• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Front Matter
 The Lion
 The Elephant
 The Tiger
 The Leopard
 The Bison
 The Wolf
 The Zebra
 The Hyaena
 The Bear
 The Hippopotamus
 The Rhinoceros
 The Giraffe
 Title Page
 The Horse
 Cow and Calf
 The Sheep
 The Goat
 The Donkey
 Pet Dogs
 Big Dogs
 Rabbits
 Guinea-Pigs
 The Cat
 Pigs
 The Pony
 Back Cover
 Spine






Group Title: The child's picture book of wild and domestic animals : with twenty-four coloured illustrations.
Title: The child's picture book of wild and domestic animals
CITATION PAGE TURNER PAGE IMAGE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026605/00001
 Material Information
Title: The child's picture book of wild and domestic animals with twenty-four coloured illustrations
Alternate Title: Child's picture book of animals
Physical Description: 48, 48 p., 24 leaves of plates : col. ill. ; 25 x 32 cm.
Language: English
Creator: George Routledge and Sons ( Publisher )
J. Ogden and Co ( Printer )
Kronheim & Co ( Lithographer )
Publisher: George Routledge and Sons
Place of Publication: London ;
New York
Manufacturer: J. Ogden and Co.
Publication Date: [1872?]
 Subjects
Subject: Animals -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Animals -- Pictorial works -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre: non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage: England -- London
United States -- New York -- New York
 Notes
General Note: Date of publication from inscription.
General Note: Illustrations lithographed by Kronheim and Co.
General Note: Baldwin Library copy lacking leaf of plates for "The Horse".
Funding: Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026605
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002223388
notis - ALG3637
oclc - 59007011

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Front Matter
        Page 3
    Title Page
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Table of Contents
        Page 6
    Front Matter
        Page 7
    The Lion
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    The Elephant
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    The Tiger
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    The Leopard
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    The Bison
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    The Wolf
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
    The Zebra
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
    The Hyaena
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    The Bear
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    The Hippopotamus
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
    The Rhinoceros
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    The Giraffe
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
    Title Page
        Page 69
    The Horse
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
    Cow and Calf
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    The Sheep
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
    The Goat
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
    The Donkey
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    Pet Dogs
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Big Dogs
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
    Rabbits
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
        Page 108
    Guinea-Pigs
        Page 109
        Page 110
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
    The Cat
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
    Pigs
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
    The Pony
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
    Back Cover
        Page 130
        Page 131
    Spine
        Page 132
Full Text
This page contains no text.


The Baldwin LibraryRmBFI rida


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s dTHECHILD S PICTURE BOOKOFWILD AND DOMESTIC ANIMALSWITH TWENTY FOUR COLOURED ILLUSTRA TIONSLONDONGEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SONSTHE BROADWAY LUDGATENEW YORK 416 BROOME STREET


LONDONPRINTED BY J OGDEN AND CO172 ST JOHN STREET E CAfs a5A 1I c 4


CONTENTSTHE LION THE HORSETHE ELEPHANT COW AND CALFTHE TIGER THE SHEEPTHE LEOPARD THE GOATTHE BISON THE DONKEYTHE WOLF PET DOGSTHE ZEBRA BIG DOGSTHE HYAENA RABBITSTHE BEAR GUINEA PIGSTHE HIPPOPOTAMUS THE CATTHE RHINOCEROS PIGSTHE GIRAFFE THE PONY9


The Child s Picture BookOFWILD ANIMALS


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THE LIONWH EN we call the Lion the King of Beasts we mean that he looks so bold and grandand is so fierce and strong that none of the rest of the beasts are like him or dare tocome near him when he goes out to seek his prey His bright eyes flash as he stands andmoves his tail from side to side his thick mane falls on his strong neck and his great paws thoughthey are so soft that he can walk and make no sound have long sharp claws that can tear through thehide of an ox and strike down a horse His roar is heard far off in the woods and is feared by manand beast But though the Lion is so brave and strong he hunts for his prey just as a cat hunts for amouse He will crouch in the long grass and shrubs or crawl by the side of a hedge or a high banktill he comes near the ox the calf or the sheep which he means to seize Then he springs on it strikesit down and drags it off to his den where he can eat it at his ease He goes in search of prey at nightand sleeps by day so that those who go out to hunt the Lion must seek him in his lair and rousehim up if they wish to kill himAt one time a time long past Lions were caught and sent to Rome where they were kept tofight with men Slaves who had done wrong or men who had been sent to gaol for their crimes werethrown to the beasts which means that they were sent to a large round pit where they were to fight withwild beasts If the man could kill one or two Lions with the short sword that was put in his hand hewas set free but it was a hard thing to do and as the crowd sat on all sides to watch the fightshrieks and groans were not heard for their shouts and cries It was thought to be a great sight atRome and good as well as bad men were cast to the Lions in those bad times


2 The LzonOne good tale is told of a poor Greek whose name was An dro cles This man was out in thewild plains one day when he saw a Lion not far off The poor beast was lame and lay on the groundto suck his paw When he saw the Greek he got up and though he could not do more than limp onthree legs crawled to him with his paw held out and made a sad moan as if to ask the help of theman so An dro cles went near to see what he could do The Lion had a great thorn thrust throughhis paw It had gone in so deep that he could not get it out and it gave him great pain The Greeksat down by him and with much care drew out the thorn then he bound up the paw with a strip tornfrom his shirt The Lion licked his hand for thanks and went away In two or three years fromthat time the Greek was put in gaol and brought before the judge NQw just then a great Lionhad been caught and sent to the place where the wild beasts were kept for men to fight with so thejudge said that the man should be thrown to the beasts The day came when the Lion was to be letloose and he was so fierce and large that the vast crowd cried out to the poor Greek You are a deadman An dro cles thought so too when he saw the great beast come with slow steps to the placewhere he stood but when all there thought that the brute would leap on him and tear him the Lionbent his rough head and crouched down upon the ground at the man s feet There was a great shoutand some cried Bring a fresh Lion but more said What does it mean The Greek when hefelt the Lion lick his bare feet bent down to look at him and from some marks that he saw in hismane and face knew that it was the beast from whose foot he had drawn the thorn The judge sentto ask how it was that the fierce beast lay down like a tame dog at the feet of the Greek and whenhe heard the tale said that An dro cles should be set freeThis tale shows how good it is to be kind to all things and to help poor beasts when they arein pain but it did not teach the men of Rome to leave off wild beast fights and for years andyears men were sent to fight with Lions for their lives till the time came when old Rome wasat an end and the place where these sad things were done was pulled down The walls of thatplace may be seen to this day but there are no Lions now in RomeIt is in A sia and Af ri ca that the King of Beasts is to be found and in both these


The Lzon 3lands men go to hunt the Lion In some parts there is such a dread of him that huts arebuilt in high trees that the folks may be safe while they sleep for the trees there are so largethat they can prop up each vast branch with a pole and build a hut on the boughs Tokill the Lion a man must have a good gun and know how to shoot well he should have a longsharp knife and an axe too for if he should miss his aim the beast will spring on him and hemust fight for his life and will not get the best of it if some friend is not near at hand to help himThe Lion will at times go out of the way and not spring at a man if he should meetShim on the roadAn old man who had been ill went out one day for a ride on his ox when a huge Lionrushed at him The ox threw the old man off and when he got up the Lion came at a slowpace to where he stood and put his paw on his coat which lay on the ground The poor manwas so scared that he did not know what to do but in his fright he caught hold of his coat triedto pull it from the Lion and at the same time gave the huge brute a punch in the head The Lionwas not used to this sort of thing and stood quite still while the old man gave him a few moreblows till some one heard a shout and came up with a gun when the beast ran offOnce a man who was out in the woods met a Lion and aimed his gun at him but the chargein the gun had got damp and would not go off The man sprang on to a low hill and when theLion went after him stood with the butt end of his gun at the brute s nose The Lion did notknow what to make of it and so turned round and went off for some yards then with a few longleaps sprang to the woods and was seen no moreMr An ders son who went through that part of the world where most Lions are found wasonce on his road in the cool time of the day before the sun rose The great rough carts andthe ox teams and those who drew them went on their slow way when the men who drove the cartsheard a sound that made them start with fear it was a roar that shook the ground and there right infront of them a Lion and a Lioness came from the bush The first ox team plunged back n those thatwere in the shafts and they in their turn tried to wheel round wheels and spokes were heard to


4 The Lionsmash and the Lions still roared loud and long Mr An ders son took his gun but his man whosename was Hans would not let him shoot for if he should miss both Lions would fly at them atonce Now while they were on their road and when they had not yet seen these Lions an oxhad snapped his rope and run off to cross the plain A man who could run like a deer had been sentoff to catch the ox and just as the Lions came on the scene he was on his way back As hecame on and led the ox by a rope one of the Lions caught sight of him and ran off with a bound tocatch man and ox too When Mr An ders son saw this he made a start to shoot the Lion sothat the man and the ox were at full speed with the Lion in chase of both and Mr An ders sonin chase of him The ox was a sharp brute for when he came near the rest of the herd he made a crosscut and got home When the Lion saw this he went off at a trot with the Lioness and so noone was hurtThere are strange tales of Lions in most of the books that tell us of the risks run bythose who go to A sia and Af ri ca but the beasts are not quite alike in both these lands InAf ri ca he is to be seen with a black skin and black mane and tale but the black Lion ismuch more scarce than the rest which have skin and hair of a light brown or red hue likedark sand or the light part of a nut shell


di 4 CCwkki Jeiz ud Co s Trr Ir sben


THE ELEPHANTW E have most of us heard of the El e phant though we may not have seen him No o therbeast so large as he can now be found on the earth and though all El e phants are not of thesame size the least of them are of such vast bulk that we feel a sort of fear as we look at them Thelarge ones are found in A sia and those that are not so large live in Af ri ca They are not quite thesame in some things for while those of A sia have a flat or scoop ed front to the head small ears andfour nails on the hind foot the Af ri can sort have round heads three nails on the hind foot and suchlarge ears that the man who drives a tame El e phant can get at the back of his ear out of the rainYou will see that the El e phant in this book is one of that sort and strange tales are told of him in hiswild state as well as when he is tame He goes for miles and miles on the hot roads or the loosesands with a great bale of goods on his backThe knees of the El e phant s hind legs are in front so that he can kneel down as no o ther beastcan do and though his size and weight are so vast and his feet are so big he can go through the woodsand can trot on the hard ground and make no noise His long trunk is so strong that he can twist itround the stem of a large tree and tear it down that he may feed on the green twigs and soft leavesWith the end of his trunk he can pick up a small thing from the ground for it has a sort of thumbwith which he can take hold He plucks leaves and twigs and herbs for food with his trunk and putsthem in his mouth and he sucks up his drink from the streams in this long snout and then spirts itdown his throat At night when he goes down to the ponds to drink the rest of the wild beasts makeway for him and watch him from far off for they all fear him for his great size and strength When


6 The Elepkantthe pools are dry or he can find no drink he will go for miles to some place where he smellsthat the earth is damp and bore a hole in the loose ground with his trunk till he makes a sort ofwell where the wet comes up and he can slake his thirst Some El e phants are fierce and will fightand at times when a Lion or Tiger or Rhi no ce ros meet an El e phant in the plains they willspring at him but his huge feet can tread them to death and his great trunk can crush them orhis long sharp tusks pierce them through and through as he roars with a voice that makes thewoods shake His flesh is used for food by the tribes who live where he is caught and killedand in some parts of the world the trunk is thought to be a very nice dish while for those who like atit bit the ears and the feet are served up as a rich meal His tusks are sought for in Af ri ca and boatloads of them are sent up the streams and brought here to be cut into i vo ry so that men goout to hunt and kill him though they dread him so much that they fear the sport When theAf ri cans set out to hunt the El e phant a score of men go at once each armed with a sheaf oflong spears for they have few guns in the wild woods of that land and when they come to theplace where they can see by the marks of his broad feet or by the trees from which he hastorn the boughs that the great beast has pass ed by they seek him in the woods and waitround the spot where he lies hid Soon he moves and as he goes with his trunk in the air tosmell what it is that has rous ed him up he is pierc ed with the spears till he sinks down faint withloss of blood There is a way too by which one man may kill an El e phant He makes asharp sword blade two feet long and ties it with strong cord to a thick stick with this he climbsa tree where he builds a stage of wood on which he waits till the beast comes by Then whenthe great head comes in sight he holds his sword high and brings it down with all his force sothat he drives the blade deep into the El e phant s neck On goes the poor brute his blood poursto the ground as he strives to plunge into the deep woods The long stick at the end of theblade strikes the trees as he tears past and each time that it strikes the wound grows worse tillhe sinks on his knees and the man who has been on the watch comes up and kills himTo hunt the El e phant on a horse two men take off their clothes mount the horse and


The Elepant 7the one who sits in front guides the steed while the o ther holds a broad sword blade bound to hishand by a strip of hide As soon as they see the El e phant the horse is made to go at full speed tillthey come up with him Then the man in front scolds him with all his might calls him namesand tells him he has come to kill himThe man thinks the El e phant knows what all this means and in the end the noise puts thepoor brute in such a rage that he makes a rush at the horse This is the time for the man on his backto wheel round and for the other man to slip off with his sharp sword in his hand and dodge round theEl e phant who while he is on the watch for the horse and the man in front gets a blow which cuts thegreat cord of flesh that binds his heel to his leg As the big brute falls the man with the sword leapson to the back of the horse and they are off to call for help as they know quite well that the El e phantwill not have strength to move far from the spotOf course a gun is best and the white men who go out to hunt all take fire arms Aball from a gun fired by a sure hand has been known to kill one of these great beasts at oneshot but should the ball miss there may be sad work The El e phant will rush at his foe fullof rage his huge trunk beats the air his vast feet tear the ground and should he seize a manhe can crush him with his trunk or press him to death with his kneesThere is a tale of a man who made up his mind to hunt in a place where he had heardthat El e phants and Rhi no ce ros es went to the deep pools to drink He took no one with himbut set out at night when the moon was so bright that he could see his way Two or threeguns and a thick cloak were all he had need of and he crouch ed down on a strip of land whichhad a pool on each side He had not long to wait for he had but just spread his cloak whenhe heard a noise like the boom of great wheels on a rough road He rais ed his head to seewhat it could be and there through the bush came a great El e phant One would have beenbad but there came a score each one as big as the first and they strode straight to the placewhere the man lay He put up his gun and would have fired on the chance of a good shotbut the great brute his huge ears spread out like wings his long trunk rais ed in the air rush ed


8 The Elephantdown on him he had just time to fall down on his back and as he fell while the El e phantwas close to him he fired and at the same time gave loud shouts and cries The shot struckthe beast in the chest but he did not fall His trunk came down on the spot where the manhad stood and made the stones and dirt fly for yards round but he dash ed on one side andwent off as though he had no wish to fight with a foe that he could not seeA man who made it his sport to hunt El e phants was out one day with a black ladHe had killed two large bulls as they call the male El e phants when his man cried out thatthere were more He just seiz ed his gun as eight of them dash ed past and with a quick aim hefired at the first and brought him to his knees The beast sprang to his feet a gain at onceand with a roar of rage and pain left the rest of the herd and tore through the woods asthough he had gone mad The man took up the spare gun and ran down a steep bank to aplace where he knew the brute must pass to join the rest of the herd It was a deep placewhere a small stream ran with high banks on each side When he reach ed the spot he heard acrash gave a look round to see what was the cause and saw the fierce bull El e phant in chaseof him with eyes that shone like fire and a tail straight in the air It was of no use to run forthe strong trunk would have seiz ed him had he tried to climb the bank so he swung round fellon his knee and took aim The shot struck the brute s trunk and did not stop him On hecame with a shriek The man saw a huge dark form felt a blow that struck him down and thenknew that he was flung through the air When he came to he was in a pool of blood but theEl e phant had gone off at full speed to the woods where he was found dead the next day


tir paru heim and o ido2


THE TIGERSHE Tiger is still more like a Cat than the Lion for he has not such long hair on his neck histail is long and smooth with no tuft at the end and he has bright dark stripes on his smoothcoat He is not so bold as the Lion but quite as strong and more quick and lithe He will lie inwait for his prey and hide in the tall grass and reeds where he can draw in his breath and shrinkso flat that no one can see him if they have not sharp eyes But the Tiger does not like to facehis foe though he is so strong that he can crush the skull of an ox with a blow of his great paw andthen trot off with the dead beast to his den A poor man in In dia found one day that his ox hadgot loose and run off to a swamp where it had sunk so deep in the mire that it was fix ed and couldnot walk back to dry land While he was gone to fetch some of his friends to help him to get theox out of the bog a Tiger came to the spot and saw the ox He sprang at the poor beast at once andkill ed him with one grip of his sharp teeth then he drew him out of the mud and had just thrownhim over his back to take him home to eat when the man came back with his friends The Tiger letthe ox fall and ran off but it was dead and all the blood was suck ed from its veinsThe Tiger is found in A sia and no where else so that it is there that men hunt him To hunt himis hard work and those who go out to find him need to be bold and quick and to learn to shoot wellThere is a small place in In dia where a great heap of stones stands by the side of the roadAll who pass by throw a stone on to the heap for it was plac ed there to show that a great Tiger hadbeen kill ed on that spot This fierce beast had slain men and girls and cows and sheep andwas said to like men s flesh best for his food for he would spring upon the men who keptthe herds and take them off to his lair when he did not touch the ox or the cow that was close by


Io The TzgerThere was a white man there when these tales were told a man who went out day by day tohunt wild beasts and he said he would go and fight the Tiger for his life and kill him or else bekill ed by him In In dia the post men go on foot and their bags are slung at the end of a long caneTo this cane they hang brass rings and plates which clink and ring like bells as they walk to letfolks know that they are close at hand Now the Tiger used to wait in the wood by the side of theroad till he heard this sound for when he heard it he knew a man was near and that he could killand eat him When the white man heard what the fierce beast had done he thought of a way tobring him out of his den So when the sun was gone down he went out arm ed with his gun to theplace where he knew the Tiger had made his lair He took no one with him but in one hand hehad a cane such as the post men use with the rings and bits of brass on it to clink and ring as hewent He watch ed each side of the road for the Tiger but could not see him till he came to a steepplace where he thought he heard a noise such as is made when we crush a dry leaf and saw the longgrass move as though some live thing were on its way to the place where he stood Then came alow sound like the purr of a cat He went back a yard or two to see what could be done and as hedid so a great Tiger sprang at one bound to the midst of the road not six feet from where he stoodThere was just time to fire one shot before the huge beast could give a fresh spring and when thesmoke of the gun clear ed off there he was in the dust not dead but with his death wound Onemore shot at the back of the ear made an end of this fierce beast which fed on men and there wasgreat joy when the news of his death was knownThe Tiger is as fond of her cubs as the cat is of her young ones and will fight for them andtake care of them at all times There was a camp at a place in In dia where the men went out tohunt Tigers and one day they shot at and kill ed a large Tigress near a spot where they found whatthey thought was her den There were bones and bits of torn clothes there at the back of a rockand as they look ed round they saw a small Tiger cub not more than a few days old in a nook at theend of the cave This was a great prize for it is hard to get a young cub and they took the wildthing home with them that they might try to tame it At night they all sat in their tent and laugh ed


The Tiger 1and talk ed about the cub which they had chain ed to the pole of the tent while they took the skin offthe Tigress All at once a loud roar was heard a roar and a shriek such as the Tiger giveswhen it is in a rage and the wild cub that was tied to the pole set up a cry and gave such a pull thatthey thought it would break the chain They had no time to jump up when a large Tigress sprangin at the tent door to the side of the cub took it in her mouth and with one snap tore it from thepole and ran off with it It was her own young one that she came to find and the beast that theyhad kill ed was the wrong Tigress There was no time to fire a shot so she got clear away anddid not give so much as a look at them with her dear cub in her mouthOne way in which the Tiger is slain is so strange that we will tell it A man makes a greatcage like a bird cage of thick strong canes and takes it to the woods In this queer place hewaits arm ed with a short sharp sword like a long axe and of great weight The beast comes pastand does not know what this means but it sees the man and tries to get in at the bars of thecage or to break them down to get at him When it rears at the cage out comes the sharp swordand in it goes up to the hilt in the big brute s chest so that he falls dead or can do no more thancrawl back to his lair where he is found next dayA band of men went out one day to look for game and came back to say that they hadseen the foot prints of two large Tigers near the bank of a stream Those who had sent thesemen set out at once for a Tiger hunt and for a long time beat up and down the grass andshrubs that grew deep and thick in the place At last one of the men thought the beasts mightbe in a large clump of shrubs on the far side of the stream and at once went in and tried to wadeto it though the stream was four feet deep When he had got half way he saw what he was surewas a Tiger in the clump of bush and so went back and fir ed straight at it Out sprang a greatTiger who fell dead The shot had pierc ed his skull just as he had stood up to leap the streamOf course the men thought their sport was at an end and they all went to a ford where theycould cross the stream and get to the dead Tiger When they reach ed the place they all stood roundto look at him and talk of the way in which he had been kill ed and to point out the spots on his


12 The Tigerfine skin when all at once they heard a loud roar that seem ed to come right from the midst of themThere was no time to think and yet they all did the same thing that is to say each of them jump edoff the bank and went splash in the stream and each one tried which should be first to cross Thiswas the best thing to do for all their guns had been fir ed off and not one of them could send a shot atthe Tiger One of the men had no clothes on but his shirt for he had put all the rest of his dress to dryin the sun as they had been made wet by his walk in the stream and in this plight he climb ed up a thorntree A friend of his crawl ed where he could hide in a bush All at once there was a cry that the Tigerhad kill ed a man and it was true that a man lay on the ground but he was not much hurt for the beasthad done no more than knock him down with his paw and give him a bad scratch then the fierce brutewent off at a great pace to the hills and was seen no more The man who had been knock ed down hadbeen plac ed in a tree to look out for the Tiger and when he had heard that one had been kill edhe came down for he thought he might as well join the rest Now there were two Tigers in thebush and though one of them was kill ed one still lay in the clump of shrubs It would not comeout while all the men stood there for the Tiger is not brave like the Lion and will not fight till it is sureto get the best of it but when it saw one man come down from the tree and go past the bush whereit lay out it sprang and with one blow dash ed him to the groundThe first mate of a ship went on shore one day to shoot birds and soon saw a large wildPea cock at which he fir ed The shot struck its wing and as he knew that these birds will run along way on the ground when they are hit by a shot in the wing he went as fast as he could throughthe long grass to try and catch it at the spot where it would fall You may think what he felt whenhe saw that he had gone plump in the midst of three fine Tigers who had just been wak ed upfrom a sound nap by the pop of his gun They were not quite so quick as he was though for whilethey wink ed and blink ed he was out of the grass where he left them the Pea cock and ran off as fastas his legs would take him to his boat in which his men took him back to the ship He had had his fillof sport for one day


SolIVItap4 1 i i i i51 i LBLondon


THE LEOPARDT HE LEO PARD is not much more than half the size of the Tiger and has bright spots onhis skin and not streaks like some of the Cat tribe He is much to be fear ed for he is fierceand strong and as he is small he can crouch in the long grass or lie on the branch of a big treewhere he waits till he can spring down on his prey and suck its blood If you have seen a Catstretch ed out with its paws straight in front its hind legs bent its head laid down as it keeps watchon the birds that fly here and there on a lawn you can guess how a Leo pard looks when it lies inwait for its prey It is such a sly beast that it glides with slow soft steps and lurks in the grassand shrubs where it can hide so well that when it is kill ed there is great joy for those who live in theplace near its lair In Cey lon and most parts of Af ri ca the Leo pard is to be found and it is saidthat some of these brutes have been seen that are quite black but they are more rare The skin is muchpriz ed and some of the black men think that some parts of the flesh can be used they say that theend of the tail will act as a charm to make him who has it sure of the love of some of his friends andthat the brain makes men brave and gives them luck when they go out to hunt These beasts keepout of the way when they see a man but for all that they are fierce when they are brought to bay andwill fight with tooth and clawOne way to take them is to form a cage with poles that are stuck fast in the ground Thereis a door to the cage which is not shut but is kept wide by a young tree The top of this tree isbent by six or eight men who hold it down till it can be made fast to the ground by a noose ofdeer hide Then a young goat is tied in the cage with a large stone bound to his ear The weight


14 The Leopardof the stone makes him cry the Leo pard hears him and comes to the door of the cage where hetries to get in the young tree flies up like a spring and he is caught by the noose which holdshim tight round the loinsA young man who was one of a band who went out to hunt in the woods that lie farfrom the Cape of Good Hope went one night to see a friend at a small farm near their campWhile he was there a Leo pard broke through the fence of the farm yard and as he couldfind no lambs or sheep or goats the brute kill ed some of the cocks and hens and made agood meal All the folks at the farm were in a fright for they knew that he would come backand try if he could get some more of such nice fare but the young man who was a good shot andwish ed to show that he knew how to hunt and had no fear of wild beasts made up his mind to go andlook for the Leo pard at a place a few miles off where there was a lair and if he could find him tokill him and bring home his skin as a proof of his skill He told no one what he meant to dobut took his gun and set off at break of day to ride to the place where he thought he should find hisgame When he came near the spot he got down from his horse and look ed round him for spoorwhich is the name they give to the marks of the feet of wild beasts on the ground In a shorttime he came to the bones and part of the limbs of a fine buck part of which had been gnaw edHe knew at once that this was the work of the Leo pard for the buck had been pull ed down bythe throat and if it had been a wolf that had done it the back and loins would have been tornWhile he bent down to look at the dead buck he cast his eye up to a tree that stood close by andthere was the Leo pard on a great bough to which he clung his sharp white teeth all bare and hiseyes like fire As quick as light the sly brute sprang to the ground and ran off but not till the youngman had sent a ball at him from his gun The ball must have struck for there was a howl and atwist of the head but the swift beast did not stop and was a long way off when the man leap ed onhis horse and gave chase Man and beast soon came to a deep cleft in the ground all grown withtrees and shrubs some of them with great sharp thorns that made it hard to force a way but theLeo pard had dash ed in there and left foot marks to show the track that he had gone A few yards


The Leopard 15on there were marks of blood and in a short time the young man who had left his horse on the plaincame near the deep part of the vale He took his gun in his hand saw that the charge was all rightand that his broad sharp knife was loose in its sheath and went on as fast as he could He had notwalk ed far when in the path close in front of him he saw the Leo pard crouch ed down with histeeth bare and his ears laid back as though he was just on the spring There was time to fire oneshot but though the beast was hit he gave a great bound and seiz ed the man by the arm be fore hecould draw his knife It was of no use to cry out for help for there was no one near not a soul thatwas not at least five miles off so there was no help for it but to fight for his life His right arm wasfree and he could get hold of the haft of his knife It was a good thing for him that he knewhow to use it for he had to be quick but he had been used to hunt wild beasts and with onehard thrust he plung ed the blade in the chest of the brute and then gave him two stabs at the backwhich made him let go and fall down dead The man was so much hurt by the brute s hindclaws which had torn his thigh that he fell to the ground and his arm was crush ed so that when hetried to get up he felt faint and ill and at last had a sort of fit When he came to it was quite darkfor night had come on and he was in great pain and felt so much thirst that his mouth and throatwere dry but though he could hear the sound of a stream that flow ed close by he could not move toget drink He was so hurt that he could not stir an inch and the best thing he could hope for wasthat his horse might go back home for then some one might see it and set out to look for him by themarks of the hoofs on the ground Once or twice he had thought that he felt a thing move on his neckbut he could not see and it was a long time be fore day light came He was stiff and sore with hiswounds and with the cold night air but he tried to load his gun as he lay there on the ground Ashe turn ed to look for it he saw that on his lame arm which lay so that he could not move it along brown thing had crept it was a brown Snake of the worst kind that had crawl ed there forwarmth and had been there all through the night As he kept his eyes fix ed on this new foe hecould see it stir and from the way in which it mov ed he thought that it suck ed his bloodAt this he quak ed for fear but just as he tried to find out if it was so he was fill ed with joy


16 The Leofardto hear the sound of a man s voice He did not dare to move for fear that he should cause theSnake to sting him but as the sounds of men who call ed out loud and the tramp of feet came moreand more close to the spot the Snake held up its head and then slid a way through the long grassYou may think how glad the poor young man was when he saw four of his friends who had comein search of him and how he sank to sleep as they took him home on a sort of couch made ofboughs and soft leavesThe Leo pards are called Tigers by the Dutch folks who live at the Cape of Good HopeM An ders son while he was in that part of the world was wak ed up one night by the dogs who allseem ed to howl at once in loud cries of fright He sprang out of bed with his gun in his handfor he thought one of the dogs must have been seiz ed by some beast of prey He was quite rightthough when he went to the door of the hut he could see no sign of what had caus ed the noiseThe men soon set light to a torch and when they went out saw the tracks of a Leo pard on theground and found that one of the best of the dogs was not with the rest No more could be donethat night so they all went back to bed but next day while M An ders son was on his way he heardthe same sort of cries as those that broke his rest in the night He got down from his seat on thefront of the great cart in which he rode and there in the midst of a bush lay the poor dog full ofbites and wounds but not dead It seems that he had in some way got rid of the Leo pard but it took along time to cure his wounds The next day the men were in the bed of a stream when they saw a Leopard try to make a spring at their goats as they fed on the banks When he saw them he tried tohide and sprang up a tree They shot at him till he had a score of wounds and still he clung to thetree till one more shot brought him down dead


dsMKronbeim Co


THE BISONHE BISON was at one time found in Eng land and most parts of Eu rope but there are nowJ none left Though it is said that a few wild bulls and cows may live in the great woods of Germa ny there are none to be seen It is in A me ri ca that the Bison is to be found He is there knownby the name of Buf fa lo and goes in vast herds through the great plains where the red men hunt himuse his flesh for food and make clothes of his thick warm hide The Buf fa lo is in fact a wild oxof great size and strength but he is not quite like the tame beasts for he is more fierce and stronghas a large hump on his neck and a thick mane of hair hangs round his head The cows as well asthe bulls have a mane but that of the bull is so thick it hides his head though his fierce eyes canbe seen as they glare and shine thr9ugh the bush of hair In the great plains where no one comesnear him and by the side of streams where he can drink and roll in the wet clay the Buf fa lo lovesto feed The herds of these beasts are so vast that they seem to reach for miles While he is in theherd the Buf fa lo fears no other beast and till he is lame or so fat that he can not fight nor runhe need not fear for he can kill most of his foes if they come one at a time The great grey bear istoo much for him and the wolves who hunt in packs can kill him but in the great herd where thesebig brutes join their strength and crush the foe with hoofs and horns they care for none but themen who hunt them with bows or guns and come on horse back to drive them to the place wherethey are shot down and kill ed They will run from men but should one of them get a wound or a hurtthe fierce beast mad with pain and rage will turn and rush with all his might at his foe who ifhe has not a quick eye and a good horse may be hurl ed to the ground and crush ed to death


The Bisonor gor ed by those long sharp horns that can tear a horse from chest to throat or pin him to theearthThere are large tribes of men who hunt the Buf fa lo and to whom that huge beast gives food Allparts of him are us ed by them and they may be said to live on him His flesh is their meat the skin servesthem for coats beds boots rugs tents roofs to their huts slings reins and seats Of the bones aremade clubs stools flutes and all sorts of things for war or sport while of the horns are formedspoons heads of spears cups flasks and pins The feet and hoofs are boil ed to make glue withwhich they join the shafts of spears and darts the mane is twin ed to make ropes and cords the endof the tail is us ed as a whisk to keep oft the flies and the thread and string us ed to sew the hideand to make the robes and stitch the clothes is made of some part of the dead beast The men wholive on the plains that is to say the red men of North A me ri ca go out to hunt the Buf fa lo withso few clothes on that they have the free use of their limbs for they know that they may have to leapfrom the back of the horse and trust to their own legs The horse is a small fierce swift steed whoknows what to do and the rein is no more than a rope of hair tied round his jaw The man picks outone Buf fa lo from the herd and rides at it as fast as he can urge his horse The huge beast sees thathe is chas ed leaves the herd and flies as hard as he can go but the horse comes up with him at lastand when they are quite close the man lets fall the rein and quick as light fits a short sharp arrowto his bow and shoots it just at the front of the Buf fa lo s ribs When the horse hears the twangof the bow he turns round and goes off at great speed for when the big bull has a wound he will turnand charge man and beast with such fierce strength that one must be kill ed if they are not both asswift as cats Should the wild bull come up with the horse the red man vaults from his back andwith his long two edg ed knife stabs the huge beast to the heart or drives the blade through histhick neck Those who go out to hunt the Buf fa lo must take care not to get on that side of him towhich the wind blows for his scent is so keen that he can smell a man a long way off Some of thered men are so sly that they will draw the skin of a wolf over their head and then crawl in a zig zagline on the ground till they get quite close to the herd The Buf fa lo does not fear the wolf when


The Bzson 19he is in the herd and when he is alone can soon kill one or two wolves so he just looks round andas his long mane hangs in front of his eyes does not see that it is a worse foe that comes to tak hislife When the man gets near he lifts his gun and with a well aim ed shot strikes the bull in a spotwhere the wound is sure to kill him The herd do not take fright at the sound of the gun so thatthree or four of them may fall and the rest will not run till they smell the man When the deep snowlies on the plains though a horse could not keep his feet the herds of Buf fa loes push their waythrough the drift but then the red man goes out to hunt and makes great sport for he makes broadframes which are call ed snow shoes and ties them on his feet With these he can glide on thesnow or skim the frost bound hills till he comes up with the slow steps of the great beast who fallsa prey to his long lance When a whole tribe of these men go out to hunt the scene is so wild andstrange that those who have seen it on the great plains speak of it as a sight such as they never sawin any part of the world Each man sits on his small strong fleet horse with a long whip made ofhide bound to his right wrist and his bow and arrows in his left hand As the herd of Buf fa loescomes in sight each picks out one and rides at it at full speed till the noise of hoofs is mix ed withthe sound of yells the neighs of the steeds and the deep roars of the bulls They are in the midst ofa cloud of dust and steam but as each man comes up with the Buf fa lo that he has made up his mindto kill he shoots his ar row and if he has the true skill of his tribe brings the great beast down with awound that will end in his death Some of the men will be thrown from their seats and have to runto save their own lives but most of them have a long thong of hide tied to the girth of the horse andby this they can catch their steed and swing them selves on to his back while he goes at full speedThe hunt is kept up with shouts and yells while there is a horse that can chase the herd but whenthe strength of his steed seems to fail the red man rides back to the place from which they setout All the time of the chase the boys of the tribe have been on the plain to kill the Buf fa loesthat are not quite dead of their wounds to take off the skins and cut up the meat The tonguesare dried as well as a good deal of the meat a fine meal is made from the humps vhich arethe best part of a fat beast and the tough joints and bones are left to the wolves a pack of


20 The Bzsonwhom is sure to be close at hand to make a feast from the scraps of fresh beef and to pick thebones till they are white and cleanEach year the herds of wild bulls grow less and less for towns are built on the lands that oncewere wild woods or wide plains where none but the red men or those who went to hunt with themwere to be seen For a long time past the Buf fa loes have been kill ed at such a rate that they willsoon grow scarce and in a short time there may be but a few left so that the Bison and the Buf fa lowill be seen no more in their wild state and their whole race will die outThere are still herds of wild bulls and cows in Af ri ca and they are known as the Cape Buf fa loThey are like our great bulls and have no hump on the neck but are rough in the hide and bear vastsharp horns with which they can pierce through a horse and fling him so far on the ground as to killhim at once It is said that those who hunt these beasts may go near to a large herd and kill one ortwo while the rest take to flight but that when one bull who is not with the herd is met with in thewoods he will turn and fight with such vast strength and fierce rage as to make it hard to kill him Theflesh of the Cape Buf fa lo is not much sought for but his skin is so thick and tough that it is of greatuse when turn ed to lea ther1 11 l I


4I 7iX IlkF U PE 191lxr qk PK onheim Co d


THE WOLFO F all the wild beasts that roam in the woods or hunt on the plains there are none more fierceswift and sly than the Wolf and though Wolves are not of great size not so big as someof our great dogs they go to seek their prey in large packs so that the bison the great stag andS the wild horse are kill ed by them Where the Lion and the Tiger leave some parts of their meatthe Wolves skulk round the place to pick the bones and a pack of Wolves have been known to killan old and weak Lion or to hunt down a lame and half dead El e phant The Wolf can run so farand so fast and his scent is so keen that he is sure to come up with his prey and when his sharphowl is heard in the clear air of the North those who are on their way to some place a long way offmay well fear It is not one or two Wolves that need be fear ed so much but the pack which keepon till they come up with the light cart or the sledge and yelp round and round till some of the firstof them spring up at it or pull down the horse with their sharp white fangsIn all lands the Wolf is a foe that men hate He is such a mean cur and skulks in holesand by the sides of roads till he sees some beast much less strong than he is but he will not fighttill he is made to do so to save his life It is strange that the Wolf should be so much like somedogs that you could not tell which was which if you saw on ly the bones or the beast strip ped ofits skin and yet that the Wolf should be a mean base sneak and the dog so bold and full of trustin man When a dog though he may be a wild dog meets with a Wolf he flies at him at once as afoe that he hates and must fight with all his strength and the Wolf seems to feel that it is no useto shun the dog when once his teeth are in his neck and so the two bite and snarl and roll andtear till one of them is kill ed If the Wolf gets the best of it he eats the dog but the dog will not


22 The Wolftouch the dead Wolf Bad as the Wolf is it is not kill ed in one part of the world A Hin doo willnot hurt a Wolf and it is said that these men will go to the den of the she Wolf take out the cubsand play with them This may be true for the she Wolf is so proud of her cubs that she likes tosee them made pets of While they are quite young it may be safe to play with them but notwhen their teeth have grown and they snap and snarl and bite Wolves are said to teach theiryoung how to bear pain and to bite their tails strike them with their claws and drag them on theground till they learn to be still and not cry out when they are hurt We are free from wild beastsin Eng land now but in old times our woods and waste lands were so full of Wolves that huts andsheds made of great beams of wood and with strong doors that would shut and latch were built at jthe road sides that those who were on their way from town to town might run to find a safe placewhen they were chas ed by the fierce beasts who smelt them from far off and came in packs withyelps and howls to tear them limb from limb When Ed gar was King a man could buy off a friendwho had been put in jail if he brought a score or so of Wolves tongues and a price was put 6nthe Wolf s head a price so large as to cause the rough strong North men to hunt down tliebeasts and at last to leave but few in the landIn the cold parts of the world the lands of ice and snow where the sledge is used a Wolfhunt is great sport A band of men set out armed with guns and take with them a young fat pigIf there is one thing in the world that the Wolf loves best it is pork and so when the sledge with themen in it has gone a mile or two the man who holds the pig bites its tail till it gives a shrill squeakIf there are Wolves near the spot they will come out when they hear the sound and try to catchthe sledge to which they go so near that they can be pick ed off with the gunsThere is a tale told of some men who went out to shoot Wolves in this way and who at one timethought they would be kill ed by their fierce game Their guns were charg ed the tail of the pig waspinch ed and out came the Wolves a pack of starv ed gaunt beasts as could be seen Bang wentthe guns and down went six of the Wolves who were at once torn to bits by the rest who ate themup and lick ed their long jaws as though they could eat twice as much and must have more So


The Wolf 23fierce had this snack made them that they sprang up at the sledge and gnash ed their teeth andstrove to leap in at each bound that they made To gain time the pig was thrown out to them butit was snap ped up like a mere scrap of meat and on the pack came with such a yell that the horsemad with fright gave a great plunge broke the chains that held him to the sledge and was off likethe wind There was no time to be lost but the chief of the hunt was a quick brave man and as theWolves came round he cried out Load and fire all at once This was done and the Wolves heldback from the storm of shot that met them but they came on with fresh yells as soon as the gunshad been fired In that short time the chief had thought of a first rate plan Let us turn the sledgeup side down cried he and we can lie safe under it if we hold it with all our strength This wasdone too and they were all tight and safe with not a foot or a leg or an arm left for the Wolves to seeas they sprang at the sledge which had been turn ed up The whole pack of fierce brutes leap ed onit and drove at it and shook it with their strong fangs but the men clung tight and at last theirfriends set out to look for them and found them safe and soundIn a time of war in the North of Eu rope not more than a few years since a band of ten menand a chief were on their way home with five of the foe whom they had caught near the camp Theywere on a vast plain and when they had been some time on the march some of the men saw a smallpack of Wolves which came on at a slow pace They kill ed two or three with their guns for thesake of the fur and the rest ran off but the men had not got far on their way when they heard aloud noise in the rear which they thought was the roar of the wind till they saw a dark mass spreadon the snow like the deep shade of a cloud Then they were fill ed with dread for they knew thatthey might soon be the prey not of a pack but of a whole horde qf Wolves Each horse wastir ed with the long march but at the sound they fled at full speed and at first it seem ed as thoughthey would hold their pace The next house was eight miles off and a deep drift of snow lay onthe ground so that they could not keep up the pace What was to be done The first troop ofWolves were not far off and their yells could be heard in the cold clear air These men who couldhave been no more brave than the Wolves made up their minds to give up the four men and the


24 The W olfwo man whom they had caught and so try and save their own lives The wo man was to be thefirst One of the men cut the hind legs of her horse with his sword and left her to her fateThey heard her shrieks but fled on as hard as they could go and lash ed their steeds to their bestspeed It was no use the Wolves had made a short stay to eat horse and wo man and now cameon more and more near The horse of the next poor wretch whom they had said should be left tostay the howl ing pack was shot and horse and man were lost in the midst of red tongues and longwhite fangs Still on they came One by one each of those whom they had forc ed to go with themon the way to gaol were left to be torn to shreds and yet the Wolves came on and gain ed on them ateach stride that they made on the ice and snow Two of the band were thrown down and each sawhis horse fall a prey but there were none to help them though the rest fir ed their guns at the packThough some of the Wolves fell the rest came on still and would not swerve a yard from their chaseThe two men who had been thrown ran for a short time and then drew their swords and fought for theilives but they were struck down and their flesh torn from their bones There were but two miles togo and the first hut would be reach ed The Wolves were but a few yards off when an old manwhose two sons were in the troop cried out Fare well and with a shout that was half a pray er andhalf a song fel led his horse to the ground with a blow from the butt of his gun and gave him self upto save the rest There were but eight of them left and they tore on till once more the Wolves werebut a few yards off Then the chief shot the man next him through the head and the chase waschecked There lay the hut just in front and with one more dash they reach ed it rush ed in and shutthe thick door which they made fast with a great bar There was a loud shriek heard and whenthey peep ed out they saw that one of their band had been too late His horse was lame and theWolves had caught him at the door All night the pack howl ed and tried to tear down the hutand fought and kill ed and ate each o ther in their rage All night the men fir ed shot after shotat them but could do no more than kill a few which the rest ate up at once For two days thiswent on till at last a great storm rose in the air and in the night the whole pack went off and left thosewho were in the hut to seek their homes as best they could and tell the sad tale of their flight


krr eaw C0 jndIvI m diANQ t


THE Z E B RAT IE ZEBRA is no more than a wild horse but a horse with such strange marks and stripes onits skin that it is no more like that which we see in the streets and fields than the big black catthat sleeps on the rug is like the wild cat of the woods that lives in a tree and will not come near toman In some things the Zebra may be said to be more like the ass than the horse for it is small andits ears are long but its hide is white and mark ed in bright black bands on the back neck and legsand brown ones on the head and face The tail is thick and black and the ears have white tips TheZebras live on hard dry herbs in the hill lands of Af ri ca and go in troops They are so wild that theold ones are not to be made tame when they are caught and it is hard work to teach the young colts toyield to the rein or the whip As these colts are not of much use to the wild tribes since they ride onthe tame horse and go out to hunt beasts that are good for food or whose skins are worth more thanthose of the Zebra they do not take much pains to catch them When they do so it is by means oflong thongs with a slip knot or else they drive some part of a herd of Zebras into a space where theyhave built a fence and so take a few But the beasts are so wild and fierce that they are not worth agreat dealIt is the wild horse that is most sought for in the great plains where he can be found forhe can be made tame and is strong and swift though he is of no great size The great herds of the wildhorse are found near the Don in Eu rope and in the vast plains of North and South A me ri ca wherethe men hunt them for the sake of their hides hoofs and hair A long time ago there were such greattroops of these beasts that they were as cheap as white mice for one would be sold for three pence but


26 The Zebranow the men who catch them have grown more wise though there are still such hordes of the wildhorse that in the dry hot months they die of thirst by scores when the streams fail or when the grasson the plains is dried by the fierce rays of the sun or set on fire by a chance spark struck from a stoneAt such times or when they are fill ed with fear at a storm the whole vast herd tears on in a mad swiftrace so that the sound of their hoofs can be heard for miles in that light clear airTo hunt the wild horse no sword or gun is us ed for those who go out for this sport want tocatch and not to kill their game A long cord with a noose or loose loop at one end is all that theywant and with this in their hand they mount their bare steeds and give chase to the wild herd withyells and cries As they ride they hold the cord which is call ed a las so in such a way that as soon asthey come up with the herd they can throw the noose so far and with such a good aim as to cast itround the neck of the horse that they want to catch The end of the las so is made fast to the girthof their own horse and when they have thrown the noose the wild horse is at once brought to a deadstop It needs great skill to throw this long cord with such true aim and a man must ride well andhave a good horse to come up with a wild herd It is strange that the tame horse is so much morefleet than the wild one and has been train ed to keep on at such a great pace that he will come up withthe wild herd though he may go for a score of miles The In di ans who hunt the wild horse ride wellfor they are on horse back all their time They learn to ride when they are so young that they can butjust walk and in fact they can ride with much more ease than they can walk for their legs are weakand bent through want of use or from their use only to keep on the back of the horse One of thesemen when he goes out to hunt looks as though he were part of the horse Should his steed takefright he cares not much for it but sticks on his back till he comes to Should he be flung on theground the man slips off his back just in the nick of time and mounts once more when he gets upWhen these In di ans of the plains go to war with their foes they take with them a whole troop ofhorses and mares as well as those on which they ride They drive these on in front with shrill yellsand war cries and start off at a great pace on a ride that may last for days As soon as the horse they rideis tir ed they leap to the back of a fresh one but keep the best till they come near the camp of the foe


The Zebra 27or when they wish to make war Grass is to be found for their steeds in the place where they chooseto halt and when they want meat for their own food they kill one or two of the young mares of thetroop so that to these wild tribes the horse is the best friend in the worldThe wild horse is not like the Zebra He has not the same marks and is much like the horsethat we see in our streets but is more rough and with fierce eyes and a mane and tail that have not beentouch ed or trim med since he was born The Zebra is more like the wild ass for strange as it may seemthe ass runs wild in some lands but he is not at all the same kind of beast as that we see in a truck or cartin the streets His limbs and form are full of grace he runs like a deer and at such a swift pace thata fleet horse finds it hard to come up with him In Per sia the flesh of the ass is thought to be a greattreat and when he is seen they chase him as they would a stag There are but few of his kind andthe wild ass is more and more scarce each year but there are herds of the Zebra of the Quag ga andthe Dauw both of which are of the same sort as he but not with the same marks on their skinsIt is in the plains of South Af ri ca that the Quag ga is found in large herds He is a bold bravebeast and will face the Hyaena and the wild dog but he will not be tam ed and does not like work whenhe is caught and grows us ed to the tame horse the cow or the ass He is kept at some of the farms ina half tam ed state and though he does not like work he will fight when there is need for it for when heis in the pen with his tame friends the Leo pard does not like to come too near and will be the worseoff if he should try to leap the fence for he will find that the hoofs of the Quag ga are sharp andcut like knives anrd that he knows how to use them tooThe Zebra is the least tame of all these beasts for he shuns the place where man is to be seenand roams free and wild in the lone hills where he need not fear that he will be caught and made towork He has his foes though for all that and would be quite as well off if he would live like thetame horse For the fierce wild beasts pull him down for food the Lion and the Hyaena like hisflesh One strange thing is told of him and that is that his voice is like the voice of a man whenhe is in great fear this may mean that it is like the cries and groans of the strange tribes of men inthose lands


28 The ZebraIt is said that the beast which is call ed Quag ga has had that name from the fact that its voiceis like the bark of a dog Those who have heard the poor tame ass bray may think that the sound isno more like a dog than the voice of a man In Af ri ca both dogs and men make sounds that are notthe same as ours and there may be some sort of truth in the tale that the Zebra when he is in painor when the Lion springs at him and tears him down makes a noise like the groans of a man TheZebra the Quag ga and some kinds of what are call ed the wild ass are found in the flat lands nearthe Cape of Good Hope but they are not the true Zebra their skins are mark ed in all sorts of waysThe heads of some of them are white and their necks and backs strip ed and some are grey with amark here and there but the true Zebra is more scarce and is mark ed in stripes so that he looks likea small horse with some strange skin in place of his ownSome time since two young Zebra colts were born in Eng land and it was thought that wemight rear a fresh pair and so at last make use of the Zebra as a beast who would draw our cartsand cars in the streets but we have not yet done so The air here is too cold for him and the youngfoals die or do not live till they are tame so that it is not at all sure that we shall make the Zebra ofuse though he would be well worth some pains for he can live on hard fare and is so strong and swiftof foot that he might be of more use than the ass and quite as good as the small kinds of horse


Propreiic nip qo l


THE HYEN AT HE Spot ted Hyaena is so fierce and grim that he is call ed the Tiger Wolf for he is like boththe Tiger and the Wolf and is one of the worst foes that can be found in the woods ofAf ri ca where he lives The Hyena is not a brave beast He crawls and lurks in caves and longreeds or thick grass to wait for his prey and will eat up what the Lion leaves when he has made a mealIt is said that when the Hymna comes too near the Lion gets in a great rage and has been knownto bite off his paws or seize him by the legs and leave him lame and half dead to his fateMr An ders son was once on his way through a thick wood where the thorn trees were so closethat they caught his men by the clothes as they rode on and tore their flesh in such a way that it gavethem great pain It was a place where a large tree stood here and there and where all kinds of wildbeasts and even the El e phant and the Rhi no ce ros were known to live but the first thing he sawwas a great spot ted Hyaena These brutes will run off at the sight of men but this one stood stillwith a fierce grin on his face Mr An ders son went on till he was near him and then saw that hisfore paws and the skin and flesh of his front legs had been torn and gnaw ed off so that he couldnot move from the spot To put the poor brute out of his pain he caught up a large stone andknock ed him on the head then he seiz ed him by the tail and drove his long sharp knife deep in hisside but it took two or three stabs to kill him for these beasts have so much of life in them thatthey do not die at once No one could tell how he came in such a plight some thought that h e wasstarv ed and had tried to eat his own flesh and some said that he had been torn and lam ed by Lionwhose meat he had tried to steal4 Y4 1 t 1


30 The HycenaThe Hyaena is a good deal like the Wolf in shape and is called Wolf by some ofthose who live near the Cape of Good Hope where he is found but he is worse than the Wolfand does more harm His teeth and jaws are so strong that he can break the shin bone of anox into small bits and he will gulp down a bone as though he cared not what he ate TheHyaena is the dread of those who live near his haunts and they hate him for he will take thedead out of their graves for food and has been known to go to a hut and snatch a young childbut he will not face a beast that is not less than himself and does not seize his prey till he canmake them run when he tears them down If they face him he sneaks off and will not fight till heis in fear for his life He is thought to be most fond of men s flesh and the tribes in one part ofAf ri ca build their huts with a stage or rais ed floor round it and a space in front where they tie thecows and calves to keep them from the wild beasts yet the Hynaea has been known to leave thecalves and crawl in to take off a childThe Hymna feeds upon dead beasts and when he lives by the sea shore he eats the dead fishsuch as whales and other large fish which are cast up by the waves He has a rough tongue like thatof a cat and this with his strong sharp teeth and great jaw bone is of use when he eats the hardrough food that he can find in the woods When the Hyaenas are starv ed they will grow so fierce andbold that they have been known to go in a troop and rush through the street of a small town wherethey seiz ed the first ass or horse that they could find and made off with it They will tear a corpsefrom its grave and eat it so that the graves where the dead are laid have to be pil ed with greatthorn trees and fenc ed round with sharp stakes There is no bone that the jaws of this beast willnot crack and a thick log of wood has been split to chips by the strong teeth of a Hyaenawhich was shut up in a cage The looks of the Hyaena are so fierce and full of spite that theycause much fear to its prey and its howls are so wild and strange that it was said at one time totry to make sounds like a man in pain that it might tempt some one to go and seek for the cause andthen pounce on him and kill him It is a strange thing that though the Hyaena is so sly thatit is not to be caught with a trap and though it steals to its lair with steps that make no sound it


The Hycena 31will not hold its tongue but howls and yells as it goes with a noise that can be heard a long way offSome of those who know most of the ways of wild beasts say that as this fierce brute will not fightand does not like to spring on its prey till it has made it run these howls and yells are meant to strikeo ther beasts with fear They are not meant to call o ther Hyaenas for these brutes do not go introops like Wolves but hunt each by him self and do not call their friends to share a meal Springguns traps and the snares that are us ed for o ther wild beasts are of no use to catch the HyaenaHe is so sly and has such sharp eyes that if he sees a thing that he is not used to as he goesthrough the woods or on a path he will turn back and go the o ther way Cords or thongs of hideare plac ed in his path tied so that they will fire guns and kill him but these he soon finds outand will not go near them nor touch them The best way is to use the thin stems of plants forcords These he has seen in the woods and knows what they are so that he will go near andtouch them and be kill ed or lam edIt has been thought that the Hyana was kept and tam ed like a dog at some of the farmsat the Cape but this does not seem to be true Those who have thought so have not known thatthere is a dog in those parts of the world much like the Hyaena in size and shape but not somuch like him in o ther things He is call ed the Hyaena Dog and is not so large as the Hyaenabut goes wild and is in fact a wild dog with legs and tail like some o ther dogs and with nomane such as the Hyaena has on its neck These dogs hunt in packs and will kill sheep andwound the ox or the horse when it can spring on them by stealth They are hard to tame andare not like most dogs since they will live with the Hyaena in a cage or with the Lion till he growstoo rough in his play One of them was brought here and kept chain ed up in a yard for morethan a year but the man who fed it did not dare to put his hand on it It was a good friend to a dogthat was with it in the same yard but could not be quite tam edThe Hyaena shown here is mark ed with spots but there is a sort that has a greyskin mark ed with dark stripes This kind can be tam ed though in old times it was heldin great fear and was said to have a man s voice so that it could hide in a bush and make


32 The Hycenasuch sounds as would stop the noise of a dog or lead the men who were out with sheep totry and find who it was that call ed to them One thing will seem strange to those who donot know how this brute hunts its prey and that is that he will kill and take off the sound strongbeasts such as calves sheep cows or foals and will not harm those that are sick or lame The causeof this is not so much that he is a good judge and will choose the best of the herd but that he darenot touch those that face him and stand their ground so that as the sick and the lame have not thestrength to run and can do no more than turn and try to keep him at bay he growls and grinsand shows his teeth to try and start them but when he finds they will not turn to fly but keep theirplace he sneaks off and leaves themThere are few brutes so hard to kill as the Hyaena for his rough long hair and mane are soharsh as to keep him from such hurts as might wound him and lead to his death and he is as full oflife as a cat No one can praise his looks for when he is at his best he seems to be a half starv edwretch with a face full of spite and an eye that is fierce but not bold He slinks when he walksand howls when he is not hurt and has so much that is bad and mean in him that we think of him asone of the worst brutes in the world It may be that we do not know him well but few of us wouldlike to make a friend of a Hyaena


11 1


THE BEARS HERE are black brown and grey or as they are call ed griz zly Bears to be found in NorthA me ri ca and the griz zly Bear is the most fierce and strong He is so large and hassuch long sharp claws and great teeth that he is as much to be fear ed as the Lion or the TigerLike all Bears he stands on his hind legs to fight and strikes down a man with his vast pawsor press es him to death in his arms He fears no other beast in the land where he lives and is call edthe King of the Rocky Moun tains which is the name of the great chain of rocks near which heis found When he is full grown he is more than eight feet long and as much round His pawshave a sort of heel to them like a man s foot and are arm ed with claws half a foot in length hisarms and legs are so strong that he can walk on his hind feet and kill a man with his fore paws Ashe walks or trots he moves the hind foot and the fore foot of each side at the same time and rolls hishead from side to side as he goesTwo men were out to look for game and had reach ed a high cliff where they saw a fine Elkin a glade at a great depth from where they stood One of them took a good aim and brought theElk down but they had a long way to go to the place where she fell for the cliff was so steep thatthey could not go straight down to the glade When they had found the Elk one of them drew hisknife to take off the skin while the other went to wash his gun in the stream While he was thereand his gun was all wet he look ed up and cried out A Bear a Bear There was a great sheBear with a small cub at her side not far off So he drop ped his gun and ran to a clump of rosebush not far off The man who had skin ned the Elk by that time ran to help him in case he shouldbe hurt and saw the Bear stand up on her hind legs He then went off to tie his horse to a tree for


34 The Bearfear he should run off at sight of the grim beast but when she saw him run the Bear gavechase and he turn ed round to face her By this time the cub had run off the o ther wayand the Bear who did not like the look of the gun that the man had in his hand went off tooat a great pace so that he could not get a fair shot at her till she had reach ed the bush fromwhich she came He fir ed and struck her in the flank on which she turn ed growl ed and bit andtore at the wound in a great rage While she stop ped to do this he put a fresh charge in his gunand it was well he did so for as she rush ed at him with her fore paws in the air he fir ed and sent aball through her heart She fell and roll ed down the slope where she gave a deep growl and diedbut for some time they fear ed she might not be dead and threw sticks and stumps down at herto see if there was not some life left in the great beast They then took off the skin and paws andwent back to the camp where one of them got a fresh gun and two coils of rope and went back tolook for the cub He was gone some hours and when he came back he brought back a cub buthe had shot it and could not catch it a live for there were two of them and the o ther was so fierceand fought so hard that he could not take it though he tried to beat it with a thick stick and to getthe rope round its neck It had torn his clothes and cut him with its sharp claws and would not lethim take it home so he left it where it was and went back to the campThere was a chief of the In di ans whose name was Black Bea ver and he could tell goodtales of hunts and of how he had help ed to kill both grey and black Bears He us ed to say Ifyou can root the black Bear out of his den and wound him so that he would like to fight you may havegrand sport You will then be pleas ed with his bold look and yet you will laugh at his strange twistsand turns and the queer way in which he moves but mind what you are at or you will have to paydear for the Bear s meat which is good to eat but not worth wounds or the loss of a limb Should theBear go back to his den you must make a torch of dry grass or wood and go quite up to the holewhere he has gone in where you must set light to your torch When the light glares on his eyes thepoor old chap will try to keep out the sight of it with his huge paws Then you must make it blazeup all the more and you will see a spot on his breast where the hair grows in a sort of round you put


The Bear 35a ball in there and the Bear will go down with a flop like a tent when you have cut the props Youmay try to smoke him out of his den but you are not sure to do this for if you light a fire he will comedown to the mouth of the cave and put it out with his pawsThe great griz zly Bear of the Rocky Moun tains is the one which is most fear ed and it is ofno use for one man to try to kill him if he has not made up his mind to stake his own life on that ofthe beast Young men have been known to kill one of these fierce brutes when they wish e6d to showhow bold they were but in the In di an camps the man who wears the paws of a griz zly Bearthat he has kill ed in fight is thought a great deal of by the rest of the tribe These Bears can runat such speed as to catch a horseThere is a sad tale of a man who went mad through the wounds that a Bear gave him in theNorth of Rus sia where large and fierce Bears are found There were two men one of whom waswell known for he was bold and strong and for his great skill in the hunt As they were out oneday they heard from the folks who were in the woods to cut down the trees that a large Bear hadbeen seen a few miles off so they made up their minds to go and try to find him As the day wenton they came on his tracks in the long wet grass and thought that he could not be far off Theysoon found that this was the case for while they look ed round they heard a low growl and out hesprang from a thick clump of wood a few yards off where he stood and sniff ed the breeze as he kepthis eyes fix ed on the two men The man who was so well known for his skill fir ed and the ball struckbut did not kill the fierce brute who rush ed at him The o ther man did not try to shoot till theBear was close to them and when he tried to do so his gun did not go off At once the beastrear ed on his hind legs and tore the earth as he flew at the man who had first shot at him Hisgreat sharp claws struck him to the ground with a blow that strip ped the skin from his head andturn ed it over his face Then he seiz ed his arm and gnaw ed and crush ed it to the bone all the wayup The man cried out to the one who had gone with him to load and fire but he was in such afright that he would not or could not help him and at last fled and left the poor wretch to his fateHe ran straight back to a mine that was not far off and there told his tale but it was too late to go out


36 The Bearto look for the o ther man that night At break of day the wretch who had left his friend in the lurchwent out at the head of a few men to look for him in the woods where they had fought with the Bearbut they could find no trace of the man but some torn clothes and his gun By the state of the grassthey could see that he had been drag ged to the thick woods and the men went on with theirsearch The track of the Bear was hard to find but the men knew how to look for it and in a shorttime they came to a place which was a dense mass of wood and bush Here with boughs and stemsof trees heap ed on him as though to hide him they found the man who was torn and bruis edand all over wounds and blood but was not yet dead They cut down two long poles on whichthey tied their horse cloths and on this rude bier they bore him with ease back to the mine where hiswounds were dress ed and he stay ed for weeks be fore he knew where he was or how he hadbeen so hurt When at last he came to the first thing he said was to ask those who stood roundhim to tell him if the Bear had been kill ed and when he heard that it had not he beg ged for his gunthat he might go out and kill the brute which had done him such harm This was so much on hismind that he was thought to be mad and a watch was kept on him for some months for fear that heshould do some hurt to those with whom he liv ed but as he got quite well and seem ed to think nomore of the Bear he was left to go in and out as he pleas ed One day he was miss ed and it was foundthat he had left the mine and had gone to his hut where he had arm ed himself with his gun andhad made off with it as well as with an axe and a loaf of black bread which he put in the bag thathe had on his back When it was known that he had gone off all the folks at the mine went to seekhim but they could not hear of him and had lost all trace to where he had gone More than a weekpass ed and they fear ed he must be dead in the woods when one day he walk ed in at the door of thehouse near the mine with the skin of a huge black Bear on his back There said he as he threwit down on the ground I told you I would have him He had been out to look for his fierce foeand had found him at last not that he wish ed to pay him out for the hurt he had done but he couldnot rest till he had shown that he could beat the Bear When he had done so he got quite well andwent back to his work nor was that the last Bear that he kill ed


EIk un mt Co


THE HIPPOPOTAMUST HE HIP PO POT A MUS takes its long name from two Greek words that mean Ri verHorse and though it is not at all like a horse but a great deal more like a strange cow andstill more like a great fat pig it lives in the streams of Af ri ca where it feeds on grass leaves grainshrubs weeds and all kinds of green meat It can stay in the bed of the stream and walk there toseek its food and not come up to breathe more than five or six times in an hour it can swim anddive and float though it is of such a great size and has such a huge head and such short legs andit loves to live on the banks of the wide lakes where it can lie in the mud and sleep or wade in thestream and puff and blow and grunt and spirt the wa ter from its great mouth and take its easeall day longThe Hip po pot a mus is not a fierce beast to look at but he is a foe to be fear ed for his greatteeth can tear and crunch a man in half or split the side of a boat and he will turn on those who hurtor wound him When full grown the male beast is twelve feet long and as much round the trunkhis legs are so short that they will not keep him off the ground when he goes in a place where thereare hills to climb and when he stands up he looks like a big butt stuck on four short stumps Hecan close up the slits in his nose so that he may dive down in the streams and his eyes are soform ed that he can stick them out or draw them in that he may see where he goes on land or whenhe is down on the bed of a lake can look for long grass and reeds He takes so much food that he isthe dread of those who live near his haunts for should he go to their fields of rice he will eat somuch and tread so much down with his huge feet that it is a great loss to them


38 The HfzpopotamusThe Hip po pot a mus big as he is has such a dread of men that he will leave the place wherehe sees the print of a man s foot on the ground and he is so shy that he will not stay near those partswhere men go out to hunt In the large lakes and far off streams of Af ri ca he is to be found wherenot a sound is to be heard but the notes of birds the strange cries of beasts the splash of fish andthe sigh of the wind through the bright trees and shrubs that bear blooms with tints that are not seenin our own land and fruits of sorts that some of us have not seen There these big beasts live in herdsof from ten to a score the great bulls on the look out for food and the cows who lie like vast pigs inthe mire of the shore with an eye on the young calves as they sport in and out of the stream or rollat play in the mud Thick as his big head may be the Hip po pot a mus is not such a dolt as helooks for it is found to be a hard job to trap him and when he comes to a thing in his way that heis not quite us ed to he will sniff at it and go out of the road Pits may be dug and leaves andboughs put on the top of them so that no one could tell that they were not part of the woods buthe rolls his great eye round and sees that they are not what they seem to be then he will gruntand walk round them and smell that man his worst foe has been there and go off to some freshplace from which he will not come back for a long timeBut the wild tribes of that land want him for food and his hide is of great use to them sothey use all their skill to kill him He will not walk to a trap and he can see and smell the tracksof men on the ground so they have found out a way to slay him from a high tree in the placewhere he goes for his stroll at night on the bank of the stream First a sharp spear head is madeon one side of which is a barb like the fork of a fish hook this spear head is set in a great smoothbeam of wood six feet long The man takes this with him to the place where the Hip po pot a muswalks at sun set and makes his way till he finds a tree whose boughs cross the path that the greatbeast will take Then he finds two big stones and ties them with a piece of stout rope one on eachside of the beam in which he has set the spear Next he ties one end of a strong cord to the buttend of the beam flings the cord o ver the branch of the tree and hauls up the beam with its weightof stones till it hangs with the spear straight down Then he drives a short stake in the ground on


The Hij ootamus 39one side of the path gives the cord a turn round it takes the cord to the o ther side of the pathand ties it to a peg stuck in the bank All he has then to do is to climb up a tree andwait for the Hip po pot a mus to come out for a walk By and by he hears his deep hoarsegrunt and as he peers through the leaves he sees him come with his stumps of legs not more thanan inch from the ground Then one of his huge fore paws strikes the string that lies in his paththe stakes come from the ground the cord is set loose down comes the great beam with its weightof stones and the sharp spear head drives deep in the poor brute s back where it is held fast bythe long barb With a great roar of rage and pain he turns and makes for the stream while thebeam as it goes to and fro sends the spear deep down in his flesh He may writhe and throwhim self on the ground or dive to the bed of the lake or walk in pain for a mile or two but when theman who has been on the watch goes down the bank the next day he is sure to find that his big gamefloats dead like a vast log of wood on the top of the streamOf course when the white men took guns to Af ri ca they were found the best things withwhich to kill all kinds of wild beasts but they are not yet us ed all through that wild land The menwho live near some of the streams kill the Hip po pot a mus in much the same way that Whales arekill ed in the South Seas and a strange way it is They first make a large raft built of light reedsand grass pil ed up in a heap till it will hold both men and light boats and float well on the streamthey then get some long spears with sharp barb ed points which when they pierce the hide of thebeast and go in his flesh will hold fast and not come out when he tries to kick and plunge Atthe o ther end of these spears is bound a strong cord or rope so that when they are plung ed in hishide he does not get off but can be held in tow by the men who have him like a fish at the end of aline When they have all these things they go to the place where they hope to find their game andkeep a good look out The big beast soon makes known where he is by his snorts and grunts as hepuffs and blows and wades and stirs up the stream As soon as they are quite sure where to findhim one of the men takes charge of the spears while the rest bring down their raft to the spot Notone of them speaks loud or makes a noise all is still and not a sound is heard but the splash


40 The Hippopotamusand sniffs and hoarse grunts of the Hip po pot a mus They go on to the raft the man who has thespears keeps a sharp look out and as they drift round a bend of the stream they see some darkforms which at first look like round tops of rocks but as one by one they sink and rise and moveat a slow rate down the stream it may be seen that they are live things On on glides the raftwith its black crew who are now full of glee and find it hard to keep their hands still At last theraft floats to the midst of these huge black things that bob up and down all round it They are a herdof a score of Hip po pot a mi and as the edge of the raft strikes one of them the man who holds thespear stands on his toes and hurls it down with all his force at the broad back of the great beast Thesharp barb goes through hide and flesh and the Hip po pot a mus gives a plunge and goes down to thebed of the stream but it is of no use The spear will not come back through his thick tough skinand he is held fast A boat is launch ed off the raft by two men who take the rope with them to theshore where they twist it round the trunk of a tree or a bunch of tall reeds and hold on with all theirmight till they bring the beast up to the top of the stream If there is no time to do this a buoy is tiedto the end of the rope and as this floats and can be seen a long way off they know where to find theirgame Then the rest of the boats are put off from the raft and all the men give chase to the poorbrute who as soon as he comes up to breathe is pierc ed by a score of light darts Down he goesonce more as his blood makes the stream red all round him He does not stay long for he must sooncome up to breathe now he is so near his end and still the darts are hurl ed at him till he turnson his side and yields up his life


foot ft7 wIFhi i iC i r NN M i is c 1 i 4Q j60 NOWsa i MOM1 i C London i


THE RHINOCEROST HE Rhi no ce ros is next to the El e phant for his great size and vast strength There is nobeast who has less fear than he for he can stand and fight with the long sharp horn that hebears on his nose or can toss a horse in the air with his huge head or can tread a foe to death withhis big feet There are four kinds of the Rhi no ce ros two black and two white Some of the blacksort have two horns and some of the white have such a long horn that they are not like the rest Theblack ones are so fierce that they are the most fear ed by those who go out to hunt wild beasts It issaid that the hide of the Rhi no ce ros is so hard and tough that a ball from a gun will not pierce itbut this is not true it is thick but not hard while it is on the beast and does not grow hard and toughtill it is strip ped off when the wild tribes of Af ri ca make shields and breast plates of it A full sizedwhite Rhi no ce ros is six yards long and more than five yards round its eyes are small so small that inthe light of day it is hard to see that it has eyes at all for like most wild beasts it goes out at night to seekits food Cups and mugs are made of its horn which is thought to be of use to cure those thatare sick when they drink from it Like all such large brutes the Rhi no ce ros must have a great deal todrink and loves to bathe in the ponds and lakes so that once each day he goes down to some poolto drink and wade and roll in the mud It is at these pools that those who hunt him go to keep watchand that they may do this they build a wall of loose stones all round the spot where they lie in waitfor him The wall is four feet high and the space which is clos ed round is six or eight feet wide sothat a man can kneel down and just peep over the top Here he stays till all at once he hears atramp and sees two ears with tufts of hair at the ends cock ed up over the bush a few yards off thencomes a great horn and the man who has put a soft rug on the wall lest the gun should grate


42 The Rhzioceroson the stone when he pokes it over to fire looks through some chink in the wall till the great brutecomes near Then the man must crouch for fear the Rhi no ce ros should see him On he comesand when he gets up to a place where he can scent the foot steps of his foe he lifts his head in the airto smell which way he has gone that is the time to fire and a good shot sent in at the right placewill cause the poor beast to plunge and toss his horn from right to left as though he tried to feel forthe foe whom he does not see Then the man must hide and keep still for his life till the Rhi no ce rosmakes a rush and goes off at full speed He does not go far if the ball has been well plac ed but hisdeep sigh may be heard as he falls to the ground and diesThe white Rhi no ce ros is not a fierce brute it eats grass and herbs and does not turn on aman till it is forc ed to fight for its own life or that of its young calf but the black Rhi no ce ros isas bold and fierce as can be He eats grass and shrubs and young twigs and tough roots and sharpthorns and not one of these is too hard or dry for his great jaws and strong teeth This rough foodmakes his flesh less fit to eat than that of the white kind the meat of which is so good that it is likedas well as beef and the skin as well as the flesh makes a nice roast The black Rhi no ce ros fearsno other beast and will rush out of his lair at the cart of those who go to hunt him when he willgore the team throw down the great cart break the wheels and smash all he comes near with his hornShould he and the Lion meet the Lion gives way and gets as far off as he can and the huge El ephant does not like to fight him but will yield the path for the Rhi no ce ros though he is not so largeis so quick and can twist and turn so fast on his great legs that he is at most times sure to have thebest of it but when he is too rude the El e phant will not bear it and turns to fight That is astrange sight and one which may well make those who see it feel some fear A tale is told of such afight when both the beasts were kill ed for the Rhi no ce ros had plung ed his long sharp horn in thechest of the El e phant but could not get it out till the vast brute died of the wound and fell on his foewhose life was crush ed out by the weightThe best friend of the Rhi no ce ros is a small bird which may be seen day and night perchedon his broad back where it holds with its long claws and its bent tail as it feeds on the small flies and


The Rhinoceros 43ticks that are found on the great beast s hide But it does more than rid him of these small pestsIt warns him when there is a strange sound in the woods and as a bird s ears are so formed as to heara slight noise a long way off the Rhi no ce ros has time to make his way to some place where he maybe safe for as soon as his small friend knows that it is time to move he darts up in the air and squeakssuch a shrill note that it warns him at once It is said that when the Rhi no ce ros sleeps the birdis on the watch and if he hears a strange sound will peck the big brute s ears to warn him to be upand off in time One of the tales told of this bird says that a man who went out to try to kill a Rhino ce ros was led from place to place for a whole day for as soon as he had track ed his game to onespot so sure was the bird to hear him and warn his big friend to go to a new haunt Five times thiswent on and as the walk was through a soil of mud and mire the man soon grew tir ed of the chaseAt last he was in such a rage that as he knew who it was that play ed him such a trick he watch edfor the bird and when he saw him rise let fly at him with his gun and blew him all to bits Whenhis small friend was dead the Rhi no ce ros had no one to let him know what to do and he was kill edin half an hour but the man could not feel pleas ed when he had shot the bird He said I don tknow how it was but I felt a pang when I had kill ed the poor thing This does not seem at allstrange for brave men who go out to hunt wild beasts do not make war on small birds and he felta kind of love for the small thing that was so full of love and good faithOne day Mr Os well was out to hunt the El e phant and had turn ed to go home He rodeon a first rate horse and as he rode he saw a great white Rhi no ce ros a long way off Thebeast had a horn of such great length that he thought he would try to kill him so he put spurs to hishorse till he reached the spot and was close to the game Then he fir ed and the ball went throughthe thick skin but the brute did not fall and what was worse did not run off It stood stock stillwith its small eyes fixed on its foe and then stalk ed up to him at a slow pace made a rush and thrustits sharp horn right through the horse so that its point struck Mr Os well s leg on the other sideThe horse was kill ed of course but by that time Mr Os well had leap ed to the ground and thoughthe Rhi no ce ros made off it was soon slain


44 The RhinocerosMr An ders son gave a great black Rhi no ce ros a wound in the fore leg and brought the bruteto a stand but in such a way that he could not kill it till he had dogs to help him to make it turnso he left it and tried to get back to his hut by a zig zag way What was his fright to find thathe had gone down a wrong lane in the woods and that he came once more to the same spot fromwhich he set out with the fierce brute right in front of him She was still on her legs but yethe could not get a shot at her where it was of much use so he thought he would try and makeher move and took up a stone which he hurl ed at her with all his force She gave a loud snortthrew up her tail and with her head close to the ground as she rais ed clouds of dust with her hugefeet she rushed at him full of rage He had not time to raise his gun and fire when she was close onhim and as he turn ed round to fly she bore him to the ground with a shock that made gun andflask and pouch as well as his cap spin in the air and fall three or four yards off The great beastran with so much force that she plung ed her head and neck in the sand and Mr An ders son got outof the way of her hind legs much bruis ed and hurt But she had not done with him yet and hehad just got on his feet when she turn ed and knock ed him down a gain while with her horn shetore his right thigh and with her fore feet struck him a hard blow near the back of the neck Hisribs bent with the vast weight and he felt faint but when he came to he heard her snort and plunge asshe made off in the thick bush Blind with rage and pain the great beast went off and Mr Anders son crawl ed home as well as he could But he knew that she could not go far with such awound and next day he sent his man to look for her The young man had not been gone longwhen Mr An ders son was rous ed by a loud cry and when he went out he saw the Rhi no ce ros itsblack hide stain ed with blood from its wounds come on its three sound legs to the place where theman who seem ed to have gone mad with fright stood and shriek ed for help She was but six feetfrom the poor wretch when Mr An ders son got a shot at her which sent her back two more shotsbrought her to the ground but she still tried to rush at him and was but three or four feet from his gunwhen she fell dead


d Plow sa w OFX9 71Elln07


THE GIRAFFEW HAT a grand beast is the Gi raffe with its long neck fine skin stag like head and soft brighteye At one time no one here thought there could be such a thing and when they heardtales of a beast with the skin of a leopard the head of a deer the neck of a swan and the speedof a grey hound they laugh ed and thought it was no more than a tale made up to take them inIt is all true as we know by this time for the Gi raffe has been brought here for us to look at and wemay see him stand and use his long tongue to pull his food just as the E le phant will use his trunkor may stare at his vast height and think how grand a herd of Gi raffes must look as they bound atfull speed in the wild plains of Af ri ca Though he is so large that a full grown male is six yardsfrom his fore hoof to the top of his head the Gi raffe is as full of fear as a hare and will fly at thefirst sound of the foe His large soft eye can see for miles and on all sides of him and as he is sotall that he plucks the young leaves from the trees with his curl ed ton gue he can keep a sharp lookout when he is on the plain His speed is so great as to give him a good chance when he runs forhis life from the Lion or other beasts of preyThe Gi raffe does not look well when he walks but when he is at full speed he goes like clockwork His fore legs are first thrown out and his hind legs then go so far that they seem to stretch oneach side of his front hoofs while his long black tail with a tuft at the end curls over his back and swingsto and fro It might be thought that beasts of such great size would be seen a long way off and that itcould not be hard to hunt them but there is one thing in the way of those who go out to kill the Gi raffeThe tall brutes when they are a long way off look so much like the bare trunks of old trees and the


r46 The Giraffebleach ed stems and sear ed boles of the dead trees look so much like Gi raffes that it takes sharpeyes or a good glass to tell one from the o ther The flesh of this game is so much lik ed that itis sought for far and wide but the herds are so shy and so fleet that there are few of them kill edIt is said that the meat of the Gi raffe has a fine scent from the sweet plants and shrubs on which thebeast feeds and Mr Cum ming who went out to hunt them says that a herd of live Gi raffes havea choice scent like that of ho ney made by bees that feed on heathOf course it is great sport to come near a herd of these tall beasts and all that there is todo is to be quite still till it is time to fire at one of them One of the tales of this sport tells howfour or five men who went out to hunt came to a herd of more than thir ty Gi raffes which pluck ed theleaves on the high stems in a grove not far off The men crept on as near as they could when whatshould they see but a cross old Rhi no ce ros and her queer calf who stood right in their path Theysaw the small eyes of these great brutes shine and knew that they were in an ill mood so one of themen fired at the big one while the chief of the band set spurs to his horse and gave chase to theGi raffes who all sprang off at their best speed when they heard the sound of the gun and the noiseof hoofs Their great bounds soon left man and horse in the rear Twice they were hid from viewby a clump of trees through which the man on his horse went in search of them and each time hewas just too late to see more than their great long backs as they sprang up a high ridge that lay justin their way When he look ed round the man saw that while he was in chase of the herd of Gi raffesthree Rhi no ce ros es were in chase of him and toil ed on in the hope that they should come up withhim A white cloth that he wore round his cap was torn off by the branch of a tree as he pass ed byand the three great beasts rush ed at it and trod it with their huge feet In a short time theGi raffes reach ed a small stream the bed of which was of soft sand and in this their long slim legssank so deep that they could not keep up their pace so that they had not got to the o ther sidewhen man and horse were once more close to them and by the time they had reach ed the bankand climb ed its steep side were in the midst of the herd Then the man rode at the great male wholed the herd plac ed his gun close to the bright soft skin of the poor beast and fired The Gi raffe


The Graffe 47did not fall at once but still went on with slow steps till more shots were fired at him and then thehorse was brought in front of him to stop him The grand beast stood tall mute and full of graceand look ed down at his foe with his fine neck bent and tears in his dark soft eyes as he was metby a full charge from the gun Then his long limbs shook his bright sleek fur stood on end and asthe tenth ball pierc ed his broad chest he bow ed his head and fell like a tall tree to the ground Hislimbs were so strong that when he was dead they look ed as though they were made of brass and hishide was more than an inch thick the tail was five feet in lengthThe looks of the Gi raffe are so soft and her dark eyes seem to plead so hard for her life to bespar ed that those who hunt these great stag like beasts all speak of them as though they griev ed towound and to kill them but in these wild lands men hunt all the beasts of the field some of them for foodand the rest that they may not be kill ed by them in their turn It may be thought what a treat it isfor a band of men in those great woods and plains to come up with a Gi raffe when they are all inwant of food Mr Gal ton once spent five hours in chase of a Gi raffe when he and his men had nomeat He saw the fresh foot prints of the great beast in the bed of a stream and though his horsewas too thin and weak to go fast he went off in chase When he had gone a mile or so he foundthat the foot marks went straight up the stream and as there were high cliffs on each side all he hadto do was to ride on as fast as he could and try if he could not bring down the huge game that theymight fill their pots with fresh steaks He came up with her at last near a bush and fired but shewas off like the wind and got to the o ther side of the stream He still rode on and at last got pasther when he at once turn ed his horse and stood in her path She went at him at full speed but justas her head swung high up in the air he fir ed at it and caus ed her to swerve back while the bloodran from her nose She turn ed back and he feared to fire lest she should go off at such a pace as hecould not keep up so he rode on the same way at a slow pace till she came to a halt close to a hightree Then he gat off his horse that he might send a ball to the brain of the poor beast She look eddown at him with her great bright eyes and he felt as though it must be wrong to kill her but he andhis men were half starv ed and she would yield them as much meat as they could eat so when she


48 The G i raffeturn ed her head he shot her down There was a fine feast made of her flesh and they took a cart loadof large steaks and rich bones while for the meat they left be hind the men of the tribe who liv ed nearthe spot gave them eggs and sweet gum to add to their treatWhen the Lion lies in wait and a Gi raffe comes by it must be a strange sight to see the fiercebrute hang with teeth and claws to his prey which bears him with it as it tries to fly till it fallsfrom loss of blood A Gi raffe will make such a meal that three or four Lions have been knownto come out of their lairs and spring on him to pull him down What a sight it must be to seesuch a feast what growls and snarls and bare sharp teeth and sounds of bones crack ed in thosehuge jaws and of claws that tear the prey At times a whole troop of Lions will join the treatand as there is so much to eat they make a great night of it and gorge them selves on the sweet fleshwhich is as rare to them as the meat of the deer or the fawn is to usJ Ogden and Co Printers 172 St John Street E C


The Child s Picture BookOFDOMESTIC ANIMALS


THE HORSEW HEN we see a Horse we most of us think of him as a friend he is so strong and so kindand at the same time of such great use to us It is a sad thing when men are not kind tohim for he draws our loads lets us ride on his back takes us to the place to which we wish to go ina coach or a cab helps us to plough our fields works for us in mills and on roads and tugs the greatbarge that floats on the stream full of coals bricks straw hay and all sorts of goods He saves us froma great deal of work that would be too hard for us so that we should be good to him and not forcehim to toil when he is in want of rest He is a grand beast and we should treat him well He likesto find a nice fresh bunch of hay and a quart or two of oats with some chaff and some corn in thetrough when he goes home and in the warm time of the year he should be set loose in a green fieldto munch fresh sweet grass and to lie down in the shade when his day s work is done and now andthen he should have a good long rest for a few days and a clean shed to go to at night with a truss ofstraw spread out for him to lie down onIs he not a fine brute It is quite a treat to look at him with his smooth sleek coat and hisstrong firm legs as he stands and whisks his tail or neighs when he sees the man or boy who bringshim his food We must take care to brush and clean his skin if we wish it to be bright and smoothand at the right time of year we should clip the ends of the long hair and make it all trim andneat He likes to wash his feet on a warm day and you may lead him down to the pond but takecare that he does not pull you inThe dray horse is so big that you could not cross his back with your legs He draws the great


2 The Horsecasks of beer and ale from the brew house in a dray and has vast strength Next to him is the horsethat drags large vans and carts with loads of a weight that no man could bear on his back Thenthere are some not quite so large and strong who run in cabs and draw carts with light loads or runwith the coach or chaise They are not like the dray horse or the big cart horse who walks or trots ata slow pace but are swift and can run fast on the road One sort of horse is kept that we may rideon his back and if he has been well taught he will go at great speed and leap or jump so that he canclear a hedge or a ditch or a gate at one bound A fine slim swift horse is kept to race on a smoothroad which we call a race course and he is the most fleet of all for a few miles but he does not run farand is not so strong as some of the restThe she horse we call a mare and a young horse we name a foal The hair on the neck isthe mane and the feet have a hard case of horn which keeps them from the stones and saves themfrom hurt on rough roads This hard case we call the hoof and when a horse is set to run for uson the roads or to work on rough ground we take him to a smith who nails an iron shoe to each hoofthat it may not crack or wear too much This shoe we name a horse shoe and it is a sort of rim whichgoes round the edge of the hoof If the smith knows how to do his work it does not hurt the horsewhen he nails the shoe on for the hoof is so hard that it may be cut with a knife and he will not feelit but we must take care that we do not take him to a bad smith or he may have a shoe that does notfit him or is put on in such a way that it will cause him to be lameThe Horse runs wild in some parts of the world and men catch and tame him To do this theygive chase to the herd of which he is one on a swift tame horse The man who goes to catch awild horse has in his hand a long rope or strip of hide with a noose or slip knot at one end Whenhe comes up with the horse he throws the noose round his neck and rides off as hard as he can goThe slip knot holds the wild horse fast and if he will not go drags him on his knees so that at lasthe has a rope put in his mouth and can be made to go to a place where he is shut in a space with afence all roundNo one has seen a wild horse here for a long long time but there were some once in the deep


The Horse 3woods and in the wild parts of Wales and of the North Now and then we may meet with a horsewhich is fierce and will not let us go near to stroke or feed him but will kick and rear and try to biteIf we ask how this is we shall hear that he has not been well taught We may spoil a good horseif we do not use him well at first and if those who have to feed and tend him kick or strike him oruse harsh words and scold him or steal his food or do not keep him clean he will not be worth muchOur laws do not let us hurt dumb beasts and men are sent to gaol if they ill treat and kick or starvethem or drive them when they are not fit to work This is quite right for they are meant to be ourfriends and to work for us and we may use their strength and get them to help us but we do wrongto hurt them out of spite or to get in a rage and beat them if they do not work quite so much as wemay wish A horse that has been well taught does not need the whip a touch will set him off anda slight pull of the rein will stop himIn the East where men have to go for miles on vast tracts of sand the horse is the friend ofall When the tents are spread at night he sleeps just at the door and will come or go when he istold feed from the hands of those he knows and play with the boys and girls who climb on hisback or stroke his head He is as fleet as a deer and has been known to run for a whole day with but afew grains of corn or maize to eat A fine horse of that sort is worth a large sum and those who ownthem will not part with them or sell them if they can help it for he who has a good horse or whatis thought more of a swift mare knows that he can leap on its back and ride to some safe place if heis in fear of the law or can go out and fight for his chief in time of warThe tail of the horse has long hair and is not like that of the ass which has a tuft of hair atthe end the mane too is long and flows down on the neck while that of the ass is short and sticksstraight up The horse has dark or light spots or a patch here and there when he is not all of thesame hue while the ass has dark or light stripes on his skin if he has marks at all We have most ofus seen more than one horse who has been grey dark brown light brown or bay some of them havewhite or black or grey marks on the face legs or feet some have spots and some a light patch hereand there This last sort we call a pie or pie bald horse


4 The HorseThe place in which the food of the horse is kept should be quite clean as a good horse will nottouch food that is foul with dirt or has been strewn on the ground When he is brought home froma long run he should be made to walk up and down for a time to get cool and if he is wet the groomshould rub him dry Then he may have some drink and a feed of corn and be left to rest on hisbed of clean dry straw The horse can stand and rest and there are some which do not lie down to goto sleep but stand all night in the stall but we should not tie them up as they may get the roperound their necks so that if they fall they may choke A horse should be loose in the box or stallwhere he is to rest and if he is fierce and tries to bite the horse next him he should be put in aplace where there is a high wall of wood or brick to part themWhen we drive a horse we guide him by a bit A bit is a short bar of steel the ends of whichjoin the ends of the reins so that when the bit is put in his mouth we can pull it on the right or the leftside and turn his head which way we please Bits were once made in such a way that they hurt themouth or the tongue of the horse but all those who know how to treat him have found out that hegoes best with a plain bar of steel or a chain which we call a curb and is loose in his mouthThe flesh of the horse is not of much use for food though there are some folks who thinkit would be as good as beef It is not bad meat but is too lean and would cost too much tobe sold to the poor A horse is too dear to buy that we may roast or boil his flesh for food and theold nags who had done work would be so tough that we should not like a joint from them in the place ofa haunch from a sheep or the prime ribs of an ox The horse when he dies or when we have to kill himthrough a fall or some hurt for which there is no cure is bought by men who boil the flesh as food for dogsand cats Most of the dogs meat as well as the cats meat which is sold is the flesh of the horseGlue and size are made of the hide or skin and hoofs men boil the bones that the fat from themmay be of use to make soap and the short hair is put with the lime which we use for white walls thatit may bind the parts of the lime or chalk and make them stick fast The long hair of the mane andtail serves to stuff chairs stools and beds Watch guards may be made of it or it is wrought in aloom where men weave what they call hair cloth


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COW AND CALFW HAT should we do if we had no cows Of course if there were no cows there would beno calves for the calf is the young of the cow and if there were no calves there would be noveal The flesh of the calf when it is sold as meat we call veal from the French word veau whichmeans a calf The French call the flesh of the beast by the same name as the beast so that veaumeans both calf and veal bceuf means both ox and beef Do you know how it is that we call themeat by the same name as the French You know at one time the French from the North of Francecame and took this land and those who had to serve them made use of their words so that the poorfolks who had to take care of the herds and the flocks and knew them by the names of ox and cowcalf and sheep had to learn the French names when they took up the meat to the lords and knightsfor their great feasts So the flesh of the ox or the cow came to be known as beef and the fleshof the calf as veal and we still call it by these namesBut all the time we talk about this you have not said what we should do if we had no cowsOf course we could not drink milk and there would be no cheese or if we had cheese at all it wouldbe made from goat s milk and that is not half so nice We should have to eat dry bread if we couldnot get jam and then what should we do to make pie crusts or how should we find out the way toget cream or curds and whey These are but a few of the things that we owe to the cow and whenwe see her in the field where she chews the fresh sweet herbs or meet her in the farm yard where thescent of her pure breath is like that of new milk we should think of what great use she is to us andnot strike or drive her She turns her great head and looks at us with her big soft eyes as we go by


6 Cow and Cafand she may show that she sees us by a low deep cry but she ought to know by this time that we donot wish to hurt her When the cow cries out we say that she lows when the calf or the sheepor the lamb cries we say that it bleatsCows are to be found in farms in all parts of the world and we have the best in our own landwhere we treat them with more care and feed them well There are black and brown or dun and whitecows as well as some that have a spot or a patch here and there Cows that come from the south arequite of a red hue and they are called red cows They are of all sorts some of them of great sizeand some quite small but they are all good and the small ones yield some of the best milk Thereare cows with long horns and cows with short horns and most of the small cows have long hornsThe Welsh cow is a good one for milk though it is not large and some of the black Scotch cowsare fine beastsThose who keep cows should let them go out in the fresh air as much as they can and have agood shed built for them to go to when there is rain Cows will eat dried grass or hay and somesorts of roots and they seem to munch all day long when they are in the fields Do you know howit is that they do so If not I will tell you The cow chews the cud that is she chews her foodtwice The first time she eats it up at once and it goes down her throat to the pouch where it staystill she has had a good meal then she stands or lies quite still and the food is brought back to themouth that she may munch it and grind it with her teeth till it is fit to go down the throat oncemore The cow has more than one pouch for food She has four and as she eats grass and herbsas well as roots and hay it takes some time for her to munch and chew these things and to makethem soft that they may keep her strong and in good healthThe flesh of the young cow is good but we do not eat much of it here for cows are of so muchuse to give us milk to drink and cream of which we make our cheese that we do not like to killthem for food till they have grown old Most of the beef that we eat is the flesh of the ox or bulland there are some sorts which are fed with great care that they may be fit to eat The ox is usedto draw the plough in the fields and in some parts of the world he is put to drag huge carts and


Cow and Calf 7loads of wood for his strength is great and he can pull vast weights such as trunks of trees bales ofgoods and big casks full of wine in those lands where the vines grow on the hills and the wine ismade a long way off from the place where it is to be put on board the ships that bring it here forus to drink Some of these beasts that live in the wild parts of the world look fierce and haverough hides and long horns but they are not so fierce as they look When they are at work alarge thick beam of wood is put on the tips of their horns that they may not fight or be hurt andsix or eight of them are set to drag a great cartThere are wild bulls and cows in some parts of the world and they go in herds and roam thevast plains where men go out to hunt and kill them for food Most of the wild bulls have humps ontheir backs and a long rough mane on their necks They are so fierce and strong that one of themcan knock down man and horse with his great head and gore a horse to death with his long hornsSome of this kind have been kept till they grew more tame and have had calves which grew upquite tame so that there are now cows with humps on their backs and not much like the cows we seehere There are no wild bulls or cows to be seen in our own land though some of the black sort whichlive in the Scotch hills are fierce and would try to toss you with their horns if you went near them Theylive a wild life and see no one but the man who takes care of them and they are let to roam a longway on the hills where they eat grass and herbs in the warm time of the year They are not like thegreat fat beasts that live in the low lands on the rich flat fields and see men round them and will taketheir food from those who call them home or from the maids who go out to milk the cows A cow andcalf will trot up to the man who takes them some nice food and when they learn to know him willstand and low or bleat if they see him in the fieldWhen the milk maid goes to call a cow it will let her go near and draw the milk from its teatsWhen she has drawn her pail full she takes it back to the farm house where it is set to cool Thecream floats on the top of the milk and she has to skim it off that it may be put in the churn Thechurn is a sort of tub in which we shake the cream till part of it grows quite thick so that when wetake it out and wash it we may make rolls or pats of it and eat it on our bread You know what


8 Cow and Calfwe call it then But this is not all that can be done with the cream We can make cheese of it andthis is done when we turn it sour so that the hard part which we call the curd may be brought outin lumps This curd is set to drain so that the whey runs from it and then we salt it put it in around hoop or a box and squeeze it in a press till it is of the right shape Then if the creamhas been good and we have done our work well it comes out a nice rich cheese and a small slice ofit on a large slice of bread with a ripe pear or a bunch of dried grapes makes a good lunch when youare out for a long walkThe bones the horns and the skin of the cow are all of great use We boil the fat and greasefrom the bones and then crush them and place them on the land to make it rich Of the horns allsorts of things are made such as combs the hafts of knives spoons shoe lifts and cups Of theskin or hide we make boots and shoes To do this we have to scrape off the hair and place thehide in a pit where we have put the bark of trees to steep and soak This bark makes the hidetough so that when we take it out and dress it or rub it till it is smooth and soft it will be strongand we can shape it and sew it The soles of shoes or boots are made of the thick parts of thehide or of two or three strips which we join in one piece The skin of the calf makes those niceboots that are worn in doors and are so smooth and soft to the feet


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THE SHEEPWHEN we walk in the fields in the spring time of the year we see the sheep with their youngand like to stand and watch them as they crop the soft fresh grass or skip and play andrun here and there or look at us and bleat as though they could not tell what we had to dowith themThe young of the sheep we call lambs and they look so nice and soft in their fine white fleecethat it is quite a treat to see them as they trot by the side of the ewe Of course you have been told thatthe wool of the sheep is known as the fleece and that when it grows so thick that the beast finds it toohot for the warm time of year it is cut off with shears Have you seen the men who take care of theflocks shear the sheep They catch them one by one and turn them on their backs and then with apair of large sharp shears cut off the long thick wool Then they let them go and off they run to jumpand frisk quite glad to get rid of their load But we must take great care not to shear the sheep or thelambs if the days and nights are cold and when first we take off the long wool there should be a niceshed or sheep cot for them to sleep in at night or they will miss their fine warm coats Do you knowwhat we do with the wool It is all made clean and drawn out with a sort of comb then we send it tothe dye house where it is made black or blue or brown or of the tint we want for our use Next it isspun till it forms long threads and then it is wound on to reels and spread out in a kind of web Atlast we send it to the loom in which men weave it and make cloth of it and of cloth we make allsorts of clothes So you see we should not get on so well if we had not the sheep and when we takethe nice warm coats that they do not want we make of them nice clothes that we all want so much


10 The SkeepTry to think of this if you take up a stone to throw at a sheep and you will not throw the stonebut will feel how all these beasts are for our use and are sent to help us with the food and the clothesthat we need and to do some of the work that we should find it hard to do if they were not sostrong and yet so tame that when we are kind to them they will come at our call and learn to knowthe voice of those that treat them well It is a great sin to hurt or beat a dumb brute when we do itfrom spite or ill will for they were made not by us but by God who sends them that they may be ofuse to us and that we may be kind to them and take care of them and give them food and tendthem when they need our helpThose who take care of flocks learn to know each sheep that is in their charge You knowwhat we call the man who goes out to watch and herd the sheep and lambs He is the sheepherd but we make one word of those two words and name him the shep herd To herd meansto bring them to one place and he has a dog to help him to do this When the sheep feed onhigh hills or on land a long way from the farm the dog has a great deal of work to do Ifthe sheep stray too far he runs in search of them and leaps and barks at them till they turn backand if one sheep goes off from the rest and is lost the dog goes to seek it and looks for it tillhe finds it and then the shep herd takes it home or the dog barks and bites its ear and runs at it tillhe makes it go backIn the cold long nights a sheep may get out of the fold and be lost in the snow The fold isa place with a fence all round where the sheep are fed when there is no grass for them to eat in thefields or on the heath or the hill side and if a sheep should break through the fence or leap outfrom the place where it is with the rest of the flock it may be lost in the snow or fall down a deepplace in the side of the hill or lose its way on the great wide moors where the dark night comes on sofast Then the shep herd will miss it and will call his dog and take his crook with him and goin search of it The crook is a long stick with a large hook at the end with which the shep herdguides the sheep or takes hold of one of them by the leg if he wants to catch it When he goes to lookfor the lost sheep he first sends on the dog who sniffs and barks and runs here and there till he has


The Sheepf ifound the track or the marks that the sheep s feet have left on the ground or in the snow and thenthey go on till they come to the place where they find the poor thing who does not know whichway to turn to get home Then if it is lame or has gone so far that it is too weak to walk theshep herd takes it on his back the dog trots by his side and off they go to get to the farm In thetime of the year when the flocks are out to feed in the fields a lamb may stray from the rest and belost on the moors or get in a cleft or a hole of the rocks and then off starts the shep herd to lookfor it and when he finds it he bears it in his arms and takes it back to the place where it will besafeIn some parts of the world the shep herds sit for days to watch their flocks and as they sitthey read or knit or carve things out of wood some of them make those toys that are cut out ofwood which some of you like to play with some learn to play on the flute and in one place wherethe land is flat and the sheep can stray a long way off those who watch them walk on stilts Stiltsare poles which they tie to their legs so that they are high up from the ground and can see a long wayoff It is strange to see these men when they want to rest for they just sit on a flat board on the endof their crook and so seem to perch on the top of three long sticks In that way they sit and knitsocks and night caps and all sorts of things and look out for their sheep which have strayed a mileor two in search of sweet grass and herbs When they wish to go to them they can soon catchthem on the long stilts on which they walk for they can take such strides that you would have to runfast to keep up with themSome young folks wish to keep a pet lamb and teach it to run with them like a dog and lambsare nice white plump play mates if they are kept clean but the worst of it is that they grow up to besheep and then they are not nice things to go up and down in the house Lambs are not meant tobe kept in doors like cats and dogs and will not thrive in that way so that they are not the best petsThey are best in a field on a warm June day or in a nice cot or sheep fold where they can have freshfood and free air and yet be kept out of the cold winds If you are out on a day when the windblows and see a flock of sheep in a field where there is a hill or a chalk pit or some place in which


12 The Sheepthey can crouch out of the way you will find that they go at once to the side of the hill or the pitwhere they do not feel the blastThe Scotch sheep is small and has a black face and is one of the best for food The Welshtoo is a good sheep but is quite small Those that we call South Downs take their name fromthe place where they feed on the wide downs or fields that lie on the top of the cliffs near the seaThen there are sheep with short thick wool and some with long wool some with straight wool andsome with wool that is in curls some with short and some with long tails and one sort whichyou may not have heard of which has such a long tail that the folks that live where it is foundmake a small cart and tie the sheep to it that the tail may not drag on the ground which would spoilthe fine fleeceIn all parts of the world the sheep is of such great use that we do not know what would bedone if we had not its flesh for food and its wool of which to make our clothes The skins and thefat of sheep are sent here from all parts of the world and of the skins when the wool is cut off wemake gloves shoes the seats of chairs and all kinds of goodsIf


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THE GOATOATS are not much like most of the sheep that we see in our fields though they are the samekind of beasts The sheep that run wild in the hills or on the moors are more like goatsbut they have short small horns or horns that curl round on each side of the head The kind ofsheep which has these horns we call a ram The goat has long bent horns and a long tuft of hairhangs from his chin Some kinds of goats are like stags or deer in shape but their horns do notbranch out like those of the stagThere are few tame goats for they like to run in high lands and where there are rocks andsteep hills on which they can feed from the sweet herbs and grass and the tops and buds of shrubsIn those parts of the world where there are no sheep herds of goats are kept and their flesh is of greatuse for food They are so fleet and sure of foot that they leap and bound from crag to crag of the rocksand can stand or run on heights where few men could climb or can cross wide chasms with ease wherethose who try to catch them dare not go Some of the goats are quite wild no one owns them andthey live in the hills and vales of the Alps Men go out to hunt the wild goat and spend days inthe vast chain of high rocks and hills that rise from the deep vales From the dawn of day to thedusk of night they watch for the goats from the lone heights or the deep caves of the hills and have noone to speak to Each man takes his gun slung to his back by a strap a large bag or pouch full offood a large flask of wine and a long staff with a spike in the end to help him to climb the steep cragsor to go down the bare rocks His food is coarse bread made of rye and some cheese made ofgoats milk with a small piece of ham or goats flesh He can drink from some clear stream or melt


14 The Goatsome snow and mix it with the wine in his flask He has big nails and spikes in his shoes that hemay have some foot hold on the ice or smooth snow or the short grass on the slopes of the hills Hetakes his place on some spot where he can watch the steep paths by which he thinks the goats willgo to feed but he must take care to stand so that the wind does not blow past him to that placefor if it does the goats will smell him a long way off Their scent is so keen and their ears so sharpthat in those heights where the air is clear and sounds may be heard a long way off they will knowthat he is there and keep far out of the range of his gun He must keep still and wait and watch forhours and at last he may see a goat bound up to a high peak of rock and look all round and sniffthe air to find out if all is safe Then he must be as still as a mouse and more goats will come up andwill join the first When they turn to go past the place to which he points his gun he picks out thebest of them and fires If he has made a good aim the goat which is struck will give one bound andfall where it stood but if not it may spring from place to place or fall down to a great depthwhere it will take a long time for him to find it in some part of the rocks He will be sure tohave to go a long way to get his game when he has shot it and then he has to take it home onhis back The flesh is for food the skin and horns he sells for what they are worth but his lifeis a hard one though he gains health and strength in the pure air where he toils from day to dayThose who go out to hunt these goats are strong tall men who have not much to say They havenone to talk to when they are in the vast heights so that they do not say much when they are athome They do not look like the men who live as we do but seem as though they could see and hearthings a long way off They are grave men for when they are out on the lone hills with the vast skyto look up to and miles and miles of peaks and great piles of rocks white with snow or dark with theleaves of pine trees and deep green heath they hear the roar of great streams as they dash from cragto crag or the crash of huge stones and trees torn up by the roots as some mass of ice slides from theheights and bears down all that comes in its wayDay by day the men who go out to hunt the goat see these grand sights and know that when theyclimb the peaks or cross some steep place a false step would cause them to fall down and down


The Goat 15and down where they would dash from crag to crag to lie dead at last at the foot of the rocks insome place where they might not be found or to freeze in a drift of snow in a hole or cave Thereare so few of these wild goats of the Alps now that it is not worth while for men to run such risksto shoot them They can earn more by work at a trade or by a farm where they may keep tamegoats and sheep or grow grain and make cheese to sell at the next town On the steep paths ofthe Alps there may be seen here and there a post on which a cross has been cut with a few wordsto say that near that spot some one fell down the steep side of the rock and was found dead butwe may hope that these will soon be few for the wild goats are less sought for and folks now keepherds of gows and calves which feed on the high fields where they find grass and in the cold timeof the year live on the stalks of maize and the dried grass and hay from such of the fields as havebeen mownThe goat is still of great use both in those high lands and in the East for its flesh is good forfood though it is lean and the old goats are tough The young goat we call a kid and those who tryit like it so much that they think more of it than they do of the flesh of the sheep Goats fleshwhen it has been hung up to dry or has been put with salt serves for meat for a great part of theyear in those parts of the world where there are few sheepSome goats have such great horns that they bend half way down their backs These horns areof great use to make the hafts of knives and forks Of the hair of the goat all sorts of cloth is madeand those fine shawls which are brought from the East and cost so much are made of the soft woolthat grows with the long hair There is such a large trade in these shawls that in the part of the worldfrom which they are brought all the folks are kept hard at work to weave them in their looms or sewthe small squares which are made one at a time At the time when men wore wigs the whitegoats hair was sold for a good price and the best wigs were made of the soft hair that grew on the haunchof the goat A fine goat s skin was then worth a pound while a bad one would be sold for half a crownThe wig of the judge as well as that worn by those who plead in our courts of law is still made ofthe hair of the goat Fromnthe skin gloves and the seats of chairs are made and the skin of the kid


16 The Goalmakes a fine sort of gloves which are known as kid gloves for it will take a dye so well that glovesof this kind may be had black brown blue green drab or pink while some of them are made ofskins which we bleach till they are quite whiteA fine sort of thin cloth for frocks and shawls is made from the soft hair of a sort of goat whichhas a long tail and horns that twist round like a cork screw The horns of all goats are full of dentsthat go round them and mark them in rings so that they are not like the horns of the ox or the cowwhich are smooth nor like those of the deer which spread out in small leaves or shoots on bothsidesThe milk of the goat is good and is thought to be nice drink for young folks who are not quitestrong We have most of us seen a she goat and her kid when we have been out of town and atthe sea side the male as well as the she goat is made to draw a chaise in which boys and girls canride This does not hurt the goats if they have not too great a weight to pull but they should bewell fed and must not be struck too hard with the whip or stick They may soon be taught to go ata good speed and are so tame that they will come to your call and eat from your hand if you treatthem well but when once they are in a rage they will run at you head first and may hurt you withtheir hornsI


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THE DONKEYY OU know what a don key is and that when we call him by his right name he is no more thanan ass When we look at the poor don key who draws a cart in the streets or pulls an oldchaise or lets us ride on his back and has not too much to eat but has a great deal more of the stickthan he likes we do not think what a fine beast the ass is in those lands where he was first born andbred and where those who own him use him well and do not beat and starve himIn times long past kings and great men when they went out in state rode on the back of an assand in our own land a don key was once worth as much as a fine horse Those that we now see inthe streets are not much more than half the size of the ass which is to be found in the East Whenyou next see a don key just look at him and you will see that he was first meant to live in a dryrough place where there are steep hills and not much fresh grass His hoofs are not like those ofthe horse but are long and the sole is not flat but is like a cup while the rim or edge of thehoof is sharp so that he can tread on loose ground or stand on slopes where a horse would slipdown Then his neck is low and his hind part high so that he can bear a weight far back on hiships where it would not make it so hard for him to go up or down hill If you look at his hide withits dry coarse hair you will see that it is quite the kind of skin for a hot place where there is agood deal of sand and though he is fed here on hay and oats with some grass now and then thefood he seems to like best is the sort of dry coarse herbs and grass that may be found in the Eastwhence he first came He is not fond of a bath but likes to lie down in the sand or the dust andthere rub his hard hide on the ground He does not drink much but just takes a small drop from the


18 The Donkeypail as though he did not wish for more than will just make his food moist Though he does not careto wash he is a clean beast and a hard brush or a wisp of straw will keep his skin smooth and neatfor it is so hard and the hair is so dry that dirt does not cling to it fleas and flies find it too toughto bite and as men use him so ill and beat him so much it is a good thing for him that his hideis not so soft as that of the horseWhy is it that some of us when we speak of the ass call him a dull brute and think that hehas not much sense It is true that he will bear hard blows and hear us scold him and yet notkick those who use him ill but that shows that he is not so bad as we are when we try to givetit for tat and strike those who strike us Dull boys and girls will be rude to those who are rude tothem or will give a pinch for a slap but the poor don key who draws us in a chaise takes hard knocksand goes on his way as well as he can It is a great shame of us if we use him ill when he worksso hard to please us and if we are but kind to him he will let us mount on his back or will comeand rub his soft smooth nose on our hands or eat a bit of bread or a cake as though he would liketo thank us for our careIf he is kept clean and has good food and a nice place to rest in when his work is done and issent to kick up his heels in a field now and then he will soon look quite spruce and nice his slim legswill be as straight as those of a horse his skin will grow more sleek and his long ears will twitch asthough he meant to tell us he was not hard to please His voice is not so good as that of the horseand when he breaks out all at once in a harsh Hee haw we feel as though we must stop our earsfrom the noise but we should not think ill of him for his loud voice for there are some who makequite as much noise as he does when they scream to have their own way or shout to let us know whatgreat folks they areIn some small fields the ass is made to work with the horse in the plough and in all sorts ofways he is of great use to us The men who go from place to place to sell fish or fruit and roots have adon key to drag their carts The men who go through the small towns to mend pots and put new canesto the seats of chairs or to sell brooms and clothes props and lines and pegs have an ass to bear their


The Donkey 19goods At the sea side there is sure to be more than one chaise drawn by a don key and when boysand girls are too young to sit on his back the don key will take them for a nice ride slung one at eachside in a chair like the seat of a swingWhen we are ill the milk of the she ass is good for us to drink and when we grow strongwe can have a fine trot on the downs or in the green lanes We call a young horse a foal andwe give the same name to a young don key The don key foal is a queer thing it has such longlegs and such a loose skin that it looks as though it had been tied up in a bag but it soon growsplump and its legs come to be of a good shape when it is a few weeks oldWhere men have learnt to use the ass well he grows large and strong and the wild ass which isfound in some parts of the world is a tall swift beast with a fine grey skin a dark brown stripe downthe back and a small stripe of the same hue from side to side of the neck You may see some ofour own don keys with the same sort of stripe if you take the pains to lookWe do not eat the flesh of the ass but in Rome the wild ass was sold for food and its flesh wasthought to be as good as that of the deer The fat ones were sold at a high price though the leanones must have been tough and none of us would like to see a leg of don key sent up when we satdown to dine and thought we were to have a plate of beef It would be a good thing if we thoughtmore of the ass and did not laugh at him quite so much for then those who were too poor to keep ahorse might buy a don key and could drive him in a chaise or teach the young folks to ride on hisback It costs but a small sum to buy a nice pair of don keys and they may soon be taught to run in alight low car and to go at a good pace for a few miles The ass does not eat much is strong andhas good health if he is well kept He will live a long time too though all don keys do not live solong as one that was to be seen in the Isle of Wight a few years since He had been set to work whenhe was quite young to draw up the tub that was at the end of a chain in a deep well The chainor rope was tied to a wheel and all day long he turned this wheel to draw up the tub when it was fulland let it down to fill again The folks there said that he was four score and ten years old and someof them made him out to be five score Can you tell how much that is A score is twice ten


20 The Donkeyand five score is ten times ten and so you ought to know or if you do not know you should makehaste to learn for fear some one should call you a don key and so speak in a rude way of a goodbeast who learns as much as we can teach himWe spoke just now of the loud noise made by the don key when he brays and there is an oldtale told of an ass who got in a sad scrape through that queer voice of his He was in the woods whenhe came to a place where there was a dead lion As the lion was the king of beasts the poor ass thoughtthat it would be a fine thing to dress up in the lion s skin so that the fox and the bear and thewolf and the rest of the fierce strong brutes might take him for a lion and bow down to him andtreat him as their king At last he made up his mind to try it and though he had hard work toget the skin off and then to get it on he found it fit as well as most clothes that are not made forthe folks who wear them and thought he would look as much like a lion as he could When he gotback to the place where the don keys stood they saw him a good way off and ran as fast as they couldfor fear Oh said he I am more like a lion than an ass and I dare say I shall make quite a goodlion in time when I learn to wear this fine skin I will now go to the bear the fox the wolf and allthe rest of them and see what they think of me Off he went and when he came near that part ofthe wood where these beasts were they saw the great mane and the claws and the long tail and benttheir heads for they thought the lion had come to see them This made the poor ass so vain thathe said All I have to do is to roar and then I shall be king of the beasts So he set up his voiceand gave such a loud Hee haw that all the fierce brutes knew him at once and were in such arage that they sprang at him and slew him on the spotOf course this tale is not true and the don key is not such an ass as to do such a thing as weara lion s skin but it was told to show us that we should not try to pass for great folks and that thosewho are so vain that they think they are fit to rule are sure to be found out when once they try to talk


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PET DOGSM OST boys and girls like to keep a pet dog and of all beasts the dog is most the friend ofman He seems to learn what you mean and to know your looks and the sound of yourvoice in such a short time and shows such a wish to please you and to go with you when you walkout or to be near you when you are at home that you feel he is a sort of dumb friend who loves youand that you should love him and be kind to him though at the same time you should try to teachhim that he must not bite or steal or jump on the best chairs or make too much noise in the houseor growl at your friends or show his teeth and snap if some one whom he does not know pats himon the backPet dogs are of a small kind and can be taught all sorts of tricks as well as some things whichare of use but they are not of so much use to man as the large dogs which help to take care ofsheep or guard farm yards and keep watch in stores where goods are kept But small dogs will guarda house too for they will bark and make a great noise if they hear a strange sound at night andthieves find it hard to rob a house where a sharp pet dog is kept All small dogs will not learn to dothe same things for some are not so quick and seem to have less sense but most of them may betaught to run for a ball and bring it back to stand up on their hind feet and beg for a bit of sweetmeat or a piece of cake or a scrap of meat and there are few dogs that if you leave them out ofsight will not find by the scent which road you have gone for all but one or two kinds of dogs havesuch a keen sense of smell that by the scent they can trace the steps of those of whom they are insearch


22 Pet DogsThere are all kinds of dogs and this is one thing in which the dog is not like most of the beastsknown to us Of them there are but three or four kinds but of the dog there are more than twelvekinds and not one of them like the rest There are all sorts of small pet dogs some of them withlong fine hair like silk some with short stiff hair some with close fur like wool with straight hair andwith curls some with long and some with short ears with long and short legs with long and shortnoses there are all shades of brown grey and drab dogs white and black dogs dogs with spotsor with a patch here and there in their skins and all of them are pets They will make friendswith cats and birds if they are in the same house and are taught that they must not chase or bitethem and when a dog is well bred and we take some pains to teach him he will learn to do whathe is told to lie down or leave the room or go from the fire or to leap through a hoop bark fora piece of food catch a ball in his mouth and such tricks as make great fun It is not right to keephim too long at such games and we should not give him too much cake or rich sweet food A fewscraps of plain meat with fresh drink some stale bread with milk now and then is the best food for quitesmall dogs Those that are not so small may have a good piece of meat once a day with a bitof bread or a bone now and then All dogs should have a bowl from which they can drink as attimes they feel a great deal of thirst but they grow ill if they have too much food They should goout for a run once or twice a day or they will get cross and lose their health and may snap and snarlif they do not feel well It is a bad plan to feed pet dogs while you have your own meals for theywill be quite rude to those who come to see you and will jump up or whine and make such a fussthat they will not let you talk or be still while they are in the room Let them have their food insome out house where they may take it as they please and where they can find drinkWhen dogs are too small to jump in a stream or to be sent to a pond to swim we shouldwash them once or twice a week and rub them with a small piece of soap then dry them with acloth let them lie near the fire and comb their coats with a wide comb On warm days when theyhave had a wash they may be sent to roll in the grass to dry Such small pet dogs as these arenot so nice as those of the large kind for they are weak and will not learn much and are not of


Pet Dogs 23much use The dog with long ears and fine hair like silk and a short nose we call a spa m eland then there are dogs which we name ter ri ers some of them like balls of rough hair which hidesthem from nose to tail some sleek and with short ears sharp eyes and a quick short bark These aremost of them good dogs and will kill rats or bark if they hear the step of a strange foot near thehouse at nightThe pet dog that most folks like is the one that you see in this book We call him the Po mera ni an for he first came from Po me ra ni a He is a rare play mate and has such a fine coat suchbright quick eyes and such a grand tail that we all like him He is to be seen with all white hair orwhite and brown or dark marks on the neck face legs or paws He is quick to learn likes to beclean and is a friend to those who treat him well but he will bark and snap at those who are notkind to himThere is a large pet dog which is sent here from France who is a strange fright He has whitehair all in small curls and the French folks shave off the hair on his back and the top parts of thelegs and leave it on the neck and the end of the tail and round the legs near the paws so that helooks a queer beast He is such a good dog to learn that he can be taught to do all sorts of thingsby those who take the pains and men go with dogs of that sort from town to town to show their tricksSome of them wear red coats and round caps and stand up with a small sword or a gun march ontheir hind feet bark when they are told to sing lie down as though they were dead pick out a cardfrom the pack leap through a hoop or the rails of a chair smoke a pipe take a coin and go to buy theirmeat at the shop make a bow sit in a chair beat a drum and make great funAt the time of the great war there was a man in the chief town in France who went out toclean boots and shoes He had a stand in the street where those who had dust or dirt on their shoeswent and put their foot on a step while he took off the dirt with his brush and made their shoes shinelike glass One day a man who had been to have his boots made clean went down the street whichled to a bridge and when he got near the foot of the bridge a great white dog of the sort whichwe spoke of just now came and ran at his legs and tried to crouch at his feet What was to be


24 Pet Dogsdone The dog was in a mess with wet mud and some of it went on to the nice bright boots thathad just been made to shine The man went back to the stand that he might have them madeclean once more The next day he went to the same stand and as soon as he had gone as far backas the foot of the bridge the same dog all mud and dirt came and ran on his bright shoes and thenwent off This was so strange that he thought he would stay and watch what the dog did and hefound that as soon as the brute saw some one come through the street with clean shoes he went downthe steps of the bridge to the shore of the stream where he had a good roll in the mud and thencame up to smear the shoes with his wet coat so that those who wore them had to go back to theman and pay him to clean them When this was found out the shoe black was made to own thatthe dog was his and that he had taught it this trick that he might have more shoes to clean and bepaid twice for his work The man who found it out gave a large price for the dog and brought himhome with him He was here for some time tied up in a yard but at last he was set free and it issaid that in a month from that time he was seen once more in France near the bridge where the shoeblack still had his stand and still was paid to brush shoes while the dog had gone back to play hisold trick and to smear the clean shoes with mud and slime


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BIG DOGST HERE are all kinds of big dogs as well as pet dogs and though we may make a pet of a big doghe is too large to hold on our laps or to be all day in a room with us He is a grand playmate but he is not so much of a toy as the Po me ra ni an the Ter ri er or the small Span iel Theseare all hard words but you should learn to spell long words as well as short ones Some of our bigdogs are kept that they may help to hunt game Do you know what game is Deer stags haresand some kinds of wild birds which we use for food we call game and those who go out to huntor shoot take dogs with them to find game in the woods and fieldsIn lands where there are wild boars and wild bears great strong swift dogs go out to start themfrom their lairs or dens for the dog seems to have no fear of a beast twice as large as he is and a good dogwill face a lion or a ti ger and fight with it There are dogs too which hunt the fox the stoat the wolfand such fierce beasts as kill sheep and lambs or rob the hen roosts and eat the fowls Most of thesedogs we name hounds Then there are dogs that go out to find birds that we may shoot themand when they get to a place where there are birds they will stop till the man with the gun comes upThey are taught to do this and go by the name of Point ers for they point to the game and a gooddog of this sort will not stir till the birds rise from the long grass where they lie The Point er the Set terand the Re triev er all help to find birds for those who go out to shoot The last two have fine hair whichwill grow in thick short curls if they are kept clean and well fed They are so quick that they may betaught all sorts of tricks Some of them will go back for a mile and find a stick or a glove thathas been left in a room or on a hedge or in the midst of a field They are kind to those who


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