were
identified as P. boviseptica, and as a result of these findings,
studies were undertaken regarding the possible etiological rela-
tionship of these organisms to the losses that Florida cattlemen
and dairymen had experienced within their herds.

LITERATURE
Various types and manifestations of bovine hemorrhagic sep-
ticemia have been described, including the peracute, acute, suba-
cute, chronic, exanthematous, pectoral, enteric, meningeal, and
others. In connection with hemorrhagic septicemia, P. bovisep-
tica has been reported as being the primary organism responsible
for the symptoms manifested in the disease. The disease in
cattle is commonly diagnosed by means of clinical, postmortem
or laboratory findings. The demonstration of Pasteurella in
bovine carcass material of suspicious hemorrhagic septicemia









HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA:

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF Pasteurella boviseptica
ENCOUNTERED IN THE BLOOD OF SOME
FLORIDA CATTLE

By D. A. SANDERS

The Pasteurella or hemorrhagic septicemia group of organ-
isms is widely distributed. They have been reported to occur
in soil, in slow flowing and stagnant water, in dead organic
matter, within the digestive and respiratory tracts of wild and
domestic animals, and in the blood and tissues of laboratory
animals that succumb after exposures to these organisms.
Samples of heart blood and portions of internal organs of
cattle that have died on the range and from cattle in dairy
herds in various sections of Florida, frequently have been sent
to the veterinary laboratories of the Florida Agricultural Ex-
periment Station for diagnostic purposes. The usual history
accompanying such material showed that the disease was spo-
radic in occurrence and that affected animals exhibited lesions
suspicious of hemorrhagic septicemia. Organisms isolated from
this material, upon detailed study of their cultural, morpholog-
ical and biochemical characteristics together with the patho-
genicity for small experimental animals, showed that they
belonged to the Pasteurella group. These organisms were
identified as P. boviseptica, and as a result of these findings,
studies were undertaken regarding the possible etiological rela-
tionship of these organisms to the losses that Florida cattlemen
and dairymen had experienced within their herds.

LITERATURE
Various types and manifestations of bovine hemorrhagic sep-
ticemia have been described, including the peracute, acute, suba-
cute, chronic, exanthematous, pectoral, enteric, meningeal, and
others. In connection with hemorrhagic septicemia, P. bovisep-
tica has been reported as being the primary organism responsible
for the symptoms manifested in the disease. The disease in
cattle is commonly diagnosed by means of clinical, postmortem
or laboratory findings. The demonstration of Pasteurella in
bovine carcass material of suspicious hemorrhagic septicemia






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cases, and its virulency for rabbits, is often accepted as demon-
strating definitely that organisms of this group are responsible
for the disease. Occurrence of hemorrhagic septicemia in herds
of cattle frequently has been explained to result from an in-
crease in virulence of the organism and to predisposing agents
which lower the body resistance.
Pasteurella organisms have been demonstrated in the tissues
of animals which died from non-bacterial diseases, notably those
of filterable virus origin, including canine distemper and hog
cholera, as reported by Hutyra and Marek (4)1; and feline
infectious enteritis as demonstrated by Leasure, Leinhardt, and
Tabener (7). Moore (8) examined the upper respiratory pas-
sage of three healthy cattle and isolated organisms not distin-
guishable from Pasteurella. Jorgenson (5) studied the bacterial
flora of the upper respiratory passage of 250 normal cattle. He
concluded that P. boviseptica was an inhabitant of the upper
respiratory tract of a considerable percent of normal cattle and
that cold and fatigue predisposes animals to attacks of these
organisms. Scott and Farley (12) isolated P. boviseptica from
the lungs of four general autopsy cases in cattle which had no
visible lung lesions. 'These investigators report the presence
of Pasteurella and other species of bacteria in the tissues secured
from autopsies of cattle affected with shipping fever. Their
studies suggest that, while P. boviseptica is often associated
with shipping fever, the causative factor of the disease is ex-
posure and improper feeding and care of animals. Sanders
(9, 10) recovered P. boviseptica from the blood and tissues of
cattle which died from non-bacterial diseases and concluded that
demonstration of Pasteurella in bovine carcass material of sus-
picious hemorrhagic septicemia cases cannot always be accepted
as a criterion regarding the etiological significance of such or-
ganisms. Studies by Andrieu, Quiroga and Ezcurra (1), con-
stituting a commission appointed by the Argentine Minister of
Agriculture, to investigate hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle,
showed that Pasteurella was found only as a secondary invader
in outbreaks of so-called hemorrhagic septicemia. Fitch and
collaborators (1) state, "The work of the commission sanctions
the conception actually dominant in the scientific world that
hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle constitutes neither a contagious

'Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
on this bulletin.






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


nor an infectious disease, and consequently does not present grave
danger for the cattle industry nor represent a menace actual
or future for the animal health of the country".

SOURCE AND MAINTENANCE OF P. boviseptica
P. boviseptica used in these investigations was secured by
culturing jugular blood of cattle in advanced stages of shipping
fever, and from the heart blood and lung tissue of calves that
died of enzootic pneumonia. Other strains were secured by
culturing bovine carcass material submitted to the veterinary
laboratory for hemorrhagic septicemia diagnosis and by isolat-
ing organisms from enlarged joints of calves affected with
omphalophlebitis. Strains also were obtained by culturing the
blood of rabbits which had been previously injected intraven-
ously with the edematous tracheal exudate and heart blood of
cattle that showed suspicious symptoms of hemorrhagic septi-
cemia. Strains were isolated from rabbits that had been in-
jected intraperitoneally with minced portions of affected lung
tissue and other carcass material of cattle suspected of having
hemorrhagic septicemia. Still other strains were secured by
aspirating secretions from the region of the nasopharynx of
apparently normal cattle. From these secretions P. boviseptica
was isolated by plating and by inoculating laboratory animals.
After isolation of P. boviseptica, the organism was grown
and maintained on ferric salts agar, meat infusion broth con-
taining ferric ammonium citrate, Kracke and Teasley's (6)
blood culture media, and on whole blood and Difco stock culture
agar containing blood. The hearts and spleens of rabbits that
succumbed after exposures to the organism were ligated and
removed aseptically. These tissues were used to maintain cer-
tain strains of the stock cultures. The nasopharyngeal region
of cattle was artificially infected with P. boviseptica. The
organism remained at the point of introduction for weeks, af-
fording an additional method for maintaining cultures. Stock
cultures maintained in the laboratory were transferred every
fortnight and were stored at room temperature or under re-
frigeration. P. boviseptica grown and maintained under these
conditions was highly virulent for rabbits as proven by intra-
peritoneal or intravenous inoculations in which minute quanti-
ties of the stock cultures were used.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOUSING OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
The work was conducted in an isolation building 25x16 feet
with reinforced concrete foundation and floors. The foundation
extends 10 inches beyond the outer walls of the building. A
circumvallate moat six inches in width built into this concrete
extension and filled with strong disinfectant precludes the en-
trance of crawling forms of life. The concrete is continued
upward to a height of two feet above the floor level, forming
part of the outer walls of the structure. Upon this two-foot
concrete extension, timbers are bolted and the walls proper
extend upward to a height of eight feet by means of screened-in
framework. The building is covered by a hip roof having a
three-foot eave.
Four pens 61/2x71/2 feet, of steel tube panel construction set
in a five-inch curb, are situated centrally within the building.
Floors in the pens slope to a common drain six inches in width.
Removable wooden slatted platforms of low construction, upon
which the animals rested, were placed in each pen. Floors
and platforms were scrubbed and washed daily. Drainage is
conveyed to a septic tank. An observation and exercise alley
four feet in width surrounds the pens between the walls and
panels. The building is entered through a vestibule, the walls
of which are of structure similar to those of the main unit.
Water is supplied to each pen through pipes leading from
the city main. The building is wired for electricity. A good
grade commercial dairy grain ration and beet pulp were used
as feed for the experimental animals. The young calves re-
ceived milk from a pail.

EXPOSURE OF CATTLE TO P. boviseptica
Attempts were made to produce clinical cases of hemorrhagic
septicemia by exposing calves, yearlings and cows to P. bovisep-
tica. The organisms used in the exposure tests were isolated
from the blood and tissues of cattle and maintained as stock
cultures under conditions previously enumerated. Methods of
exposure undertaken consisted of feeding P. boviseptica in the
form of 24-hour agar and blood bouillon cultures and also by
feeding cultures maintained in whole blood. The internal organs
and peritoneal exudate of laboratory animals which died from
acute septicemia, following intraperitoneal injections or nasal
sprays of P. boviseptica, were minced and administered as a







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HOUSING OF EXPERIMENTAL ANIMALS
The work was conducted in an isolation building 25x16 feet
with reinforced concrete foundation and floors. The foundation
extends 10 inches beyond the outer walls of the building. A
circumvallate moat six inches in width built into this concrete
extension and filled with strong disinfectant precludes the en-
trance of crawling forms of life. The concrete is continued
upward to a height of two feet above the floor level, forming
part of the outer walls of the structure. Upon this two-foot
concrete extension, timbers are bolted and the walls proper
extend upward to a height of eight feet by means of screened-in
framework. The building is covered by a hip roof having a
three-foot eave.
Four pens 61/2x71/2 feet, of steel tube panel construction set
in a five-inch curb, are situated centrally within the building.
Floors in the pens slope to a common drain six inches in width.
Removable wooden slatted platforms of low construction, upon
which the animals rested, were placed in each pen. Floors
and platforms were scrubbed and washed daily. Drainage is
conveyed to a septic tank. An observation and exercise alley
four feet in width surrounds the pens between the walls and
panels. The building is entered through a vestibule, the walls
of which are of structure similar to those of the main unit.
Water is supplied to each pen through pipes leading from
the city main. The building is wired for electricity. A good
grade commercial dairy grain ration and beet pulp were used
as feed for the experimental animals. The young calves re-
ceived milk from a pail.

EXPOSURE OF CATTLE TO P. boviseptica
Attempts were made to produce clinical cases of hemorrhagic
septicemia by exposing calves, yearlings and cows to P. bovisep-
tica. The organisms used in the exposure tests were isolated
from the blood and tissues of cattle and maintained as stock
cultures under conditions previously enumerated. Methods of
exposure undertaken consisted of feeding P. boviseptica in the
form of 24-hour agar and blood bouillon cultures and also by
feeding cultures maintained in whole blood. The internal organs
and peritoneal exudate of laboratory animals which died from
acute septicemia, following intraperitoneal injections or nasal
sprays of P. boviseptica, were minced and administered as a






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


drench. The nasal passages, conjunctival and auricular cavities
of the cattle were sprayed with suspensions of the organism
and bouillon cultures were introduced into the sinuses of the
head through an opening made with a trephine. Experiment 1
is typical of the exposure experiments conducted.
Experiment 1: Fourteen calves ranging from one day to six
months of age were exposed to P. boviseptica by nasal spray.
Amounts varying from one to 50 cc. of a heavy suspension, pre-
pared by washing 24-hour agar cultures in physiological saline
solution, were sprayed into the nasal passages by means of an
atomizer. No clinical evidence of infection occurred in animals
receiving up to 20 cc. of the suspension. Several animals re-
ceiving 50 cc. as a nasal spray in broken doses over a seven-day
period did not show evidence of ill effects. Four animals receiv-
ing 50 cc. into the nasal passage at a single spraying gave the
following reaction: Slight increase in rate of pulse and respira-
tions, slight elevation of body temperature, a mucopurulent nasal
discharge, and a cough. These symptoms endured for about
a week in two of these animals and were followed by an apparent
complete recovery. However, the organism remained in the
region of the nasopharynx for several weeks. The other two
animals receiving 50 cc. as a single nasal spray continued to
cough for a period of eight weeks following the exposure.
Repeated attempts to recover Pasteurella from the blood
stream of these experimental animals were made during the
clinical reactions. The neck was prepared by thoroughly wash-
ing with soap and water. An area over the jugular vein was
selected, shaved and swabbed with 70 percent alcohol, after
which it was painted lightly with tincture of iodine. Blood in
various amounts was collected directly into culture tubes and
flasks containing Kracke and Teasley's blood culture medium.
This collection was made by use of a 16-gauge needle attached
to and sterilized as an integral part of the bleeding apparatus.
Whole blood was collected from the jugular vein with sterile
glass syringes and transferred to ferric salts agar and meat
infusion bouillon. All cultures were incubated at 37.50 C. for
five days. Other blood samples were secured by means of sterile
syringes, transferred to sterile tubes, and held at room temper-
ature for observations. Under these conditions P. boviseptica
has not been recovered from the blood stream of cattle thus
exposed to the organism, nor has hemorrhagic septicemia been






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


produced in any of its recognized forms. P. boviseptica was
readily isolated by similar cultural methods from the blood
stream of clinically affected laboratory animals which received
intraperitoneal injections or nasal insufflations of the organisms.
P. boviseptica was recovered readily from the secretions of
the nasopharynx of cattle for a period of three months after
they were artificially exposed to this organism by nasal sprays.
The organism was recovered from the frontal sinus two months
after introduction through an opening made by means of a
trephine. The organism was lethal for rabbits prior to its ex-
posure to cattle and also after it had been recovered from the
nasopharyngeal region and frontal sinuses of these exposed
animals. Autopsies were made on the two experimental cows
which continued to cough following heavy nasal spray exposures
to 50 cc. of concentrated stock culture. The autopsies were per-
formed after a period of eight weeks following the exposure.
The apical lobes of the lungs contained several pneumonic foci
one-half centimeter in diameter. Pasteurella was recovered
from the bronchioles adjacent to these lesions. No difference
was found as to the type or character of the media used in grow-
ing and maintaining P. boviseptica as influencing its virulency
for cattle.
From these results it was concluded that the environment of
the respiratory passage of cattle is favorable to the existence of
P. boviseptica; that the body resistance in bovines is normally
effective against the invasiveness of mild exposures to the or-
ganism; that factors other than bringing the bacteria and the
host animal together are necessary for the organism to dis-
seminate from the respiratory passage into the blood stream.

REDUCED RESISTANCE AND P. boviseptica
The predisposing factors occurring under certain local condi-
tions were thought to lower the body resistance, thereby favor-
ing the infection of Pasteurella, and to account for the presence
of these organisms in the blood of cattle. Therefore an attempt
was undertaken to produce clinical hemorrhagic septicemia in
yearling calves by exposing them to P. boviseptica and at the
same time reducing their body resistance.
Experiment 2: Bull H 117 was given as a drench minced
liver, lungs, and heart of a rabbit which died 18 hours after an
intravenous injection of P. boviseptica. This animal suffered






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


no ill effects as a result of the exposure. Six days later this
same bull was given 4 cc. of a 24-hour bouillon culture of Sal-
monella suipestifer as a nasal spray. The latter organism was
secured as a pure culture from the blood stream of a pig that
was dying of paratyphoid infection. On the third day follow-
ing paratyphoid infection the bull became depressed, ceased to
eat, and developed diarrhea. On the following day there ap-
peared an increase in the pulse and respirations and the body
temperature reached 106.50 F. Clinical symptoms of para-
typhoid infection remained pronounced for a period of four days.
During the acute reaction to paratyphoid infection bull H 117
was given intranasal sprays and drenches of P. boviseptica cul-
tures. No evidence of hemorrhagic septicemia appeared fol-
lowing this exposure test.
Bull yearling H 118 was given 4 drams of pulverized dried
Nerium oleander leaves as a drench in a small amount of water.
As a result the animal became depressed, showed complete loss
of appetite, cold extremities, and was unable to rise. The feces
were loose and contained admixtures of mucus and blood coagula.
Symptoms of oleander poisoning continued for four days. Dur-
ing this period of weakness 400 cc. of various strains of P.
boviseptica, in the form of a 24-hour bouillon culture, was ad-
ministered as a drench. No evidence of hemorrhagic septicemia
developed.
An eight months old yearling was exposed by nasal spray to
a heavy saline suspension of P. boviseptica. It was then given
a total of 60 pounds of the common bracken fern, Pteris caudata,
over a 12-day period. Intestinal hemorrhage and membranous
enteritis developed during the latter portion of the feeding
period as a result of eating the bracken. Numerous greyish
white pseudomembranes ranging from one-half inch to 10 inches
in length were evacuated in the feces. This inflammatory process
of the intestinal mucosa due to ingestion of bracken was not
accompanied or followed by hemorrhagic septicemia infection.
Results of Experiment 2 show that the methods used to lower
the body resistance, namely: infection by S. suipestifer, and
plant poisoning by N. oleander and P. caudata, were not suffi-
cient to permit development of hemorrhagic septicemia in ex-
posed cattle.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOME SPECIFIC CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH P. boviseptica
OCCUR IN THE TISSUES OF CATTLE

The foregoing experiments showed that many strains of Pas-
teurella, isolated from tissues of cows suspected of having had
hemorrhagic septicemia, failed to produce any clinical disease
in cattle which were exposed to these organisms. The methods
experimentally employed to lower the body resistance also failed
to establish conditions necessary to bring about invasion of
the blood stream by Pasteurella. An analysis of the specific
conditions under which P. boviseptica occurred in the body
tissues of cattle in the field was considered next in importance.

PSEUDORABIES AND P. boviseptica
The inciting agent of pseudorabies or "mad itch" of cattle
has been demonstrated by Shope (13) to be a filterable virus.
The condition often is diagnosed erroneously as the exanthem-
atous or skin form of hemorrhagic septicemia. During July
1937 observations were made on a herd of cattle in which eight
animals died over a 10-day period. The last animal that died
showed clinical symptoms of the skin form of pseudorabies. The
syntptoms observed in this case consisted of violent itching of
the right mandibular region which led to persistent and continu-
ous rubbing of the jaw on the ground, fence posts or other
available objects. As a consequence the affected area became
denuded of hair, mutilated, edematous, and discharged a sero-
sanguineous fluid. As the itching developed further there oc-
curred grinding of teeth, violent tossing of the head, rubbing
of the mandibular region with the hind foot, rapid shallow
respirations, anxiety, prostration and death. Postmortem le-
sions consisting of pulmonary edema and hemorrhages of the
heart were typical of the virus infection of pseudorabies. P.
boviseptica was isolated from the bronchial and tracheal exudate
of three animals that died in the herd. Two bull yearlings which
were given intravenous injections and nasal sprays of defi-
brinated blood from the clinically affected cattle failed to de-
velop symptoms of septicemia.
It was concluded that P. boviseptica may be present in the
tissues of cattle which succumb to the virus infection of pseudo-
rabies.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SOME SPECIFIC CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH P. boviseptica
OCCUR IN THE TISSUES OF CATTLE

The foregoing experiments showed that many strains of Pas-
teurella, isolated from tissues of cows suspected of having had
hemorrhagic septicemia, failed to produce any clinical disease
in cattle which were exposed to these organisms. The methods
experimentally employed to lower the body resistance also failed
to establish conditions necessary to bring about invasion of
the blood stream by Pasteurella. An analysis of the specific
conditions under which P. boviseptica occurred in the body
tissues of cattle in the field was considered next in importance.

PSEUDORABIES AND P. boviseptica
The inciting agent of pseudorabies or "mad itch" of cattle
has been demonstrated by Shope (13) to be a filterable virus.
The condition often is diagnosed erroneously as the exanthem-
atous or skin form of hemorrhagic septicemia. During July
1937 observations were made on a herd of cattle in which eight
animals died over a 10-day period. The last animal that died
showed clinical symptoms of the skin form of pseudorabies. The
syntptoms observed in this case consisted of violent itching of
the right mandibular region which led to persistent and continu-
ous rubbing of the jaw on the ground, fence posts or other
available objects. As a consequence the affected area became
denuded of hair, mutilated, edematous, and discharged a sero-
sanguineous fluid. As the itching developed further there oc-
curred grinding of teeth, violent tossing of the head, rubbing
of the mandibular region with the hind foot, rapid shallow
respirations, anxiety, prostration and death. Postmortem le-
sions consisting of pulmonary edema and hemorrhages of the
heart were typical of the virus infection of pseudorabies. P.
boviseptica was isolated from the bronchial and tracheal exudate
of three animals that died in the herd. Two bull yearlings which
were given intravenous injections and nasal sprays of defi-
brinated blood from the clinically affected cattle failed to de-
velop symptoms of septicemia.
It was concluded that P. boviseptica may be present in the
tissues of cattle which succumb to the virus infection of pseudo-
rabies.






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


ACUTE ANAPLASMOSIS AND P. boviseptica
In one dairy herd where losses of milk cows had occurred,
P. boviseptica was isolated from the jugular and heart blood of
an animal that died after having shown clinical evidence of a
disease resembling anaplasmosis for only a short time. These
findings resulted in the condition being diagnosed as hemor-
rhagic septicemia infection and the herd was treated accord-
ingly. Upon examining prepared blood smears of a clinically
affected animal in the herd during this period, Anaplasma mar-
ginale Theiler was demonstrated parasitizing the erythrocytes.
The simultaneous occurrence of P. boviseptica and A. marginal
in the blood of animals of this herd led to suspicion of a relation-
ship between these agents which would explain the presence
of Pasteurella organisms in the blood of cattle in many instances
encountered in the field. This suspicion was further strength-
ened when, as shown previously, Pasteurella organisms of bovine
origin having a high degree of virulence for small laboratory
animals failed to produce hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle. It
appeared reasonable to believe that A. marginale would weaken
the body resistance against Pasteurella sufficiently to allow the
development of hemorrhagic septicemia.
Experiment 3: This experiment was undertaken for the pur-
pose of making observations on animals which were harboring
P. boviseptica in the upper respiratory passage and at the same
time approaching or passing through acute reactions of anaplas-
mosis. Two bull yearlings 14 months of age were exposed by
nasal spray to P. boviseptica, using blood bouillon cultures and
saline suspensions of 24-hour growth. Three strains of Pasteur-
ella were used, namely El which was isolated from the jugular
blood of a purebred Guernsey bull that died of acute anaplas-
mosis, E2 isolated from the synovial fluid of a young calf
suffering from septic joint infection, and E3 isolated from the
upper respiratory passage of a healthy cow. Before exposure,
these organisms proved to be virulent for small laboratory ani-
mals. One one-thousandth cc. of a 24-hour bouillon culture
proved fatal for rabbits in 18 hours when injected into the
peritoneal cavity or when a drop of the undiluted suspension
was placed on the nasal mucosa. The yearlings withstood the
exposure without evidence of a clinical reaction. To determine
if these animals were free from A. marginale infection or
whether they were recovered carriers of anaplasmosis, a surgical
operation for removal of the spleen was performed. In general,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the technique of de Kock and Quinland (3) was followed in
performing the splenectomies. Recovery from the operations
was uneventful in both animals. Healing of the operative areas
without infection was secured. Careful clinical observations
and blood examinations of these animals were made over a
period of 30 days following removal of the spleen. No evidence
of anaplasmosis appeared following the splenectomies. This
indicated that the animals were not carriers of A. marginale.
Thirty days following the splenectomy, each of these animals
received intrajugular injections of 5 cc. of citrated blood obtained
from a cow which was suffering from an acute attack of ana-
plasmosis. Acute reaction to the parasitic invasion of A. mar-
ginale occurred. Blood examinations and clinical symptoms dur-
ing the attack showed a typical picture of anaplasmosis. Ap-
proximately 50 percent of the erythrocytes became parasitized.
This resulted in a marked anaemia which was accompanied by
the usual blood changes characteristic of severe hematozoon
infections. Blood cultures secured under aseptic conditions as
previously described and blood smears obtained from the jugular
vein during the early stages of the acute attack of anaplasmosis
on these yearlings failed to reveal the presence of Pasteurella.
Both animals died during the nights of the 13th and 15th
days, respectively, following the anaplasma inoculation. Autop-
sies were held the following mornings. Postmortem lesions typi-
cal of acute anaplasmosis were observed in both animals. The
skin, visible mucous membranes and subcutaneous connective
tissue presented a yellowish discoloration. The blood and muscle
tissues were pale. The pericardium and epicardium were flecked
with petechial hemorrhages. Extensive subendocardial hem-
orrhages were present. The lungs presented areas of congestion
and the mediastinal lymph glands were edematous. There were
prominent subcortical petechial hemorrhages of the kidneys.
The liver was congested and the gall bladder distended with
dark, thick bile. Catarrhal enteritis and evidence of intestinal
hemorrhage were present.
The hearts were removed by lighting and severing the large
blood vessels. Cultures of the heart blood were made and
incubated at 37.50 C. Samples of the heart blood were collected
in sterile tubes and held at room temperature for observation.
P. boviseptica was isolated from the heart blood of these two
yearlings which died as a result of acute anaplasmosis.






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


CHRONIC ANAPLASMOSIS AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 4: Observations having been made on animals
harboring P. boviseptica in the respiratory passage during acute
infections of A. marginale, it was desired to observe the action
of these agents in cattle suffering from chronic infections of
anaplasmosis. During May 1935 calves H 125 and H 151 were
exposed to Pasteurella by means of a nasal spray. At this time
these animals were given intravenous injections of 15 and 30 cc.,
respectively, of citrated blood representing three strains of
bovine anaplasmosis. These animals reacted after the 18th day
to a mild form of anaplasmosis. Clinical symptoms of anaplas-
mosis were present for 10 days. After this the animals were
perfectly normal in outward appearance. Splenectomies were
then performed, after which a state of chronic anaplasma infec-
tion ensued. During the chronic attack over 50 percent of the
erythrocytes were parasitized by A. marginale and the hemo-
globin content of the blood varied from 4 to 8 grams per 100 cc.
(Dare) during the period. Frequent blood cultures, stained
blood smears, and rabbit inoculations of blood from the affected
animals during the period of chronic infection failed to show
the presence of Pasteurella organisms.
Frequent examinations of the bacterial flora of nasal secretions
during the experiment showed the presence of P. boviseptica.
Bull calf H 125 died from the induced attack of chronic ana-
plasmosis after a period of four months. Cultures taken from
the heart blood a few hours after death showed the presence
of P. boviseptica. Bull calf H 151 was killed in an advanced
stage of chronic anaplasmosis of two months duration. Cultures
of the heart blood failed to reveal the presence of Pasteurella.
There was no evidence of P. boviseptica entering the blood
stream of these test animals as a result of clinical A. marginale
infection.
Results of Experiments 3 and 4 led to the conclusion that
P. boviseptica inhabiting the respiratory passage of cattle appear
in the blood shortly after death as a postmortem invader incident
to A. marginale infection. It was also evident that P. boviseptica
inhabiting the upper respiratory tract did not establish clinical
hemorrhagic septicemia in animals affected with acute or chronic
anaplasmosis.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SHIPPING FEVER AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 5: During September 1935 opportunity was af-
forded for making clinical and postmortem observations in a
herd of 60 dairy cows exhibiting clinical symptoms of catarrhal
pneumonia and interstitial pulmonary emphysema following
transportation by railway cars. The animals were purchased
in a nearby state and showed evidence of being in poor physical
condition before shipping. A number were held in shipping pens
for several days at the point of origin until the consignment
could be completed and dispatched to the destination point in
Florida. Upon arrival at their destination, 12 animals were
visibly affected, exhibiting emaciation, nasal discharge, cough,
increased temperature and pulse, and dyspnea. A few were
showing evidence of subcutaneous emphysema. During the four
days following arrival 13 additional animals included in this
shipment developed similar, though milder, clinical symptoms.
Eight animals in various stages of this condition were selected
for the purpose of taking blood cultures. Various quantities
of blood were drawn under aseptic conditions into flasks con-
taining Kracke and Teasley's blood culture media and incubated
at 37.50 C. Other blood samples were collected in sterile test
tubes and held at room temperature for observations.
By these cultural methods Pasteurella and colon type organ-
isms were isolated from the blood stream of one animal six hours
before death. Blood cultures from a second animal yielded
P. boviseptica and a gram-negative rod which did not ferment
any of the sugars employed. Cultures from a third animal
secured eight hours before death yielded P. boviseptica alone.
Postmortem observations made on these three animals shortly
after death revealed a catarrhal bronchopneumonia and inter-
stitial pulmonary emphysema. Samples of heart blood from
these animals secured at autopsy revealed the presence of Pas-
teurella and colon type organisms. The Pasteurella were patho-
genic for rabbits in quantities of 0.001 cc. of an 18-hour bouillon
culture when given intraperitoneally. Neither Pasteurella nor
any other organism could be cultured from the blood of five
animals during early stages of shipping fever. No effort was
made by the owner to isolate the clinical cases of shipping fever.
The sick and well animals included in this shipment drank
from a common trough and intermixed freely with the native
cows without further spread of the disease.
Results of Experiment 5 show that P. boviseptica and other
microorganisms may appear in the blood stream of cattle shortly






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


before death from pulmonary emphysema and pneumonia which
occurred incident to shipping.
ENZOOTIC PNEUMONIA AND P. boviseptica
During the past several years opportunity has been afforded
for observing a malignant condition among dairy calves and
yearlings which corresponds in its clinical, postmortem and
bacteriological manifestations and occurrence to enzootic, septic
or bronchopneumonia of young animals as reported by Hutyra
and Marek (4). The condition as encountered in Florida occur-
red frequently in suckling calves and yearlings. In several of
the affected herds the mortality rate amounted to 70 percent
of the annual calf crop. Further economic loss was sustained
since recovered animals were underdeveloped, unthrifty and
unprofitable. When the condition is first introduced into a
herd it begins among the young calves as an acute infection of
the gastrointestinal tract. The first symptoms to develop con-
sist of loss of appetite, unthriftiness and acute diarrhea. More
advanced cases develop a mucopurulent nasal discharge, swell-
ing of the sublingual region, cough, depression, blood flecked
droppings and labored respirations. Temporary improvement
may be followed by a more prolonged and serious attack of a
chronic nature. Symptoms of the chronic form are cough, un-
thriftiness, labored respirations and mucopurulent nasal dis-
charge. Affected animals usually assume a characteristic posi-
tion of sternal recumbency, extension of head and neck, and rest-
ing of cervical and mandibular regions on the ground. The
mouth is often held partially open, in which instance the tongue
is protruded and very labored respirations are present. (See
Fig. 1.) Affected animals may linger for several weeks, becom-
ing gradually emaciated, and finally die with symptoms of pneu-
monia and pulmonary edema. Postmortem examinations made
during various stages of chronic cases showed a progressive
bilateral solidification of the lung tissue. The disease process
begins in the lower apical lobe and extends to involve the cardiac
and diaphragmatic lobes. Fatal cases show involvement of the
entire lungs with the exception of very small portions of the
dorsal border of the diaphragmatic lobes. Due to economic loss,
resulting from year to year in the calf crop, studies were under-
taken regarding the nature and transmission of enzootic pneu-
monia.
P. boviseptica was the predominating bacterial species isolated
from the diseased lung tissue of those cases showing advanced






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


lesions of pneumonia. The virulence of these organisms for
small laboratory animals was typical of the Pasteurella group.
Affected lungs from chronic cases of enzootic pneumonia may
reveal the presence of Staphylococcus and species of Penicillium.
The colon organism, Escherichia coli, which produced severe
enteritis in healthy calves was isolated from the intestinal canal
and droppings of acute cases. Microscopic examinations of fecal
samples from young calves affected with enzootic pneumonia
showed the presence of species of coccidia and nematode ova.
Examinations of feces of older calves suffering from a chronic
form of enzootic pneumonia revealed heavy nematode infesta-
tions. Postmortem examinations of yearlings which survived
an acute attack of enzootic pneumonia often showed presence of
the following parasites: hookworm, Bunostomum phlebotomum;
tapeworm, Moniezia benedeni; nodular worm, Oesophagostomum
radiatum; stomach worm, Haemonchus contortus; whipworm,
Trichuris ovis; lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus; and thread-
like worm, Setaria labiato-papillosa. Affected calves often were
infested with the sucking louse, Linognathus vituli.

















Fig. 1.-Enzootic bronchopneumonia. Note sternal recumbency, extended
head and neck, drooped ears, oral breathing and protruded tongue.

Experiment 6: Attempts were made to transmit enzootic
pneumonia in calves by contact. Eight calves in various stages
of the disease were selected from naturally occurring field cases
and confined with a similar number of young healthy calves
in the isolation pens previously described. Although diarrhea






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


typical of early stages of the disease developed in the calves
thus exposed, typical enzootic pneumonia as observed under
field conditions did not develop. Nasal and bronchial secretions
of calves affected with enzootic pneumonia, minced portions of
affected lung tissue containing numerous Pasteurella and bac-
terial-free filtrates of these materials did not reproduce the
disease when healthy calves were exposed thereto by nasal sprays
and drenches.
It was concluded from this experiment that predisposing fac-
tors, not present in the isolation pens but incident to environ-
ment of affected premises, were necessary for successful trans-
mission of enzootic pneumonia.
FIELD STUDIES OF ENZOOTIC PNEUMONIA AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 7: Further attempts were made to determine the
predisposing factors that influenced susceptibility of calves to
enzootic pneumonia as observed under field conditions. Young
healthy calves three to four days of age were secured from herds
not affected with the disease. They were confined and reared
on a small lot heavily contaminated with droppings of animals
showing clinical manifestations of the acute and chronic types
of enzootic pneumonia. Typical acute and chronic enzootic
pneumonia as observed in natural outbreaks subsequently de-
veloped in a number of the test calves. Postmortem examina-
tions of such reproduced cases showed lesions typical of those
occurring under natural conditions. P. boviseptica was the pre-
dominating bacterial species isolated from affected lungs of the
cases occurring under experimental conditions.
Results of Experiment 7 show that predisposing factors inci-
dent to crowded, unsanitary, permanent calf lots were necessary
to reproduce typical cases of pneumonia in calves.
Crotalaria spectabilis POISONING AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 8: Postmortem lesions in cattle consisting of
hemorrhages and gastrointestinal edema were observed by work-
ers at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (2, 11, 14)
in cattle poisoned by Crotalaria spectabilis. Since these lesions
may be suspected of having a septicemic origin, it seemed desir-
able to ascertain if P. boviseptica could be demonstrated in the
blood of animals which had died of crotalaria poisoning. Three
pounds of C. spectabilis seed were covered with a menstrum of
ammoniated water in a suitable container fitted with a lid. The
mixture was stirred occasionally and allowed to macerate for






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


typical of early stages of the disease developed in the calves
thus exposed, typical enzootic pneumonia as observed under
field conditions did not develop. Nasal and bronchial secretions
of calves affected with enzootic pneumonia, minced portions of
affected lung tissue containing numerous Pasteurella and bac-
terial-free filtrates of these materials did not reproduce the
disease when healthy calves were exposed thereto by nasal sprays
and drenches.
It was concluded from this experiment that predisposing fac-
tors, not present in the isolation pens but incident to environ-
ment of affected premises, were necessary for successful trans-
mission of enzootic pneumonia.
FIELD STUDIES OF ENZOOTIC PNEUMONIA AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 7: Further attempts were made to determine the
predisposing factors that influenced susceptibility of calves to
enzootic pneumonia as observed under field conditions. Young
healthy calves three to four days of age were secured from herds
not affected with the disease. They were confined and reared
on a small lot heavily contaminated with droppings of animals
showing clinical manifestations of the acute and chronic types
of enzootic pneumonia. Typical acute and chronic enzootic
pneumonia as observed in natural outbreaks subsequently de-
veloped in a number of the test calves. Postmortem examina-
tions of such reproduced cases showed lesions typical of those
occurring under natural conditions. P. boviseptica was the pre-
dominating bacterial species isolated from affected lungs of the
cases occurring under experimental conditions.
Results of Experiment 7 show that predisposing factors inci-
dent to crowded, unsanitary, permanent calf lots were necessary
to reproduce typical cases of pneumonia in calves.
Crotalaria spectabilis POISONING AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 8: Postmortem lesions in cattle consisting of
hemorrhages and gastrointestinal edema were observed by work-
ers at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station (2, 11, 14)
in cattle poisoned by Crotalaria spectabilis. Since these lesions
may be suspected of having a septicemic origin, it seemed desir-
able to ascertain if P. boviseptica could be demonstrated in the
blood of animals which had died of crotalaria poisoning. Three
pounds of C. spectabilis seed were covered with a menstrum of
ammoniated water in a suitable container fitted with a lid. The
mixture was stirred occasionally and allowed to macerate for






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


several days. At three-day intervals 200 cc. of menstrum was
decanted and the original volume restored by adding fresh am-
moniated water. As the menstrum was decanted it was adminis-
tered as a drench to a 300-pound bull calf. The animal had prev-
iously been exposed to P. boviseptica by nasal spray. Symptoms
of crotalaria poisoning developed in two weeks following the first
drench and no further menstrum was given. The bull died on
the 29th day following the initial feeding. Cultures of the blood
secured four hours before death did not show the presence of
organisms. Postmortem examination a few hours after death
showed petechial hemorrhages of the viscera and serious mem-
branes, severe gastroenteritis and edema. Samples of blood
secured at autopsy revealed the presence of Pasteurella. In this
case, organisms were more numerous within the leucocytes in
those blood vessels situated nearest the laryngopharyngeal
region. These organisms were highly virulent for rabbits as
proven by introperitoneal inoculations.
It was concluded from this experiment that P. boviseptica
inhabiting the upper respiratory passage of cattle gain entrance
to the blood stream and multiply rapidly after death from C. spec-
tabilis poisoning.
OMPHALOPHLEBITIS OF CALVES AND P. boviseptica
Experiment 9: Pasteurella has been demonstrated as the
causative agent in some cases of omphalbphlebitis of suckling
calves (4). Tests were run to determine if the organisms en-
countered in these investigations were capable of initiating symp-
toms and lesions of this condition. Six calves under 48 hours
of age were secured from a herd where omphalophlebitis had
not been known to occur. These calves were given umbilical
injections using 2 to 3 cc. of saline suspensions of various strains
and densities of P. boviseptica. Following the injections there
occurred depression, inappetance, elevation of temperature, blood
flecked foamy fetid diarrhea, straining and emaciation with
occasional involvement of one or more joints. These symptoms
were manifest over a period of several weeks, resulting in under-
development of the calves. Pronounced symptoms of broncho-
pneumonia developed in four of these calves about the 60th day
following the umbilical injections.
Results of Experiment 9 show that strains of P. boviseptica
used in the investigations of hemorrhagic septicemia were rep-
resentative of the group in so far as their ability to produce
navel infections was concerned.






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


VIRULENCY OF P. boviseptica FOR THE CROW
Experiment 10: The purpose of this experiment was to de-
termine if the crow, Corvus ossifragus, was susceptible to P.
boviseptica infection and capable of disseminating these organ-
isms. Twenty-two live specimens were trapped in a field and
transferred to the isolation pens where they were confined in
wire cages. After being held 10 days for observation, 0.1 cc.
of a 24-hour bouillon culture of Pasteurella, isolated from the
bronchial secretion of an apparently healthy cow, was instilled
into the right eye and nasal cleft of six crows. Fourteen hours
later three of the inoculated crows were dead, and the other three
were visibly sick. Forty-eight hours later one uninoculated crow
died. Several crows lived in the pen for a period of 66 days
exhibiting symptoms of chronic Pasteurella infection. Pasteur-
ella was isolated from the blood stream of those birds exhibiting
acute and subacute types of infections. This organism was iso-
lated from the posterior nares of the chronically affected birds
at intervals during the experiment and from their blood stream
a few hours before death.
Postmortem lesions observed in these crows consisted of hem-
orrhagic laryngotracheitis, hemorrhagic enteritis, congested
lungs, parenchymatous degeneration of the liver, spleen and kid-
neys, petechiae of the pericardium and increased pericardial
fluid.
Results of Experiment 10 show that the crow, C. ossifragus,
is susceptible to P. boviseptica infection and strongly suggests
a possibility of it serving to disseminate Pasteurella organ-
isms in nature.
DISCUSSION
On the basis of these studies the virulency of Pasteurella
organisms for cattle cannot be compared to that found by work-
ers regarding this group of organisms for chickens and rabbits.
Under the conditions of the experiments it was impossible to
produce cases of hemorrhagic septicemia by exposing cattle to
P. boviseptica. This organism constitutes part of the bacterial
flora which is abundant in the upper respiratory passage and
general environment of apparently normal healthy cattle. It
is realized that different degrees of virulence have been attrib-
uted to strains of Pasteurella under variable conditions. Since
the organisms used in these studies were isolated from cattle
tissues and were highly virulent for rabbits it was concluded
that they were representative of the group. No evaluation is






Hemorrhagic Septicemia


VIRULENCY OF P. boviseptica FOR THE CROW
Experiment 10: The purpose of this experiment was to de-
termine if the crow, Corvus ossifragus, was susceptible to P.
boviseptica infection and capable of disseminating these organ-
isms. Twenty-two live specimens were trapped in a field and
transferred to the isolation pens where they were confined in
wire cages. After being held 10 days for observation, 0.1 cc.
of a 24-hour bouillon culture of Pasteurella, isolated from the
bronchial secretion of an apparently healthy cow, was instilled
into the right eye and nasal cleft of six crows. Fourteen hours
later three of the inoculated crows were dead, and the other three
were visibly sick. Forty-eight hours later one uninoculated crow
died. Several crows lived in the pen for a period of 66 days
exhibiting symptoms of chronic Pasteurella infection. Pasteur-
ella was isolated from the blood stream of those birds exhibiting
acute and subacute types of infections. This organism was iso-
lated from the posterior nares of the chronically affected birds
at intervals during the experiment and from their blood stream
a few hours before death.
Postmortem lesions observed in these crows consisted of hem-
orrhagic laryngotracheitis, hemorrhagic enteritis, congested
lungs, parenchymatous degeneration of the liver, spleen and kid-
neys, petechiae of the pericardium and increased pericardial
fluid.
Results of Experiment 10 show that the crow, C. ossifragus,
is susceptible to P. boviseptica infection and strongly suggests
a possibility of it serving to disseminate Pasteurella organ-
isms in nature.
DISCUSSION
On the basis of these studies the virulency of Pasteurella
organisms for cattle cannot be compared to that found by work-
ers regarding this group of organisms for chickens and rabbits.
Under the conditions of the experiments it was impossible to
produce cases of hemorrhagic septicemia by exposing cattle to
P. boviseptica. This organism constitutes part of the bacterial
flora which is abundant in the upper respiratory passage and
general environment of apparently normal healthy cattle. It
is realized that different degrees of virulence have been attrib-
uted to strains of Pasteurella under variable conditions. Since
the organisms used in these studies were isolated from cattle
tissues and were highly virulent for rabbits it was concluded
that they were representative of the group. No evaluation is







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


claimed for organisms other than those encountered and exam-
ined in these studies, or for their action on animals under cli-
matic or environmental conditions other than those undertaken
in the investigations.
The observations regarding shipping fever of cattle indicate
that lowering of vitality incident to railway transportation
is a serious predisposing factor bringing about invasion of the
blood stream by Pasteurella and other organisms. Cattle that
have died as a result of anaplasmosis, pseudorabies, plant poison-
ing or other conditions often reveal P. boviseptica in the blood
or tissues. The presence. of P. boviseptica in bovine carcass
material under these conditions often leads to an error in mak-
ing a diagnosis. The organisms usually enter the blood stream
of cattle shortly before or after death and multiply rapidly.
In the diagnosis of hemorrhagic septicemia of cattle, con-
clusions often are drawn from clinical symptoms alone. In
other instances the diagnosis is confirmed in the laboratory by
demonstrating bipolar organisms resembling Pasteurella in tis-
sues of suspicious materials. The diagnosis often is confirmed
by recovery of P. boviseptica from rabbits which receive injec-
tions of materials from suspected hemorrhagic septicemia tissues.
In the light of the present experimental evidence, P. bovisep-
tica occurring in suspicious hemorrhagic septicemia tissues of
cattle cannot be credited as having any special etiological sig-
nificance in this section.
In regard to navel infections which were produced by strains
of P. boviseptica it might be stated that various species of micro-
organisms present in the environment of cattle are capable of
causing navel infections in calves. P. boviseptica is no exception
to this rule.
It seems safe to state that Pasteurella organisms associated
with the inflammatory process of the lung in enzootic pneumonia
do not exert pathogenic action alone. These studies show their
action is dependent upon pre-disposing factors enumerated and
that environmental conditions present on the affected premises
lower body resistance sufficiently to permit microorganisms col-
onizing in the respiratory passage to exert a pathogenic action
under such influence. Enzootic pneumonia has not been observed
on premises where strict sanitary methods of rearing calves are
practiced. The incidence of enzootic pneumonia as observed
under natural farm conditions has been reduced in direct pro-
portion to hygienic methods employed in rearing calves.








Hemorrhagic Septicemia


SUMMARY
P. boviseptica is frequently encountered at autopsy in the blood
and internal organs of Florida cattle.
Exposure of cattle to P. boviseptica by ingestion and nasal
spray failed to produce septicemia. The organism was recovered
from the nasopharynx of cattle, showing no gross lesions, three
months following such exposure.
P. boviseptica was demonstrated in the tracheal exudate of
cattle that died from infection with the filterable virus of pseu-
dorabies. The organism was also demonstrated in the blood and
internal organs shortly after death due to Anaplasma marginale
infection and Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning. P. boviseptica,
colon type and other saprophytic organisms frequently may be
isolated from the blood stream of cattle showing advanced symp-
toms of bronchopneumonia and pulmonary emphysema which
develop incident to railway transportation.
P. boviseptica was the predominating bacterial species isolated
from diseased lungs of calves affected with enzootic pneumonia.
The microorganism colonizes in the respiratory passage of young
calves and exerts pathogenic action under influences of predis-
posing factors prevalent on affected premises. This type of
pneumonia may be controlled by employing sanitary methods of
rearing calves.
P. boviseptica produced acute and chronic pasteurellosis in
the fish crow, Corvus ossifragus, when the organisms were in-
stilled into the nasal cleft.
All strains of P. boviseptica employed in these investigations
were lethal for rabbits in amounts of 0.001 cc. of a 24-hour
bouillon culture when injected intraperitoneally.
In the light of present experimental evidence, P. boviseptica
occurring in carcass material of cattle cannot be credited as
having any special etiological significance in this section.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is indebted to Dr. G. Dikmans of the Bureau of Animal
Industry, USDA, for identifying various parasites encountered in these
studies, and to Mr. Carlyle Carr of the Biological Survey for furnishing
live specimens of the fish crow, Corvus ossifragus.








Hemorrhagic Septicemia


SUMMARY
P. boviseptica is frequently encountered at autopsy in the blood
and internal organs of Florida cattle.
Exposure of cattle to P. boviseptica by ingestion and nasal
spray failed to produce septicemia. The organism was recovered
from the nasopharynx of cattle, showing no gross lesions, three
months following such exposure.
P. boviseptica was demonstrated in the tracheal exudate of
cattle that died from infection with the filterable virus of pseu-
dorabies. The organism was also demonstrated in the blood and
internal organs shortly after death due to Anaplasma marginale
infection and Crotalaria spectabilis poisoning. P. boviseptica,
colon type and other saprophytic organisms frequently may be
isolated from the blood stream of cattle showing advanced symp-
toms of bronchopneumonia and pulmonary emphysema which
develop incident to railway transportation.
P. boviseptica was the predominating bacterial species isolated
from diseased lungs of calves affected with enzootic pneumonia.
The microorganism colonizes in the respiratory passage of young
calves and exerts pathogenic action under influences of predis-
posing factors prevalent on affected premises. This type of
pneumonia may be controlled by employing sanitary methods of
rearing calves.
P. boviseptica produced acute and chronic pasteurellosis in
the fish crow, Corvus ossifragus, when the organisms were in-
stilled into the nasal cleft.
All strains of P. boviseptica employed in these investigations
were lethal for rabbits in amounts of 0.001 cc. of a 24-hour
bouillon culture when injected intraperitoneally.
In the light of present experimental evidence, P. boviseptica
occurring in carcass material of cattle cannot be credited as
having any special etiological significance in this section.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author is indebted to Dr. G. Dikmans of the Bureau of Animal
Industry, USDA, for identifying various parasites encountered in these
studies, and to Mr. Carlyle Carr of the Biological Survey for furnishing
live specimens of the fish crow, Corvus ossifragus.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LITERATURE CITED

1. ANDRIEU, A., S. S. QUIROGA, and R. EZCURRA. Hemorrhagic septicemia
of cattle in Argentina. Abst. Cor. Vet. 27: 64-68. 1937.
2. BECKER, R. B., W. M. NEAL, P. T. Dix ARNOLD, and A. L. SHEALY.
A study of the palatability and possible toxicity of eleven species
of crotalaria, especially C. spectabilis, Roth; Jour. Agr. Res. Vol.
50: 911-922. 1935.
3. DE KOCK, G., and J. QUINLAND. Splenectomy in domesticated animals
and its sequelae, with special reference to anaplasmosis in sheep.
11th and 12th Rpts. Dir. Vet. Educ. and Research, Union of S.
Africa. Pp. 369-480. 1926.
4. HUTYRA, FRANZ, and JOSEF MAREK. Special pathology and therapeutics
of diseases of domestic animals. Sixth Edition. Alexander Eger.
1:333-334 and 11: 684-694. 1926.
5. JORGENSON, G. E. Some studies of Pasteurella boviseptica. Cornell
Vet. 15: 295-302. 1925.
6. KRACKE and TEASLEY. Manual of methods for pure culture study of
bacteria. Soc. Amer. Bact. Leaflet 2:8. 1933.
7. LEASURE, E. E., H. F. LEINHARDT, and F. R. TABENER. Feline infectious
enteritis. North Amer. Vet. 15: 30-44. 1934.

8. MOORE, V. A. Pathogenic and toxicogenic bacteria in the upper air
passage of domestic animals. U.S.D.A. B.A.I., Bul. 3: 38-48. 1893.
9. SANDERS, D. A. Hemorrhagic septicemia investigations. The signifi-
cance of Pasteurella boviseptica encountered in the blood of some
Florida cattle. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 90: 737-748. 1937.
10. SANDERS, D. A. Investigations of hemorrhagic septicemia in cattle
and swine. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Annual Rpt. p. 53. 1936.
11. SANDERS, D. A., A. L. SHEALY, and M. W. EMMEL. The pathology of
Crotalaria spectabilis Roth poisoning in cattle. Jour. Amer. Vet.
Med. Assn. 89: 150-155. 1936.
12. SCOTT, J. P., and H. FARLEY. Preliminary bacteriological report on
shipping fever. Jour. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 80: 173-186. 1932.
13. SHOPE, RICHARD E. An experimental study of "mad itch" with especial
reference to its relationship to pseudorabies. Jour. Exp. Med.
54: 233-248. 1931.
14. THOMAS, E. F., W. M. NEAL, and C. F. AHMAN. The toxicity of Cro-
talaria spectabilis Roth to livestock and poultry. Jour. Amer. Soc.
Agron. 27: 499-500. 1935.




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