• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Abstract
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Experimental results
 Discussion
 Application to practice
 Summary
 Bibliography






Group Title: Technical bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 219
Title: Growth behavior and maintenance of organic foods in bahia grass
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026559/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growth behavior and maintenance of organic foods in bahia grass
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 56 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Leukel, W. A ( Walter Anthony )
Coleman, J. M ( John Melton )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1930
 Subjects
Subject: Grasses -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Grasses -- Composition   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 55-56.
Statement of Responsibility: by W.A. Leukel and J.M. Coleman.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026559
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000923527
oclc - 18175878
notis - AEN4078

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Abstract
        Page 5
    Introduction
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Materials and methods
        Page 9
        Preparation of material
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Methods of analysis
            Page 12
            Carbohydrates
                Page 12
                Page 13
            Nitrogen
                Page 14
    Experimental results
        Page 15
        Growth Behavior
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
        Top growth
            Page 21
        Yield
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Composition
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Growth and composition of stolons
            Page 28
            Variation in weight
                Page 28
            Composition
                Page 29
        Growth and composition of roots
            Page 30
        Variation in weight
            Page 30
            Composition
                Page 31
                Page 32
                Page 33
                Page 34
                Page 35
                Page 36
                Page 37
                Page 38
                Page 39
                Page 40
        Relation of organic foods to the growth behavior of the plants
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
    Discussion
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
    Application to practice
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Summary
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Bibliography
        Page 55
        Page 56
Full Text



August, 1930


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Wilmon Newell, Director







GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND

MAINTENANCE OF ORGANIC

FOODS IN BAHIA GRASS
By
W. A. LEUKEL and J. M. COLEMAN


TECHNICAL BULLETIN







Bulletins will be sent free upon application to
the Agricultural Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 219









BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg
W. B. DAVIS, Perry


RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary**
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Director K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor RACHEL McQUARRIE, Accountant
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Asst. Editor

MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M.S., Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph.D., Associate
G. E. RITCHEY, M.S.A., Assistant*
FRED H. HULL, M.S., Assistant
J. D. WARNER, M.S., Assistant
JOHN P. CAMP, M.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian in
Charge
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Husbandry
W. M. NEAL, Ph.D., Assistant in Animal
Nutrition
C. R. DAWSON, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Investigations
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph.D., Associate
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant
J. B. HESTER, M.S., Assistant
H. W. WINSOR, B.S.A., Assistant
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
W. A. CARVER, Ph.D., Assistant
E. F. GROSSMAN, M.A., Assistant*
PAUL W. CALHOUN, B.S., Assistant
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Assistant


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
'BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. BROOKER, M.S.A., Assistant
JOHN L. WANN, B.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph.D., Head
L. W. GADDUM, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. AHMANN, Ph.D., Physiologist

ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M.S., Assistant
H. E. BRATLEY, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. ZIEGLER, B.S., Assistant

HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Horticulturist
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Assistant
HAROLD MOWRY, B.S.A., Assistant'
A. L. STAHL, Ph.D., Assistant
G. H. BLACKMON, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph.D., Associate
A. H. EDDINS, Ph.D., Assistant
K. W. LOUCKS, M.S., Assistant
ERDMAN WEST, B.S., Mycologist


BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
L. 0. GRATZ, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist in charge, Tobacco Exp. Sta. (Quincy)
R. R. KINCAID, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)**
B. R. FUDGE, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred)
W. L. THOMPSON, B.S., Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in charge Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. N. LOBDELL, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Belle Glade)
F. D. STEVENS, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist (Belle Glade)
H. H. WEDGWORTH, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
FRED YOUNT, Office Assistant (Belle Glade)
E. R. PURVIS, M.S., Assistant Chemist (Belle Glade)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
C. M. TUCKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
L. R. TOY, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
R. E. NOLEN, M.S.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Monticello)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)**
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian (West Palm Beach)
M. N. WALKER. Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
W. B. SHIPPY, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
C. C. GOFF, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Leesburg)
J. W. WILSON, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist (Pierson)
*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.
**On leave of absence.























CONTENTS
PAGE

ABSTRACT ...................................... .......... 5

INTRODUCTION ................................................... 6

MATERIALS AND METHODS ......................................... 9
Preparation of material........................................ 9
M ethods of analysis ........................................... 12
Carbohydrates ............................................ 12
N itrogen ................................................. 14

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ........................................... 15
Growth behavior .............................. .............. 15
Top growth ................................................. 21
Y ield ........................................ ........... 21
Composition .............................................. 25
Growth and composition of stolons .............................. 28
Variation in weight ..................................... 28
Composition .............................................. 29
Growth and composition of roots ............................... 30
Variation in weight ....................................... 30
Composition ............................ .................. 31
Relation of organic foods to the growth behavior of the plants ...... 41

D ISCUSSION ...................................................... 48

APPLICATION TO PRACTICE ......................................... 51

SUMMARY ........................................ ............. 53

LITERATURE CITED ................. ............................. 55







































Fig. 1.-Growth behavior of Bahia grass when cut frequently and when permitted to grow to maturity. The view on the left
shows the spread of two rows of grass at the end of one season's growth when cut frequently. Note horizontal spread of grass
and the complete covering of the 3-foot space between the rows. Right, delayed spread of two rows of Bahia grass when per-
mitted to grow to maturity. Note uncovered spaces between the rows after grass was cut in the seed stage on September 28, 1927.








GROWTH BEHAVIOR AND

MAINTENANCE OF ORGANIC

FOODS IN BAHIA GRASS

By
W. A. LEUKEL and J. M. COLEMAN

ABSTRACT
Frequent cuttings of Bahia grass yielded less total weight of
top growth the first year than one cutting in the seed stage plus
the aftergrowth. The combined cuttings from the frequently
cut-over area the second season were greater in weight than the
one cutting in a mature growth stage plus the aftergrowth.
Total top growth produced on plants (cuttings plus top growth
not removed by cuttings) was greater from the frequently cut-
over area both seasons.
The top growth from plants cut frequently retained more of a
vegetative growth condition, more uniform percentage of nitrogen
and showed a narrower carbohydrate-nitrogen relation than that
of plants grown to maturity. The latter gradually decreased in
percentage of nitrogen, were less vegetative and gradually showed
a wide carbohydrate-nitrogen relation associated with increased
reproduction. Increased vegetative top growth production on
plants was associated with a variation in percentage and quantity
of organic foods in the stolons or storage parts of the plants and
a retarded increase in weight of such stolons. During periods of
slow growth such stolons again increased in weight and quantity
of reserve foods. Heavy seed production was associated with
some decrease in organic foods in stolons but such foods again
increased in qauntity thereafter.
Plants cut frequently produced a more vigorous spring top
growth than was produced from plants grown to maturity the
previous season. Persistent growth of Bahia grass subjected to
frequent cuttings was attributed to its prostrate growth habits.
The top growth not removed by cutting in each instance was
greater than that removed by cutting. The elaboration of organic
foods by the more horizontal leaf area not removed by cutting
appeared to be sufficient for the growing needs of the plants.
Some practical applications from the results obtained are given.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


INTRODUCTION
The accumulation and utilization of mineral nutrients and or-
ganic compounds in horticultural and agronomic plants and how
the accumulation and utilization of these foods are affected by
various agricultural practices and their relation to the problems
of plant production are at present being more fully appreciated.
Variations in growth behavior of many crop plants resulting
from different cultural practices or plant treatments, as pruning
of horticultural plants and cutting of pasture and forage crops,
are being interpreted not only from the standpoint of nutrient
materials available or made available through different cultural
practices, but are also correlated with the kinds and quantities of
organic foods stored within the plants themselves.
The work of Kraus and Kraybill(1)1 establishing the conditions
of vegetative growth and fruitfulness of horticultural plants with
reference to their carbohydrate nitrogen relation has had an
important bearing on many horticultural and some agronomic
practices. Other workers in the same and different fields of plant
research have accumulated additional data of a similar nature.
The inhibitory effect of fruit production on vegetative growth
was found by Murneek(2), working on tomato plants. The growth
period for the greatest absorption of soil nutrients, and that for
the highest metabolic efficiency in these plants was shown by the
same author(3), in later work. Reid(4) found that a low nitro-
gen content associated with high carbohydrates in tomato stems
resulted in a vigorous root growth. Likewise, a higher nitrogen
content in these stems in relation to carbohydrates resulted in a
more vigorous top or shoot growth.
The accumulation of inorganic nutrients in the subterranean
organs and the partial depletion of these nutrients during the
aerial growth of the plant was shown by Remy(5), in his work on
clovers and grasses. Wahlen(6), working on the wintering of
perennial legumes, found that they did not possess autonomic
winter dormancy. He found the specific weight of the root to be
an index to the content of reserve foods. Whiting and Rich-
mond(7) found a transfer of nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and
potassium from the tops to the roots of biennial sweet clover in its
later growth the first year for winter storage. The depletion of
the stored foods in the corms of the timothy plant as a result of
cutting in the immature growth stages was brought out in the
iNumbers in parentheses (italic) refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of
this bulletin.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


work of Waters(8), and that of Trowbridge, Haigh, and Moul-
ton(19).
The depletion of reserve foods in the roots of alfalfa through
the removal of the immature top growth was reflected in the cut-
ting trials on this plant by Salmon et al.(10). Similar results were
obtained over a shorter period by Graber and Nelson(11 and 12).
Later work on alfalfa by Nelson(13), Leukel(14) and Albert(15)
showed that new top growth, especially after the cutting of a
crop, is initiated at the expense of the previously deposited root
reserves and unless such reserves are partially or wholly replen-
ished between periods of cutting of the tops, they are severely
reduced, tending to diminish progressively to the point of extinc-
tion the amount of top growth produced following each cutting.
Samson and Malstem(16), working on the bunch grasses of the
western ranges, found that any cropping system which results in
the reduction of the aerial growth is reflected in the root develop-
ment and the amount of food stored in the underground parts of
the plants for aftergrowth. Similar results from over-grazing
on the western ranges are reported by Jardine and others(17).
Ellett and Carrier(18) compared the yield of air-dry bluegrass
from plants clipped more and less frequently with plants that were
permitted to grow to maturity. Their findings showed that the
yield of dry matter varied inversely with the number of clippings.
In a five-year trial on a bluegrass-red top pasture, Carrier and
Oakley(19) found under-grazing to be more detrimental to such
pastures than over-grazing. A continuation of the work of Car-
rier and Oakley by Hutchinson and Wolfe(20) with some modifi-
cations produced similar results. Results reported by Albert(15)
from cutting trials on bluegrass and red top pasture plats over a
two-year period are similar to those of Ellet and Carrier. The
development of the underground roots and rhizomes of bluegrass
cut in the mature growth stages exceeded by 50% that of similar
plant parts that were cut frequently in the immature growth
stages.
Stapledon(21), working with various pasture grasses, found
that frequent cutting of such grasses increased the ratio of leaf to
stem. Later work by the same writer(22) showed similar results
with a larger number of grasses. Stapledon and Beddows(23)
found that a single top-dressing of nitrate of soda on a pasture of
cocksfoot grass was not competent to narrow the margin between
the quantity of hay produced from plats pre-treated on a pasture
basis and those pre-treated on a hay and aftermath basis.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Observational studies made on the more prostrate growing pas-
ture grasses at the Florida Experiment Station show promising
results under continuous or intermittent grazing. One area of
Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) introduced in 1913 is still grow-
ing. Another area established in 1915 has been grazed continu-
ously since September of that year up to the present time. It has
produced a dense sod and is still vigorous and productive(24).
Other areas of the same grass allowed to grow to maturity each
year produced an upright growth, seeded heavily, failed to spread
or form a sod, and are heavily infested with weeds each year.
Other pasture grasses with similar growth habits have given
like results.
Results reported from the above trials on grazing and frequent
cutting of pasture grasses add weight to the contention that the
amount of leaf area for the elaboration of organic foods left on the
plants after grazing or cutting determined, to a great extent, the
production of subsequent growth; that the amount of leaf area
left after grazing or cutting depends upon the intensity of such
grazing or cutting, and upon the morphology and growth behavior
of the grass; and, that the more prostrate growing grasses with
horizontally spreading leaves and decumbent stems retain more
of their leaf area after grazing or cutting and consequently, the
products of photosynthesis needed for subsequent growth are not
so greatly curtailed.
To obtain more detailed information on the effect of frequent
cutting on the subsequent production of top growth, growth of
storage parts as rhizomes and runners, and the variation in the
percentage and quantity of reserve foods in such storage parts of
prostrate growing pasture grasses in comparison with similar
studies on plants grown to maturity, the following investigation
was undertaken.
The terms "organic food reserves or organic foods", frequently
used in this paper, may be defined as referring particularly to the
carbohydrate and nitrogen compounds elaborated, stored and
utilized by the plant itself as food for maintenance, and for devel-
opment of the different plant parts. An attempt is here made to
associate the total quantities of such compounds given in terms
of total nitrogen and total carbohydrates with the variations in
the growth behavior of the different plant parts under the differ-
ent treatments given.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


MATERIALS AND METHODS
PREPARATION OF MATERIAL

Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) was selected as material for
this investigation because of its similarity in growth behavior
and morphology to most of the sod-forming grasses of the South-
east. Its top growth, stolons and roots are larger than some of
the common sod-forming grasses and better suited for observa-
tional and laboratory studies.
Thirty-seven rows of Bahia grass were planted on August 6,
1926. These rows were three feet apart and the plants were
spaced 18 inches apart in the rows. This area was kept free from
weeds the remainder of the growing season. The plants became
well established and produced considerable growth before late
autumn. No cuttings were made on these plants during 1926.
In the early spring of 1927, 25 rows of this grass area were
divided into five plats of five rows each, 86 feet long. The remain-
ing rows were located between and adjacent to these plats. The
adjacent rows and the center row of each plat were used for the
purpose of obtaining samples. The grass in these center rows
and adjacent rows in all cases received the same treatment as
that of those in the plats in which they were located or ad-
jacent to.
The grass in plats 1 and 3 was cut frequently during the grow-
ing seasons of 1927 and 1928, i. e., it was cut whenever it attained
a height of four to five inches. This method made the periods of
time between cuttings vary, depending upon the growth rate of
the grass. This appeared to be a more logical course to follow
than cutting at definite periods of time. The latter procedure
would not take the growth rate of the grass into consideration.
It would result in a very severe cutting treatment during the drier
part of the growing season when growth is slow and a less severe
cutting treatment during the rainy season when top growth is
produced more abundantly.
During the growing seasons of 1927 and 1928 the grass in plats
2 and 4 was allowed to grow to maturity or into the seed stage
when a cutting was made. Later in the season the aftergrowth
on these two plats was cut and the yield calculated. The grass in
plat 5 was allowed to grow to maturity during both seasons and
received no cutting treatment. All yields of top cuttings were
calculated on a basis of eight rows or 2,064 square feet (Tables
I and II).







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


MATERIALS AND METHODS
PREPARATION OF MATERIAL

Bahia grass (Paspalum notatum) was selected as material for
this investigation because of its similarity in growth behavior
and morphology to most of the sod-forming grasses of the South-
east. Its top growth, stolons and roots are larger than some of
the common sod-forming grasses and better suited for observa-
tional and laboratory studies.
Thirty-seven rows of Bahia grass were planted on August 6,
1926. These rows were three feet apart and the plants were
spaced 18 inches apart in the rows. This area was kept free from
weeds the remainder of the growing season. The plants became
well established and produced considerable growth before late
autumn. No cuttings were made on these plants during 1926.
In the early spring of 1927, 25 rows of this grass area were
divided into five plats of five rows each, 86 feet long. The remain-
ing rows were located between and adjacent to these plats. The
adjacent rows and the center row of each plat were used for the
purpose of obtaining samples. The grass in these center rows
and adjacent rows in all cases received the same treatment as
that of those in the plats in which they were located or ad-
jacent to.
The grass in plats 1 and 3 was cut frequently during the grow-
ing seasons of 1927 and 1928, i. e., it was cut whenever it attained
a height of four to five inches. This method made the periods of
time between cuttings vary, depending upon the growth rate of
the grass. This appeared to be a more logical course to follow
than cutting at definite periods of time. The latter procedure
would not take the growth rate of the grass into consideration.
It would result in a very severe cutting treatment during the drier
part of the growing season when growth is slow and a less severe
cutting treatment during the rainy season when top growth is
produced more abundantly.
During the growing seasons of 1927 and 1928 the grass in plats
2 and 4 was allowed to grow to maturity or into the seed stage
when a cutting was made. Later in the season the aftergrowth
on these two plats was cut and the yield calculated. The grass in
plat 5 was allowed to grow to maturity during both seasons and
received no cutting treatment. All yields of top cuttings were
calculated on a basis of eight rows or 2,064 square feet (Tables
I and II).








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE I.-GREEN AND DRY WEIGHT, WEIGHT OF NITROGEN, PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL
NITROGEN AND PERCENTAGE OF DRY MATTER IN CUTTINGS FROM EIGHT ROWS
OF BAHIA GRASS, OR 2,064 SQUARE FEET, DURING GROWING SEASONS
OF 1927 AND 1928. ALL NITROGEN PERCENTAGES CALCULATED
ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS.


Date Cut


April 6...................
April 22..................
M ay 23 ..................
June 14 .................
June 29..................
July 8....................
July 14 ..................
July 23 .. ................
July 30...................
August 6 ...............
August 20...............
September 6 ..............
September 15.............
September 28.............
October 13...............
Total Weight.........


Green
Weight
Grams

7,772
5,969
915
14,385
45,220
21,375
30,790
5,587
13,960
11,030
26,734
24,672
11,725
5,310
5,400
230,844


Dry
Weight
Grams

2,798
1,874
421
3,165
10,310
5,472
8,990.8
1,452.6
3,769.2
3,110.5
6,897.4
10,732.3
3,845.8
1,794.8
2,419.2
67,054.3


Weight
Nitrogen
Grams

67.96
50.41
8.35
57.42
185.5
96.30
180.70
28.76
74.25
62.2
129.67
171.71
66.53
27.68
32.90
1,240.34


Dry
Matter
Percent

36
31.4
46
22
22.8
25.6
29.2
26
27
28.2
25.8
43.5
32.8
33.8
44.8


Nitrogen
Percent

2.43
2.69
1.985
1.815
1.80
1.76
2.01
1.98
1.97
2.00
1.88
1.60
1.73
1.54
1.36


1928

Dae Green Dry Weight Dry ir
Date Cut eight Weight Nitrogen Matter erogen
Grams Grams Grams Percent

May 25 .................. 6,760 2,217.28 44.567 32.8 2.01
June 5 ................... 15,370 5,225.8 78.387 34 1.50
June 18 .................. 7,110 2,417.40 39.403 34 1.63
June 28 .................. 40,830 11,269.0 166.781 27.6 1.48
July 10.................. 61,544 16,493.8 283.691 26.8 1.72
July 24.................. 58,910 14,374.0 218.484 24.4 1.52
August8................. 83,838 20,791.8 347.223 24.8 1.67
August 16................ 26,510 6,574.5 122.283 24.8 1.86
August 31................ 27,500 7,590.0 126.753 27.6 1.67
September 14............. 36,980 9,836.6 166.238 26.6 1.69
September 25............. 21,440 6,817.9 110.449 31.8 1.62
October 12 ............... 19,456 5,447.7 96.372 28 1.77
November 1.............. 12,320 3,203.2 58.938 26 1.84
Total Weight......... 418,568 113,259.8 1,859.569 .. ....








Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


TABLE II.-GREEN AND DRY WEIGHT, WEIGHT OF NITROGEN, PERCENTAGE OF DRY
MATTER AND PERCENTAGE OF NITROGEN OF BAHIA GRASS CUT IN THE SEED
STAGE, AND OF THE AFTER-GROWTH FROM EIGHT ROWS, OR 2,064
SQUARE FEET. ALL NITROGEN PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON
A DRY WEIGHT BASIS.

1927

Date When Green Dry Weight Dry Nitrogen
Weight Weight Nitrogen Matter
Seed Stage Percent Percent
September 28............. 158,210 72,786.6 822.48 46 1.13
After -Growth
November21............. 71,436 28,860 444.4 40.4 1.54
Total................ 229,646 101,636.6 1,466.88 ..... .....



1928

Date When Green Dry Weight Dry Nitrogen
Date When Cut Weight Weight Nitrogen Matter Nitrogen
Seed Stage Percent Percent
September 14 ............ 157,624 72,507 703.31 46 0.97
After -Growth
September 25............. 3,300 924 20.05 28 2.17
October 12............... 3,060 954.7 18.33 31.2 1.92
November 1.............. 6,000 1,860 41.85 31 2.25
Total................ 169,684 76,245.7 783.6 ..... .....


Samples for analysis were taken at the same time of day from
the areas where the grass was mowed frequently and from those
where it was allowed to grow to maturity on dates indicated in
Table IV. This sample in each case was equivalent to the amount
of grass in 10 feet of row or that from an area of 30 square feet.
The sample in each case consisted of sections of grass taken from
different parts of the center and adjacent rows of the plats. One
such sample was taken to represent the grass in the mowed-over
areas and one was taken from the area where the grass was
allowed to grow to maturity and cut in the late seed stage of
growth. After the cutting of the grass in the seed stage in plats
2 and 4, an additional sample was taken from plat 5, where the
grass received no cutting treatment during the season, on October
24 and November 30 in 1927.
After the samples were dug, they were immediately taken to
the laboratory and separated into tops, stolons and roots. The
tops included all growth above ground, including the tip ends of
the stolons where vegetative extension and seed stem formation







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


takes place. The roots were dug up to a depth of eight inches.
These different plant parts were weighed and the green weight of
each was recorded. A sufficient quantity of fresh material from
each of the plant parts was cut into small pieces (1/4 in.) and dried
in an oven through which was run a current of air. For the first
half hour the oven was kept at a temperature of 1000 C., after
which the temperature was kept at 75 C. until the material be-
came brittle(25). The dried material was then passed through a
Quaker mill and finally ground in a Dreef mill(26) until all par-
ticles would pass through a 60-mesh seive. The material was
then preserved in dry, tightly stoppered bottles at room tem-
perature.
Representative 25-gram aliquots in triplicate from the respec-
tive fresh plant parts were dried in an electric oven at 1050 C., to
determine the percentage of dry matter. The total dry matter
in the entire sample was then calculated and recorded.


METHODS OF ANALYSIS
CARBOHYDRATES
The finely ground material mentioned above was re-dried in a
vacuum oven at 65 C. Three-gram samples of this material in
triplicate were used for all carbohydrate determinations and
results were computed on a dry weight basis. All carbohydrate
determinations are expressed in terms of glucose. An ether ex-
traction (alcohol-free, anhydrous ether) was made for 18 hours
to remove chlorophyll, fats, waxes, resins, etc., before extracting
any of the carbohydrates in order to facilitate complete carbo-
hydrate extraction. The amount of copper reduced was deter-
mined by the Shaeffer-Hartman(27) volumetric method for sugar
analyses with appropriate hydrolysis where necessary. The sugar
equivalents in terms of dextrose were obtained from Munson and
Walker tables(28).
Sugars: Sugars were extracted on a heated sand bath with
90% ethyl alcohol for one-half hour under a reflux condenser.
The alcohol was kept just simmering during this process. After
evaporating nearly all the alcohol on a steam bath, the syrup was
taken up with distilled water, clarified with neutral lead acetate
and filtered through dry filter paper. A sufficient quantity of
nine parts of anhydrous Na2SO4 and one part Na2COa was Mlded
to the filtrate to remove any excess lead. After filtering this
mixture, it was made up to a volume of 250 cc. Fifty cc. aliquots







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


takes place. The roots were dug up to a depth of eight inches.
These different plant parts were weighed and the green weight of
each was recorded. A sufficient quantity of fresh material from
each of the plant parts was cut into small pieces (1/4 in.) and dried
in an oven through which was run a current of air. For the first
half hour the oven was kept at a temperature of 1000 C., after
which the temperature was kept at 75 C. until the material be-
came brittle(25). The dried material was then passed through a
Quaker mill and finally ground in a Dreef mill(26) until all par-
ticles would pass through a 60-mesh seive. The material was
then preserved in dry, tightly stoppered bottles at room tem-
perature.
Representative 25-gram aliquots in triplicate from the respec-
tive fresh plant parts were dried in an electric oven at 1050 C., to
determine the percentage of dry matter. The total dry matter
in the entire sample was then calculated and recorded.


METHODS OF ANALYSIS
CARBOHYDRATES
The finely ground material mentioned above was re-dried in a
vacuum oven at 65 C. Three-gram samples of this material in
triplicate were used for all carbohydrate determinations and
results were computed on a dry weight basis. All carbohydrate
determinations are expressed in terms of glucose. An ether ex-
traction (alcohol-free, anhydrous ether) was made for 18 hours
to remove chlorophyll, fats, waxes, resins, etc., before extracting
any of the carbohydrates in order to facilitate complete carbo-
hydrate extraction. The amount of copper reduced was deter-
mined by the Shaeffer-Hartman(27) volumetric method for sugar
analyses with appropriate hydrolysis where necessary. The sugar
equivalents in terms of dextrose were obtained from Munson and
Walker tables(28).
Sugars: Sugars were extracted on a heated sand bath with
90% ethyl alcohol for one-half hour under a reflux condenser.
The alcohol was kept just simmering during this process. After
evaporating nearly all the alcohol on a steam bath, the syrup was
taken up with distilled water, clarified with neutral lead acetate
and filtered through dry filter paper. A sufficient quantity of
nine parts of anhydrous Na2SO4 and one part Na2COa was Mlded
to the filtrate to remove any excess lead. After filtering this
mixture, it was made up to a volume of 250 cc. Fifty cc. aliquots







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


of the clear solution without hydrolysis were used to determine
reducing sugars. Three 50 cc. aliquots each were made up to
90 cc. with distilled water, 10 cc. concentrated HC1 (sp. gr. 1.12)
added and hydrolyzed on sand bath for one hour. After neutral-
izing with 40% NaOH, the reducing power was then determined
for total sugars.
Soluble Starches and Dextrins: After extracting the sugars
from the sample, 50 cc. of water was added to the residue in a
beaker and allowed to stand for 12 hours. This mixture was then
filtered and the residue washed until the filtrate attained a volume
of 90 cc. Ten cc. of concentrated HC1 (sp. gr. 1.12) were added
to the filtrate which was then hydrolyzed on a sand bath under a
reflux condenser for two and one-half hours. The solution was
then cooled, neutralized with 40% NaOH and made up to 250 cc.
volume. Fifty cc. aliquots were used to determine the reducing
power.
Starch: The residue, after the extraction of soluble starches
and dextrins, was washed into a beaker and the volume made up
to 50 cc. The mixture was then heated to boiling to change the
starch to a paste. The temperature was lowered to 38 C., 10 cc.
of fresh saliva added, and the mixture digested at this tempera-
ture for one-half hour. At the end of this digestion period, the
mixture was again heated to boiling, filtered, and the residue
thoroughly washed with hot water until the filtrate attained a
volume of 90 cc. Ten cc. of concentrated HC1 (sp. 1.12) were
added to the filtrate which was hydrolyzed on a sand bath under
a reflux condenser for two and one-half hours. The solution was
then cooled, neutralized with 40% NaOH and made up to 250 c.c.
volume. Fifty cc. aliquots were used to determine the reducing
power.
Hemicelluloses: To remove hemicelluloses, the final residue
(after removal of starches) was washed into an Erlenmeyer flask,
made up to 90 cc. volume, had 10 cc. of concentrated HC1 (sp.
1.12) added, and was hydrolyzed on a sand bath under a reflux
condenser for two and one-half hours. The mixture in the flask
was then filtered and washed with hot water. The filtrate was
next neutralized, clarified, deleaded and made up to 500 cc.
volume. Fifty cc. aliquots were used to determine the reducing
power.
Polysaccharides: Where soluble starches and dextrins, starch
and hemicelluloses were not determined separately, the residue,
after the removal of total sugars, was hydrolyzed with 21/2%







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


HC1, filtered, clarified, deleaded and made up to volume as in case
of hemicelluloses. The reducing power was determined likewise.
The various carbohydrates included in this determination are here
given as polysaccharides.
NITROGEN -
The various forms of extracted nitrogen(29) in the tops, roots
and stolons of the plants were determined on the green material
and the percentage of each computed on a dry weight basis. Fifty
to 100 grams of the green material from each plant part, after
passing through a power food chopper, were triturated in a
10-inch mortar with quartz sand previously washed free of for-
eign material. About 5 cc. of ether were added to promote plas-
molysis, and water was added as required to give proper con-
sistency for trituration. When the material was ground to a very
fine pulp, it was transferred to a 12-inch square of four thick-
nesses of cheesecloth. A 200 cc. aliquot of water was added and
the material expressed by gentle hand wringing over a large glass
funnel. After each hand wringng, the material on the cloth was
stirred and soaked with another aliquot of water. This process
was continued until the extract attained a volume of 1,900 cc.
This water extract was then drawn through a paper pulp filter
on a Buchner funnel with suction and made to a volume of 2,000 cc.
Extracted Nitrogen: Extracted nitrogen was determined on 100
cc. aliquots of the extract (obtained as stated above) by the
Kjeldahl method modified to include the nitrogen of nitrates.
Coagulable Nitrogen: Two hundred fifty cc. aliquots of the
above extract were heated to boiling, and a few drops of 10%
acetic acid were added. The coagulated material was removed by
filtering through quantitative filter paper. The filter paper with
the coagulum was transferred to an 800 cc. Kjeldahl flask and
the nitrogen therein determined by the Kjeldahl method.
Unextracted Nitrogen: The unextracted nitrogen was obtained
by subtracting the percentage of extracted nitrogen from that of
the total nitrogen.
Protein Nitrogen: The coagulable nitrogen percentage was
added to that of the unextracted nitrogen and here termed protein
nitrogen.
Soluble Nitrogen: Soluble nitrogen was determined by obtain-
ing the difference between coagulable and extracted nitrogen.
Amino-Acid Nitrogen: The Van Slyke Method(30) was used
to determine amino-acid nitrogen on aliquot samples of the sol-
uble nitrogen.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass 15

Nitrate Nitrogen: The Devardo Method as modified by Strowd
(31) was used to determine nitrate nitrogen on aliquot samples
of soluble nitrogen.
Total Nitrogen: Total nitrogen was determined on three-gram
samples in triplicate of material dried at 103 C. by the Kjeldahl
method modified to include the nitrogen of nitrates.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
GROWTH BEHAVIOR
The growth behavior of the plants cut frequently and those cut
less frequently shows striking differences. Where the plants
received the former treatment, a complete sod was formed be-
tween the rows before the end of the growing season of 1927.
Where plants were allowed to grow to maturity and cut in the
seed stage, the vacant spaces between the rows were only partially
covered (Fig. 1). This difference in the spread and growth be-
havior of these differently treated grasses may be further seen in
the growth trend of their stolons or surface runners. Where the
plants were cut frequently, the stolons grew horizontally and as
a result covered more of the space between the rows. Where the
plants were allowed to grow to maturity and then cut in the seed
stage, the runners produced horizontal growth early in the season,
but later formed an upright growth in the form of seed stems and
spread very little thereafter.
An edge view of the sods taken from grasses in the differ-
ently treated areas given in Fig. 2 shows these differences in
growth quite clearly. Fig. 3 represents a strip of sod taken at
right angles to one of the grass rows where the tops of the plants
were cut frequently. The tops and roots were removed from this
strip of sod after all adhering soil particles were washed off. The
dark center of this picture shows the location of the original plant
or cutting transplanted on August 6, 1926. The outward growth
represents the spread or horizontal growth of the stolons as a
result of frequent cutting of top growth during one season. Such
sods formed from the plants cut frequently increased in density
(Fig. 4) and in production of top growth during the growing
season of 1928, while those from plants allowed to grow to ma-
turity and cut in the seed stage showed the same growth condition
during 1928 as that of the previous year with no increase in spread
of stolons or density of sod.
The plants cut frequently the previous season showed a marked







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass 15

Nitrate Nitrogen: The Devardo Method as modified by Strowd
(31) was used to determine nitrate nitrogen on aliquot samples
of soluble nitrogen.
Total Nitrogen: Total nitrogen was determined on three-gram
samples in triplicate of material dried at 103 C. by the Kjeldahl
method modified to include the nitrogen of nitrates.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
GROWTH BEHAVIOR
The growth behavior of the plants cut frequently and those cut
less frequently shows striking differences. Where the plants
received the former treatment, a complete sod was formed be-
tween the rows before the end of the growing season of 1927.
Where plants were allowed to grow to maturity and cut in the
seed stage, the vacant spaces between the rows were only partially
covered (Fig. 1). This difference in the spread and growth be-
havior of these differently treated grasses may be further seen in
the growth trend of their stolons or surface runners. Where the
plants were cut frequently, the stolons grew horizontally and as
a result covered more of the space between the rows. Where the
plants were allowed to grow to maturity and then cut in the seed
stage, the runners produced horizontal growth early in the season,
but later formed an upright growth in the form of seed stems and
spread very little thereafter.
An edge view of the sods taken from grasses in the differ-
ently treated areas given in Fig. 2 shows these differences in
growth quite clearly. Fig. 3 represents a strip of sod taken at
right angles to one of the grass rows where the tops of the plants
were cut frequently. The tops and roots were removed from this
strip of sod after all adhering soil particles were washed off. The
dark center of this picture shows the location of the original plant
or cutting transplanted on August 6, 1926. The outward growth
represents the spread or horizontal growth of the stolons as a
result of frequent cutting of top growth during one season. Such
sods formed from the plants cut frequently increased in density
(Fig. 4) and in production of top growth during the growing
season of 1928, while those from plants allowed to grow to ma-
turity and cut in the seed stage showed the same growth condition
during 1928 as that of the previous year with no increase in spread
of stolons or density of sod.
The plants cut frequently the previous season showed a marked


































Fig. 2.-Side view of Bahia grass sods. Left, upright growth of stolons to form seed stems as a result of grass being allowed to Q
grow to maturity, with poor spread of grass and thin sod. Right, result of frequent cutting on spread or horizontal growth of
stolons and dense sod formation. Taken after cutting of mature top growth in seed stage.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


Fig 3.-Horizontal spread of Bahia grass stolons resulting from frequent
cutting of the top growth. View shows stolon spread of one Bahia plant or
cutting transplanted August 6, 1926, and dug October 19, 1927. Top growth
was cut frequently during 1927.


Fig. 4.-Bahia grass, showing horizontal leaf growth on stolons not re-
moved by grazing or cutting. Photo taken with camera facing directly down-
ward.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


difference in the production of early spring top growth in com-
parison with plants cut in the seed stage. The former produced
an even vegetative top growth over the entire area early in the
season, while in the case of the latter, the new top growth was
sparse, showing individual growths with vacant spaces between
them. In the areas where plants were cut in the seed stage an
abundance of dead exhausted stolons was found, while in the areas
where the plants were cut frequently the previous season, such
exhausted stolons were less evident.
In February, 1929, a square of sod was dug from each of these
differently treated areas and placed in the greenhouse for observa-
tion. The square from the area where the grass was cut frequently
the previous season produced a dense, even top growth in a short
period of time. The other square from the area where the grass
was cut in the seed stage the previous season produced a sparse
top growth. The top growth on each of these squares was similar
to the spring top growth on the plants in the spring of 1928 and
1929 on the respective areas from which the squares were dug
(Fig. 5).





















Fig. 5.-Effect of frequent and less frequent cutting on spring top growth
of Bahia grass. Right, delayed and sparse growth resulting when the grass
was allowed to grow to maturity and produce seed the previous season. Left,
early, vigorous spring top growth of Bahia grass cut frequently the previous
season.








TABLE III.-COMPARISON OF THE CALCULATED WEIGHT OF GREEN AND DRY TOP GROWTH AND WEIGHT OF NITROGEN FROM
BAHIA GRASS PLANTS CUT FREQUENTLY WITH THOSE FROM AN EQUAL AREA OF GRASS NOT CUT AND FROM A SIMILAR
AREA CUT IN THE SEED STAGE OF GROWTH DURING THE GROWING SEASONS OF 1927 AND 1928.

Tops Cut Frequently Tops Grown to Maturity
Green Dry Weight of
Green Weight Dry Weight Weight Weight Nitrogen

.Dates When Samples Top Top
Were Taken+ Growth Appor- Top Growth Appor- Top Top Top Nitren
Not tioned Growth Not tioned Growth Nitrogen Growth Growth Nrogen
Removed Cuttings Produced Removed Cutting Produced Produced Produced Produced
by Cutting Calculated to Date by Cutting Calculated to Date to Date to Date to Date to ate
Calculated Calculated

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams Grams

April 13, 1927........ 560 117.0 677 172.5 53.7 226.2 4.875 925 292.3 6.591
May4, 1927......... 769.8 54.0 940.8 230.1 17.7 301.5 6.666 926 351.8 6.438
May 25, 1927........ 881.0 46.0 1,098.0 319.8 8.2 399.4 7.365 1,050 407.4 7.048
June 15, 1927 ....... 1,366.2 277.8 1,861.0 300.0 51.8 431.4 8.979 2,169 520.6 9.891
July 6, 1927......... 838.5 855.0 2,188.3 271.7 157.6 560.7 12.111 2,250 648.0 11.664
July 27, 1927........ 1,164.0 644.7 3,158.5 250.3 200.7 740.0 14.616 4,420 1,114,3 14.486
August 15,1927...... 2,250.0 497.2 4,741.7 585.6 134.4 1,209.7 21.733 3,420 1,470.6 17.647
September 22, 1927... 1,438.4 709.6 4,639.7 458.9 261.8 1,371.8 21.799 2,160 993.6 9.598
November30, 1927.. ...... ...... .... ..... ...... ... 1,900 950.0 7.933
October 19, 1927 .... 1,130.6 143.6 4,475.5 452.2 47.2 1,465.3 22.790 880A 366.08A 5.308A
November21,1927... 1,060.0 ...... 4,410.9 455.8 ...... 1,468.9 29.262 900L 442.8A 6.819k
May 10, 1928 ....... 175.0 ...... 1,750 600.25 ...... ...... 10.504 2,140.0 712.6 12.471
July 16, 1928........ 2,493.1 2,279.9 4,773.0 772.24 636.8 1,409.04 23.541 7,320.0 2,326.7 24.441
September 4, 1928... 3,563.4 2,631.6 8,474.9 1,223.0 668.3 2,528.1 45.861 4,990 1,946.1 18.293

+ All weights of plant parts taken from area of 30 square feet.
After growth produced following the cutting of tops in seed stage of growth.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE IV.-GREEN AND DRY WEIGHT IN GRAMS AND PERCENTAGE OF DRY MATTER OF
TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS TAKEN AT DIFFERENT DATES DURING
SEASON OF 1927 FROM AN AREA OF PLANTS WITH TOP GROWTH CUT FRE-
QUENTLY AND FROM SIMILAR AREA OF PLANTS WHERE GRASS GREW TO
MATURITY AND NOT CUT AND WHERE TOP GROWTH WAS
CUT IN SEED STAGE.

Tops Cut Frequently


Date When
Dug+



March 30.....
April 13 ......
M ay 4........
May 25.......
June 15.......
July 6........
July 27 .......
August 15.....
September 22..
October 24. ...
November 30..
October 19.. .
November 21A.


Green
Weight
Grams


1,010
564
775
900
1,410
1,080
1,280
2,500
1,480


1,160
1,060


Tops

Dry
Weight
Grams

383.8
173.7
232.5
324
310.8
289.4
281.6
650
500


464
455.8


Dry
Matter
Percent

38
30.8
30
36
22
26.8
22
26
33.8


40
43


Green
Weight
Grams


1,846
1,820
2,686
2,160
3,270
4,235
5,760
6,000
5,910


4,880
4,280


Stolons

Dry
Weight
Grams

559.33
611.52
1,063.65
950
797.88
1,041.80
1,175.40
1,356.00
1,402.80


1,542.80
1,575.04


Dry
Matter
Percent

30.3
33.6
39.6
44
24.4
24.6
20.4
22.6
28


31.6
36.8


Green
Weight
Grams

754.5
525
844
640
940
925
1,002
1,320
1,145


990
950


Roots

Dry
Weight
Grams

375.74
255.67
501.33
435.2
251.92
351.50
340.68
517.44
449,98

356.40
359.6


Dry
Matter
Percent

49.80.
48.70
59.40
68.00
26.80
38.00
34.00
39.2
39.30


36.00
36.8


Tops Grown to Maturity

Tops Stolons Roots
Date When
Dug+ Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry
Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter
Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent

March 30..... 971 368.98 38 1,846 559.33 30.03 754.5 375.74 49.80
April 13...... 925 292.3 31.6 2,068 802.38 38.80 675 351.00 52.00
May 4........ 926 351.88 38 2,455 996.73 40.60 695 442.02 63.60
May25....... 1,050 407.40 38.8 3,083 1,344.18 43.60 805 518.42 64.40
June 15....... 2,169 520.56 24 4,569.501,078.28 23.60 1,344 413.95 30.80
July 6........ 2,250 648 28.8 5,493 1,406.20 25.60 1,002 537.07 53.60
July 27....... 4,422 1,114.34 25.2 8,085 1,778.70 22.00 1,575.5 557.52 36.80
August 15..... 3,420 1,470.60 43 8,280 2,401.20 29.00 1,080 507.60 47.00
September 22.. 2,160 993.60 46 7,320 2,342.40 32.00 980 470.40 48.00
October 24.... ...... ...... 50.0 5,510 20.93 38 1,760 915.2 52
November30.. 1,900 950 50 4,040 1,494 37 1,080 540 50
October 19A... 880 366.08 41.6 4,400 1,443.20 32.80 940 413.60 44.00
November 21A. 900 442.8 49.2 4,065 1,382.10 34.00 1,260 619.92 49,20
+All weights taken from an area of 30 square feet.
A Weights of different plant parts after top growth was cut in seed stage.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass,


TOP GROWTH
Yield: The top growth of the Bahia grass in plats 1 and 3 was
subjected to 15 cuttings during the growing season of 1927 and
to 13 during the summer of 1928. The grass in plats 2 and 4 was
allowed to grow to maturity and was cut in the seed stage of
growth. The variation in the rate of growth of the grass in these
differently treated plats can be noted from data given in Tables
I, II and III. The slow growth in the early part of 1927 resulted
from an extremely dry period when soil moisture was very low on
account of scant rainfall. With the beginning of the rainy season,
about June 1st, a rapid increase in top growth took place. This
increase in production of top growth continued until the latter
part of the season when a slower growth occurred, resulting from
a change in the amount of rainfall and other environmental con-
ditions. A similar variation in rate of top growth occurred in
1928 but the contrast is not so striking. The green weight of top
growth (Tables I and II) from the 15 cuttings in the frequently
cut over area of 2,064 square feet in 1927 was 230,844 grams,
while that taken from a similar area of grass cut over once in the
seed stage with the yield from the after-growth added was 229,646
grams, or about equal to the former. However, this figure for the
top growth from the area cut over less frequently does not repre-
sent the maximum yield of green top growth produced any one
time during the season. The yield of top growth from 30 square
feet of plants from this area on July 27, given in Tables III and IV,
was 4,420 grams. If calculated on the entire area of 2,064 square
feet, a much larger green top yield is shown for this date. This
added to the increased aftergrowth which would undoubtedly
follow, would show a much larger green weight of top growth
from the area cut less frequently.
In grams of dry matter, the 15 cuttings from the frequently
cut over area in 1927 produced 67,054.3 grams, while the one
cutting in the seed stage plus the dry matter from the aftergrowth
from the less frequently cut over area produced 101,636.6 grams,
or considerably more than the former. Here again a larger yield
of dry matter would have been realized from the grass grown to
maturity if it had been cut on July 27, and, likewise, a greater
weight of nitrogen.
The green weight of top growth removed from the frequently
cut over area from 13 cuttings in 1928 was 418,568 grams, or
almost twice that of the previous year, while that from the area
where the grass was cut in the seed stage with the weight of







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass,


TOP GROWTH
Yield: The top growth of the Bahia grass in plats 1 and 3 was
subjected to 15 cuttings during the growing season of 1927 and
to 13 during the summer of 1928. The grass in plats 2 and 4 was
allowed to grow to maturity and was cut in the seed stage of
growth. The variation in the rate of growth of the grass in these
differently treated plats can be noted from data given in Tables
I, II and III. The slow growth in the early part of 1927 resulted
from an extremely dry period when soil moisture was very low on
account of scant rainfall. With the beginning of the rainy season,
about June 1st, a rapid increase in top growth took place. This
increase in production of top growth continued until the latter
part of the season when a slower growth occurred, resulting from
a change in the amount of rainfall and other environmental con-
ditions. A similar variation in rate of top growth occurred in
1928 but the contrast is not so striking. The green weight of top
growth (Tables I and II) from the 15 cuttings in the frequently
cut over area of 2,064 square feet in 1927 was 230,844 grams,
while that taken from a similar area of grass cut over once in the
seed stage with the yield from the after-growth added was 229,646
grams, or about equal to the former. However, this figure for the
top growth from the area cut over less frequently does not repre-
sent the maximum yield of green top growth produced any one
time during the season. The yield of top growth from 30 square
feet of plants from this area on July 27, given in Tables III and IV,
was 4,420 grams. If calculated on the entire area of 2,064 square
feet, a much larger green top yield is shown for this date. This
added to the increased aftergrowth which would undoubtedly
follow, would show a much larger green weight of top growth
from the area cut less frequently.
In grams of dry matter, the 15 cuttings from the frequently
cut over area in 1927 produced 67,054.3 grams, while the one
cutting in the seed stage plus the dry matter from the aftergrowth
from the less frequently cut over area produced 101,636.6 grams,
or considerably more than the former. Here again a larger yield
of dry matter would have been realized from the grass grown to
maturity if it had been cut on July 27, and, likewise, a greater
weight of nitrogen.
The green weight of top growth removed from the frequently
cut over area from 13 cuttings in 1928 was 418,568 grams, or
almost twice that of the previous year, while that from the area
where the grass was cut in the seed stage with the weight of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


after-growth from three cuttings added was 169,684 grams, or
considerably less than the yield of the previous year from this
area. This latter figure again does not represent the highest yield
of top growth produced at any one time during the season, as can
be seen from the top growth on 30 square feet on July 16 (Table
V), which shows a weight of 7,320 grams for this area. This
again would give a larger yield for the total area on this date. No
cutting was taken from the grass in the less frequently cut over
area on these earlier dates (July 27, 1927, and July 16, 1928) be-
cause the writers were desirous of observing the effect of the
gradual advance of the plant to maturity on its growth behavior
and general metabolism in the different plant parts in contrast to
a similar observation on plants with their top growth cut fre-
quently.
In percentage of dry matter, the top growth or cuttings from
the frequently cut over area shows little variation except during
the dry spring period of 1927 and in the late fall. In 1928 the
variation in percentage of dry matter from these cuttings is less
marked (Tables I and IV). The top growth on the plants from
the area cut over less frequently shows slight variation in per-
centage of dry matter until August, when a rapid increase in this
percentage takes place. A similar increase in percentage of dry
matter occurred in the grass from this area in 1928 (Tables II
and V).
In considering the total amount of top growth produced up to
any particular date during the season on the differently treated
plants, the cutting yields alone are not sufficient for this purpose.
A great portion of the more prostrate-growing top growth, espe-
cially from the frequently cut plants, is not removed by cutting
or grazing. This part of the aerial growth of the plants represents
a considerable portion of the total top growth at any particular
period. In order to obtain a more comparative estimate of the
total top growth produced by the plants cut frequently, the com-
parative data given in Table III were calculated.
The recorded cutting weights given in Table I were not obtained
on the same day in each instance that the samples for analysis
were dug. Consequently, the top growth on the plants taken for
this latter purpose does not represent the total aerial growth on
the plants for the date any such sample was dug. To procure a
better arrangement of this data for comparative purposes, the
cutting weights from the plants cut frequently and given in Table
I were calculated to a basis of 30 square feet, or an area equal to







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


TABLE V.-GREEN AND DRY WEIGHT IN GRAMS AND PERCENTAGE OF DRY MATTER OF
TOPs, STOLONS AND ROOTS, OF BAHIA GRASS TAKEN AT DIFFERENT DATES DURING
GROWING SEASON OF 1928 FROM AREA WITH TOP GROWTH CUT FREQUENTLY
AND FROM SIMILAR AREA WITH TOP GROWTH GROWN TO MATURITY OR TO
SEED STAGE.
Tops Cut Frequently

Tops Stolons Roots
Date When
Dug* Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry
Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter
Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent
March 15............. ...... .... 3,270 1,052.94 32.20 1,370 630.20 46.00
May 10....... 1,750.00 600.25 34.3 3,870 1,199.70 31.00 1,400 602.00 43.00
July 16 ...... 2,860 812.24 28.4 8,360 2,775.52 33.20 3,680 1,913.60 52.00
September 4... 3,717 1,263.78 34 5,190 1,572.57 30.30 1,650 796.95 48.30

Tops Grown to Maturity

Tops Stolons Roots
Date When
Dug* Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry Green Dry Dry
Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter Weight Weight Matter
Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent Grams Grams Percent
March15..... .................. 3,585 1,018.14 28.4 1,410 611.94 43.4
May 10....... 2,140 712.62 33.30 5,240 1,902.12 36.3 1,500 657.00 43.8
July 16....... 7,320 2,327.76 31.80 8,800 3,150.40 35.8 3,840 2,012.16 52.4
September4... 4,990 1,946.10 39.00 5,860 1,951.38 33.3 1,550 821.50 53
+ Weight of all plant parts taken from area of 30 square feet.

the area of plants taken for analytical purposes in each instance.
These cutting weights were then apportioned so as to coincide with
the dates on which the samples were dug as given in column 2 in
Table III. The weights given in column 1 represent the calculated
top growth on the plants not removed by cutting for the date
given in each instance. Each weight given in column 3 represents
the top growth on the plants in column 1 not removed by cutting
plus the compensated cuttings for that date and all previous com-
pensated cuttings added, i. e., it represents the total top growth
produced to date. A similar calculation was made for the dry top
growth and the weight of nitrogen as given in the next four
columns of Table III.
The top growth on the plants allowed to grow to maturity on
each date a sample was dug represents the total top growth pro-
duced up to that date and thus the above apportionment was not
necessary. The green and dry top growth and weight of nitrogen
produced to date from these plants for the different dates samples
were dug are given in columns 8, 9 and 10 of the same table. The







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


figures given in these three columns for October 19 and November
21 represent the after-growth produced after the cutting in the
seed stage on September 28. The figures given in the same col-
umns for November 30 represent the top growth on plants dug
from an adjoining area where the plants were not cut during the
entire season of 1927. The calculated weights given in columns
1, 2, 4 and 5 do not follow actual top growth yields for these dates,
but for comparative purposes they show close approximations.
A study of these data (Table III) shows several interesting
correlations. The total green weight of top growth from the
plants cut frequently during 1927 shows a gradual increase from
one date to another, reaching a maximum of 4,741.7 grams on
August 15, after which a slight decline is noted, due to decrease
in moisture content of the top growth. The top growth of the
plants from the area cut in the seed stage in 1927 shows a similar
increase from one date to another, but maximum weight is shown
on July 27, after which a gradual decline in green weight takes
place up to the time of cutting on September 28, 1927. On a dry
weight basis, the plants cut frequently show a continual increase
in weight of total top growth from one date to another practically
throughout the entire season. The plants from the area cut in the
seed stage show a similar increase in dry weight as the growing
season advances up to August 15, after which increase in dry
weight production ceases. A decrease in weight of top growth is
found on September 22 and on November 30.
This continual increase in weight of dry top growth from the
frequently cut plants shows a continuous production of vegetative
top growth throughout the growing season. On the other hand,
an absence of such an increase in dry weight of top growth during
the latter part of the season from plants cut in the seed stage
shows that plants when not cut frequently cease to produce new
top growth after a certain stage of maturity; and that their
weight of top growth is further decreased through loss of leaves
by drying and dropping to the ground. Removal of the mature
aerial growth from these plants when in a mature growth stage
again resulted in production of vegetative growth.
Production of top growth from plants frequently cut and from
those grown to maturity show similar relative results for 1928,
but such quantity yields are much larger than those for 1927 from
the former.
When a comparison of the calculated weights of top growth for
the dates given is made with apportioned cuttings for such dates,







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


it appears that the uncut top growth left on the plants is far in
excess of the apportioned cuttings for any one of such dates. Since
these apportioned cuttings consist in many cases of several cut-
tings, a comparison of any one cutting with the top growth left on
the plants after such a cutting for any particular area would show
a more striking contrast. If the top growth of the plants not re-
moved by cutting for any one of the given dates is compared with
the total top growth produced by the plants up to such a date, it is
found to represent a noticeable portion of such a top growth
production.
Composition: In percentage of nitrogen (Tables I and II), the
top growth from the cuttings and that from the growth on the
plants when the samples were dug (Tables X to XIII) do not show
wide variations from one period to another during 1927 and 1928.
The top growth on the plants from the area cut over in the seed
stage shows a gradual decrease in percentage of total nitrogen
from 2.255% on April 13 to 0.966 on September 22 (Table X), while
on September 28 when this top growth was cut in the seed stage,
the nitrogen percentage was 1.13% (Table II). A still wider
variation in nitrogen percentage in the top growth is evident in
1928, ranging from 1.75% on May 10 to 0.94% on September 4
(Table XIII), when the last sample was dug for analysis. After
the removal of the mature top growth in the seed stage in 1927
and 1928, the vegetative after-growth again showed an increase
in percentage of total nitrogen (Figs. 6 and 7).
On a quantity basis, the 15 cuttings from the frequently cut
over area produced 1,240.34 grams of nitrogen, while the cutting
in the seed stage from a similar area with that from the after-
growth added yielded 1,466.88 grams during the season of 1927,
or slightly more than that from the frequently cut over area. In
1928 this quantity yield of nitrogen from the differently treated
plants appears reversed. The 13 cuttings from the frequently cut
over area yielded 1,859.56 grams of nitrogen, or a 33% increase
over that of the previous year. The one cutting in the seed stage
plus the three cuttings of the after-growth yielded 783.6 grams
of nitrogen. This amount is almost one-half of what was produced
from similar cuttings made from this area the year before, and
about 40% of the nitrogen yield from the frequently cut-over
area in 1928.
By calculating the accumulated nitrogen produced by the entire
top growth on the plants as given in Table III, still more striking
contrasts are shown from the differently treated plants. The







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


total accumulated weight of nitrogen produced by the top growth
from the frequently cut-over area of 30 square feet from one date
to another shows a gradual increase in quantity as the season
advances, accumulating to a total of 29.262 grams on November
21 when the last sample was dug in 1927. A similar increase in
nitrogen quantity is shown for the top growth of the plants grown
to maturity, reaching a maximum of 17.647 grams on August 15,
after which a decrease in such quantity is shown on September
22 and November 30. The quantities given for October 19 and
November 21 are from the after-growth. In either case, the total
nitrogen produced by plants cut frequently is greater in quantity
than that from plants grown to maturity and not cut, or that
from similar plants cut in the seed stage plus that from the after-
growth. Similar results in nitrogen production from these dif-
ferently treated plants are shown for 1928, but the increase in
such quantity yields are larger for plants cut frequently during
the season.
The percentage of other forms of nitrogen appear to be ex-
tremely variable in the differently treated plants from time to
time, but the extracted protein and coagulable nitrogen were
slightly higher in percentage in the top growth of plants cut fre-
quently throughout the seasons of 1927 and 1928 (Tables X to
XIII).
Slight variations are shown in the percentages of the various
carbohydrate forms in the tops of the plants but very striking
differences in percentage of any particular carbohydrate are not
shown between those cut frequently and those grown to maturity.
In percentage of total carbohydrates, the tops of plants cut in the
mature growth stage and those not cut during the season are
slightly higher.
Hemicelluloses are considerably higher in percentage in the
tops of the differently treated plants than the lower carbohydrate
forms. It appears that the lower carbohydrates are rapidly
changed to these higher forms.
As previously noted, the percentage of total nitrogen in the
tops of the plants cut frequently shows little variation throughout
the season. Plants not cut throughout the season show little vari-
ation in the percentage of total nitrogen in their top growth during
their early vegetative growth but show a decided decrease in per-
centage thereafter. Where the plants were cut in the seed stage
a similar low percentage of nitrogen is shown in the mature growth







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


stages but the vegetative after-growth again showed a higher
percentage of nitrogen.
As a result of this wider variation in percentage of total nitro-
gen in the top growth of the plants cut frequently in comparison to
those cut only in the seed stage and those not cut during the
growing season, there is a marked difference in the relation be-






zo -v Ca' ohyrkres ,rom Top iowth
CuJ Frequnt/y






Total NIJoygn (x)- Fromi TpGowh
Cut F-eonenlh


March Apl May June July Augus5t september October November
Period Durnn Which S5mples Were T7ken
Fig. 6.-Relation between total hydrolyzed carbohydrates and total nitro-
gen (X 7) in the top growth of Bahia grass during the growing seasons of
1927 and 1928, when the plants were cut frequently during these seasons.

tween the total carbohydrates and total nitrogen in the top growth
of these differently treated plants. Plants cut frequently show a
narrower carbohydrate-nitrogen relation in their top growth than
that in the top growth of plants cut less frequently or not cut
during the season (Figs. 6 and 7). This difference in the total
nitrogen-carbohydrate relation in the top growth of the differently
treated plants is closely associated with the difference in their
growth behavior throughout the season. The former, with a nar-
rower carbohydrate-nitrogen relation, remains in a more vege-
tative growth condition throughout the season. Plants allowed to
grow to maturity with a wider carbohydrate-nitrogen relation are
more reproductive, seed more heavily, and produce less vegetative
parts. This difference in the relation between the total nitrogen
and total carbohydrates in the top growth of these plants at differ-
ent stages of growth appears to be in agreement with the surmise







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of Kraus and Kraybill(1) and other workers on the nitrogen and
carbohydrate relation in plants.

GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF STOLONS
Variation in Weight: A comparison of the weight of the stolons
or surface runners of the plants cut frequently and of those cut
less frequently shows interesting relations resulting from the
different cutting treatments. The plants cut in the seed stage
show a gradual increase in dry weight of stolons with little vari-










C1/5
CUrdohydr$fes- riom Top Groth





I0



7ol NiArogen- (x7)- Fom T 6,a th


Murch Aprl t/o0y June July August 5ept Ocf Nov
Period Dunny Which Samples Were Taken
Fig. 7.-Same as Fig. 6, except that the same relationships are shown for
top growth of similar plants when permitted to grow to maturity and cut in
the seed stage and also when plants were grown to maturity and not cut
during the growing season.

ation up to August 15, in 1927, after which a slight decrease took
place. Where the plants were cut in the seed stage on September
28, 1927, a greater decrease in stolon weight followed than where
the plants received no such cutting. The plants cut frequently
showed a less marked increase in dry weight of stolons through-
out the growing season of 1927, although they increased gradually
in weight throughout the entire season. During the growing sea-
son of 1928 a similar variation in dry weight was noted up to Sep-
tember 4, when the last sample was dug. Samples were taken at
greater intervals during 1928 and, therefore, such frequent vari-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of Kraus and Kraybill(1) and other workers on the nitrogen and
carbohydrate relation in plants.

GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF STOLONS
Variation in Weight: A comparison of the weight of the stolons
or surface runners of the plants cut frequently and of those cut
less frequently shows interesting relations resulting from the
different cutting treatments. The plants cut in the seed stage
show a gradual increase in dry weight of stolons with little vari-










C1/5
CUrdohydr$fes- riom Top Groth





I0



7ol NiArogen- (x7)- Fom T 6,a th


Murch Aprl t/o0y June July August 5ept Ocf Nov
Period Dunny Which Samples Were Taken
Fig. 7.-Same as Fig. 6, except that the same relationships are shown for
top growth of similar plants when permitted to grow to maturity and cut in
the seed stage and also when plants were grown to maturity and not cut
during the growing season.

ation up to August 15, in 1927, after which a slight decrease took
place. Where the plants were cut in the seed stage on September
28, 1927, a greater decrease in stolon weight followed than where
the plants received no such cutting. The plants cut frequently
showed a less marked increase in dry weight of stolons through-
out the growing season of 1927, although they increased gradually
in weight throughout the entire season. During the growing sea-
son of 1928 a similar variation in dry weight was noted up to Sep-
tember 4, when the last sample was dug. Samples were taken at
greater intervals during 1928 and, therefore, such frequent vari-







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


nations in the weight of the stolons are not shown as for samples
dug more frequently during 1927. The weight of stolons from the
frequently cut plants was again somewhat lower than that of
those cut less frequently during the season (Fig. 8) and showed a
greater decrease in weight of stolons during the latter part of the
growing season.
A
3lo / \M
/

... / / 'x









5000
Dry A4.'9A of 5 Io/ons

0 1I I
1orch Aprl 'roy June July August Sep Ocf Nov
Ftrod Durtng Whch Somples Were Taken
Fig. 8.-Variations in the dry weights of stolons of Bahia grass at different
dates when samples were taken during the growing seasons of 1927 and 1928
from areas (1) where grass was cut frequently, (2) allowed to grow to ma-
turity and no cutting made in the seed stage of growth and (3) grown to
maturity and top growth was cut in seed stage.

Composition: The various forms of nitrogen in the stolons of
the differently treated plants show marked fluctuations in per-
centage (Tables X and XIII). The most significant variation is
found in the percentage of total nitrogen. In the stolons on plants
cut frequently, the percentage of total nitrogen decreased during
the latter part of the growing season. In the stolons of plants
grown to maturity, a slight decrease in percentage of total nitro-
gen took place during the period of heavy seed production. After
the maturation of the seeds, the total nitrogen in the stolons of
these plants again increased in percentage. In the case of plants
cut in the late seed stage, a decrease in the percentage of total
nitrogen occurred after such cutting of the mature top growth.
Of the various carbohydrate compounds, the greatest variations







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in percentage during the season are found in the total sugars and
hemicelluloses. Reducing substances, starches and dextrins show
slight variations and are low in percentage in the stolons of the
differently treated plants. Total hydrolyzed carbohydrates show
wider variations in percentage, ranging from 24 to 38 percent in
stolons of plants grown to maturity and from 24 to 36 percent in
those of plants cut frequently. On a percentage basis, the relation
between the carbohydrates and total nitrogen in the stolons of
the differently treated plants differs from that of the tops through-
out the growing season (Figs. 9 and 10).
Studies on alfalfa(12) have shown that organic foods elaborated
by the tops in excess of the growing needs of the plants are trans-
40
Caroh/ydrca/es From Sto/ons of
S P/anfs Cuf 'requenfly



Bo-
To/a// NIrogen (r7) from Sftoons of
P/lnfs Cuf fre ouen I



/7',c- Apr,/ /1oy June /ly A u S5ept Ocf M/o
,Pef/od' Dunn< lVA,th Saomp/les /re 7( a ken
Fig. 9.-Relation between the total hydrolyzed carbohydrates and total
nitrogen (X 7) in the stolons of Bahia grass during the growing seasons of
1927 and 1928 when the top growth was cut frequently during these periods.

located to the roots of such plants. To judge from these studies
on alfalfa, it would seem that the percentage of such compounds
in the stolons, especially carbohydrates, will vary considerably,
depending upon the amounts of such excess materials being trans-
located to and from the stolons. The variation in the availability
of nitrogen from the soil at different times throughout the grow-
ing season is another factor to be considered in this respect.

GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF ROOTS
Variation in Weight: Since the roots in each instance were dug
to a depth of only eight inches, complete results as to their growth
behavior cannot be given. To obtain such data, the weight of the
entire root growth is essential. However, some striking differ-
ences were noted between the roots of plants cut frequently and







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


in percentage during the season are found in the total sugars and
hemicelluloses. Reducing substances, starches and dextrins show
slight variations and are low in percentage in the stolons of the
differently treated plants. Total hydrolyzed carbohydrates show
wider variations in percentage, ranging from 24 to 38 percent in
stolons of plants grown to maturity and from 24 to 36 percent in
those of plants cut frequently. On a percentage basis, the relation
between the carbohydrates and total nitrogen in the stolons of
the differently treated plants differs from that of the tops through-
out the growing season (Figs. 9 and 10).
Studies on alfalfa(12) have shown that organic foods elaborated
by the tops in excess of the growing needs of the plants are trans-
40
Caroh/ydrca/es From Sto/ons of
S P/anfs Cuf 'requenfly



Bo-
To/a// NIrogen (r7) from Sftoons of
P/lnfs Cuf fre ouen I



/7',c- Apr,/ /1oy June /ly A u S5ept Ocf M/o
,Pef/od' Dunn< lVA,th Saomp/les /re 7( a ken
Fig. 9.-Relation between the total hydrolyzed carbohydrates and total
nitrogen (X 7) in the stolons of Bahia grass during the growing seasons of
1927 and 1928 when the top growth was cut frequently during these periods.

located to the roots of such plants. To judge from these studies
on alfalfa, it would seem that the percentage of such compounds
in the stolons, especially carbohydrates, will vary considerably,
depending upon the amounts of such excess materials being trans-
located to and from the stolons. The variation in the availability
of nitrogen from the soil at different times throughout the grow-
ing season is another factor to be considered in this respect.

GROWTH AND COMPOSITION OF ROOTS
Variation in Weight: Since the roots in each instance were dug
to a depth of only eight inches, complete results as to their growth
behavior cannot be given. To obtain such data, the weight of the
entire root growth is essential. However, some striking differ-
ences were noted between the roots of plants cut frequently and







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


those grown to maturity. In case of the latter, the roots were
larger and generally were greater in weight during the more
mature growth stages of the plants. The roots of plants cut fre-
quently were more slender and showed more variation in weight


o or/ayJboyares /- Fom Stolons of

J.s o to M -.
C cIn 5-rd 5%g ge



C7 Tta/lifroocn(x7) Fro, 5tolons of
Plnt GC'oo to ofonrty



March April fay June July Auy Sp Oc No
Period Durmin Which Samples Were Taken
Fig. 10.-Relation between total hydrolyzed carbohydrates and total nitro-
gen (X 7) in the stolons of Bahia grass when the top growth was permitted
to grow to maturity during the growing seasons of 1927 and 1928 and, also,
after being cut in the seed stage in 1927.
during the growing season of 1927. During 1928, the roots of the
frequently cut plants, due to the fact that they covered a larger
area than the previous season, showed a smaller difference in
weight from the roots of plants grown to maturity (Tables IV
and V and Fig. 13). The less frequent variations in the weight of
the roots, as in the case of the stolons during 1928, is due to the
fact that samples were dug less frequently during this season.
Composition: On a percentage basis, the lower carbohydrates,
as sugars, starches and dextrins, in the roots of the differently
treated plants are lower in percentage than the hemicelluloses or
total carbohydrates at all periods throughout the growing season.
(Tables VI to IX). Hemicelluloses and total hydrolyzed carbo-
hydrates increased gradually in percentage, reaching a maximum
towards the close of the growing season in the frequently cut
plants, while in the roots of plants grown to maturity, the maxi-
mum percentage of these carbohydrates is found during the more
mature growth stages of the plants (Tables VI to IX; also Figs.
11 and 12).
The various forms of nitrogen in the roots show slight varia-
tions in percentage from one growth period to another. Total








32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


nitrogen shows a more marked variation in percentage through-
out the season but is not so great as in the tops or stolons of the
plants (Tables X to XIII). The relation between total nitrogen
and carbohydrates is different from that of the tops. (Figs. 11
and 12).




40 .

Carhoayjra/es Ftom Roos i f
o _, Plants Cut feue/lly



JoY

ToI 7 NItroen I7)- fom Rots If
'"o P/nt Cut Frelently



fl/rch Apr/ /aoy June Ju/. Auy. Sep/ Ocl. Nov
Period Durnny A/eA, Samp/es Here eake

Fig. 11.-Relation between percentage of total carbohydrates and total
nitrogen (X 7) in the first eight inches of roots of Bahia grass when the top
growth was cut frequently during growing seasons of 1927 and 1928.





Co/0foAya/Mre s Pfools o/P/o,/s

C'"/ Seed Sto9.e





/1olA,3/Mfoo >7- om, Roas, of
P/lants Goe To A/o, /wI


Molah Ap/,l 1oy Jue July Auy e,,pt Oc/ Nov
Perod Durny Which Samples Were Taoen

Fig. 12.-Relation between the total carbohydrates and total nitrogen (X 7)
in the first eight inches of roots of Bahia grass at different periods during the
growing seasons of 1927 and 1928 when the top growth was permitted to
grow to maturity and not cut during both seasons and when the top growth
was cut in the seed stage in 1927.















TABLE VI.-PERCENTAGE OF VARIOUS EASILY HYDROLYZABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS WHEN TOPS WERE
CUT AT SHORT INTERVALS OF TIME DURING GROWING SEASON OF 1927. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS. ALL
CARBOHYDRATES GIVEN IN TERMS OF GLUCOSE.


Date When Reducing Substances Total Sugars Sol. Starches and True Starch Hemicelluloses Total Hydrolyzed
Dug Dextrins Carbohydrates
1927 Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots
March30....... 1.053 1.43 0.73 1.825 2.885 0.800 1.410 0.650 0.606 2.260 1.110 1.53016.660 20.240 15.00022.155 24.885 17.936
April13........ 0.883 1.33 0.791 1.483 1.820 1.116 1.043 0.948 0.503 0.966 0.749 0.70016.610 22.895 16.48 20.102 26.412 18.799
May4.......... 0.960 2.813 0.749 2.56 6.633 1.483 1.483 1.750 0.816 0.810 2.739 0.55319.230 18.700 14.56024.083 29.822 17.412
May25........ 1.23 1.23 0.0745 2.716 4.816 2.416 1.283 2.163 0.733 1.25 5.566 0.76620.066 23.633 16.23325.315 36.178 20.148
June 5........ 1.933 1.116 0.633 2.216 1.966 1.333 0.620 1.183 0.816 3.233 2.216 0.88319.733 23.766 19.83325.802 29.131 22.865
July6.......... 2.416 2.516 1.900 2.916 3.866 2.716 1.383 1.333 0.733 2.000 1.183 0.73318.266 20.266 21.13324.565 26.648 25.315
July27......... 0.883 1.333 0.883 2.666 2.516 1.250 1.250 1.250 0.733 1.483 0.966 0.60022.100 24.500 24.16627.499 29.232 26.749
Augustl5...... 1.800 2.216 0.883 2.266 3.400 1.333 1.183 1.416 0.883 1.250 0.800 0.73322.833 24.200 23.06627.532 29.816 26.015
September22... 3.816 2.516 1.250 5.566 5.066 5.400 2.716 5.066 2.800 1.250 1.250 0.96620.030 22.833 24.76629.562 34.215 33.932
October l9..... 1.60 1.550 0.500 2.216 4.316 0.766 0.816 0.500 0.500 1.600 0.886 0.39320.400 19.833 21.46625.032 25.535 23.125
November21... 0.733 1.900 0.933 1.75 4.433 2.266 1.083 1.386 1.350 2.318 2.416 0.81622.533 21.133 22.1 27.684 29.368 26.532















TABLE VII.-PERCENTAGE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF EASILY HYDROLYZABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT
DIFFERENT STAGES OF GROWTH AND AFTER CUTTING OF TOP GROWTH IN MATURE STAGE, DURING GROWING SEASON OF 1927. ALL
PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS. ALL CARBOHYDRATES GIVEN IN TERMS OF GLUCOSE.


Date When Reducing Substances Total Sugars Sol. trs and True Starch Hemicelluloses Total Hydrolyzed
Dextrins Carbohydrates
Dug
D u g ---- -------------------------------------------------------------------
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March30....... 1.053 1.43 0.73 1.825 2.885 0.800 1.410 0.650 0.606 2.260 1.110 1.53016.66 20.240 15.00022.155 24.885 17.936
April13 ....... 0.816 0.816 0.73 1.80 1.80 1.25 1.33 1.266 0.606 1.250 1.099 0.73318.466 25.675 17.71022.846 29.840 20.299
May 4 ....... 1.85 2.416 0.656 2.283 4.40 1.963 1.250 1.250 0.73 1.900 3.283 0.606 18.166 24.500 16.66023.599 33.433 19.959
May25 ........ 2.924 2.141 0.70 3.283 6.750 2.516 1.250 1.850 0.63 1.25 6.083 0.63 20.400 24.200 17.66 26.183 38.883 21.436
June15........ 1.683 0.966 0.70 2.766 2.216 1.186 1.433 1.183 0.816 2.816 2.216 0.88319.133 24.200 18.36626.148 29.815 21.251
July ........ 1.116 1.216 1.250 1.650 3.000 2.216 1.083 0.966 0.883 1.900 0.9666 0.88320.040 21.233 22.83324.673 26.165 26.815
July27........ 1.850 1.33 0.816 2.516 3.400 1.483 1.183 2.000 0.766 0.966 1.666 0.73321.766 25.900 24.63326.431 32.966 27.615
August15...... 1.800 2.716 1.283 2.716 2.866 1.600 1.250 2.000 1.450 1.333 1.683 0.60022.833 22.733 23.40028.132 29.282 27.050
September22... 2.866 3.033 0.966 4.316 3.566 1.483 5.066 1.383 0.733 1.850 1.483 0.96621.333 23.066 24.76632.565 29.498 27.948
October24 .... 0.73 1.25 0.700 3.033 1.330 1.250 1.33 1.250 0.503 0.966 2.516 0.45324.766 24.766 21.13330.095 29.862 23.339
November21... 0.533 1.850 0.656 0.966 3.766 1.250 1.450 1.116 0.503 1.283 2.866 0.88622.433 24.633 20.16626.132 32.381 22.805
After cut ting of tops i n late see d stage, Septe mber 28, 1927.

October 19..... 1.600 0.766 0.500 2.666 1.683 0.966 0.816 0.500 0.766 1.266 0.666 0.46622.000 21.433 22.00026.748 24.282 24.198
November21... 0.816 1.650 0.816 2.266 7.783 1.450 0.966 1.250 0.700 1.083 2.816 0.73323.633 23.266 22.23327.948 35.115 25.116










TABLE VIII.-PERCENTAGE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF EASILY HYDROLYZABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS
OF BAHIA GRASS AT DIFFERENT PERIODS DURING THE GROWING SEASON OF 1928 WHEN THE TOP GROWTH WAS
CUT FREQUENTLY. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS. ALL CARBOHYDRATES GIVEN
IN TERMS OF GLUCOSE.

Percent Reducing Percent Total Percent Percent Total Hydrolyzed
Substances in Sugars in Polysaccharides in Carbohydrates in
Date When Dug
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March 15.......... ...... 1.483 0.503 ...... 2.766 1.283 ...... 28.516 23.232 ...... 31.272 24.515
May 10........... 0.966 1.483 1.250 2.370 4.066 1.483 24.500 27.700 21.333 26.870 31.766 22.816
July 16........... 2.625 1.483 0.250 4.066 2.660 1.250 20.930 25.900 20.300 24.996 28.560 21.550
September 4....... 0.966 2.266 0.35 2.166 4.816 1.483 20.933 23.966 18.1666 23.099 28.782 19.649

TABLE IX.-PERCENTAGE OF VARIOUS FORMS OF EASILY HYDROLYZABLE CARBOHYDRATES IN TOPS, STOLONS AND
ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT DIFFERENT GROWTH STAGES OR FROM EARLY VEGETATIVE STAGE TO LATE MATURITY
OF TOP GROWTH. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS. ALL CARBOHYDRATES
GIVEN IN TERMS OF GLUCOSE.

Percent Reducing Percent Total Percent Percent Total Hydrolyzed
Substances in Sugars in Polysaccharides in Carbohydrates in
Date When Dug
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March 15.......... ...... ...... 0.733 ...... 1.250 1.283 ...... 27.566 22.433 ...... 28.816 23.726
May 10........... 4.316 7.500 0.505 4.316 8.733 1.483 21.700 28.566 20.933 26.016 37.299 22.416
July 16........... 1.483 1.116 0.505 4.266 3.966 1.250 22.233 25.900 19.733 26.499 29.866 20.983
September4...... 0.966 0.966 0.25 1.383 1.383 0.966 23.500 25.233 19.266 24.833 26.616 20.232















TABLE X.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT
VARIOUS PERIODS OF GROWTH FROM AN EARLY SUCCULENT STAGE TO MATURITY OF TOP GROWTH AND AFTER
CUTTING OF TOP GROWTH IN SEED STAGE ON SEPTEMBER 28, 1927. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A
DRY WEIGHT BASIS.

Percent Extracted Percent Unextracted Percent Protein Percent Coagulable
Date When Cut Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March 30.......... 0.445 0.694 0.212 1.488 0.721 0.398 1.683 0.843 0.462 0.195 0.122 0.0645
Aprill3........... 0.594 0.432 0.423 1.761 0.858 0.492 2.037 0.948 0.550 0.276 0.0907 0.0584
May4............ 0.210 0.438 0.182 1.620 0.647 0.396 1.683 0.704 0.462 0.0631 0.0571 0.0880
May25........... 0.308 0.406 0.173 1.422 0.585 0.492 1.543 0.735 0.601 0.121 0.150 0.109
June 15 ........... 0.650 0.881 0.220 1.350 0.499 0.380 1.470 0.756 0.468 0.120 0.257 0.0883
July 6............ 0.540 0.540 0.187 1.260 0.650 0.396 1.510 0.900 0.499 0.250 0.250 0.103
July27............ 0.277 0.333 0.153 1.029 0.557 0.483 1.246 0.707 0.593 0.217 0.150 0.120
August 15......... 0.154 0.275 0.255 1.046 0.775 0.375 1.172 0.899 0.578 0.126 0.224 0.203
September 22...... 0.304 0.375 0.258 0.662 0.278 0.458 0.750 0.306 0.541 0.088 0.0285 0.0833
October 24........ 0.346 0.642 0.200 0.550 0.433 0.435 0.643 0.567 0.505 0.093 0.134 0.070
November 30..... 0.183 0.538 0.272 0.652 0.447 0.363 0.741 0.610 .516 0.089 0.163 0.153

After C cutting of mature top gro wth on S eptembe r 28, 192 7.

October 19 ....... 0.413 0.524 0.245 1.037 0.401 0.355 1.191 0.522 0.442 0.154 0.121 0.0872
November 21...... 0.485 0.635 0.365 1.055 0.265 0.230 1.260 0.575 0.395 0.205 0.310 0.165












TABLE X-A.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT
VARIOUS PERIODS OF GROWTH FROM AN EARLY SUCCULENT STAGE TO MATURITY OF TOP GROWTH AND AFTER
CUTTING OF TOP GROWTH IN SEED STAGE ON SEPTEMBER 28, 1927. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A
DRY WEIGHT BASIS.

Percent Soluble Percent Amino-Acid Percent Nitrate Percent Total
SNitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in o
Date When Cut
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots
March30.......... 0.250 0.572 0.148 ..... .... ...... ..... ....... ......... 1.933 1.415 0.610
April 13......... 0.318 0.342 0.365 0.115 0.200 0.0743 0.108 0.0948 0.0892 2.255 1.295 0.915 ;.
May 4............ 0.147 0.380 0.116 0.0966 0.175 0.915 0.0336 0.0275 0.0929 1.830 1.085 0.578 0
May25........... 0.187 0.256 0.063 0.108 0.159 0.100 0.0201 0.011 0.0012 1.730 1.045 0.665 Cz
June 15........... 0.530 0.624 0.183 0.162 0.270 0.0806 0.066 0.0405 0.0511 1.900 1.380 0.600
July 6............. 0.290 0.290 0.084 0.120 0.266 0.0805 0.0276 0.006 0.000 1.800 1.190 0.583
July27........... 0.222 0.183 0.043 0.051 0.108 0.029 0.0214 0.0727 0.0130 1.306 0.890 0.636 c
August 15......... 0.060 0.151 0.052 0.030 0.148 0.040 0.0186 0.0275 0.0102 1.200 1.050 0.630
September 22...... 0.216 0,347 0.175 0.0046 0.0945 0.0225 0.0243 0.025 0.006 0.966 0.833 0.526
October 24 ....... 0.257 0.408 0.130 0.029 0.097 0.054 0.029 0.037 0.024 0.890 1.075 0.635
November 30...... 0.149 0.425 0.119 0.013 0.138 0.031 0.018 ............ 0.835 1.085 0.635
After cu tting of mature top gro wth on S september 28, 192 7.

October 19........ 0.259 0.403 0.158 0.249 0.131 0.0908 0.000 0.000 0.001 1.450 0.925 0.560 c
November21...... 0.280 0.325 0.200 0.038 0.0618 0.0211 0.000 0.004 0.022 1.54 0.900 0.590










TABLE XI.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN IN TOPS, ROOTS AND STOLONS OF BAHIA GRASS WHEN
TOP GROWTH WAS CUT FREQUENTLY DURING GROWING SEASON OF 1927. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED
ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS.
Percent Extracted Percent Unextracted Percent Protein Percent Coagulable
Date When Dug Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March 30......... 0.445 0.694 0.212 1.488 0.721 0.398 1.683 0.843 0.464 0.195 0.122 0.064
April 13........... 0.728 0.752 0.135 1.337 0.543 0.451 1.646 0.693 0.530 0.309 0.150 0.079
May 4............ 0.486 0.525 0.249 1.657 0.740 0.374 1.846 0.945 0.468 0.189 0.205 0.094-
May25............ 0.455 0.554 0.181 1.245 0.712 0.449 1.444 0.875 0.559 0.199 0.163 0.110
June 15.......... 0.652 0.770 0.223 1.378 0.483 0.477 1.683 0.732 0.554 0.305 0.249 0.077
July 6............ 0.890 0.596 0.214 1.460 0.680 0.466 1.856 0.951 0.498 0.396 0.271 0.032
July27............ 0.872 0.843 0.276 1.176 0.247 0.335 1.685 0.537 0.457 0.509 0.290 0.122
August 15........ 0.533 0.416 0.150 1.297 0.429 0.461 1.538 0.641 0.546 0.241 0.212 0.085
September 22...... 0.532 0.357 0.326 0.798 0.283 0.234 0.940 0.434 0.368 0.142 0.151 0.134
October 19 ....... 0.570 0.544 0.366 0.930 0.336 0.419 1.112 0.518 0.530 0.182 0.126 0.111
November 21...... 0.353 0.463 0.330 1.067 0.452 0.250 1.175 0.504 0.357 0.063 0.052 0.107
TABLE XI.-A.
Percent Soluble Percent Amino-Acid Percent Nitrate Percent Total
Date When Dug Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in
Date When Dug
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots
March30......... 0.250 0.572 0.148 ...... ..... ..... ...... ...... ...... 1.933 1.415 0.610
April 13........... 0.419 0.602 0.056 0.066 0.234 0.136 0.122 0.147 0.057 2.065 1.295 0.586
May 4........... 0.297 0.320 0.155 0.110 0.196 0.110 0.082 0.064 0.059 2.143 1.265 0.623
May25........... 0.256 0.391 0.071 0.105 0.209 0.106 0.022 0.024 0.018 1.700 1.166 0.630
June 15.......... 0.347 0.521 0.146 0.176 0.342 0.145 0.072 0.104 0.055 2.030 1.253 0.700
July 6............ 0.494 0.325 0.182 0.146 0.184 0.073 0.029 0.065 0.021 2.350 1.276 0.680
July27............ 0.363 0.553 0.154 0.113 0.117 0.083 0.203 0.109 0.051 1.948 1.090 0.611
August 15......... 0.292 0.204 0.065 0.141 0.133 0.038 0.147 0.078 0.0163 1.830 0.845 0.650
September 22...... 0.390 0.206 0.192 0.031 0.015 0.022 0.042 0.045 0.020 1.330 0.640 0.560
October 19 ....... 0.388 0.422 0.255 0.044 0.101 0.037 0.002 0.005 0.000 1.500 0.880 0.785
November 21...... 0.290 0.411 0.223 0.107 0.137 0.217 0.000 0.004 0.012 1.420 0.915 0.580













TABLE XII.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT
DIFFERENT PERIODS DURING THE GROWING SEASON OF 1928 WHEN TOPS WERE CUT FREQUENTLY. ALL
PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON BASIS OF DRY MATTER.

Percent Extracted Percent Unextracted Percent Protein Percent Coagulable
Date When Dug Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in
Date When Dug
Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots Tops Stolons Roots

March 15......... ......0.757 0.307 ...... 0.393 0.403 ...... 0.393 0.413 ...... 0.000 0.010
May 10 ........... 0.562 0.632 0.232 1.448 0.497 0.568 1.623 0.608 0.679 0.175 0.206 0.111
July 16 ........... 0.808 0.254 0.230 0.912 0.276 0.290 1.436 0.492 0.451 0.524 0.216 0.161
September 4....... 0.500 0.317 0.273 1.190 0.213 0.247 1.477 0.429 0.447 0.287 0.206 0.200
Percent Soluble Percent Amino-Acid Percent Nitrate Percent Total
Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in Nitrogen in

March 15.......... 0.757 0.297 ...... 0.477 0.045 ...... 0.090 0.076 ...... 1.150 0.710
May 10........... 0.387 0.426 0.121 0.0820 0.153 0.028 0.000 0.000 0.000 2.01 1.05 0.800
July 16........... 0.284 0.038 0.069 0.033 0.036 0.012 0.000 0.000 0.000 1.72 0.53 0.520
September 4....... 0.213 0.111 0.073 0.122 0.105 0.049 0.010 0.000 .006 1.69 0.53 0.520


















TABLE XIII.-PERCENTAGE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF NITROGEN IN TOPS, STOLONS AND ROOTS OF BAHIA GRASS AT
DIFFERENT PERIODS DURING THE GROWING SEASON OF 1928 WHEN TOP GROWTH WAS ALLOWED TO GROW TO
MATURITY OR TO ADVANCED SEED STAGE. ALL PERCENTAGES CALCULATED ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS.


Date When Dug



March 15..........
M ay 10...........
July 16 ...........
September 4.......


Percent Extracted
Nitrogen in

Tops Stolons Roots

...... 0.704 0.341
0.621 0.573 0.152
0.415 0.234 0.175
0.378 0.496 0.207


Percent Soluble
Nitrogen in

March 15.......... ....... 0.704 0.341
May 10........... 0.510 0.397 0.061
July 16............. 0.119 0.123 0.075
September 4....... 0.231 0.173 0.137


Percent Unextracted
Nitrogen in

Tops Stolons Roots

...... 0.436 0.379
1.129 0.777 0.598
0.635 0.286 0.245
0.562 0.364 0.437


Percent Amino-Acid
Nitrogen in

...... 0.194 0.012
0.030 0.125 0.008
0.025 0.033 0.031
0.084 0.105 0.049


Percent Protein
Nitrogen in

Tops Stolons Roots


1.24
0.931
0.709


0.436 0.379
0.953 0.689
0.397 0.345
0.687 0.484


Percent Nitrate
Nitrogen in

...... 0.056 0.025
0.029 0.022 0.000
0.005 0.000 0.036
0.000 0.000 0.025


Percent Coagulable


Percent Coagulable
Nitrogen in

Tops Stolons Roots


0.111
0.296
0.147


0.00 0.000
0.176 0.091
0.111 0.100
0.323 0.0700


Percent Total
Nitrogen in

...... 1.140 0.720
1.75 1.350 0.750
1.05 0.52 0.42
0.94 0.86 0.64







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


RELATION OF ORGANIC FOODS TO THE GROWTH BEHAVIOR OF
THE PLANTS
As in the case of Alfalfa(12) and timothy(8), a notable corre-
lation is shown between the top growth production of Bahia grass
and the various organic carbohydrate and nitrogen compounds
stored in its subterranean organs. The variation in the percen-
tage of the various carbohydrate and nitrogen compounds in the
roots and stolons of the differently treated plants do not follow a
consistent trend but apparently vary with various changes in the
growth environment of the plants. The hemicelluloses are higher
in percentage than the lower forms of carbohydrates in the stolons
and roots of the plants grown to maturity. This indicates a rapid
transformation of these lower carbohydrates to hemicelluloses.
The more woody and fibrous condition of these parts in plants
grown to maturity than in corresponding parts of plants with the
top cut frequently, indicates a rapid transformation of these hemi-
celluloses to lignin and cellulose, or the more woody plant tissues.
Although hemicelluloses are higher in proportion to the lower
carbohydrates in the stolons and roots of plants cut frequently,
the less woody condition of these plant parts indicates a less rapid
transformation of hemicelluloses into lignin and cellulose. It
appears that the greater part of the carbohydrates elaborated by
these frequently cut plants is utilized for the repeated production
of new top growth and is less available for the formation of lignin
and cellulose in the lower plant parts. Detailed determinations
were not carried out to prove this contention but the less fibrous
and woody nature of the latter plants indicates such a possibility.
That hemicelluloses are utilized as reserve foods by pasture and
forage plants appears evident from work done on such plants.
Leukel(14) found a 50 percent decrease in percentage of hemi-
celluloses in the roots of alfalfa plants during the production of
early spring top growth. A large decrease in the percentage of
hemicelluloses was found by the same writer during the produc-
tion of vegetative top growth on alfalfa after the cutting of the
tops of the plants in the seed stage of growth. Nightingale(33)
found a considerable decrease or loss in percentage of hemicellu-
loses in tomato plants when a large loss of starch took place. The
low percentage of starch in the stolons and roots of the Bahia
plants cut frequently might indicate a similar condition. Al-
though decided decreases in percentage of hemicellusoses are not
noted, the decrease in percentage of dry matter in these plant
parts at different times seems to indicate that a decrease in the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


absolute quantity of hemicellulose must occur, else there would
be an increase in the percentage of this compound. The decrease
in the total quantity of dry matter in the stolons of the plants at
different periods further indicates the utilization of this compound
as a reserve food for further growth.
The various forms of nitrogen vary considerably in percentage
in the stolons and roots of the differently treated plants from one
period to another. That change of plant environment is a factor
in bringing about changes in the distribution of the different forms
of nitrogen in the different plant parts is quite likely. Janssen(32)
found the protein molecule to be rather unstable in the wheat
plant with a lowering of the temperature toward the freezing
point. The water soluble and the soluble nitrogen which is coag-
ulable by heating increased during the fall months as the tem-
perature decreased. The coagulable nitrogen increased up to the
freezing point after which it decreased. This transformation of
nitrogen varied in plants from different dates of seeding. Night-
ingale(33) found a decrease in protein nitrogen and an increase
in soluble nitrate-free nitrogen in tomato plants when they were
transferred from light to darkness while growing in a nutrient
solution free from available nitrogen. To judge from the results
obtained by these and other workers, it appears that in order to
account for the distribution of the various carbohydrate and
nitrogen fractions in the different parts of Bahia grass it would
be necessary to grow these under more controlled conditions.
However, a comparison of the total nitrogen and total carbohy-
drates in the stolons and roots of the differently treated plants
from one period to another shows to what extent these compounds
are used for new growth.
On a percentage and quantity basis, certain correlations are
outstanding in regard to the variation in the stolons and roots of
the differently treated plants. In regard to total carbohydrates
in the stolons of plants cut frequently during 1927, a higher per-
centage is shown for cuttings made on May 4 and September 22.
Between these dates the percentage of such carbohydrates is con-
siderably lower (Fig. 9). It appears from data given in Table III
that during this period the greatest production of top growth
took place. A marked decrease in quantity of carbohydrates is
shown for June (Fig. 13) during the same year, but such quantity
again increases gradually during the remainder of the growing
season. During 1928 samples were dug less frequently but a
gradual decrease of carbohydrate percentage may be noted dur-








Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


ing similar periods of increased top growth (Fig 9). On a quan-
tity basis, such carbohydrates decrease after July 16 in the stolons
of the plants cut frequently (Fig. 13), but a gradual increase in
quantity is noted before this date.
Somewhat similar variations are shown in the percentage of
nitrogen in the stolons of the plants cut frequently during periods












0oo

/larch Aprl 1ay June July Aua 5ept Ocf /Vov
Period DL,,y Which Somples Were Taken
Fig. 13.-Variation in weight of total carbohydrates in the stolons of Bahia
grass during growing seasons of 1927 and 1928, when the top growth was
(1) cut frequently, (2) permitted to grow to maturity and cut in the seed
stage and (3) not cut during the growing season.

of greatest top production, but such decreases in percentage are
less marked (Fig. 9). A somewhat lower quantity of nitrogen is
noted in the stolons of these plants (cut frequently) during May
and June and August and September in 1927. Such decrease in
nitrogen quantity in May and June cannot be attributed entirely
to increase in top growth (Fig. 14). This was a period of scant
rainfall and low soil moisture and this was a factor limiting the
availability of nitrogen for the plants. During the latter period,
August and September, such decrease in quantity of nitrogen in
the stolons can be more directly associated with increase in pro-
duction of top growth (Table III). In early spring and late fall
when the top growth production was less vigorous, the nitrogen
in the stolons of the plants was greater in quantity.
Similar variations in percentage and quantity of nitrogen in the
stolons of the frequently cut plants are given for 1928. During
the slow production of top growth in spring the stolons are higher
in percentage and quantity of nitrogen, but such nitrogen de-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


creases later in both percentage and quantity during more vigor-
ous vegetative top growth.
In the stolons of plants cut in the seed stage and in those of
plants not cut during the growing season, marked correlations
can be noted between the quantity and percentage of total nitro-
gen and carbohydrates and in the growth behavior of the plants.
During the period of increased vegetative top growth during May
and June of 1927, there was a notable decrease in the percentage
of carbohydrates. With increased quantity and maturity of leaf




/ % / /







as Nilrogen In 5to6oa5


Moch Apr,/ May J.c J.ly A; y p/ COZ N-o.
Frod Durng WVhich Samples Were Taecn
Fig. 14.-Weight of nitrogen in stolons of Bahia grass on different dates.
Samples were taken from areas where tops (1) were cut frequently during
the season, (2) grew to maturity and were cut in the seed stage and (3) grew
to maturity and were not cut during the growing season.

area thereafter, there was a decided increase in percentage of
such carbohydrates in the stolons of the plants; and this per-
centage remained rather constant during the remainder of the
growing season. After the cutting of the tops in the seed stage,
there was again a pronounced decrease in percentage of total
carbohydrates during the production of vegetative top growth.
Later in the season the percentage of carbohydrates in the stolons
again increased. Somewhat similar variations were shown in the
percentage of total carbohydrates in the stolons of these plants
during 1928 in relation to their growth behavior (Figs. 9 and 10).
On a quantity basis, similar variations are shown for carbohy-
drates. In early spring during slow vegetative top growth the
carbohydrates in the stolons appear to increase in quantity. Like-







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


wise in early fall when vegetative top growth ceases in plants
grown to maturity, carbohydrates in the stolons are higher in
quantity, but during the period of increased vegetative top growth
during May, June and July, carbohydrates in the stolons decrease
in quantity. After the top growth attains a certain quantity and
maturity for elaboration of carbohydrates in excess of the grow-
ing needs of the plants, such carbohydrates again increase in the
stolons of the plants. The production of new vegetative top
growth after the cutting of the tops in the seed stage again brings
about a decrease in the quantity of carbohydrates in the stolons
(Fig. 13).
On a percentage basis, the total nitrogen in the stolons of the
plants grown to maturity shows slight variations, but on a quan-
tity basis a slight decrease in quantity of nitrogen occurs. A
marked decrease in quantity of nitrogen in the stolons also takes
place during the production of new vegetative top growth after
the cutting of the tops in the seed stage in 1927.
Since the roots of these plants were dug to a depth of only eight
inches very accurate correlations cannot be made between the
organic foods in such roots and the growth behavior of the plants.




~' \ Dry ,/V/C/ of/soo

-,0







7/loch Aprd Play June July Aug Sept Oc/ Nov
Perod Durng Which Samples Were 7aken
Fig. 15.-Dry weight of first eight inches of roots of Bahia grass at differ-
ent periods during the growing seasons of 1927 and 1928 when the top growth
was (1) cut frequently, (2) grown to maturity and not cut, (3) cut in the seed
stage of growth.

On a percentage basis the carbohydrates in the roots of the fre-
quently cut plants appeared lower during the period of heavy top
production in 1927 than later on in the season. During 1928 a
gradual decrease in such percentage of carbohydrates took place







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


during development of heavy top growth. In percentage of nitro-
gen, the roots of the frequently cut plants are rather uniform
and show little variation with increase or decrease in quantity of
top growth (Fig. 11).
In the roots of the plants grown to maturity the carbohydrates
are lower in percentage during production of vegetative top
growth in the early part of the season but during the remainder
of the season they are higher in percentage of such compounds.
In late fall a slight decrease in percentage of these compounds
takes place. In percentage of nitrogen little variation is shown
relative to changes in production (Fig. 12) of top growth.
On a quantity basis, during 1927, carbohydrates were slightly
higher during the greater part of the growing season in the roots
of the plants grown to maturity, showing a slight decrease during
the production of vegetative top growth in June of that year.
However, an increase in quantity of carbohydrates took place
/0














Perod Dur9n9 /AcA Scm,/es Aere T/en
/\ 0









cut, (3) cut in the seed stage in 1927.




after September, when no vegetative growth is being produced.
/crtodl Du"Pnn A/hIcAi samples Alere Taeen



Fig. 16.-A decrease in quantity of carbohydrates was noted in these rootsfirst eight inches of
roots of Bahia grass during growing seasons of 1927 after the cutting of
growth was (1) cut frequently, (2) permitted to grow to maturity and not
cut, (3) cut in the seed stage in 1927.

after September, when no vegetative growth is being produced.
A decrease in quantity of carbohydrates was noted in these roots
during production of vegetative top growth after the cutting of
the tops in the late seed stage of growth (Fig. 17). Where no
such cutting was made, carbohydrates in the roots increase in
quantity.
During 1928 the nitrogen and carbohydrates followed a similar







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


trend in the roots of the differently treated plants on a quantity
basis, being lower-in early spring and increasing in quantity
through July, after which a decided reduction in such quantities
of materials takes place.
The roots of the plants grown to maturity were slightly higher
in quantity of nitrogen and carbohydrates (Figs. 16 and 17) than




'yw \< Ceiarohydcm/es Fr-o '9o-s







0o J f I I I f /

Iorch Apinl /oy June July Aug Sept- Oc/ Nov
Period Dunn9 Which Samples Were Taken
Fig. 17.-Diagram showing weight of total carbohydrates in first eight
inches of roots of Bahia grass during growing seasons of 1927-and 1928 when
top growth was (1) cut frequently, (2) permitted to grow to maturity and not
cut and (3) cut in seed stage in 1927.

the roots of plants cut frequently. The decided increase in the
spread of the frequently cut plants over that of those grown to
maturity the second season accounts to a great extent for the
decrease in the difference in the quantities of organic foods in the
roots of these differently treated plants.
That an increased utilization of organic foods for the repeated
or continual production of vegetative top growth retards or de-
creases the weight of the stolons of the plants during the growing
season appears quite likely from data given (Fig. 8). Plants cut
frequently showed a marked retardation in weight of stolons dur-
ing 1927 when compared with a similar increase in weight of
stolons on plants grown to maturity during the same year. The
more pronounced decrease in weight of stolons during the produc-
tion of vegetative top growth after the cutting of the tops in the
seed stage adds weight to the above contention. During 1928 a
similar retardation of stolon weight for plants cut frequently is
shown but such retardation is less than that of the season before.







.Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The increased spread of the plants cut frequently over those
grown to maturity may account for this difference. A marked
decrease in stolon weight is shown for the plants given different
cutting treatments the latter part of the growing season of 1928.

DISCUSSION
The foregoing data present some interesting facts on the
growth behavior and morphological characteristics of Bahia grass
when compared with some of the upright growing plants or
grasses reported upon by previous workers(12). Its persistence
and continual production of new top growth after frequent cut-
tings in the immature growth stages appear to be more outstand-
ing than the behavior of the more upright growing grasses or
forage crops when subjected to similar cutting treatments.
Removal of the top growth of the latter plants by cutting gen-
erally deprives them of most of their entire leaf area. If this
cutting is made when the top growth is in an immature condition,
sufficient reserve foods are not left in the roots or other storage
parts of the plants for subsequent top growth, having been mostly
used in the production of the immature top growth removed by
cutting. A sufficient quantity and maturity of such top growth
is essential for elaboration, through photosynthesis, of reserve
foods to replenish the losses sustained by the plants in the pro-
duction of the immature top growth.
That a similar correlation to the above between the stored or-
ganic foods and the production of vegetative top growth exists in
Bahia grass, is evident from the decrease in the percentage and
quantity of carbohydrates in the stolons of the plants and its
correlation with increased production of top growth; the increase
in the percentage and quantity of such foods during the slower
growth of the tops of frequently cut plants: a similar decrease in
the percentage and quantity of such foods in the stolons of plants
grown to maturity during the period of vegetative top growth,
and the replenishing of such foods in the stolons of these plants
(plants grown to maturity) when the top growth attained a cer-
tain amount and maturity, so as to elaborate organic foods in
excess of the growing needs of the plants. Similar correlations
are shown for nitrogen compounds but the variation in percentage
and quantity of nitrogen is more or less dependent upon the avail-
ability of such nitrogen from the soil. The more persistent growth
of Bahia grass when cut frequently may be attributed to its pros-
trate growth behavior. The large horizontal leaf area produced







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


on its stolons and not removed by cutting or grazing is sufficient
for the elaboration of organic foods for the continued production
of new top growth (Table III) and also increased growth of stolons
and roots (Figs. 8 and 15).
That frequent cutting keeps the top growth of plants in a more
vegetative growth condition is shown by the higher and more
constant percentage of nitrogen in the top growth of such plants
throughout the season than in the tops of plants grown to ma-
turity, or to the seed stage of growth (Table I). This more vege-
tative growth condition is further shown by the difference in the
relation between the carbohydrates and nitrogen in the top
growth of the differently treated plants. Where plants were cut
frequently a narrower ratio is found between these compounds
(Fig. 6), while in the top growth of plants grown to maturity, a
gradual widening of this carbohydrate-nitrogen ratio takes place
and is associated with a greater production of reproductive plant
parts (Fig. 7). Where the top growth of the plants was cut in
the seed stage of growth the vegetative after-growth again showed
a narrow carbohydrate-nitrogen relation.
The tendency of plants cut frequently to retain a more vege-
tative growth condition or a greater ratio of leaf to seed stem
growth was observed and reported by Stapledon(21). This writer
found that continuous cutting or grazing produced abundant leaf
growth in the most nutritive condition. He noted also that too
severe defoliation of pasture plants ended eventually in detri-
mental effects. Such detrimental effects of frequent cutting are
not so evident in the case of Bahia grass because of the large
horizontal leaf area left on the plants for the elaboration of or-
ganic foods for future growth.
Bahia plants grown to maturity show a marked contrast in
their growth behavior to that of those cut frequently. As pre-
viously stated, they show a gradual decrease in percentage of
nitrogen and a wider carbohydrate-nitrogen relation as the sea-
son advances. Plants kept in a more vegetative growth condition
are more succulent and low in crude fiber. On the other hand,
plants grown to maturity are vegetative during the early part of
the growing season, but after this period vegetative growth ceases
and a marked increase in dry weight of top growth takes place
during the more mature and reproductive stages. The work of
Murneek(3), showing the effect of fertilization (gametic union)
on the increase in weight of top growth and absorption of soil
nutrients at this particular growth stage with the increased effi-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ciency in metabolism after fruit formation, may offer a partial
explanation for the two-fold increase in weight of top growth on
the plants during this period. If fertilization (gametic union)
has a marked influence on the absorption of soil nutrients, it is
easy to conceive that a striking increase in growth should follow.
Likewise, if the development of accessory tissues and embryos is
marked by a decrease in concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus,
and a corresponding increase in carbohydrates and crude fiber,
such a condition would be associated with a decreased vegetative
growth as shown in the foregoing results. Likewise, work on
tomatoes(2) showed that the inhibition of vegetative growth
through fruit formation, could be overcome and resumption of
vegetative growth brought about by the removal of fruit when
first formed. The behavior of the tomato plant appears to be very
similar to that of Bahia grass. The frequent cutting of this grass,
preventing the development of seed stems, or the early removal of
such stems causes these plants to continue in a more vegetative
growth condition throughout the growing season.
The relative composition of the stolons and roots is not always
similar to that of the tops at different growth periods, i. e., the
stolons do not show a similar relation between nitrogen and car-
bohydrates at such periods. Data given do not give any explana-
tion for this difference in relative composition of stolons and roots
from that of the tops at different growth periods. A detailed
study of these differences in relative compositions of different
plant parts would undoubtedly prove to be worth while.
The difference in the growth between the stolons of Bahia plants
cut frequently and those of plants grown to maturity may be
accounted for to some extent from the treatments given. The
increased spread of the former may be associated with the more
vegetative growth conditions of the growing ends of such stolons.
The tips of these stolons were cut whenever they began to form
seed stems, which brought about a resumption of vegetative
growth. This vegetative condition of the growing ends of the
stolons, accompanied by the repeated cutting of the increased leaf
area on the plants, kept the growing ends of the stolons in a more
vegetative condition. On the other hand, the stolons of plants
grown to maturity where such seed stems were not removed and
the leaf area on the plants was not decreased by cutting so as to
bring about a resumption of vegetative growth, produced an
upright growth in the form of seed stems and a decrease in the
horizontal growth of the plants.







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


The pronounced decrease in the weight of the stolons and roots
at different growth periods of Bahia grass may not be entirely due
to the vegetative growth of such plant parts. Utilization of or-
ganic foods beyond a certain limit might bring about the deteriora-
tion of such plant parts(12). This excessive utilization of organic
foods might not result only from continued production of new top
growth. Increased root growth might cause such a condition at
certain growth periods or under changed growth conditions. The
difference in the spring growth condition between plants cut fre-
quently the previous season and those grown to maturity appear
to coincide with such a contention. The vigorous spring top
growth of plants cut frequently the previous season shows a
marked contrast to the sparse top growth on plants grown to
maturity and cut in the seed stage, or from plants not cut the
previous season.
Although no definite explanation can be given from data avail-
able, the work of Reid(4) on the root and top growth of tomato
stems with wide and narrow carbohydrate-nitrogen relations may
have some bearing on this phase of growth in Bahia grass. If
tomato stems with a wide carbohydrate-nitrogen ratio produced
mostly root growth and those with a narrower carbohydrate-
nitrogen ratio produced more shoot growth, may it not be possible
that a difference in the composition relation of Bahia grass plants
may be associated with like results as to root and top growth?
Plants grown to maturity with a wide carbohydrate-nitrogen re-
lation in more mature growth stages may utilize a greater portion
of their organic foods in their storage parts for increased root
growth during late fall and winter, while plants kept in a more
vegetative growth stage during the season with a narrow carbo-
hydrate-nitrogen relation may utilize such foods for further top
growth. Such a supposition seems reasonable, judging from the
work of Reid and the spring growth condition of these differently
treated Bahia plants. The large number of exhausted dead stolons
visible in spring from plants grown to maturity the previous
season, in comparison with a scarcity of such stolons from plants
cut frequently the previous season, seems to add weight to this
supposition.

APPLICATION TO PRACTICE
The difference in the growth behavior and the elaboration and
utilization of organic foods in Bahia grass when the plants are cut
frequently in comparison with plants allowed to grow to maturity







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


suggests several phases of practical application. The more vege-
tative condition of the top growth from plants cut frequently and
the continual production of such vegetative top growth during
the growing season provide a more palatable forage with a higher
nitrogen content for feeding.purposes during the greater part of
the growing season. Where grasses are undergrazed, the plants
are permitted to grow to maturity and produce seed. This results
in a retardation of vegetative top growth and a less palatable
feed for stock.
The marked horizontal growth of the stolons or runners of
Bahia grass, when subjected to frequent cutting, results in a
more rapid sod formation and produces a large horizontal leaf
area, which is not removed by cutting or grazing.1 This leaf area
is of prime importance for the elaboration of organic foods for
the continued production of new top growth. On the other hand,
where plants are grazed promiscuously and allowed to grow to
maturity and produce seed, opposite results are attained. The
upward growth of the stolons in the form of seed stems results in
slow and poor sod formation when a pasture is being established
or a thinning of the sod in established pastures, leaving bare
spaces between the plants. This condition results in a rank weed
growth on such spaces in the pasture not covered by a vegetative
spread of the grass. Where grasses are cut or grazed frequently,
there is a gradual decrease in weed growth. This is due to the
fact that most of these weeds are upright growing plants and fre-
quent cutting causes a continual removal of almost their entire
leaf area, thereby inhibiting their ability to elaborate organic
foods for future growth. Frequent cutting, also, keeps these
weeds in a vegetative growth condition and, while they last, they
are more palatable for stock. Increased spread of the grass when
cut frequently covers the surface of the ground and inhibits fur-
ther weed growth.
The delayed and sparse top growth on Bahia plants permitted
to grow to maturity and produce seed the previous season, does
not produce early spring grazing and shortens the period during
which grasses can be grazed. Frequent cutting or grazing, there-
fore should produce better grazing conditions.
Where pastures are not sufficiently grazed to keep the plants in
a uniform vegetative growth condition, a removal of the inflor-
escence from the plants by mowing over the pastures will result
in a renewed vegetative top growth production, if the pastures
are sufficiently grazed during the remainder of the season. This







Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass


practice may also result in an earlier and more vigorous top growth
the following spring.
SUMMARY
A comparative study was made of the growth behavior, pro-
duction of top growth, variation in weight of stolons and roots,
and the difference in the percentages and quantities of organic
stored foods in these plant parts of Bahia grass when such plants
were cut frequently, when allowed to grow to maturity and cut
in the seed stage of growth and when grown to maturity and sub-
jected to no cutting treatment during 1927 and 1928.
The quantity of green top growth from frequent cuttings was
approximately equal to the one cutting in the seed stage plus the
vegetative after-growth the first year (1927), but in quantity of
dry top growth produced, that from the latter was greater. The
second year (1928) green and dry top production was considerably
greater from the grass cut frequently during the season.
The top growth removed by cutting and that on the plants from
the frequently cut over area when samples were dug showed a
more uniform and higher percentage of nitrogen during the entire
season than that from the top growth of plants grown to maturity.
In the latter, a gradual decrease in percentage of nitrogen took
place as the plants approached the more mature growth stages.
The vegetative after-growth produced after the cutting of the
tops of these plants in the seed stage was again higher in per-
centage of nitrogen.
In quantity of nitrogen produced, that from the 15 cuttings the
first year was somewhat less than that from the one cutting in
the seed stage plus that from the after-growth. The second sea-
son the nitrogen from the 13 cuttings from the frequently cut over
area was considerably greater than that from the one cutting in
the seed stage plus that from the after-growth.
The total accumulated dry top growth produced by plants cut
frequently (top growth removed by cutting plus the horizontal
leaf growth not removed by cutting in each instance) showed a
gradual increase from one date to another throughout the growing
seasons of 1927 and 1928. Dry weight of top growth produced by
plants grown to maturity showed a gradual increase up to the
period of maximum seed production, after which such increase
ceased and a gradual reduction in the weight of top growth on the
plants took place thereafter. In total quantity of top growth
produced on the differently treated plants from equal areas, that







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from the frequently cut plants was greater during both seasons.
The calculated weight of top growth not removed by cutting from
plants cut frequently in each instance was far in excess of the
apportioned cuttings for any particular date from such plants.
A more vigorous and uniform early spring top growth was pro-
duced from plants cut frequently the previous season than was
produced from plants grown to maturity. In case of the latter a
very sparse spring growth was produced accompanied by an
abundance of exhausted dead stolons.
The top growth on plants cut frequently showed a narrower
relation between total hydrolyzed carbohydrates and total nitro-
gen throughout both seasons than that from the top growth on
plants grown to maturity. The former carbohydrate-nitrogen
relation was associated with a more vegetative top growth pro-
duction, while the latter was associated with greater seed pro-
duction.
Where plants were cut frequently, a more horizontal growth of
stolons and more leaf growth took place but where plants received
no cutting treatments, a more upright growth of stolons occurred
in the form of seed stems. The former produced a denser sod
when compared with the latter.
A greater increase in dry weight of stolons was found from
plants grown to maturity than from those cut frequently during
1927, but, nevertheless, the latter showed considerable increase in
such dry weight of stolons. During 1928 the differently treated
plants followed a similar trend in weight of stolons, but the margin
between them was less than that of the previous season.
The stolons of the plants, and to some extent the roots, appeared
to be the organic food storage parts of the plants, as in the case
of upright growing plants like alfalfa, timothy, etc.
Immature top growth was produced at the expense of previously
stored organic foods in the stolons and roots of the plants. The
production of such immature top growth was accompanied by a
slight decrease of such stored foods in the stolons and roots, but
not as great as the decrease of such foods from upright growing
plants. Decrease in percentage of such foods, beyond a certain
degree, appeared to bring about the extinction of some of the
stolons and roots.
The more persistent growth of Bahia grass when cut frequently
in contrast to upright growing plants was attributed to its pros-
trate growth habits. Elaboration of organic foods by the more
horizontal leaf area not removed by cutting, was sufficient for
the growth and maintenance of the plants.
Some practical applications of the results obtained are given.








Bulletin 219, Organic Foods in Bahia Grass 55

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