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FOOTSTEPSOFTHE REFORMERSIN FOREIGN LANDS.AND 164, PICCADILLY.A NEW EDITION.1872.LONDON:THE RELIGIOUS TRACT SOCIETY;Instituted 1799.DEPOSITORIES, 56, PATEBrrOSTEB ROW; 65, ST. PAUL'S CHURCHYARD;AND 164, PICCADILLY.SOLD BY THE BOOKSBLLERS.1872.
CONTENTS.PAGEPRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS 1ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMER IN DOMESTIC LIFE 2-1ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL 52GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS .. 79SPIRES, AND THE PROTEST 116JOHN BRENTZ, THE SUABIAN BEFORE 130WITTENBERG, AND MARTIN LUTHER 116AUGSBURG, AND MELANCTHON 187THE vAUDOIS, AND THEIR VALLEYS 212
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.PRAGUE has a very oriental look. Approachingit from the north, this old Bohemian city on thebanks of the Moldau, as it comes into view onthe distant horizon, throws up into the sky,above the far spreading lines of undistinguish-able houses, mosque-like and minaretted formsof building suggestive of the haunts of Mussel-men, making the traveller fancy he is enteringone of the great gateways of the East. Nearerapproach dissipates that delusion-the domes arefound to be the adornments of churches or col-leges, and the minarets resolve themselves intotowers and spires. Prague is European enoughafter all, with a rich quaint German aspect aboutits gates, and streets, and public edifices; and asto the character of its religion, there can be nomistake, after a very short acquaintance withthe place and people.We entered it one sunny afternoon throughB
2 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.the grim Pulver Thurm; and rambling alongthe Zoltnerstrasse, through the Grosser Ring,thus crossing the Alstadt, reached the bridgeacross the Moldau. Now that is a walk not soonto be forgotten. The queerness of the names wehave mentioned is just significant of the strange-ness of the thoroughfares to which they belong-all old, and odd, and German-like. The PulverThurm, or powder tower, is a fortified gateway,of the fifteenth century. The Zeltnerstrasse isone of the best streets in Prague. The GrosserRing is the large circle, or public place, withthe Town Hall on one side, rich in manifoldmemories. The Alstadt is the name of thewhole of the old portion of the city, which lieson this side of the river.A good essay might be written on the poetryof bridges. Their architecture, whether rude orgraceful-the shadows which they throw uponthe streams they overstride-their purpose as acommon highway from shore to shore across aseparating flood-their aspect, morning, noon,and night, under a clear sky mirrored in theglassy water, or under storms pelting down rain,and snow, and sleet-in the hours of crowdingtraffic, or in those of solitude, when the chancefootfall awakens melancholy echoes-in the clearsunset or sunrise-or when the twinkling lampsbetween those times seem to answer to the starsthat gleam above them-at all these seasons, how
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 3suggestive of thoughts and sentiments are oldbridges! Fancies, you might call them, perhaps,but they would be discovered to have in themsobriety and wisdom. Now of all bridges redo-lent of such kind of poetry, we hold the bridgeat Prague to be first and chief. This bridge isguarded by watch towers; and along the copingof the side walls, from end to end across theriver, are statues of saints, amidst which con-spicuously appears that of St. John Nepomuk,the patron saint of all German bridges, and ofthis in particular, from his having been heredrowned as a martyr, by the Emperor Wences-laus, for refusing to disclose the secrets of theconfessional.On the other side the Moldau lies the Neu-stadt, or new town, with the Hradschin, the royalpalace; the Dom or cathedral; the Jesuits'church; and the monastery of Shahow, whichcrowns the height, and from its windows com-mands a charming view.The bridge, the corners of the streets, and thepublic places adorned with images, and withlights here and there burning before the Virgin,concur with the worship in the churches to showthe intensely popish spirit of the religion ofPrague. We have never, even in Italy, metwith anything that surpassed it, rarely withwhat equalled it. Prague is as Romish, if notmore so, than Rome itself.
4 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.It was the Feast of the Assumption of theVirgin the day we entered the city. We forgotit was that festival till we found the shops closedand the churches crowded, as though it had beena Sunday. It was a perfect holiday in the after-noon, and employed, as far as we could see,much less in pleasure than in devotion. A fewmight be observed in their smartest costumeseeking recreation on the river, and in the publicwalks; but it was in the churches that we foundthe greatest concourse. There is, in the new townat Prague, a curious facsimile of the Lorettochapel, said to have been brought by angels fromNazareth to Loretto, in Italy; the outside is inimitation of marble; the interior, of brick, formsa dirty, dingy apartment, about twelve feetbroad, and twice as long; there are the old bellsof the house, they tell us, those that Joseph andthe Virgin rang; but the floor of the habitationdropped out in its airy journey to its new site,so a pavement of red marble was substituted.Within and around this strange building, thatafternoon of our first visit, it was crowded to ex-cess with worshippers. They not only coveredthe inside, but all round they were kneeling,chanting with much fervour, and with amazingperseverance, from hour to hour their Bohemianhymns.At a church just by, the archbishop was per-forming service, and we do not remember ever
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 5seeing such a perfect cram as there was withinthe walls, while, at the doorway, far extendinggroups were on their knees upon the stones.Thus, and in other ways, the Roman Catholicspirit of the population is expressed: and thereis no other place in Europe where the Reforma-tion once took root, from which it has been soutterly crushed out-a fact which shows whatpersecution can do, when full of zealous earnest-ness, and unmindful of justice and humanity.No one can visit Prague without thinking ofthe Thirty Years' War, which was a stand madefor freedom of conscience, beginning in hopefulheroism, and ending in sad defeat. An odd in-cident is connected with its origin. In thecouncil-chamber of the Hradschin, or palace ofthe Bohemian kings, still shown, a quaint oldroom, with debilitated chairs and grim-lookingportraits, the commissioners of the Roman Ca-tholic Emperor Maximilian assembled in 1618;the Protestants came and demanded audience;upon being refused, they forced their way intothe apartment, and seizing two of the imperialofficers, who defied them, they flung them out ofthe window to the bottom of the trench, eightyfeet below, when they lighted upon a heap ofmanure. They were picked up, and put to bed,and took no harm; but out of that rough trans-action came the Thirty Years' War. Strangeto say, it was a Bohemian custom to give such
6 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS."a broad hint" to an unwelcome visitor; andflinging folks out of windows is an incident per-taining to the old Town Hall, as well as to theHradschin.The Hradschin, Wallenstein's palace, and thebridge, the scene of many a battle, carry the.memory back to that famous struggle betweenProtestantism and Popery.The Gr6sser Ring, in which the Town Hallstands, tells also of martyrs who died on thescaffold there in 1621. They dressed as for awedding, went forth as to a banquet. " I haveno more fear of death," cried Otho von Loss;"my Jesus comes to meet me with his angels tolead me to his marriage supper, when I shall forever drink with him the cup of joy and glad-ness."In the same old square, the Utraquists, as theywere called-advocates for the communion inboth kinds-celebrated the Lord's supper in theopen air in 1484: a scene which imaginationvividly brings before the mind as one muses onthe spot-the arch-ecture of the place not look-ing much changed. There are the communicants,reverently kneeling on the ground, and the pas-tors giving the elements to one group afteranother, while the open casements are crowdedwith faces, wistfully looking down on the strangespectacle. There, in a tower of the Town Hall,enriched with a fine oriel of the fourteenth cen-
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 7tury, a terrible tragedy was enacted in 1422,when twelve of the Hussites were imprisonedand beheaded.This brings us to notice the man peculiarlyassociated with Prague, and whose memory isendeared to every Protestant. John Huss (orHus, the proper mode of spelling) was born in1369 or 1373, at Husince, a Bohemian village,from which he evidently took his name. Hecame in early life to study in the university ofPrague. We find him in 1398 installed as ateacher, and soon he gave umbrage to hiscolleagues, by advocating dogmas inimical to theinterest of the papal hierarchy. The origin ofhis theological tendencies, so far as study wasconcerned, is to be ascribed to the writings ofMatthias von Janow. From that source hederived the idea of the priesthood of the wholechurch as distinguished from the clergy-anidea which lies at the root of a true conceptionof the ecclesiasticism of Christianity, and isutterly irreconcilable with the theory and prac-tice of Roman Catholics. It does not appearthat Huss so grasped and applied the idea as toget at the bottom of its meaning, and to availhimself of the full range of its use. He was notintellectually the man to do that; but he saw itpointed to a grand moral reformation of thewhole church, clerical and laic, and so he pliedit with zeal, vigour, and assiduity.
8 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.There is a place in Prague called the Bethle-hem Platz. In a corner house, No. 257, JohnHuss is said to have lived. Near it there stoodthe Bethlehem church-of which we read so muchin the good man's life-where he preached from1401 till the time of his death. And it was withinthose halls that he proclaimed with much effectthe opinions he had imbibed. The charter ofthat particular ecclesiastical establishment re-quired that the priest should preach popular dis-courses in the vernacular-the very kind of workfor which Huss's natural abilities and acquiredknowledge admirably fitted him. He was a clearthinker, penetrating into the heart and core of aquestion, and was at the same time at home inschool dialectics. He was much addicted to argu-mentation, and joined to a considerable amountof the learning of the age, the better qualificationof an unusually large and deep acquaintancewith Holy Scripture. He was a grave man, ofaustere morals above reproach; tall in stature; noburly priest with rubicund face, such as provokedridicule or produced contempt, but thin and spare,with a pale face and thoughtful eyes. Very popu-lar was John Huss, and the Bethlehem churchwas crowded with hearers. Many of his sermonshave been recently collected and published.The first of those collisions between Huss andthe Church of Rome, which ended in the martyr-dom of the reformer arose out of a discussion
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 9respecting the doctrines of John Wycliffe. Howthey came to excite so much interest at thatdistance is easily explained. Anne of Bohemiawas married to Richard II. of England, andtherefore intimate relations subsisted betweenthe two countries. Bohemians living in theEnglish court in attendance upon the queen,became acquainted with the Lollardism then soprevalent in this kingdom. Jerome of Prague,afterwards so closely connected with Huss, visitedEngland, and on his return, took with him theworks of our reformer. In 1404, two learnedEnglishmen, James and Conrad of Canterbury,visited Prague, and uttered antipapal sentiments.They took up their abode in the suburbs of theBohemian capital, in the house of one Luke"Welensky, and, by his consent, painted on thewalls of their room two pictures-one the historyofChrist's passion, the other the pomp of the papalcourt. The meaning of the pictorial antithesis wasplain enough: people ran to see the rude draw-ings, and Huss referred to them in his sermons."With the Wycliffe movement Huss largelysympathized. He had been reading his worksso early as 1391, and had in that way strength-ened the bias of his mind, already much influ-enced by Matthias von Janow. A number oftheses from the works of Wycliffe were examinedby the faculty of the university of Prague in1403, and condemned. A papal bull, in 1405,
10 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.was brought to Bohemia for the suppression ofthe Wycliffe heresy. The Archbishop of Pragueaccordingly decreed heavy penalties against anywho advocated the English reformer's views.Still, however, for some reason not very clear,Huss, in spite of his Wycliffite tendencies, re-tained the good opinion of the archbishop. Butanother controversy in 1409, which becamemixed up with the doctrinal and reforming one,put an end to the prelate's good opinion of Huss,and made him his open enemy. The universitymen were divided into four classes or nations,the Bohemians forming one, the other threebeing composed of foreign Germans. This ar-rangement gave the preponderance of votes tothe Germans. Huss advocated an alteration,according to the example of the university ofParis, where the foreigners had only one voteand the natives three. The archbishop espousedthe cause of the Germans, who were in sympathywith Rome. The Prague or Bohemian party,under Huss, cherished feelings in the oppositedirection. Though this controversy had but anaccidental and really a remote relation to thereligious discussions of the period, it becamemuch mixed up with them at Prague, and musthave introduced a great deal of violent partystrife, not at all to the religious benefit of theantagonists on either side. A new bull against"Wycliffe's opinions came from Alexander V., and
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 11was published in Prague by the archbishop; andmore than two hundred volumes were publiclyburnt, amidst the ringing of bells and the chant-ing of the Te Deum. Huss was immediatelyexcommunicated.A wretched creature, under the name of JohnXXIII., had succeeded Alexander V. in the papalchair. Huss appealed to him, as the recognizedhead of the church, against the archbishop's ex-communication. The pope ratified what thearchbishop had done, and threatened to lay underinterdict any place in which Huss was harboured.In this conflict with the archbishop, Huss wassupported by the King of Bohemia, who, in 1409,had issued an edict distributing the universityvotes in the manner advocated by the reformer.The archbishop died in 1411. His successor wasa weak old man, but the papal legate who broughthim his pall, the symbol of office, involved thecity in new contentions, by publishing a crusadeagainst the King of Naples for supporting theanti-pope Gregory XII. Indulgences were pro-mised to those who engaged in this war : Hussdenounced them as lies. Jerome of Prague nowcame prominently on the field of action, andtaking part with Huss, carried matters to anextreme by burning the pope's bull before thepillory. The King of Bohemia now interferedon the papal side against Huss, but the reformerwent on thundering from his pulpit, and by his
12 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.eloquence fired the people against the court ofRome. Preachers on the other side were openlycontradicted: "Thou liest," cried three youngmen in a congregation one day; "thou liest!we have from Master Huss that these things arelies." The poor fellows were arrested and be-headed for this unseemly interruption; many ofthe citizens regarded them as martyrs. Theywere publicly buried, and Huss took the leadin the ceremonial. Now came a fresh papalexcommunication:--"If Huss should continuerefractory for twenty days, the ban should bepublished in all the churches of Prague, onSunday and festival days, amidst the tollingof the bells and the extinguishment of the altarlights; whoever had intercourse with him shouldcome under the same ban; every place of hisabode should be put under an interdict."The popular preacher protested against thesentence, and appealed to the only incorruptible,righteous, infallible Judge, Jesus Christ. Butthe interdict was maintained by the clergy, andHuss had to leave the city.From his sermons and writings the followingparagraphs are culled, by the author of "TheLife and Times of John Huss," just publishedin America; and for the proper understandingof his position as a reformer, they require to becarefully pondered."Christ is the sole supreme head of the church,
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 13the true pontifex, high priest, and bishop of souls.The apostles did not call themselves the headsof the church, but servants of Christ and of thechurch. Even Gregory would not allow himselfto be called universal bishop."But after this came a change. Till thedonation of Constantine, the Bishop of Romewas but the peer of his brethren. Later empe-rors confirmed the donation, and the pope hassince claimed to be the head of the churchmilitant, and vicar of Christ on earth; so that,in a certain sense, the church on earth has threeheads, Christ as God, Christ as incarnate, andhis vicar for the time being." But in truth the pope is no more a successorof Peter, than the cardinals are successors of theapostles. He is only to be considered Christ'sand Peter's successor and vicar, when he re-sembles Peter in faith, humility, and love; andcardinals are successors of the apostles onlywhen they emulate their words and devotion.But this same might be said of others who havenever been popes or cardinals. St. Augustinewas of more service to the church than manypopes, and than all the cardinals from the be-ginning until now. Were not Jerome, Gregory,Ambrose, and men of that sort, truer and bettersuccessors and vicars of the apostles than thepresent pope with his cardinals, who, neither bya holy life, doctrine, or wisdom, enlighten the
14 PRAGUE, AND JOHN IIUSS.people ? If, instead of fulfilling their calling,and having Christ's example before them, theyrather strive for worldly things, splendour, andpomp, and excite avarice and envy in believers,then are they successors, not of Christ, of Peter,or of the apostles, but of Satan, Antichrist,Judas Iscariot." God can bring back his church to the oldpattern, just as the apostles and true priests tookoversight of the church in all matters essentialto its well-being, before the office of pope wasintroduced. So it may be again; and it werepossible that there should be no more a popetill the last day. God be praised, who sent hisonly begotten Son to be the head of the churchmilitant; for he is able to preside over it, leadit, infuse into it energy and grace, even thoughthere were no pope."It is evident from these extracts, that Husshad not reached the true Protestant ground onwhich steady and consistent opposition to theinstitute of the papacy alone can rest. He seemsto vacillate on the conclusion he arrives at.Sometimes his statements look thoroughly anti-papal, at other times they seem to admit thatthere may be a vicar of Christ on the earth forthe time being: perhaps he became more clearand decided on the subject as he went on study-ing it. Still, though he questioned the instituteitself, and indeed denied the divine right of the
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 15pope, his shafts were mainly levelled at the im-morality and impiety of the men holding thepapal see and the cardinalate. Some zealousRoman Catholics might go some considerableway with Huss, though certainly not so far ashe did in some of his statements.Indeed, Dante himself, the great Italian poetof Roman Catholicism, is unsparing in his de-nunciations of the character of particular popes,and of the immoralities of the clergy. Hussaimed chiefly at the moral purification of Chris-tendom. To us this method may appear short-sighted; but we must make allowance for hiseducation, and the influence of the times inwhich he lived. He caught much of the spiritof our own Wycliffe, though he was a man ofinferior power, and did not so clearly see thetruth; and did not fully comprehend the breadthof the convictions of our great Anglo-Saxon re-former. Huss strove, as it has been said, toput new cloth on an old garment-to pour newwine into old bottles. The purpose was that ofa thoroughly good man; but the plan was notthat of a truly wise one.Huss was driven into retirement by the inter-dict, and there he pursued his theological studies,and wrote controversial works, from which someof the passages just given are extracted. Butwhen the council of Constance was held, and hewas invited by the Emperor Sigismund to attend,
16 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.under promise of safe conduct and free return,even though he should not submit to this eccle-siastical jurisdiction, he gladly accepted theopportunity of vindicating himself against allcharges of heresy. So unimpeachable were hisdoctrinal views on the whole, that he obtainedfrom the papal inquisitor, the Bishop of Naza-reth, a certificate of orthodoxy, and thus fur-nished, set out for the little city of ecclesiasticalcongress, on the beautiful lake of NorthernSwitzerland. Three nobles accompanied himon his journey, and he proceeded with much ofthe boldness and publicity of his more success-ful follower, Martin Luther. Attired as a priest,he invited notice, and by posted placards on thewalls of the towns he passed through, encouragedall who chose to come and talk with him.In the dreary month of November, 1414, Hussreached Constance. The house in which he tar-ried as his own master for the first three weeks,hard by the City Gate, is still preserved; but, atthe end of that period the safe conduct was in-famously withdrawn, and having been kept inguard as a prisoner for eight days, he wasplunged into a dungeon under the Dominicanmonastery by the banks of the Rhine. That newbuilding, as well as the house just mentioned,we visited some years ago; nor shall we everforget the sight of the stone to which this braveman was brutally chained night by night. The
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 17efforts of his friend, Baron Chluni, to secure theprotection pledged by the emperor, were in vain,though the unhealthiness of the cell-was '-llingon his constitution. So far the severity of hisconfinement was relaxed as to allow of his beingcommitted to a less wretched prison. In themidst of broken health and much pain, he hadto prepare his defence; but his spirits were won-derfully sustained, and he wrote cheerful lettersto his friends. He tells us that he dreamed in hisdungeon of his dear old Bethlehem chapel atPrague, and saw pictures of Christ painted onthe wall of his oratory, which the people and hisbishops seemed striving to efface. But afterwardsthere came new painters with brighter colours,and greater numbers, who exclaimed, "Now letthe popes and bishops come, they shall neverefface them more ;"-" and many people rejoicedin Bethlehem, and I with them," adds the noble-minded sufferer and witness.He was afterwards committed, in the monthof March, to the custody of the Bishop of Con-stance, who confined him in his castle of Gott-lieben, on the lake. On the fifth of June, 1415,he was brought before the council. It broke upin confusion. On the seventh of the same monthhe had another audience in the emperor's pre-sence. He manfully replied to his accusers.There was a third hearing. The cardinal d'Ailly,who conducted the prosecution, charged him withC
18 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.being a political revolutionist; Sigismund caughtat this, and denounced him as alike the enemyof priest and king. There had been the cry,"Recant, recant;" to which Huss had rejoined,"I pray and conjure you not to force me to dowhat I cannot perform without sinning againstmy conscience, and without danger of eternalcondemnation."' There was little of a doctrinalkind which, even on Roman Catholic grounds,he could recant. But even had he recanted, suchwas the cruel temper of Sigismund, that it wouldhave availed little, since the wretched emperorinsisted that he must not return to Bohemia, orbe allowed to preach.Huss, by all this injustice, was driven furtherthan ever from the apostate Church of Rome,and when the day of his condemnation came-his birthday, July 6th-he spoke out nobly.We have stood in the grand old cathedral onthe spot where he received his sentence; and aswe remember the architecture of the edifice, itgives vividness to the picture of the confessor'scondemnation as we remember the scene as ithas been described.*" When Huss was accused in the council ofhaving slighted the pope's excommunication-' I have not,' says he, 'despised it, but I haveappealed against it in my sermons, and, as I didnot think it lawful, I continued the functions of* L'Enfant's "History of the Council of Constance."
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 19my priesthood. Not being able to appear beforethe pope, for reasons which I have mentionedelsewhere, I sent my proctors to Rome, wherethey were committed to prison, then turned outof the city, and in other respects abused. Itwas this that induced me to come of my ownaccord to the council, under the public faith ofthe emperor here present.' Upon pronouncingthese words he looked earnestly at Sigismund,who, according to the report of the old authorof the life of Huss, could not help blushing."When Charles V. was solicited by Eccius andothers, at the Diet of Worms, to cause Lutherto be arrested (notwithstanding the safe-conducthe had granted him), the emperor answered," I do not care to blush with my predecessorSigismund."After sentence was pronounced, the martyr fellon his knees and cried, " Lord Jesus, forgive myenemies! Thou knowest that they have accusedme falsely, and have brought false testimony andcalumny against me: forgive them for thy greatmercy's sake." He was then degraded after theusual fashion. Taking from him the chalice, oneof the bishops repeated the formulary: "0 cursedJudas, why hast thou forsaken the council andways of peace, and hast counselled with theJews ? We take away from thee this chaliceof salvation." Huss rejoined, "But I trust untoGod, the Father omnipotent, and my Lord Jesus
20 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.Christ, for whose sake I do suffer these things,that he will not take away the chalice of his re-demption. But I have a steadfast and firm hopethat this dayI shall drink thereof in hiskingdom."On divesting him of his priestly robes, similarmaledictions were pronounced; Huss answering,that he did willingly bear those blasphemies forthe name of Jesus. A contention then arose,whether his head should be shaved with a razoror with a pair of shears. The latter plan wasadopted, and then finally a cap, painted with devilson it, was put on his head, while the words wererepeated by the bishops, " Now we deliver thysoul to Satan." "But I," said Huss, "commendit into thy hands, 0 Jesus Christ; for thou hastredeemed it." His books were burned at thecathedral door as he was led out.At the place of martyrdom outside the city,before the gate Gottlieben, between the gardensand gates of the suburbs, in the neighbourhoodof the lake-then, perhaps, on that day of bloodand fire, as calm as when we saw it on a summer'snoon-lie said, as they bound him to the stake," Willingly do I bear this chain for Christ's sake,who bore a far heavier burden." " Jesus, thouSon of God, have mercy on me," repeated twice,were his last words. .His lips continued to movetill he died. His ashes were cast into the Rhine.It is related by the person who recorded thetragical history, that some said, " Huss ought not
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 21to be heard, because he was a heretic;" and hegives incidentally an indication of the genuinenessof his narrative, by a particular account of thedress worn by this individual. He was a priest,"sitting on horseback in a green gown drawnabout with red silk." Commenting upon what theman said, the reporter adds, " Yet, notwithstand-ing, while Huss was in prison, he was both confessedand also absolved by a certain doctor, a monk, asHuss himself doth witness in a certain epistlewhich he wrote to his friends out of prison."This is a remarkable circumstance, and showsthat the good man remained in communion withthe Church of Rome to a late period. Indeed, tothe last, he protested against the idea of his beingput to death for doctrinal heresy-a charge whichhis writings would not sustain; and it is plainthat he was sacrificed, as he said, to the malice ofenemies, who charged him with crimes of whichhe was utterly guiltless. In the account of Hussincorporated by Foxe in his Martyrology, it isremarked, after the insertion of a number of docu-ments, which bear us out in what we have said,that Huss "was not accused for holding anyopinion contrary to the articles of our faith, butbecause he did stoutly preach and teach againstthe kingdom of antichrist, for the glory of Christand the restoring of the church." His orthodoxy,when tried by a Romish standard, may certainlyplace him beyond the gale of Protestantism pro-
22 PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS.per; but if so, then it more clearly demonstratesthat, if ever there was a murder perpetratedunder forms of justice in this world, it was whenHuss was burned by the Council of Constance.The name of Jerome of Prague is intimatelyconnected with that of Huss. He was superior inlearning, but had less good sense, and was borneaway by the rashness of his feelings, greatly tothe detriment, it seems to us, of his calmer asso-ciate, as well as himself-the one being held re-,sponsible for the conduct of the other. Jerometook part with Huss in the university controversy,and caused the bull against the King of Naplesto be burned. He went to Constance to defendhis friend, and after leaving it again, offered toanswer every accusation against himself on a pro-mise of safe-conduct. Unable to obtain it, hewas returning to Prague, when the Duke ofBavaria seized him as a prisoner and sent himback to Constance in chains. For a time hisfaith failed, and he recanted. Ultimately he re-tracted this humiliating vacillation, avowed hisadherence to the doctrines of Wycliffe and Huss,and being condemned by the same council, fol-lowed his more illustrious predecessor throughthe flames to heaven. Though the men perishedtheir work endured; the Hussite spirit remainedafter Huss was gone. In the wars under thebrave Ziska, who, notwithstanding his blindness,was the successful leader of the party, there was
PRAGUE, AND JOHN HUSS. 23much of passion and violence, such as too oftenbeclouds a good cause; but yet, among the Bohe-mians who followed his banner, there were manypure-minded, holy, and Christian people, whoadorned the doctrine of God their Saviour. Ananti-popish feelingwas bequeathed by the martyrsof Prague, and kept alive by their disciples, andcarried over into the sixteenth century, to pre-pare for the blessed Protestant revolution underLuther and his noble compeers.Though neither Huss nor Jerome died inPrague, yet that was the scene of the laboursand triumphs of both; and no one who can ap-preciate the heroism of Christian men, as he walksthe streets of the Bohemian capital, and lingerson the Bethlehem Platz, under the shadow of thehouse where these two often met and prayed, butmust feel that it is one of earth's holy places,where, through sympathy with exalted faith, weget near to the gates of heaven.
24ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERIN DOMESTIC LIFE."There in the craggy Alpine heights,Echoing the eagle's cry,The Lord will choose his witnessesTo live for Christ, or die."LAYs op THe RIBORMATION.Let us suppose ourselves travelling from Lucerne,over the heights of Mount Albis, and gazing fromits summit on the sun-lighted view of Zurich,with its lake and its richly cultivated and popu-lous shores. How indescribably beautiful is thescene! The descent of two leagues and a halfpresents a succession of lovely views of the lakeand of the mountains of Schwyz, St. Gall, andAppenzell, till you reach the comfortable andsometimes splendid country houses of the richerZurichers, scattered along the west bank of thewaters. We propose spending a week or tendays in the neighbourhood, and, after a shortsearch, find a pleasant house, where we shallestablish ourselves. It has a charming prospect,
* ~. -i*~
ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMER. 25overlooking the lake, and we have included inour bargain the use of a boat.Zurich is a lively, thriving place; and thoughthe streets are but indifferently built, yet thewell-to-do and cheerful people who crowd into iton the market days, show evidently what is theircondition, and give an air of prosperity to theplace. The canton is, after Berne, the mostpopulous, and far the most wealthy of the Pro-testant cantons of Switzerland, and the cityitself one of the most flourishing. It has greatlyextended itself of recent years, and the suburbsnow abound in handsome houses and charminggardens. Its situation and the views aroundrender it most attractive to travellers; and itsinhabitants pique themselves with good reasonon the beauty of their promenades. But thereis no need for any more lovely promenade thanthe roads which skirt the lake.The lake, indeed, must ever be the chief prideand principal attraction of Zurich. It has beenaptly called " The Windermere of Switzerland."Its peculiar character is beauty-beauty of thehighest order, mingled with the picturesque;and although the views from its banks do notapproach the sublime, yet the snow and cloud-capped Alps which rise above them form such abackground as Switzerland alone can offer.Imagine an extensive sheet of water stretchingout before you in a fine curve of about fourteen
26 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERmiles; the opposite bank from that on which westand slopes gently from the water all the wayalong; and as the lake is not more than a mileor two broad, we can see every object on theshore, and distinguish the vineyards, the gardens,the meadows, and the cornfields.Everywhere are white cottages, and countryhouses, and manufactories with their tall chim-neys, and we can count three or four churcheswith reddish-coloured spires halfway up the slope,the villages to which they belong straggling downto the water's edge. Behind this rising ground,and separated from it by a narrow valley, rise theheights of Albis, about 800 or 1,000 feet abovethe lake, rocky and wooded to the summit.We must ascend Mount Albis to enjoy a glo-rious sunrise view from thence. The sight willamply repay us, and we shall look, as it were,into the heart of those wild Alps amid whichwere reared the bold spirits who vindicated, inthe fourteenth century, their rights against Aus-trian oppressors, and received as their reward theenthusiastic homage of a liberated people. Hereeach view has its own peculiar charm, and eachis beyond description impressive. Here, as fromthe Righi, you may see, confused and heapedtogether, all the rude, bleak, icy mountains ofSchwyz, Uri, and Unterwalden. Here may bedistinguished the Hoch Sentis, the loftiest sum-mit of Appenzell, at the foot of which lies the
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 27"Wildhaus, where Zwingle was born. Yonder isthe Glarnisch which overhangs Glarus, wherefirst he preached the gospel. To the north-eastof those steep pinnacles lies Einsiedein, wherehe commenced his struggle with Romish super-stition; and here, at our feet, is Cappel, wherehe fell.The Christian's heart beats with a glad,thrilling joy, as he thinks of that noble re-former, who is the spiritual hero of Zurich, andto whose piety, energy, and courage it owes itsproud pre-eminence as conspicuous above allother states by its bold opposition to the pre-tensions of Rome; and while we look with tear-ful eyes at the spot where he perished, we re-member that he did a great work, and for whichhis name shall be held in undying honour.He was born yonder, in that wild solitude, atthat village called "Wildhaus," or "the savagehouse," situated in the most elevated region,2,010 feet above the waters of Lake Zurich.There, towards the end of the fifteenth cen-tury, in a lonely house which is still pointedout as the site of the original chalet, lived aman named Zwingli, the autmann, or major ofthe district-a respectable and much honouredpatriarch of these mountains.- He was thefather of the future reformer, who was usheredinto this world in that solitary abode on the firstday of the year 1484, seven weeks after the birthof Luther, and was named Ulrich.
28 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERLike his father and brothers, he was a shep-herd, and followed the wanderings of his flocks,as, in the spring, they ascended higher and higherseeking pasture, until, at midsummer, they approached the loftier summits of the Alps, afterwhich they began gradually to descend towardsthe lowlands. At the return of autumn the wholescaht population of Wildhaus resorted to theirhumble dwellings. Thus the lad grew up at thefoot of those mighty rocks whose peaks ascendabove the clouds. " I have often thought," saidhis friend Myconius, " that, brought nearer toheaven on their sublime heights, he contracted inthem something celestial and divine."Of his childhood we are told that, during thelong winter evenings in the cabins of Wildhaus,the young Zwingle, seated by his father's hearth,listened to the conversations of the elders of thecommune, and heard them tell how the valley hadformerly groaned under a most cruel yoke, fromwhich it was emancipated by its alliance with theSwiss. Love of his country was thus kindled inhis heart; Switzerland became dear to him, andhe was always ready to rise and warmly defendthe cause of independence when he heard it dis-paraged. Frequently, too, during the long winterevenings, he would sit beside his pious grand-mother, and with eager ears listen to her Biblicalnarrations and her devout legends, with whichhis boyish memory was stored.
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 29How wonderful are the orderings of God's pro-vidence! Who would have thought of lookingin those obscure valleys for the man whom hehad appointed to be one of the liberators of hischurch? Who would have supposed that littleunknown cities, just emerging from barbarism,hidden behind inaccessible mountains, at the ex-tremity of lakes which had no name in history,should become world-renowned in the history ofthe mighty struggle for liberty and religion?Zurich has long been famed for its freedomand science, on which account it has been styledthe Athens of Switzerland; and literature stillkeeps its place there. Nowhere, perhaps, inEurope is the study of the classics more generalthan in this city. One of its most recentvisitors, Miss Bremer, in her work, entitled "TwoYears in Switzerland and Italy," speaks withmuch animation on this subject. She says theenlightenment and education of the people seemto take the lead, and popular lectures are de-livered every week during the winter for thebenefit of the public, at the H6tel de Ville. Thetaste for science is partaken by the artisan classes,and some of the great manufacturers encouragethe moral and intellectual culture of their work-people. It is very pleasing to know that thepeople work at their homes in the country. Thelooms stand in the cottages scattered about thefields and on the Alps, and the country folk fetch
30 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERorders and raw material from the town, andcarry back thither their fabrics of silk and cotton.The public spirit and benevolence of the inhabi-tants are also shown in the numerous institutionsfor the cure of moral and physical evil, as wellas for the culture of the intellect.Among the places pointed out to strangers asworthy of notice, and which we must visit, arethe Arsenal and the City Library. In the firstof these are several curious and interesting an-tiquities, and a document regarding WilliamTell, lately discovered in the archives of Unter-walden. In this ancient book of the fifteenthcentury, the history of that renowned patriot issimply and fully related, in all its main featuresbeing identical with that of the popular tradition.But more interesting by far to us is the PublicLibrary-a spacious building, containing manythousand volumes well arranged and in goodcondition. One of the choicest treasures is aGreek Bible, in which Zwingle wrote the namesof his children, and which is believed to be theone he used in the pulpit. There are alsoseveral manuscripts by the reformer, particularlyhis Latin Commentary on Genesis and Isaiah,and a copy of St. Paul's Epistles, from the GreekTestament published by Erasmus; at the end iswritten an inscription in the Greek tongue, signi-fying, " Copied by Ulric Zwingle, 1515." It waspresented to the library by Ann Zwingle, the
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 31last survivor of his illustrious race. Here, too,is an original portrait of the great man, which,however, does not answer our expectations, forhe is said to have been handsome; and we mightexpect his countenance would be an index tothe masculine sense and resolution, combinedwith gentleness, by which he was distinguished.In the Library of the Cathedral there arealso several manuscripts of the reformers, andparticularly sixty volumes of letters from Zwingleand others, with a complete index. It is aboveall in the Cathedral of Zurich that we are forciblyreminded of Zwingle.Here it was, on New Year's Day, 1519, he firstmade his appearance as preacher, having that daycompleted his thirty-fifth year. His receptionwas cordial, and when he ascended the pulpit hebeheld a large crowd assembled, eager to see theman already so celebrated, and to hear that newgospel of which every one was beginning tospeak. "It is to Christ," said the reformer,"that I desire to lead you; to Christ, the truesource of salvation. His Divine word is theonly aliment I purpose offering you for your livesand your hearts."The following day a still more numerous con-gregation appeared, and Zwingle commenced hisexpositions of the New Testament and openedthe Gospel of St. Matthew, that book which hadbeen so long shut. He continued from week to
32 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERweek reading and explaining the Scriptures,setting forth the loftiest truths of the gospel inplain but forcible language. His preaching wasadapted to all classes of hearers, to the wise andlearned as well as to the ignorant and the simple."Never has a man been known to speak withsuch authority," wrote Myconius, who watchedwith intense and hopeful interest these firstlabours of his friend, at this new and importantpost.It was in Zurich that the reformatory activityof Zwingle became perfected and bore fruit; butit was in his solitary cell at Einsiedeln, when heknelt and cried to God "for an understandingof the word," that the first beams of the light oflife shone into his spirit. The study of the HolyScriptures in Greek was the means of his con-version. He had been taken when a mere ladby his father to Wesen, to be in the charge ofhis uncle, a dean of the Romish Church, who,charmed with the superior abilities he displayed,resolved to send him to Basel, where he madesuch rapid progress in his studies that he soonsurpassed all his competitors. At the age ofeighteen he became a student of the university,and devoted himself to scholastic theology. Butthe light-hearted youth was soon weary of poringover the philosophy of the schools, and gladlylaid aside his heavy and uncongenial task forpleasanter engagements. His favourite recrea-
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 33tion was music: indeed he was a perfect enthu-siast in the art, and played various instruments,the lute and harp, the violin, the flute and thehorn, on all which he excelled, singing also thenational airs of his people. None was of morebuoyant spirits, amiable disposition, and engagingpowers of conversation.At the age of twenty-two the young theolo-gian was chosen pastor of Glaris, and beingconsecrated at Constance by the bishop, preachedhis first sermon at one of the humble villages,and read his first mass at Wildhaus, in the pre-sence of all his relations and early friends. Atthat time he had not received the clear light ofevangelical truth in his heart. It was not tillsome years after, that, by degrees, he drew fromthe pure fountain of the Scriptures his know-ledge of God's truth. For this purpose heresolved to study Greek: "I am so determinedto devote myself to this," he wrote in 1513,"that none shall withdraw me from it." Some-what later a worthy priest, who had been hisschoolfellow, having come to see him, " MasterUlrich," said he, " they assure me you are dippedin this new error, and that you are a Lutheran."" I am not a Lutheran," replied Zwingle, "forI knew the gospel in the original before I everheard the name of Luther." It was at Einsie-deln, to which place he was called as priest andpreacher in 1516, that he grew in spiritualD
34 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERunderstanding and faith. Here he copied withhis own hands the epistles of St. Paul, which hecommitted to memory; next, the other books ofthe New Testament, and then a part of the Old.To this strange place we will next make ourpilgrimage. About twenty miles to the southof Zurich is the village of Einsiedeln, celebratedfor its rich Benedictine abbey, containing a"miraculous" image of the Virgin. At thepresent time this monastery is the most con-siderable in Switzerland, and thither annually100,000 pilgrims proceed from all the Catholiccantons, and even from Germany. The firstview of Einsiedeln is striking; for one does notexpect, in the midst of a desolate plain, situatedalmost 3,000 feet above the level of the Mediter-ranean, to see the magnificent towers of a churchflanked by a range of buildings, which, for ex-tent and splendour, would do honour to a capitalcity.And if we are struck with the appearance ofEinsiedeln before we enter it, how much greateris our surprise when we walk up the wide streetthat leads to the abbey! Instead of the dull,forlorn aspect of a remote country town, every-thing has the appearance of a great fair, oneof the most extraordinary in its characterimaginable.The street and the square in front of the
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 35church are crowded with pilgrims from all parts;their varied costumes presenting a most pic-turesque appearance. We are particularly struckwith the head-dresses of the women, which areof the greatest and most extraordinary variety:some, with the ancient bodkin, shaped like adart, the head in the form of a diamond studdedwith glittering stones, passing through the hair;others, with a coiffure made of plaited and stiff-ened lace, placed upon the head upright, likea cock's comb or a large fan. Some wear abroad circular piece of straw, placed flat uponthe head, with flowers tastefully adorning it:many merely wear the dark hair beautifullyplaited, a multitude of beads and other orna-ments interwoven in it. Almost all the oldwomen carry staves, and many of the young onesred umbrellas.Entering the church, we behold numerousgroups of pilgrims standing or kneeling in everypart, more especially round the little chapel inthe centre aisle, through the gilded grating ofwhich is seen a small image of the Virgin, ofblack wood, with the infant Jesus, also black,visible by the light of small yellow wax-candles,which the devotees have lighted and placedthere.Both images are adorned with golden crownsand precious stones, and you hear on every sidethe dull murmuring sound of paternosters and
36 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERave-marias. Going out into the great square,we find a large market being held, partly for thesale of red ribbons and pictures of saints, andpartly of small printed papers issued from theprinting presses of Einsiedeln. Let us purchasea couple and examine them. They promise" Forgiveness of sins for 200 days, to those whomake a pilgrimage to the Madonna of Einsiedeln,and who prayed with their whole heart theprayer there prescribed to the Holy Virgin."Alas that such thick clouds of superstitionshould still darken this beautiful land. Alas!that, in the very place where Ulrich Zwingle,more than 300 years ago, uttered his protestagainst the sale of indulgences, the same nefari-ous traffic is still carried on by a body of priests,calling themselves the spiritual instructors ofthe people. Zwingle's residence in Einsiedelnhad, with respect to the knowledge of popishabuses, the same effect upon him as Luther'ssojourn in Rome produced on that great man.There he completed his education as a reformer,and was thus prepared for his work in Zurich.Before long his preaching was attended withgreat results. The spacious cathedral could notcontain the crowds that flocked to hear him.The people praised God that a new life was be-ginning to reanimate the souls of men, and thegood news spread far, so that Myconius rejoic-ingly wrote, "Whereas they used to say thy
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 37voice could not reach three paces, it was a false-hood; for all Switzerland hears thee." He con-tinued diligently expounding the Scriptures toall who came. On Fridays, the peasants whoattended the markets with their produce, anxi-ously desired to hear the new teaching; andto meet their necessities, Zwingle commencedweekly lectures on the Psalms for them, in orderto prepare which he studied the original Hebrew.Year by year his popularity grew, and deservedly,for he conducted himself like a true shepherd ofsouls, and with kindly feeling towards all. Oneof his contemporaries tells us how "he ate anddrank with all who invited him, and despised noman: he was full of compassion for the poor;always firm and always cheerful, alike in goodand bad fortune; no trouble appalled him; hiswords were always full of courage, and his spiritcheering and comforting." His enemies turnedall this to his discredit, saying, "He invitesrustics to dine with him, walks with them, talkswith them of God, and puts the devil into theirhearts, and his writings into their pockets."At length, when he had reached his fortiethyear, he determined, after the example of Melanc-thon and many others, to enter the marriagestate. The wife whom he selected was AnnaReinhard, the daughter of an innkeeper of Zurich.Her youthful history was quite a romantic one.She is spoken of in the early records of her
38 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERpeople as being very beautiful, and consequentlythe object of much attention. To her praise beit said, her contemporaries speak still morehighly of her goodness and amiability.Anna's charms attracted the regard of a youngpatrician gentleman, named John von Knonau,the only son of one of the senators of Zurich, aman of old family and great consideration.Highly displeased at this fancy of his son's, hesent him away to finish his education, and inthe mean time arranged for him a marriage suit-able to his station and the wishes of his friends.Unhappily, the affections of the youth were toodeeply engaged to allow him to forget the bloom-S ing daughter of the innkeeper, and he hastilyengaged himself to her. The result was a clan-destine marriage, which so enraged the oldsenator that he never permitted his son again toenter his house or appear at his table, and disin-herited him.The young couple who had incurred suchweighty displeasure were tenderly attached toeach other, and had three children, the eldest aboy, named Gerald, and two daughters. Despitehis father's wrath, John von Knonan obtainedseveral honourable civil employment, and after-wards entered the military service, and was pre-sent at the battle of Novara. Some years laterhis health became infirm, and in the winter of1516 he died, in the arms of his loving wife.
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 39After his death she devoted herself entirely tothe care of her children, and lived quietly and inretirement.It was a great happiness for her, in her strait-ened circumstances, that the grandfather of herboy had provided for him. It chanced one daythat, as the stern old senator (who had recently,under the influence of his angry feelings, sold tothe government for an inadequate sum the lord-ship of Knonau) was sitting in the coffee-room ofan inn immediately opposite the fish-market, hesaw- but we must tell the story in the wordsof the old family chronicle. "Just at that time,"says this record, "John's servant-maid hadtaken little Gerald, who was then about threeyears old, to the fish-market, whither she hadbeen sent to buy fish, and had placed him on thefish stones until she had paid the fisherman.The child's grandfather, who happened to belooking out of the window at the inn, saw himsitting there, and was attracted by his healthyand happy-looking countenance. He thereforeinquired to whom the handsome merry-lookingboy belonged, and was answered, Did he notknow that it was the child of his own son John ?'When the grandfather heard this, he immediatelyordered the child to be brought to him, took himin his arms, wept, and said, 'Although I wasangry with thy father, I will not let thee sufferfor it, but will be a father to thee, and make thee
40 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERmy son and heir.' He forthwith had him takento his own house, and took care of him till hisdeath, which happened a year after that of hisson."As soon as he was old enough, Gerald was sentto one of the schools in Zurich, where he quicklyattracted the attention of Zwingle, who, likeLuther, attached the utmost importance to thetraining of the rising generation. Pleased withthe diligence, abilities, and amiability of the lad,he devoted much time to his instruction; and theinterest he felt in the son led to an acquaintancewith the mother, who for some years had beenone of his earliest and most attentive hearers.Her piety, modesty, and maternal affection werewell known to him. She was no longer young;and her grave demeanour, and gentle thoughactive virtues, fitted her well to discharge theduties of a clergyman's wife.Their marriage, which, it appears, took placein the month of April, 1.524, proved a source ofmutual happiness. Zwingle, as a married man,entered on a new life, and found his laboursmuch alleviated and cheered, for his Anna was akind and loving helpmate, and assisted him invarious ways. The burden of his manifoldofficial duties, literary labours, and extensivecorrespondence, pressed too heavily upon him.It is an amusing picture which he draws of hisdomestic menage, in a letter written to his inti-
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 41mate friend, Burgomaster Vadian. "My faith-ful wife," he writes, " frequently pulls me by thesleeve when she perceives that I can bear it, andam in a good humour, and whispers in my ear,' Give yourself a little more rest, my dear.''What rest?' I answer: you see there is nowant of will to it, but of ability; for first comesa good friend, then an adversary, next a worthy,honest country preacher, who is followed by aschoolmaster. Close at his heels a senator pre-sents himself; and scarcely are they gone, whenthe poor weary fellow is summoned to attend asick-bed, and on his way thither is reminded bythe publisher that he has promised a manuscriptwhich is wanted. At length, when the over-worked mortal reaches home, half-dead withfatigue, he finds a dozen letters lying on hisdesk, requiring immediate attention; so that,not unfrequently, the morning star sees him stillat his inkstand."If the reformer found himself thus full ofdaily occupation, there was no want of work tooccupy Anna. She had the schools to manage,the sick to visit, the poor to feed and clothe, anda host of needy visitors constantly claiming hos-pitality. The good woman opened her hand andheart to all applicants, and showed herself a pat-tern of domestic kindness and hospitality, inso-much that she was often called " the apostolicalDorcas:" no bad sobriquet for a minister's wife
42 ZURICH, AiND ITS GREAT REFORMERto acquire. One of her plans, which seems tohave been much approved, was to hold on Sundayafternoons a sort of "mothers' meeting" for thewives of the city clergy, who assembled at herhouse for mutual edification. Occasionallytheywere joined by one or more of their husbands,who accompanied them in a concert of sacredharmony; for Zwingle composed hymns andspiritual songs, and delighted, as we alreadyknow, in the concord of sweet sounds.Sometimes, when a rare leisure hour offereditself, the reformer and his consort enjoyed eachother's company in pleasant converse and reading.The literary and occasional journals from Basel,which often arrived fresh from the press or thefair, were discussed; and Anna, who had a quietturn for the humorous, enjoyed the witty jeuxd'esprit of Erasmus in his " Praise of Folly," andthe letters, which then awakened so much atten-tion, from the " Dark Men." These, and others,Zwingle would translate for her entertainment,delighting to find in her the pleasant companionas well as the good housewife.The happiness of the reformer was increasedby the birth of a son, which event occurred inJanuary, 1528, when he was absent from home.Anna immediately sent the tidings to him atBerne, whither he had gone, and by return of themessenger he despatched a letter, the only oneaddressed to her which has been preserved. In
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 43it he expresses his joyand gratitude for the mercyvouchsafed them, and prays for her restoration tohealth, and for grace to consecrate their child toGod. He then speaks of himself, and says, "Iam, thank God, well and excellently providedfor by the friends here, and under the Divineprotection as well as thyself. The worthy peopleI live with inquire after thee, and bless and greetthee and the children. Do send thy niece one ortwo such head-dresses as thou wearest; it willplease her, for she would gladly wear such a one.She is already forty years old, and is extremelykind to me. Now I commend thee to God; greetwhosoever are dear to thee, they are so to mealso; and pray to God for me. Embrace, kiss,and bless all the children from me. The Lordkeep thee; may we soon meet again, thou soul ofmy soul, thy host and husband, Ulrich Zwingle."Who could have expected such a lover-likehusband in a man who had lived in a convent?He seems to have entered with delight intowomanly matters, even down to the becomingcap or bonnet, which shows that he had anobserving and affectionate nature, which couldtake pleasure in all that concerned the object ofits love. Alas! their happiness was very short-lived, and even while it lasted there was muchto disturb their peace. Above all, Zwingle'senemies caused his wife and friends great anxiety.He was almost constantly in danger of his life,
44 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERand on one occasion his house was attacked bysome miscreants, who flung stones into the win-dows during the evening. At another time amessage was sent to him at nightfall that someone wished to speak with him, but one of hisfriends chanced to go in his stead, and was im-mediately seized upon; undoubtedly the inten-tion was to carry Zwingle off; but the two menwho made the attempt, on discovering that theperson they had caught was not the right one,quickly decamped. Frequent threats were utteredagainst the reformer; it was publicly said thathe ought to share the fate of other heretics. Hisbooks were burned at Lucerne, and notices postedthat he would be arrested wherever he could befound. It required no small faith in God totranquillize the heart, and preserve a calm andunshaken reliance upon the Divine care andgoodness, under such circumstances.In the mean time the dark and troublousclouds of civil war were overcasting the sky, andZwingle, who was consulted on all matters, waslooked to as an oracle in secular affairs as well asin spiritual. It was a tangled skein; and, whenwe recall the history of our own countrymenduring the great civil war, when the best men,ministers as well as laymen, found themselves sosorely perplexed as to the path of duty, we maythe more readily sympathize with the Swiss pa-triots and reformers. Zwingle, although anxious
II DOMESTIC LIFE. 45to preserve peace, felt himself bound to upholdthe principles of freedom; and the intolerance ofthe Roman Catholic party roused his indignation.A year after the birth of his little boy, our re-former was absent from home three weeks. Hewent to Marburg to hold a religious conferencewith Luther. Having no safe-conduct, he tookhis departure secretly and by night, and travelledthrough byways, across mountains, and by secretpaths to the place of rendezvous. The occasionwas an important one; there were present Luther,Zwingle, Melancthon, and CEcolampadius. Theymet in the old chateau of Marburg, in a chambercalled the Hall of the Knights. The landgrave,who presided at the conference, sat in his chair,and before him was a table at which the fourillustrious champions took their places. As thedisputation waxed warmer, they argued eagerlyfor their favourite views. Zwingle spoke withgreat energy and power on the subject of the com-munion. While he was proceeding Luther seizeda piece of chalk, and, bending over the table,wrote in large characters the words Hoc est corpusmeum ("This is my body"). Zwingle maintainedthe position that these words mean, " This signi-fies my body." At the end of two days' discussionthey parted without coming to any agreement,and Zwingle burst into tears of mortification anddisappointment.On his return, he reached Zurich the nineteenth
46 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERof November, 1529, and beheld the melancholyspectacle of his countrymen and brethren inarms against each other. The five Roman Ca-tholic cantons rose against Zurich and Berne,and both sides prepared to meet in battle arrayon the borders. By the intervention of the leadersmatters were compromised and a temporary truceagreed upon. No blood flowed, and the husbandand father joyfully returned in safety to his be-loved family.But peace was of short duration, and Zwingleknew no repose. Even in Zurich there weremany opposed to the new doctrine and hostileto the reformer, who twice requested his dismissalfrom the high and important position he occu-pied; and it was only by urgent entreaty that hewas induced to remain. Jealousy, animosity, andmutual irritation increased on both sides, and atlength a contest became imminent. When itappeared certain that war was at hand, the mindsof the people were filled with alarm, and themost sinister prognostications were heard on allsides. Zwingle himself was in sore distress. Hisheart bled for his country, for he saw not in whatway the threatening evils could be averted. Hislively and imaginative spirit was troubled witha dim sense of coming sorrows, and he parti-cipated in the universal disquiet.As the very "stars in their courses foughtagainst Sisera," so it appeared to him that the
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 47heavens foretold his destiny. One evening, onthe fifteenth of August, as he has related, he wasstanding with his friend George Miiller, formerlyabbot of Wettingen, in the burial-ground of thecathedral, when the attention of both was at-tracted by the appearance of a remarkable bodyin the heavens. It was an immense comet, whichascended from the west, while its long and broadtail, of a pale yellow hue, streamed towards thesouthern horizon, and its light flamed in the skylike a burning torch. "Yonder fatal star," saidZwingle, " has come to light the pathway to mytomb. It bespeaks my end, and that of many anhonest man beside. It is true I am short-sighted,but I can see a host of calamities in the future.The cause of truth and the church of God will bethreatened, but Christ will never forsake us."This phenomenon was no other than the cele-brated Halley's comet, which first appeared in1456, when it excited universal alarm. Zwinglewas not the only one who beheld it now withfear and trembling. Many among the mostlearned men of the day considered it to be theharbinger of evil; and the famous Theophrastespronounced that it foretold great effusion of hu-man blood, and more especially the death of wiseand illustrious men.The battle of Cappelwas fought on the eleventhof October, 1531. The preceding day was one ofalarm and perturbation in Zurich; a general con-
48 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERsternation filled the minds of the citizens, whohad entirely neglected taking measures for theirdefence, and were wholly unprepared to meet theenemy now advancing against them. A fewhundred men alone were sent forward, under anindifferent leader. As the night gathered aroundthe city, the sound of the tocsin was heard fromall the steeples, to summon the inhabitants toarms; and the tumult of the people, togetherwith the harsh noise of the trumpets and drums,and the loud roar of the thunder which reverbe-rated on all sides, made a fearful din. At inter-vals in the wild uproar the voice of weeping washeard; women and children uttering cries of griefas they tore themselves from the embraces oftheir husbands and fathers, adding to the terrorsof the hour.That fatal night was but the prelude to a stillmore fatal day. At the early dawn the bannerwas unfurled in front of the H6tel de Ville: thetroops gathered around it;-a confused crowdwanting a leader, one from whom they mightderive strength and comfort. The name ofZwingle was heard; the senate called upon himto accompany the banner; it was the custom ofthe Zurichers, from time immemorial, when theyengaged in war, to have the chief minister oftheir church advance with the army, both thathe might exhort the troops and pray for a bless-ing upon their arms. As a good citizen and a
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 49faithful pastor, Zwingle was summoned to takethis post, and he could not draw back withoutincurring the disgrace of forsaking his friends intheir utmost peril.A party of the troops gathered in the cathedralsquare, opposite the house of the reformer, andhis horse, ready caparisoned, awaited him at thegate. About eleven o'clock he appeared at hisdoor: his countenance was composed, but deeplysorrowful. He was accompanied by his wife andchildren, who clung to him weeping. Turningto Anna he said, " The hour is come when wemust part. It is God's will. May he be withthee, with me, with ours!'"-She could notspeak for weeping: at length she sobbed out," Shall we meet again ?"-" If God permit; hiswill be done." "And when you return, whatwill you bring?"--"After the darkness comesthe blessing," was his reply; and so, with onemore embrace, they parted.His horse, at the moment he was mounting,started back-a melancholy omen for those heleft behind; but hastily spurring him on, Zwinglepresently disappeared, and when the sound ofthe troops faded away, those who remained be-hind in the desolate city heard the thunder ofthe heavy ordnance resounding over the distantAlps.The defeat at Cappel was decisive; towardsthe close of the encounter it was a slaughterE
50 ZURICH, AND ITS GREAT REFORMERrather than a contest. It was approaching sun-down when the battle commenced: Zwingle, whohad been several hours on the field, was in theact of bending over one of his companions, whohad been struck down at his side, in order toadminister the consolations of religion, when hehimself was dangerously wounded by a stonefrom a sling. He raised himself, but was againhit, and fell on his knees. He was then heardto say-" Why is it thus ? Ay! they may killthe body, but they cannot kill the soul." Unableto move, he then lay, stretched on his back, withhis hands folded and his eyes raised towardheaven. He was found thus in a meadow closeby the roadside, under a large pear-tree, whichlong went by his name. When discovered, hewas not quite dead; but when called upon torecant, he shook his head in token of dissent,and was immediately run through the body byone of the fierce and fanatical soldiers.The next day his body was quartered andburned, and the ashes scattered to the winds.Sorrowful indeed was the case of poor Annaand her little family. She lost in this terriblefray, not only her husband, but her son Gerald,her brother, and other kindred. All died on thefield, and she had not even the melancholy satis-faction of a last farewell. The forlorn widow,thus fourfold bereaved, was left with only herorphan children, who filled the house with their
IN DOMESTIC LIFE. 51cries and lamentations. The short remnant ofher days was clouded with grief and anxiety;but she was not without friends and consolation.Bullinger, the excellent and devoted man whosucceeded her husband in his ministerial charge,took her under his own roof and provided andcared for her. Little is known concerning thesubsequent experience of this deeply triedwoman;but that little assures us that it was well with herin the end.In the month of November, 1538, she wasseized with a violent and fatal malady, and in afew weeks sank gradually and calmly, fallingasleep in Jesus. Bullinger, in a letter to one ofhis friends, thus mentions her;-" I cannot wishfor myself a more blissful end than that of thisadmirable woman. She expired like a gentlelight, and went home to God with prayers andsupplications, commending us all to the Lord."
62ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.THE tourist who embarks (under a battery ofhuman eyes) at St. Katharine's Wharf, and, aftersteaming four or five miles through an unbrokenforest of masts, joins the long procession of vesselsof every class and nation, from the stately India-man to the white-winged cutter, incessantly mov-ing up and down the Thames, is hardly preparedfor the contrast that awaits him across the Ger-man Ocean.Directly facing London's mighty river, is theembouchure of a stream scarcely inferior innatural advantages, and rendered even betteradapted to the purposes of commerce by artificialramifications, connecting it with every port inFlanders. The Scheldt is at least three miles wideat Flushing; and nearly at the same distanceas London from the Nore, the towers of Antwerprise above its waters. The intervening banks,low and level, are far from rivalling the beautiesof Surrey and Kent; but the tide that rolls be-tween them, and not unfrequently threatens to
II, IS''! '*''J" 1' 'A .:X T \ .; .K (* i:i
AXTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 53overwhelm their fenny barriers, offers a magni-ficent highway for every purpose of trade. Shipsof the largest burden may ride in forty feet ofwater at the,town quay, while the daily rise andfall of twelve feet provides abundantly the meansof access and departure. Still the traveller's eyesweeps this expanse of waters in vain. He mayascend the entire stream without meeting or over-taking a single sail, and on reaching Antwerp, itsmile and a half of quays, unrivalled in any coun-try, will be found in the possession of a dozenvessels of no great size, a crowd of smaller craftoccupying the basins and harbours designed foran imperial fleet.What remains of the magnificent works con-structed by Napoleon Bonaparte, with a view ofrendering Antwerp an arsenal that should threatenLondon and command the commerce of the world,only serves to mock the desolation that has suc-ceeded. So marked a contrast with the busyswarming Thames, seems even more than thesluggish motion of the stream to justify the poet'sepithet of " lazy Scheldt;" yet in times gone by,long before the dream of French empire, Antwerphad known how to realize the great natural advan-tages of its site and river. In the early part ofthe sixteenth century, it was both a larger and awealthier town than London. With a populationof 200,000 souls, and a trade extending to Indiaand the East, it was the richest and most flourish-
54 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.ing port of Europe. Two thousand five hundredvessels might then be seen lying in the river atone time. The dockyards were superior to thoseof Amsterdam, and the finest manufacture ofwestern art was carried on within its walls, tillthe Inquisition drove the silk weavers to findrefuge in Spitalfields. In short, Antwerp mightbe called the London, Liverpool, and Manchesterof the age all in one. For its name, it still sur-vives in the common dialect of Sheffield. Oninquiring once in that town for a package thatshould have arrived by the canal, I was directedto ask for it "an t' we p"--the Hallamshireequivalent for "on the wharf;" and the samehomely contraction is believed to have given itsname to the wealthiest port of the Netherlands.Though not the seat of government, Antwerpwas by far the most opulent city in the LowCountries, which, after being incorporated withthe great duchy of Burgundy, passed to the houseof Austria in 1477, by the marriage of the heiressof Charles the Bold with the Archduke Maxi-milian. The seventeen provinces of Flanders andHolland, once governed by their respective courts,were then organized into one state; and when thegrandson of Maximilian had succeeded further tothe crown of Spain, in right of his mother, andwas himself elected emperor of Germany asCharles V., Antwerp might boast of being therichest pearl in the diadem of the greatest Euro-
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 55pean monarch since Charlemagne. The spirit ofits merchant princes is characteristically exhibitedin the well-known anecdote of Charles V. andJohn Daens. This wealthy burgher had lent theemperor a million of gold on his own bond. Theimperial debtor, in acknowledgment of the obliga-tion, honoured the merchant at dinner, when aftera sumptuous entertainment the host produced hissecurity; but instead of demanding its liquida-tion, he lighted some cinnamon shavings on asilver dish and cast the bond into the fragrantflame-truly an imperial holocaust!"With no less liberality of feeling, the magnatesof Antwerp cordially welcomed the English factorythen established in their port. Sir Thomas Gres-ham was one of this little community in 1550;and from the Bourse, where the foundation ofhis fortunes were laid, he is said to have copiedthe design of the old London Exchange.Merchants of this elevated order are usuallyforward in the encouragement of letters and thefine arts, and Antwerp was, even thus early, re-nowned for' its Academy of Painting. Rubens,indeed, the most popular, because the most in-telligible of painters, and his thirteen hundredpictures, the vigorous offspring of a luxuriantimagination, were as yet unknown to Flemish art.But the corporation of St. Luke, which dates fromthe middle of the fifteenth century, was diligentlycultivating the school of the brothers Van Eyck,
56 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.and Hans Hemling, who flourished still earlierat Bruges.To Antwerp also belongs the romantic story ofthe blacksmith, Quintin Matsys, who fell in lovewith a painter's daughter, and to win her father'sapproval of his suit, exchanged the forge and theanvil for the palette and pencil. An elegantGothic canopy of ironwork in front of thecathedral attests his proficiency in the formertrade; and his great picture, the "Descent fromthe Cross," is still in the Museum, and was thepride of Flemish art till Rubens eclipsed its re-nown by producing a second of universal fame.In the cathedral is a tablet to his memory in-scribed with the Latin verse,-Connubialis Amor de Mulcibre fecit Apellem,"'Twas Love connubial taught the smith to paint." *The pre-Rubenite school was characterized, likethe pre-Raphaelite, by a certain stiffness of out-line and quaintness of execution; but it has neverbeen equalled in simplicity of conception, inpurity of tone, or in brilliancy and permanencyof colour. No picture ever so impressed me withthese excellencies as the " Adoration of the Spot-less Lamb," which I sawin the cathedral of Ghent.It looks as fresh as if painted but yesterday. Thefirst impression of the spectator is the surprisingnaturalness of the representation. The Lamb,* Murray's Handbook.
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 57which stands upon an altar in the centre, sur-rounded by angels, is as truthful, distinct, andplacid as if just fetched from the field for a classicsacrifice. The groups of worshippers, dividedinto virgins and monks, prophets and apostles,are finished with scrupulous minuteness; and thetowers of the New Jerusalem, which rise in thedistance, are the exact counterpart of those inthe old Flemish towns. The grass and the foun-tain, too, are just what ordinary eyes may see inordinary places all the world over. Yet behindand beneath these literal delineations lurks aquiet and subtle power which makes itself felt ina deeper way. An atmosphere of purity and tran-quillity breathes from the composition not un-suited to the celestial scene; and without anygrand or startling effects, the Christian heartexperiences a thrill as from the blessed placewhere "there shall be no more curse."Such a picture is, of course, open to the gravestobjections in the present state of religious know-ledge. To any one who remembers that " eyehath not seen, nor ear heard, neither have enteredinto the heart of man, the things which God hathprepared for them that love him," such literalconceptions of the Apocalyptic visions must ap-pear puerile and incongruous. They may evenbe objected to as improper; but the religious per-ceptions were not so delicate in the Middle Ages.A picture like this would inspire loftier and
58 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.holier aspirations than the legends of saints or thegeneral run of sermons. In Flanders, especially,the painter seems to have taken the place both ofpoet and preacher; and in the absence of Scrip-ture itself, we cannot but think their frequentdelineations of scriptural subjects, especially ofthe death and resurrection of our blessed Lord,must have exercised a beneficial effect' on thepublic mind. They constituted a constant andpowerful preaching of the " sufferings of Christ,and the glory that should follow."* They tendedto keep alive that attachment to his person whichis the allin all of genuine Christianity. Assuredlyin some cases they planted the cross deep in theaffections and sympathies of the people, and soprepared, at least, the way for a more spiritualpreaching of the justifying righteousness andatoning blood of Jesus. Too often, indeed, theart of man, like his wealth and intellect, aredevoted to the propagation of error rather thanof truth. The talents that should be consecratedto God are degraded into instruments of supersti-tion or luxury. This is the sure herald of decay;but a healthier feeling animated many of the mer-cantile classes of the fifteenth century. Whenthe light of the Reformation began to dawn, itwas in the great trading cities of England andGermany, and from the smaller princes, uncor-rupted by ambition and worldly policy, that its1 Peter i. 11.
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 59preachers found shelter and protection. Theywere often sustained by the leading citizens ofLondon against the persecutions of the prelates,and the capricious violence of a self-willed, half-enlightened monarch.In Antwerp, also, the gospel had its friends,though the government put forth all its strengthagainst it. Charles V. was not only a bigotedpapist himself, but anxious to suppress the " newopinions" as dangerous to the policy of theempire. He declared at the Diet of Worms(A.D. 1521) that he was resolved to "execute thepapal excommunication on Martin Luther, andto employ all the means in his power-kingdom,treasures, friends, life, body, and soul-for theirdestruction."* He was only restrained fromattempting to enforce their exterminationthroughout Germany by the resistance of theProtestant princes to his interference with theinternal administration of their respectivegovernments. When the celebrated protest orconfession was presented at the Diet of Augsburg(A.D. 1530), the emperor, though not without hisown quarrel with the Court of Rome, joined thepapal party in a decree to proscribe all whoshould deny the corporeal presence, and to punishevery attempt to change the established doctrineor worship.No mercy, therefore, could be expected by the* Waddington's "History of the Reformation," i. 357.
60 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.Protestants in the emperor's own dominions.Nowhere was the power of the church more for-midable than in Flanders. The court, the aristo-cracy, and the bulk of the population, wereintolerant Romanists. Still the spirit of inquirywas rife among the middle, and especially amongthe mercantile classes ; and in this state ofaffairs Antwerp became the refuge of one whohas been not unfitly termed " the Apostle of theEnglish."Of William Tyndall we have little but hisworks and his death to show the manner andobject of his life. Born on the Welsh border,he was early entered at Magdalene Hall, Oxford,where his portrait still remains, though very in-differently executed. His singular learning andmerits procured him to be chosen on CardinalWolsey's new foundation ; but he was soon afterimprisoned and expelled for upholding the tenetsof Luther. Having retired to Cambridge, he wasallowed to graduate at King's College, and thenquitted the university to become tutor in thefamily of Sir John Welsh, at Little Sodbury, inGloucestershire. While acquiring fame as apreacher in Bristol and the vicinity, he deeplyoffended the clergy who resorted to his patron'shouse, by refuting their dogmatical propositionsfrom the letter of Scripture. Upon one occasionhe made the celebrated reply to his antagonist,"If God spare my life I will teach the poor
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 61ploughboys to know more of the Scripture thanyou know." He was even then bent on trans-lating the sacred volume into English-a workwhich no one had attempted since Wycliffe.Fox has preserved an anecdote of this periodof Tyndall's life, which shows but too graphicallythe general estimate of the world in such dis-putes. The Lady Walsh, a stout and wise woman,as Tyndall reported, said, " Well, there was sucha doctor which may dispend a hundred pounds,and another two hundred pounds, and anotherthree hundred pounds; and what were it reason,think you, that we should believe you beforethem?" To this argument Tyndall could opposenothing but silence, and a patient continuance inwell-doing. Gloucestershire becoming unsafe tohim, from the denunciations of his opponents, heremoved to London, where he sought the appoint-ment of a chaplain to Tonstall, then bishop ofthat see. Failing in this object he was receivedinto the house of Alderman Humphrey Mon-mouth, whose friendship'he had acquired whilepreaching at St. Dunstan's Church, Fleet Street.Here he was hospitably entertained for sixmonths; but as England was then no place forthe safe prosecution of his great design, hisgenerous host assisted him to the continent.After visiting Saxony, and conferring withLuther and his brother divines, Tyndall settled atAntwerp as chaplain to the Company of English
62 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.Merchant Adventurers. There he completed thetranslation of the New Testament, which wasprinted in 1526 or 1527. The first edition, con-sisting of 1,500 copies, was at once carried overinto England and diligently circulated. The ap-pearance of these books roused the alarm andindignation of the papal party to an astonishingdegree. The work was pronounced to be full ofheresies, and the Bishop of London issued orders,under pain of excommunication, that every copyshould be delivered up to his vicar to be burned.Great and solemn were the preparations forthis new and blasphemous auto-da-fe. A largefire was kindled before the famous "Paul's Cross,"at the north end of the cathedral, and near itstood great baskets full of the hated Testaments,and of other books gathered up in London, Ox-ford, and Cambridge. Fisher, Bishop of Roches-ter, ascended the pulpit, and delivered a furiousinvective against Luther and his English disci-ples. On a platform, at the top of the steps, satWolsey, in his cardinal's robes, with " his goldenshoes and scarlet gloves," under a canopy of clothof gold, attended by a crowd of abbots and bishopsin their mitres and gowns of satin and damask.After the sermon the persons on whom theheretical publications had been found were com-pelled to march round the fire with a faggot ontheir backs, and cast their books into the flames." Thus Testament after Testament was consumed,
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYEDALL. 63angels and men looking on at the deed."* Sofutile, however, are all such attempts against theword of God, that on the very spot where thisholocaust to the powers of darkness was offeredon the 11th February, 1526, now stands theDepository of the Religious Tract Society, teem-ing with thousands of evangelical writings andcopies of the Bible, illustrating its sacred page.Tyndall was fully sensible of the many defectsattending a first effort, and very anxious for themeans of preparing a new and improved edition.But before this could be accomplished the de-mand was so great that four more impressionsof the first were exhausted. The translator thenreceived a singular assistance from the foremost,though not the wisest, of his opponents. TheBishop of London being resolved to second hisspiritual authority by the still more powerfulagency of gold, went himself to Antwerp, andfinding there a merchant of London, namedAustin Packington, consulted him how to get atthe fountain head from which these streams ofan unwelcome knowledge kept flowing into hisdiocese. Packington being himself a friend ofthe translator and his design, saw the advantagethat might result from the bishop's simplicity;gravely offering his services to buy up all theunsold copies, he received a commission to pur-chase the entire stock. The bishop had the"* "The Book and its Story," p.159.
64 ANTWERP, ,AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.books, and, transporting them to England,burned them all in triumph at St. Paul's Cross.His lordship's money was delivered to Tyndall,by whom it was employed in preparing a newand improved edition; while the printers at oncestruck off five thousand fresh copies from theexisting types, and sent them to the Englishmarket.Astounded at the new importation, the bishopsent for Packington, who had returned to London,and demanded whence came these copies, sincehe had undertaken to buy up all that remained ?" My lord," said the merchant, "I did buy allthat were then to be had, but I perceive theyhave printed more since. The best way will befor your lordship now to buy up the types andpresses too, and then you will be safe." Tonstallcould not help smiling at his own simplicity; butthis was not the last that he heard of it. Anotherfriend of Tyndall's being afterwards accused ofheresy before the Lord Chancellor (Sir ThomasMore) was promised favour if he would revealthe parties who supplied the heretics over the seawith support and encouragement. "My lord,"said the prisoner, " it is the Bishop of Londonwho is our chief supporter, by buying up so manycopies to burn them." "Now, by my troth,"exclaimed the chancellor, " I think so too, and Itold the bishop as much before he went about it."Tonstall was ever after joked as the patron of
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 65Tyndall's Testament; but Bishop Burnet ob-serves that it was to his credit that he wouldspend his money to burn the books of the here-tics, rather than, like his brethren, burn theheretics themselves.Every way, however, the poor prelate wasdoomed to disappointment. His committing theword of God to the flames occasioned as muchdisgust in the public mind as his money gaveencouragement to the reformers. Such an openrepudiation of the truth shocked and awakenedthe most careless. The Bible was the morecommended to the reverence of reflecting andtender consciences. This result had been fore-seen by Tyndall, when he permitted Packingtonto sell the copies on hand to Tonstall." In burning the New Testament," he wrote,"they did none other thing than I looked for;no more shall they do if they burn me also."The demand for his Testament steadily increased;and though the king was prevailed upon toorder its entire suppression as corrupted withheresy, he accompanied the command with aninjunction to the bishops to cause a new andbetter translation to be made, that the peoplemight not be ignorant of the word of God.The injunction itself was probably, in somedegree, owing to another work of Tyndall's,called "The Obedience of a Christian Man." Thistract had come to the hands of Anne Boleyn, byF
66 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.whom it was lent to her waiting woman, Gains-ford. From her it was taken in sport by GeorgeZouch, one of the court pages, and the youth,having begun to read it, could in no way be pre-vailed upon to return it. He was reading it oneday in the chapel royal, when the dean detectedhim, and seizing the obnoxious publication, con-veyed it to Cardinal Wolsey. Anne had the courageto apply to the king himself for its restoration;she even entreated the monarch to read it andjudge for himself. Henry pronounced the workto be fit for a king's perusal, and this circum-stance was one of many, trivial in themselves, bywhich the hand of God was fashioning that stiff-necked and wilful prince to the great workwhich he was designed to accomplish. Littleheed paid the English prelates to their sove-reign's orders: but the command of the King ofkings glowed like a coal from the altar in theheart of the obscure scholar at Antwerp. As hisslight figure threaded its way along the crowdedstreets, one all-absorbing thought filled his mind.The spectacle of the five hundred waggons thatdaily entered Antwerp with provisions from thecountry reminded him of the famine of God'sword in his native land. When he faced thelong line of quays, and gazed at the crowd ofVessels spreading their canvas wings for a fight,he longed to freight them with the merchandisewhich is "better than silver, and the gain thereof
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 67than fine gold." At the merchants' tables,where he was a frequent and honoured guest, hisconversation still ran on the conception of hisearly years, to make the English ploughboys wiserthan their teachers in the oracles of G od. As hecast his eyes upon the cathedral spire,t rearing itslacework fabric step after step into the far-offsky, he would remember the True Ladder setup between earth and heaven, and fancy that thedear labour of his life might be as the angels ofGod ascending and descending upon the Son ofman.4 While, communing with himself on his bed,he listened to the carillons flooding the midnightair with the repeated voices of a hundred bells* Proverbs iii. 14.t The steeple or tower of Antwerp cathedral, begun in 1422 byJan Amelius, was completed by Appelmans in 1518. It is one of theloftiest in the world, measuring 403 feet 7 inches (English) or feet7 inches higher than Salisbury. The workmanship is so light anddelicate that Charles V. said it should be kept in a case, and Napo-leon compared it to Mechlin lace. In fact, it has been necessary tofasten the open work together with iron so extensively, that thewhole may be considered as an iron framework strung with stoneslike beads. It stands at the south-west angle of the church, exposingits entire elevation from the ground, and contains a magnificent setUf chimes (carillons) composed of ninety-nine bells, and one verylarge one, for which Charles V. stood godfather at its baptism I SoMr. Murray informs us-but at my own visit to Antwerp, the num-ber of the bells was said to be 180. The carillons play every quarterof an hour, and are the favourite music of the towers of Belgium,where the old English art of bell-ringing is unknown. In most ofthose which I heard it was a merely mechanical amusement; butthe number and variety of the tones, mellowed perhaps by theheight at which they are hung, exalt them at Antwerp to an intel-lectual gratification. The tower at the other corner of the westfront was never completed.I Compare Gen. xxviii. 12 with John i 51.
68 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.-now dropping in silvery sparkling showersupon the earth, now retreating and soaring up as"the lark that at heaven's gate sings"-Tyndallwas ever meditating the yet more melodiousmusic of God's blessed word raining down upona dry and thirsty land; or the concert of re-deemed spirits enlightened by the truth, mount-ing up to Him that loved them, and washed themfrom their sins in his own blood, and hath madethem kings and priests unto God and his Father.*The Holy Scripture he felt hourly more andmore to be the fountain head of all true lightand joy. As a Christian and an Englishman,the desire of his heart was to produce anENGLISH BIBLE.This ardour could not be repressed by perse-cution or disasters. He had translated the Pen-tateuch, and was sailing to Hamburgh to print it,when the whole was lost by shipwreck. Nothingdaunted, Tyndall struggled to the port of hisdestination, and there meeting, pursuant to ap-pointment, with Miles Coverdale, the two foundhospitality under the roof of a widow, from Easterto December, and completed a fresh translation,which was published in 1530.The book of Jonah was his next work, and in1534 appeared his corrected edition of the NewTestament. Doubtless the translator thoughtmore of this misfortune and its reparation"* Rev. i. 5, 6.
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 69than of the burning and rebuilding of Antwerpcathedral, which occurred at the same time.*The English translator had now become asodious to the enemies of the gospel as theGerman one. Sir Thomas More publishedseven great volumes against the "Pestilent Sectof Luther and Tyndall ;" and whenever any onewas accused of heresy before the chancellor orthe bishops, who had been at Antwerp, minuteinquiry was made concerning Tyndall, "Whereand with whom he hosted, whereabout stood thehouse, what was his stature, in what apparel hewent, what resort he had, &c. All which thingswhen they had diligently learned (as may appearby the examination of Simon Smith and others),then began they to work their feats, as you shallhear, by the relation of his own host." tThe translator's personal safety was little aidedby the death of Wolsey (1530), or by the execu-tion of Fisher and More in 1535. The cause,however, which he held dearer than life was nowapproaching its first triumph. The year 1535 isdoubly memorable as that in which the pope'ssupremacy was finally abolished in England, andthat of the Holy Scriptures restored by the com-pletion of the ENGLISH BIBLE.On the fourthe day of October, in the year* The cathedral, with the exception of the tower and choir, wasdestroyed by fire in 1533, and rebuilt the following year. It is 500feet long, 250 broad, and very lofty, having treble aisles on each side.+ Fox's Martyrs, folio ed., page 364.
70 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.of our Lorde MDxxXV," according to the colophonat the end of Coverdale's Translation, this greatwork was finally carried through the press. Whereit was printed, and the exact date of its firstappearance in England, are questions involvedin much uncertainty. It is generally thoughtto have been printed at Zurich, and was pro-bably imported into England and distributed insecresy. Cranmer, however, had never ceased toput the king in mind of his own injunction fora new translation, and in 1536 he procured anAddress of Convocation to a similar effect. Theyear after, Henry, having satisfied himself by thetestimony of all his bishops that the volume wasnot tainted by heresy, overruled the oppositionof the papal party, and commanded it to be pub-lished. It appeared accordingly, with a dedica-tory epistle, "Unto the most victorious Prynceand our most gracious souerayne Lorde KyngeHarry the Eyght, King of Englonde andFraunce, Lorde of Irelonde, &c., Defendour ofthe Fayth, and under God the Chefe and Su-preme Heade of the Church of Englonde." Thisepistle is signed, "yonre grace's humble subjectand daylye oratour, Myles Coverdale," who, inthe " Prologe to the Reader," styles himself thetranslator. We have seen, however, that Cover-dale was in fact an assistant to Tyndall, and tothe latter belongs the chief honour of the trans-lation, with the exception of the Apocrypha,
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 71translated after his death by John Rogers, andthe marginal notes added by Coverdale.* Tyn-dall's name was suppressed at the time, on accountof the prejudice existing against him as a heretic;and for the same reason the fictitious name of"Thomas Matthewe" was inserted on the title-page at a later date. This translation suppliedthe basis of every succeeding version, and maybe said to have fixed the Protestant Reformationin England. The translators under King James I.were commanded to have a particular respect to it,while consulting the original Hebrew and Greek.Thus was Tyndall permitted to complete theobject of so many labours and prayers, thoughit was to be further consecrated by his bloodbefore it was fairly launched on its voyage tothe ploughboys of his native land.. For nowthe same Providence which shielded him fromevery foe till his work was done, suffered themalice of the anti-evangelical party to enjoy itstriumph, and this servant of God to depart tohis rest.All particulars of his abode having been dis-covered in the manner already stated, steps wereincessantly taken for his apprehension. Hisprudence, however, or the influence of his manyfriends at Antwerp, being found a sufficientprotection against the Flemish authorities, thesharper hatred of his English adversaries"Collier's Ecclesiastical History. Part ii. book iii.
72 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.prompted a resort to treachery. A tool wasfound in one Henry Philips, formerly a studentin the university of Lorraine. This man, beingsupplied with money and other appliances, madehis appearance at Antwerp, attended by a ser-vant, in the guise of a gentleman travelling forpleasure, or, as he seemed at times to insinuate,on secret political employment. Having gainedadmittance to the table of some of the merchantswhere Tyndall visited, he succeeded, by fairspeech and scholarly discourse, in ingratiatinghimself so far with the unsuspecting reformer,that he invited him to his hotel, and trusted himwith a sight of his papers. This intimacy wasso little approved by Poyntz, the keeper of the.hotel, that he remonstrated with his lodger onadmitting a stranger of whom nothing wasknown in the place. Tyndall, however, insistedthat his new friend was a man of honour, and ascholar; and the host could say no more.When Philips had seen enough for his pur-pose, he repaired to the court of the Regent,and obtained the imperial procurator and hisofficers to return with him to Antwerp, in orderto arrest the heretic. On their arrival, the spyproceeded alone to Tyndall's apartment, and afterborrowing of him forty shillings on pretence ofhaving lost his purse on the journey, invited himto dine with him at the inn. Tyndall repliedthat he was engaged elsewhere, where his friend
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 73would be welcome also; they proceeded accord-ingly to set out together. Having to pass througha narrow passage to the door of the hotel, Philipsinsisted on the other walking first, but the officerswere posted outside, and as they came in sight,the traitor pointed from behind, down on thehead of his victim, and he was instantly seized.His papers were also taken possession of, andbeing carried before the imperial functionary, hewas forthwith committed to the castle of Vil-vorde, ten miles from Brussels.The whole was effected so rapidly, that theintended martyr was lodged in his prison beforehis friends at Antwerp knew of the arrest. Theyimmediately bestirred themselves inbehalf of theirchaplain; representing that he was a British sub-ject, they obtained a letter from Cromwell, theking's secretary, to the Flemish court for hisrelease.The demand, however, was not complied with;and Tyndall remained in prison eighteen months,during which he was plied with continual dis-putations by the professors of Lorraine. Theymade no impression on his ripe understanding:but it is recorded, that he himself succeeded inconverting the jailer's daughter, and several ofthe household. He was at length brought totrial, under the decree of the Diet of Augsburg.Being offered an advocate and a proctor for hisdefence he rejected both, and answered for him-
74 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.self. His reasons had no effect upon the court.His papers were adjudged to be sufficient evi-dence; and in violation of every law, human anddivine, he received sentence of death.On Friday, the 6th of October, 1536, Tyndallwas led to the place of execution, where, havingbeen tied to a stake, he was first strangled, andhis body then consumed to ashes by fire. Themartyr's last words were, " Lord, open the kingof England's eyes." His latest prayer, like hislife and death, were given to the evangelizationof his country.The cloud was, indeed, thick and gloomy.Six months before, Henry's unfortunate queenAnne had perished on the scaffold; and he wasnow much in the hands of papal advisers. Cran-mer was almost the only man in authority whoopenly favoured the Reformation, and of Cran-mer it was daily expected that his turn wouldcome next. Nevertheless, in one short year afterTyndall sealed his testimony in death, Henrywas unconsciously led to stamp his great "heresy"with his own royal approbation, using the evermemorable words, " In God's name let it go forthamong my people." All the retrograde policy ofthat cruel king, and all the persecution of hismurderous daughter, could never undo that deed,nor arrest those more than regal words. Hum-phrey Monmouth, Tyndall's early friend, heardthe result of his midnight labours read aloud in
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 75that same St. Paul's, before which he had seenhis first effort cast into the flames. The EnglishBible went forth among the English people witha march that never halted till the first aspirationof the translator was accomplished, and theploughboys of his native land knew more of theScripture than many of the doctors of theRomish church. Surely the dying prayers andthe death of his saints are precious before God;but so little was either then esteemed of men,that Henry took no notice of the outrage inflictedon his own authority by the execution of aBritish subject; and the merchants of Antwerpwere all who dared to mourn in his death, asthey had befriended in life, the "English Apostle."Before many years had passed, Antwerp wasitself called to suffer in the cause of the Reforma-tion. Charles V., by whose officers the Englishmartyr was unrighteously slain, tormented withbodily infirmities, and despairing of subduing theProtestant princes of Germany, abdicated all hiscrowns, and retired into a monastic seclusion,where he died in 1558. His son Philip, ourBloody Queen Mary's more bloody husband, as-sumed the government of the Netherlands in1555, and in the same year he held a chapter ofthe Golden Fleece in Antwerp cathedral, attendedby nine sovereign princes, knights of the order.But eleven years after, this church was sackedand despoiled of all its statues, altars, paintings,
76 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYKDALL.and gorgeous ornaments, by a mob inflamed bythe newborn hatred of image worship. Incensedat these outrages, Philip introduced the SpanishInquisition, whose persecutions drove thousandsof the industrious inhabitants to seek an asylumin other lands. The citizens broke out into arebellion which extended through the Nether-lands, and was only quelled by conceding tolera-tion to the Protestants. The concession wasviolated by the Regent, the infamous Duke ofAlva, whose cruelties filled the Low Countrieswith dismay. A civil war ensued, in which thecause of freedom was headed by the Prince ofOrange, and aided by the influence of QueenElizabeth. The monster Philip is accused of thedeath of his own son, to prevent his intendedinterference in the Netherlands. His brother-in-law, Charles IX. of France, seconded hiscruel zeal by the massacre of St. Bartholomew.Eighteen thousand " heretics " fell by the handof the executioner during the regency of Alva.Still the provinces stood out, and being assistedby British troops, might have shaken off theyoke of Spain, had they been sufficiently unitedamong themselves. The southern provinces,being mostly Roman Catholic, preferred theirchurch to their country, and returned- to theallegiance of Philip. The northern finally madegood their independence as the Dutch republic.During this war, Antwerp stood a siege of
ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL. 77fourteen months from the Duke of Parma, andwas finally reduced by famine, after incrediblesufferings. The Dutch then seized the navigationof the Scheldt, which they closed against the rivalcity by sinking vessels laden with stones, tointerrupt the passage. The Dutch triumph wascompleted by the treaty ofWestphalia (A.D. 1648),which excluded Antwerp from the river, and con-summated its commercial ruin: rich merchantsmigrated to Amsterdam and Rotterdam; thepopulation dwindled, the docks were almostempty, and the streets nearly deserted.A gleam of prosperity seemed to revisit theunhappy city, from the designs of NapoleonBonaparte, who promised to make Antwerp thegreat maritime city of the French empire. Buthis fall replaced it under Dutch ascendancy, tillthe revolution of 1830 gave it independence, aspart of the new kingdom of Belgium. This re-sult, however, was not effected without a newappeal to arms. The Dutch commander of thecitadel, Baron Chasse, resisted the demand ofthe European powers, and was only compelled tosurrender by a French siege, during which thestreets and public buildings of the town wereagain swept by cannon-balls.Antwerp is now once more rising into impor-tance, more, however, as a home of the fine artsthan as a place of trade. Rubens,* Teniers, andSThe grandfather of the painter, Bartholomew Rubens, who came
78 ANTWERP, AND WILLIAM TYNDALL.Van Dyke were all natives or residents withinits walls, and their imperishable productionsattract a continuous concourse of visitors andstudents to the place. The lofty gabled housesof the old merchant princes still stand in curiouscontrast with modern architecture. The cellarsthat once held the trade of Europe may yet beexplored. Even some remnants of Spanishcostume are met with in the streets, to attestthe former incorporation with the empire ofCharles V. But the Inquisition is suppressed;the monasteries are changed into museums, andpersecutors into mendicants. In contrasting thefortunes and present state of Antwerp with thoseof the blessed Book at which William Tyndalllabored within its walls, one cannot but catchup the echoes of the voice that visited the evan-gelical prophet. "The voice said, Cry. And hesaid, What shall I cry? All flesh is grass, andall the goodliness thereof is as the flower of thefield: the grass withereth, the flower fadeth;because the Spirit of the Lord bloweth upon it:surely the people is grass. The grass withereth,the flower fadeth: BTT THE WORD OF OUR GODSHALL STAND FOR EVER."from Upper Austria in the suite of Charles V., married a Flemishlady, and settled at Antwerp. His son, an eminent jurist, was amagistrate there in the latter part of the sixteenth century; butadhering to the Roman faith, he quitted the town, during the dis-turbances which ensued, for .Cologne, where his second son PeterPaul was born.
. . i..
79GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS.IN the summer of 1536 a young stranger enteredthe city of Geneva to spend one night within itswalls, on his way to Strasburg. He had em-braced those new doctrines which were now turn-ing the world upside down, but "was whollygiven up to his own intense thoughts and privatestudies," and had no desire or intention to assumefor the present the functions of a public teacher.The Reformation was at this very moment strug-gling for existence in the ancient city throughwhich he was passing; and on hearing of youngCalvin's arrival, Farel, its foremost preacher,hastened to see him and to claim his aid. " ButCalvin was slow to move. He urged his desireto study, and to serve all churches, rather thanto attach himself to any one church in particu-lar. He would fain have yielded to the intellec-tual bias so strong in him: the still stronger in-stinct for practical government that lay behindhis intellectual devotion, was not yet owned byhim. By some strange insight, however, Farelpenetrated to the higher fitness of the youngstranger who stood before him, and he ventured,
80 GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS.in the spirit of that daring enthusiasm whichcharacterized him, to lay the curse of God uponhim and his studies if he refused his aid to thechurch in her time of need. This, which seemedto Calvin a Divine menace, had the desired effect.'It was,' he said, as if God had seized me byHis awful hand from heaven.' He abandonedhis intention of pursuing his journey, and joinedeagerly with Farel in the work of reformation."The personal history of Farel is full of interest.William Farel was born in an Alpine solitude,three leagues from the town of Gap, in the pro-vince of Dauphiny, in 1489. His father was aman of some rank and fortune, and brought uphis son in the strict observances of Romish de-votion. Four leagues from Gap, on a hill whichoverlooks the impetuous waters of the Durance,was a place in high repute at that time, calledLa Sainte Croix. William was but seven oreight years old when his parents took him thereon a pilgrimage. " The cross you will see there,"they told him, " is made of the wood of the verycross on which Jesus Christ was crucified." Whenthey were gazing on a little crucifix which wasattached to the cross the priest said to themgravely, "When the devil sends us hail andthunder, this crucifix moves so violently thatone would think it wanted to get loose fromthe cross to put the devils to flight, and all thewhile it keeps throwing out sparks of fire against
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 81the storm; were it not for this the whole coun-try would be swept bare."Full of zeal for the traditions of the Romishchurch, young Farel, when he grew up, visitedevery spot within his reach where miracles weresaid to be wrought or peculiar sanctity was sup-posed to reside-his heart thirsting all the whilefor life and knowledge. His father could see noreason why a young noble should know anythingbeyond his rosary and his sword, and resisted hisson's wish to become a scholar. But the youth'sresolution was not to be shaken, and the fatherconsented.The student soon learned all that his nativeprovince could teach him, and turned his eyestoward Paris, the fame of whose university wasspread far andwide. Hewas anxious tosee "thismother of all the sciences," to use the glowinglanguage of a writer of the period, "this trueluminary of the church, which never knew eclipse-this pure and polished mirror of the faith,dimmed by no cloud, sullied by no foul touch."But the young Dauphinese who entered Parisin 1510 a devoted adherent of the papacy, wasdestined to leave it an earnest believer in a fardifferent system.The'most illustrious teacher in the universityof Paris at this time was Lefevre, a man, we aretold, of diminutive stature, but of wit and learn-ing and eloquence. From the commencement ofG
82 GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS.his duties as a professor in 1493, Lefevre had sethimself to introduce improved modes of instruc-tion into the university, and, before Farel's arrivalin Paris, had applied himself with the best resultsto the study of the Bible. Nevertheless he hadno misgivings as to the Church of Rome. "Hepassed as much time in the churches as in hiscloset; so that a sympathetic union seemed estab-lished beforehand between the old doctor ofPicardyand the young student of Dauphiny." Itwas in a church that Farel saw Lefevre for thefirst time. He remarked how he fell on his kneesbefore the images, how long he remained in thatposition, how fervently he seemed to pray, andhow devoutly he repeated his aves. " Never,"says Farel," had I heard a chanter chant the massmore reverently." Farelimmediatelyfelt a strongdesire to become acquainted with him; and greatindeed was his joy when the venerable man methis approaches with kindness. He had nowfound what he had come to the capital to seek.Henceforth his chief delight was to converse withLefevre, to listen to his instructions, to practisehis admirable precepts, and to kneel with him inpious adoration at the same time. Often werethe aged Lefevre and his youthful disciple, ac-cording to D'Aubigne, seen assisting each other toadorn the image of the Virgin with flowers: whilefar removed from Paris, and far removed from thecollegiate hall, they murmured in concert theirearnest prayers to the blessed Mary.
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 83But neither of them found satisfaction in thiscourse. The legends of the saints which Farelstudied carefully, and the philosophy of Aristotleto which he devoted himself earnestly, failedalike to quench his spiritual thirst. He betookhimself to the Bible ; but on discovering, as hedid very soon, that Bible doctrines were not inharmony with popish doctrines, he was alarmed,and only clung the more tenaciously to the tradi-tions of his fathers. In a paroxysm of Romishzeal he became a frequent visitor of the Carthusianmonks in the neighbourhood of Paris, and tookpart in their austerities. " I had my pantheon inmy heart," he wrote afterwards, "and so manyintercessors, so many saviours, so many gods, thatI might well have passed for a popish register."Lefevre was the first to receive Divine light.He had undertaken the task of collecting thelegends of the saints and martyrs, and arrangingthem in the order in which their names are in-serted in the calendar. Two "months" of theserecords were printed when a sudden ray of lightflashed into his soul. He could no longer over-come the disgust which superstitions so puerileawakened within him. The grandeur of theword of God stood out in bold contrast with thewretched follies of the fables which he had beenchronicling. He abandoned his work and turnedaffectionately to the Holy Scriptures. " At thatmoment when Lefevre, forsaking the marvellous
84 GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS.histories of the saints, laid his hand on the wordof God, a new era opened in France-and theReformation commenced its course."Weaned from the fictions of the breviary,Lefevre soon found the doctrine of justificationby faith in the epistles of Paul. And what hehad thus found he published without reserve inthe university itself. " It is God alone," he said,"who by His grace justifies unto eternal life.There is a righteousness of our own works, anda righteousness which is of grace,-the one athing of man's invention, the other coming fromGod,-the one earthly and passing away, theother Divine and everlasting,-the one the shadowand semblance, the other the light and the truth,-the one discovering sin and bringing the fearof death, the other revealing grace for theattainment of life."There was no small stir about this new way;and Farel, we are told, hung on his old master'slips with intense interest. " Instantly this wordof a Salvation by Grace had upon his soul anunspeakable power of attraction; every objectionfell, every difficulty vanished. Scarcely hadLefevre brought forward this doctrine, whenFarel embraced it with all his heart and mind.He had known enough of labour and conflict tobe convinced that he had no power to save him-self; therefore, when he saw in God's word thatGod saves FREELY, he believed God. " Lefevre,"
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 85exclaimed he, "extricated me from the delusivethought of human deservings, and taught me howthat all is of grace, which I believed as soon asit was spoken." Thus was gained to the faith,by a conversion as prompt and decisive as that ofSt. Paul himself, that Farel, who, to use the wordsof Theodore Beza, " undismayed by threatening,despising the shame and enduring his cross, wonfor Christ Montbelliard, Neufchatel, Lausanne,Aigle, and at last, Geneva itself."There was one portion of his old creed whichdid not yield at once to the light which now tookpossession of Farel's soul; it was the invocationof the saints. It was with no small surprise heheard his teacher say that Christ alone should beinvoked. "Our religion," said Lefevre, "hasonly one foundation, one object, one Head, JesusChrist, blessed for ever. He hath trodden thewinepress alone. Let us not then take the nameof Paul, of Apollos, or of Peter. The cross ofChrist alone opens heaven, or shuts the gate ofhell." The disciple hesitated, and still clung tothe venerated names of the saints. But ere longthe scales fell from his eyes; he saw in Christthe only Mediator, and the only object of adora-tion. "From that moment," he said, in theburning language to which he was accustomed," the papacy was dethroned from my mind. Ibegan to abhor it as devilish, and the holy wordof God held the supreme place in my heart."
86 GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS.In the conversion of Lefevre and Farel wehave the fountain head of the French Reforma-tion, but we cannot follow the stream, or streamsrather, of life and knowledge which issued thence.It is important, however, to observe that thisfountain was opened (in 1512) " at a time whenLuther was taking a journey to Rome on somebusiness touching the interests of some monas-tery, and when Zwingle had not even begun toapply himself in earnest to Biblical studies, butwas traversing the Alps, in company with theconfederate forces, to fight under the pope'sbanner." "The Swiss Reformation was inde-pendent of that of Germany; the French Re-formation was, in like manner, independent of thatof Switzerland and that of Germany. The worksprang up in these different countries at one andthe same time, without communication betweenthem; as, in a field of battle, the various divisionsthat compose the army are seen in motion at thesame instant, although the order to advance hasnot passed from one to the other, but all haveheard the word of command proceeding from ahigher authority. The time had come, thenations were ripe, and God was everywherebeginning the revival of his church."It was in 1523, eleven years after Farel'sconversion, that John Calvin arrived in Paris.Born in 1509 at Noyon in Picardy, the nativeprovince of Lefevre, and educated in all the
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 87superstitions of popery, he was not yet twelveyears old when he was appointed, through thefavour of the Bishop of Noyon, to the chaplaincyof La Gesine. On the eve of Corpus Christi,the bishop solemnly cut the child's hair, and, bythis ceremony, John was investedwith the clericalcharacter, and became capable of entering intosacred orders, and holding a benefice withoutresidence on the spot. Thus did John Calvinreceive, in his own person, early experience ofthe abuses of the Church of Rome. He was tooyoung and too simple-minded to question thebishop's conduct or question the lawfulness ofhis " tonsure." Two years after this, Noyon wasvisited with a terrible pestilence, before which allfled who could. A family, with whose childrenJohn Calvin had been educated, resolved to goto Paris for further study. And on the 5th ofAugust, 1523, Gerald Calvin presented a petitionto the chapter oi Noyon, that the young chaplain,his son, might have " liberty to go whithersoeverhe would, during the continuance of the plague,without losing his allowances; which was grantedaccordingly, until the feast of St. Remigius." ToParis the young chaplain now proceeded, alongwith his fellow-pupils of the Mommor family." And so when flying from the plague," says thecanon of Noyon, with reference to John Calvin'sconversion to Protestantism, " he encountered amore, fatal pestilence."
88 GENEVA, AND ITS IEFORMERS.When the future reformer entered the collegeof La Marche, all was in commotion around him.Martyr-blood had already been shed; and theleaders of the movement, " persecuted, but notforsaken," carried with them, whithersoever theirenemies drove them, the good seed of the king-dom. For a time John Calvin was absorbed inhis studies, and by no means shaken in hisattachment to the faith of his fathers. Fromthe college of La Marche he passed to the collegeMontagu, where he was initiated into thescholastic philosophy under the guidance of alearned Spaniard. In his eighteenth year hewas appointed to another church living, andthis, too, while he had only as yet received thetonsure, and was not admitted to holy orders.About this time Calvin's father, like Luther's,thought that the law offered a more temptingworldly prospect than the church, and sent hisson to the university of Orleans, to study underone of the most famous jurists of the day. Ofhis life at Orleans, as at Noyon and Paris, wehave but faint glimpses. Beza has told us, onthe authority of Calvin's fellow-students, that itwas marked by a rigorous temperance and devo-tion to study; that, after supping moderately, hewould spend half the night in study, and devotethe morning to meditation on what he had ac-quired ; thus laying the foundation of his solidlearning, but at the same time of his future ill
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 89health. His talents were already so generallyrecognized, that, in the absence of some of theprofessors, he was called upon to do their duty.It was here that, for the first time, he becameacquainted with the Scriptures, in the translationof a relative of his own, Pierre Robert Olivetan.Here, also, he formed the friendship of two youngmen, Francis Daniel, an advocate, and Nicholasdu Chemin, a schoolmaster, who seem already tohave imbibed the reformed opinions. Calvin'sfirst impulse to the new faith was probably re-ceived amidst the companionships and the influ-ences of the University of Orleans.From Orleans he went, still in prosecution of hislegal studies, to Bourges, where he acquired aknowledge of Greek, under the tuition of a learnedGerman, Melchior Wolmar. "The spiritual im-pulse received at Orleans seems to have beenconfirmed and promoted by this distinguishedteacher, to whose, piety and admirable abilitiesBeza, also one of his pupils, bears tribute. Hisconvictions became deepened and settled to sucha degree that he now began openly to preach thereformed doctrines. Slowly but surely he passedover to the Protestant ranks, in a manner entirelycontrasted with that of Luther, even as his mindand character were wholly different. We traceno struggling steps of dogmatic conviction, noprofound spiritual agitations, no crisis, as in thecase of the German reformer. We only learn
90 GENEVA, AND-ITS REFORMERS.that, from being an apparently satisfied and de-voted adherent of popery, he adopted, with aquiet but a steady and zealous faithfulness, thenew opinions. He himself, indeed, when com-menting on the Psalms, speaks of his conversionbeing a sudden one; and to his own reflectionafterwards, it may have seemed that the clearlight began to dawn upon him all at once; butthe facts of his life seem rather to show it in thelight in which we have presented it, as a gradualand consistent growth under the influences whichsurrounded him, first at Orleans, and then atBourges.The study of theology now acquired fresh in-terest in the heart of Calvin; and we soon findhim a teacher, as well as a learner, in the reformeddoctrine. "Not a year had passed over," he says,"when all those who had any desire for purelearning came to me, inexperienced as I was, togain information. I was naturally bashful, andloved leisure and privacy, hence I sought retire-ment; but even my solitary place became like apublic school."In 1533, John Calvin returned to Paris a verydifferent man from what he was when he firstentered it, ten years before. The fame of hisgreat powers, and of his conversion to the re-formed faith, had gone before him. The excite-ment in the city and university was not a littleincreased by his arrival. The rector of the
GENEVA, AND ITS REFORMERS. 91Sorbonne, Nicholas Cop, a physician, had todeliver a discourse on the festival of All Saints,and is said to have been indebted to Calvin forthe composition of it. The discourse boldly ad-vocated the doctrine of justification by faith, andCop was summoned before the Sorbonne to answerfor the heresy. Aware of his danger he fled toBasel; and Calvin, whose share in the offence be-came known, fled also. There are various storiesas to his flight; as, for example, that he was letdown from his window by means of his sheets,and escaped in the habit of a vine-dresser. Bezasimply states that, when the officers went to seizehim, he was not to be found.For a year or two from this period he seems tohave led a wandering life. He now resigned hisecclesiastical offices, and all connection with theChurch of Rome. In 1535 we find him at Basel,where his spirit may be said to have awakenedwithin him for the first time in full strength.Here at this time he wrote the preface to his" Institutes of Religion." His preface is de-scribed as one of the most memorable documentsin connection with the Reformation. " It isthroughout," says the Principal of St. Andrew's,"a noble defence of the righteous character ofthe reformed doctrines, and their support alikein Scripture and in history. The energetic de-cisiveness and moral zeal of the future teacherandlegislator of Geneva speak in every page of it."