• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Oat production in Florida
 Variety testing program
 Diseases of oats in Florida
 Breeding oats for Florida
 Oat varieties for Florida
 Cultural practices
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 523
Title: Growing oats in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026557/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growing oats in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Morey, Darrell D
Chapman, Willis Harleston, 1916-
Earhart, R. W
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1953
 Subjects
Subject: Oats -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Oats -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: Darrell D. Morey, W.H. Chapman and R.W. Earhart.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026557
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926040
oclc - 18270600
notis - AEN6699

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Oat production in Florida
        Page 7
    Variety testing program
        Page 8
        Yield testing of varieties
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Testing varieties for other characteristics
            Page 10
        Disease testing
            Page 11
    Diseases of oats in Florida
        Page 12
        Crown rust
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Stem rust and culm rot
            Page 14
        Leaf spot
            Page 15
        Oat smuts and Victoria blight
            Page 16
        Powdery mildew, speckled blotch or black stem
            Page 17
        Bacterial diseases and downy mildew
            Page 18
        Red leaf oats
            Page 19
    Breeding oats for Florida
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Oat varieties for Florida
        Page 23
        Southland
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Floriland, and victorgrain 48-93
            Page 25
        Red rustproof oats
            Page 26
            Page 27
    Cultural practices
        Page 28
        Soils for oats
            Page 28
        Crop sequence
            Page 28
        Seedbed preparation and seed treatment
            Page 29
        Time of planting
            Page 30
        Rate of planting, methods of planting, and fertilizers for oats
            Page 31
        Nitrogen top-dressing for oats and grazing management
            Page 32
        Oats as a hay crop, harvesting grain, and cleaning oats
            Page 33
        Storing oats and fumigation
            Page 34
        Certified seed
            Page 35
    Summary
        Page 35
        Page 36
Full Text



Bulletin 523 August


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
/ WILLARD M. FIPIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE,.FLPID'A












BOARD OF CONTROL

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.I., Agr. Economist 13
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist3
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 12
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant 3
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman 1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.
DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Husb. 3
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.8
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant'
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist 4
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford D. Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist ''
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb." s
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.s

SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 1 3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist 3
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist3
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A.A iskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist'
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian's
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian s
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)











BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist 4
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
Marion F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Physiologist
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Iusb.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemiq*
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
D'. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.


F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist 2

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Associate Plant Path-
ologist Acting in Charge
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charge 2
1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave









CONTENTS
PAGE

OAT PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA ...................... -- -------- 7

VARIETY TESTING PROGRAM ........................... ----. .........- ....- ..-............ 8
Yield Testing of Varieties ......... ..... .... ...... .............. ... ........... 8
Testing Varieties for Other Characteristics ...........................- ... 10
Disease Testing .... .... ....................... .......... ..... ....... 11


DISEASES OF OATS IN FLORIDA ........
Crown Rust .............. .........
Stem Rust .....................................
Culm Rot .. .................... ....--
Leaf Spot ..............................
Oat Smuts ................. ........ ..
Victoria Blight .......... ...... ........
Powdery Mildew ......................
Speckled Blotch or Black Stem .
Bacterial Diseases .....................-
Downy Mildew ........................


......... -................... .......... ... -....- 12
12
.............. .. .... .... .. .... -. .... .. 12
-- -------------- 14
-- ----------- 14
.--- -- 15
....... ... .. ............ ... ...... .. -- ........... 16
............. .. .... ............ .. ..... ..... 16
.. .... ................................ ............... .... 1 5



... ........ ..... ......... .. .. :- -... ...... 17
....... .... ..... .............. ... .. 17
.......... ................. ..... ..-. ... ... 18
.........--.......... -- ... .. --- -. .. 18


Red Leaf of Oats ..-. ......--.......---.... ......- -- 19

BREEDING OATS FOR FLORIDA ....................---- .....................--- -- 19

OAT VARIETIES FOR FLORIDA ........................................ ... 23
Southland .................. ......-..... .. -........ 23
Floriland .......................... .............. .. -- .......... 25
Victorgrain 48-93 .........- ....--- .... .--- .. ..... .---.--..- 25
Red Rustproof Oats ...................................--.........- 26

CULTURAL PRACTICES ......... ....--.... ..--.. -- 28
Soils for Oats ......................-....... -- --................. 28
Crop Sequence ......-.....-........--...................-- .....-- 28
Seedbed Preparation ..... ..................... ...........-- ---... ..... 29
Seed Treatment .....~........ -............... ---- ........ 29
Time of Planting ...................... ....-.... ..... ................. 30
Rate of Planting ....................... ....... -------....... 31
M methods of Planting ................................... ........... 31
Fertilizers for Oats ........... .... .... .......... --------- 31
Nitrogen Top-Dressing for Oats .......... .........---....------........ 32
Grazing Management ................------------- .... .......... 32
Oats as a Hay Crop ................. ........--.... ----------... 33
Harvesting Grain ......... ........---.. .................. .------ -- 33
Cleaning Oats .............--...-----..................------- 33
Storing Oats ....-.......................----- .... .............34
Fumigation ....-- ---------- --------.........--- -----...........- 34
Certified Seed .................- --------- ....- .. --- -- ----..... 35

SUMMARY .... ---- ..............------- ------------ .............35











Growing Oats in Florida

DARRELL D. MORE, W. H. CHAPMAN and R. W. EARHART 1

Oats are grown in Florida as a winter pasture and grain crop,
chiefly in the north-central, northern and western parts of the
State. Climatic and soil conditions are most favorable for oat
production from Marion County northward, and from Duval
County westward through Escambia County. Some oats are
grown for pasture in southern Florida, but warm, humid weather
and diseases make production hazardous.
The popularity of the oat crop can be attributed to several
factors. The rapid expansion of the cattle industry has in-
creased the demand for oats as a temporary winter pasture;
oats are the best temporary winter pasture crop in the State.
During the fall and winter months when permanent pastures
are generally dormant and non-productive, oats produce an
abundance of excellent quality forage. This pasture grows at
a time when a source of succulent, high protein feed is most
needed in animal rations. Oat grain also is an excellent feed,
especially for young, growing animals.
The oat crop also provides good winter cover for the land and
reduces erosion from wind and water. It has a definite place
in the cropping program on many farms, where it is adapted to
follow corn, cotton, tobacco, and other summer row crops. Oats
make an excellent green manure crop for plowing under prior
to planting tobacco, vegetables, and other spring crops. In addi-
tion oats may be used as a nurse crop for clovers.
The oat crop has the advantage of being well adapted to mod-
ern mechanical production. It requires no cultivation and rela-
tively little labor in comparison with many other crops.
Another reason for renewed interest in oat production has
been the introduction of new varieties such as Southland and
Floriland. Southland has taken much of the guesswork and
gamble out of growing oats. Under good management and rea-
sonably good weather conditions, Southland oats produce large
amounts of green forage for livestock; and in addition usually
produce satisfactory grain yields. The new Floriland variety

SThe authors wish to thank R. W. Wallace, R. W. Lipscomb, G. E.
Ritchey, and H. W. Lundy for use of their data.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


also appears promising as a disease-resistant, high-yielding,
early-maturing oat under Florida conditions.
Oat varieties must be resistant to diseases to be successful in
Florida. Southland and Floriland have been bred and selected
for disease resistance, but they may succumb in a few years to
some new disease or to a new race 2 of an existing disease. It is
well known that new and more virulent forms of disease organ-
isms occur and build up rapidly to destructive proportions. This
has happened several times in Florida.
Quincy 1 (Fig. 1), Quincy 2, and Florilee are examples of
Florida-bred oat varieties which were driven out of production
by Victoria blight (Helminthosporium victoria Meehan and
"Race" is used to designate a kind or strain of disease; in the same
sense that "variety" is used to designate a kind or strain of oat.
Fig. 1.-New varieties developed in recent years have made possible high
yields of oats on Florida farms.






'1
f







Growing Oats in Florida


Murphy) in 1946-1947. The Florida 167 variety has gone out
of production because of the attacks of races 45 and 57 of crown
rust (Puccinia coronata avenue Eriks. and Henn.). The Ca-
mellia variety, developed by the Louisiana Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, has been quite popular in Florida as a forage and
grain producing oat, but is rapidly going out of production be-
cause of its susceptibility to races of crown rust. Southland oats
have been attacked by a relatively new oat disease called culm
rot 3 (Helminthosporium sativum Pam., King, and Bakke). In
certain areas culm rot has severely damaged young stands and
caused lodging (breaking over) of the ripening oats.
The best way to combat diseases of oats is by breeding disease-
resistant varieties. Such breeding is a never-ending process;
this is especially true in Florida, where diseases are so trouble-
some.
OAT PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
During recent years Florida farmers have planted from
140,000 to 160,000 acres of oats each year. However, in 1951
the number of acres planted had reached a low level of 117,000.
Only 20,000 acres were harvested, with an estimated yield of
25 bushels per acre to give a production of 500,000 bushels. In
1952 146,000 acres were planted and 36,000 acres were harvested
for grain. The estimated yield was 30 bushels per acre, or a
record production of 1,080,000 bushels.

TABLE 1.-OAT PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA FROM 1945 THROUGH 1952.*

Acres Acres Bushels
Year Planted Harvested Average Total
Yield Production
1945 145,000 45,000 20 900,000
1946 160,000 40,000 18 720,000
1947 160,000 30,000 20 600,000
1948 144,000 21,000 19 399,000
1949 137,000 18,000 16 288,000
1950 123,000 16,000 18 288,000
1951 117,000 20,000 25 500,000
1952 146,000 36,000 30 1,080,000

Production figures from the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural
Economics.

The main emphasis with oats is the production of winter for-
age. Usually less than one-fourth of all oats planted are har-

SEarhart, R. W. Helminthosporium Crown and Culm Rot of Southland
Oats. Abst. Phytopath. 41: 11. 1951.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


vested for grain. It is diffeult to estimate the value of the
thousands of acres of oats which are used for winter grazing,
winter cover crops, and green manure purposes. Certainly the
total value would be far more than that of the grain crop.
Table 1 shows the acres planted, acres harvested for grain,
average yield, and total annual production for the eight-year
period from 1945 through 1952.

VARIETY TESTING PROGRAM
A program of testing oat varieties has been in progress in Flor-
ida for many years. From 10 to 15 promising oat varieties are
tested each season at 8 to 10 locations, ranging from west to
south-central Florida. Each variety is planted in randomized,
replicated plots at each location.

YIELD TESTING OF VARIETIES
Table 2 shows the average yields of five leading oat varieties
at six Florida locations in 1951 and 1952. Victorgrain 48-93-
bred and distributed by a commercial seed company-gave the
highest average grain yields. Southland and Floriland pro-
duced high yields of grain during this two-year period. Red
Rustproof No. 14, selected and released by the Coastal Plain
Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, gave satisfactory yields
except in years when rust damage was heavy. Camellia pro-
duced good yields of forage and grain when crown and stem rust
were not a serious problem. The low yields of Red Rustproof
No. 14 and Camellia at Gainesville in 1952 were due to late
maturity and heavy infections of crown and stem rust. South-
land, Floriland, and Victorgrain 48-93 gave good yields chiefly
because of high resistance to crown rust.
The success of the varieties listed in Table 2 will depend some-
what upon seasonal conditions and the severity of diseases. For
example, Floriland is about 10 days earlier than Southland and
Victorgrain 48-93; with this advantage it will tend to escape
severe damage from stem rust, to which all the varieties are
susceptible. Camellia and Red Rustproof No. 14 are late-
maturing varieties and run more risk of heavy attacks by
rusts and other diseases. This is especially true in the Gaines-
ville area and the southern part of the Florida oat belt, where
early varieties are often better adapted than late ones.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


vested for grain. It is diffeult to estimate the value of the
thousands of acres of oats which are used for winter grazing,
winter cover crops, and green manure purposes. Certainly the
total value would be far more than that of the grain crop.
Table 1 shows the acres planted, acres harvested for grain,
average yield, and total annual production for the eight-year
period from 1945 through 1952.

VARIETY TESTING PROGRAM
A program of testing oat varieties has been in progress in Flor-
ida for many years. From 10 to 15 promising oat varieties are
tested each season at 8 to 10 locations, ranging from west to
south-central Florida. Each variety is planted in randomized,
replicated plots at each location.

YIELD TESTING OF VARIETIES
Table 2 shows the average yields of five leading oat varieties
at six Florida locations in 1951 and 1952. Victorgrain 48-93-
bred and distributed by a commercial seed company-gave the
highest average grain yields. Southland and Floriland pro-
duced high yields of grain during this two-year period. Red
Rustproof No. 14, selected and released by the Coastal Plain
Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia, gave satisfactory yields
except in years when rust damage was heavy. Camellia pro-
duced good yields of forage and grain when crown and stem rust
were not a serious problem. The low yields of Red Rustproof
No. 14 and Camellia at Gainesville in 1952 were due to late
maturity and heavy infections of crown and stem rust. South-
land, Floriland, and Victorgrain 48-93 gave good yields chiefly
because of high resistance to crown rust.
The success of the varieties listed in Table 2 will depend some-
what upon seasonal conditions and the severity of diseases. For
example, Floriland is about 10 days earlier than Southland and
Victorgrain 48-93; with this advantage it will tend to escape
severe damage from stem rust, to which all the varieties are
susceptible. Camellia and Red Rustproof No. 14 are late-
maturing varieties and run more risk of heavy attacks by
rusts and other diseases. This is especially true in the Gaines-
ville area and the southern part of the Florida oat belt, where
early varieties are often better adapted than late ones.











TABLE 2.-AVERAGE YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE OF FIVE OAT VARIETIES GROWN AT SIX FLORIDA LOCATIONS IN 1951-1952.


SVictorgrain R. R. P. Camellia
Location Name of Test Southland Floriland 48-93 No. 14


Gainesville ...........................
Gainesville ..........................
Gainesville ..........................

Quincy .................................
Quincy .................. .............

Live Oak .............................
Live Oak ..............................

M onticello ..... ....................
M onticello ...........................

M arianna ...... .....................

Jay .................. ...............


Average Yields .................


Fla. Uniform .... 1951
Fall Sown Test .. 1952
Fla. Uniform .... 1952

Fla. Uniform .... 1951
Fla. Uniform .... 1952

Fla. Uniform .... 1951
Fla. Uniform .... 1952

Fla. Uniform .... 1951
Fla. Uniform .... 1952

Fla. Uniform .... 1952

Fla. Uniform .... 1952


66.5
40.2
43.3

43.3
100.0

59.2
48.5

51.0
70.4

101.5

56.1


61.8


58.9
58.5
48.5

53.2
91.6

52.6
57.4

49.0
53.9

99.1

60.8


62.1


63.5
48.5
43.6

76.3
111.6

69.1
42.9

73.0
68.5

96.6

71.6


69.5


56.8 54.1
29.2 15.8
30.7 17.3

43.1 33.8
76.3 60.4

47.0 46.5
36.4 22.6

67.8 41.8
74.7 59.0

102.1 98.9

54.3 50.6


56.2 45.5







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TESTING VARIETIES FOR OTHER CHARACTERISTICS
Other characteristics of the five oat varieties which help to
determine their usefulness are shown in Table 3. The first char-
acter shown is type of growth. Although type of growth is not
a true measure of hardiness, it can be used as a guide until
hardiness tests have been completed on new varieties. In gen-
eral, oat varieties which exhibit a spring, or upright, growth
habit tend to be less cold hardy than ones which are decumbent
and grow close to the soil during the winter months.

TABLE 3.-AVERAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF FIVE OAT VARIETIES IN FLORIDA
IN 1951-1952.
Victor-
Characteristics South- Flori- grain R. R. P. Camellia
S land land 48-93 No. 14

Type of Growth S I-S I W I-S
Heading Date-
Gainesville ........ 3-24 3-16 3-26 4-7 4-5
Quincy ............... 4-12 4-1 4-10 4-23 4-22
Height in Inches-
Gainesville ........ 43 44 40 42 43
Quincy .............. 36 40 38 36 42
Test Weight-
Gainesville ........ 29.7 28.2 34.0 22.3 25.5
Quincy ............... 30.5 28.2 31.5 27.0 28.0

S-Spring type, I-Intermediate type, W-Winter type.

Southland and Floriland are spring-type varieties which make
a rapid upright growth in the fall. This tends to give early
pasture but little protection from cold weather. As a conse-
quence, Southland is considered non-hardy, or unable to stand
much cold weather. Preliminary tests and observations indi-
cate that Floriland is more hardy to cold than Southland, but
nevertheless should be planted only in the southern coastal plain
region.
Victorgain 48-93 is more resistant to cold and can be grown
much farther north than any of the other varieties listed. Red
Rustproof No. 14 is a winter-type oat (the plants spread out and
stay close to the soil during cold weather) and keeps a good
stand through most Florida winters. Camellia is no more re-
sistant to sudden frosts and cold weather than Southland, but
these two varieties usually survive Florida winters.








Growing Oats in Florida


The variety testing program also helps to determine such
characters as earliness, height, strength of straw, and grain
quality. Heading dates indicate that Floriland is the earliest
of the five varieties, Southland and Victorgrain 48-93 inter-
mediate, and Camellia and Red Rustproof No. 14 latest.
Floriland and Camellia are slightly taller than the other varie-
ties. Observations on strength of straw indicate that South-
land, Victorgrain 48-93, and Floriland have excellent straw
strength and stand well for combining. Camellia and Red Rust-
proof No. 14 have a tendency to lodge or fall down at harvest
time.
Victorgrain 48-93 and Southland have excellent quality grain
under most conditions, as shown by the test weights. The grains
of Camellia and Floriland usually are plump but have many
hairs and beards. Red Rustproof No. 14 nearly always has the
lowest test weight, and the grains also are quite hairy and some-
what difficult to handle and plant.

DISEASE TESTING
Determining disease resistance of oat varieties and selections
is perhaps the most important part of the testing program. It is
done in the field, greenhouse, and laboratory. Many varieties of
those tested each year for resistance to rusts, Helminthosporium
diseases, and smuts must be discarded because of susceptibility
to the various diseases. Only a few disease-resistant varieties
are good enough to warrant widespread use on Florida farms.
Even varieties which have been released may have serious de-
fects which must be corrected by further breeding and selection.
The reaction of seven oat varieties to the major diseases likely
to be encountered in Florida is shown in Table 4. All varieties
listed have weaknesses which need correcting. For example,
none are resistant to stem rust and only three are resistant to
smut. Southland shows good resistance to some diseases, but is
quite susceptible to culm rot and smut. Floriland is resistant to
crown rust and Victoria blight but lacks resistance to several
other diseases. Victorgrain 48-93 has good resistance to several
diseases but can be damaged by Victoria blight. This disease has
not been important during the past three seasons, but might
become damaging again. The disease reactions of Arlington and
Atlantic oats have been included because there has been some
interest in these two varieties, although they probably mature
too late to be successful in Florida.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 4.-DISEASE REACTION OF SEVEN OAT VARIETIES GROWN IN FLORIDA
IN 1951-1952.



Diseases "


Victoria blight ............ RR R S R R S S
Leaf spot .............. S CS S S CS I S
Crown rust .................. R-I R R-I I CS CS I R R-I
Stem rust
(Races 7 & 8 )........ CS CS CS CS CS CS CS
Smut (Percent
infected) .................. 54% 87% 0% 2% 0% 53%
Culm rot ...................... CS S I I -- R I

R-resistant, I-intermediate, S-susceptible, CS-completely susceptible.

DISEASES OF OATS IN FLORIDA

Diseases play an important role in reducing the yield of oats
in Florida, and are the greatest single menace to forage and
grain production. High annual rainfall, high humidity, and a
relatively warm growing season furnish ideal conditions for
maximum development of most oat diseases. Under such con-
ditions methods must be found to overcome diseases if production
is to be successful.
Good cultural and disease control practices, such as proper crop
rotation, using clean and treated seed, and applying adequate
amounts of fertilizer, will aid in reducing the destructiveness of
oat diseases. However, breeding disease-resistant varieties is,
in most cases, the best method of control.
This phase of the Florida oat program is discussed below.
Each oat disease is discussed in its approximate order of impor-
tance to give a better understanding of its characteristics and the
problems involved in its control.

CROWN RUST
Crown rust (Puccinia coronata avenue Eriks. and Henn.) is
the most important disease of oats in Florida. Since conditions
are often ideal for the increase and spread of this disease, epi-
demics occur nearly every year.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 4.-DISEASE REACTION OF SEVEN OAT VARIETIES GROWN IN FLORIDA
IN 1951-1952.



Diseases "


Victoria blight ............ RR R S R R S S
Leaf spot .............. S CS S S CS I S
Crown rust .................. R-I R R-I I CS CS I R R-I
Stem rust
(Races 7 & 8 )........ CS CS CS CS CS CS CS
Smut (Percent
infected) .................. 54% 87% 0% 2% 0% 53%
Culm rot ...................... CS S I I -- R I

R-resistant, I-intermediate, S-susceptible, CS-completely susceptible.

DISEASES OF OATS IN FLORIDA

Diseases play an important role in reducing the yield of oats
in Florida, and are the greatest single menace to forage and
grain production. High annual rainfall, high humidity, and a
relatively warm growing season furnish ideal conditions for
maximum development of most oat diseases. Under such con-
ditions methods must be found to overcome diseases if production
is to be successful.
Good cultural and disease control practices, such as proper crop
rotation, using clean and treated seed, and applying adequate
amounts of fertilizer, will aid in reducing the destructiveness of
oat diseases. However, breeding disease-resistant varieties is,
in most cases, the best method of control.
This phase of the Florida oat program is discussed below.
Each oat disease is discussed in its approximate order of impor-
tance to give a better understanding of its characteristics and the
problems involved in its control.

CROWN RUST
Crown rust (Puccinia coronata avenue Eriks. and Henn.) is
the most important disease of oats in Florida. Since conditions
are often ideal for the increase and spread of this disease, epi-
demics occur nearly every year.







Growing Oats in Florida


This rust forms small round-to-oblong orange-yellow spots
(pustules), principally on the upper side of leaves of oat plants.
The pustules may become so numerous that they come together on
the leaf to form larger irregular patterns. If an infected leaf
is pulled between the thumb and forefinger, a small amount of
orange-colored dust (spores) can be collected.
These spores, which serve as seeds for the rust fungus, are
microscopic in size. Viewed through a microscope, a single spore
(uredospore) of crown rust appears somewhat rounded, like an
orange-yellow translucent ball with thick walls.
Crown rust spores are spread from field to field by wind. They
may travel for many miles before coming to earth in another oat
field to cause new infections. If weather conditions are favor-
able-that is, warm and damp-they germinate in a film of
water on living oat leaves and form more pustules within a
week to 10 days.
Crown rust may become so severe that oat plants will actually
be killed in the growing stage. More often plants heavily in-
fected with crown rust are retarded in growth, lodge badly and
ripen prematurely. This greatly reduces forage and grain pro-
duction and causes any grain produced to be light and chaffy.
The contrast in production between a susceptible variety (Ca-
mellia) and a resistant variety (Southland) is shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2.-Camellia oats at the North Florida Experiment Station, Quincy,
showing severe crown rust damage and lodging in 1951 (foreground), while
a 70-bushel crop is being harvested from resistant Southland (background).








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Control.-Crown rust can be adequately controlled only by the
use of resistant varieties such as Southland, Floriland, and Vic-
torgrain 48-93.
STEM RUST
Stem rust (Puccinia graminis avenue Eriks. and Henn.) has
not been considered a very serious disease of oats when compared
with the more noticeable damage from crown rust. Stem rust
usually occurs late in the season and is not noticed until the
crop is nearly mature. However, two serious outbreaks during
the past three years have focused attention on this disease and
additional breeding work has been started to produce resistant
varieties.
The red-rust stage of stem rust primarily attacks the stems
and leaf sheaths, but in some cases may attack the leaves. The
pustules are long and irregular and rupture the stem, causing a
scaly appearance. The spores are brick red in color, much darker
than the spores of crown rust. The black-spore stage, which
follows the red-spore stage, comes very late in the season on dead
or dying plants and is often overlooked at harvest time. Heavy
infections of stem rust can cause premature ripening of the
grain, with a resulting decrease in yield and quality.
Control.-Stem rust could be controlled by planting resistant
varieties, but at present no commercial oat varieties adapted
to the southeastern part of the United States are resistant to
stem rust. Growing early maturing varieties such as Floriland
will decrease chances of severe damage. Within the next few
years it is hoped that stem rust-resistant varieties can be made
available to Florida growers.

CULM ROT
This disease, (caused by Helminthosporium sativum, Pam.,
King, and Bakke, and sometimes called foot-rot) was first found
on Southland oats in 1950, and the large acreage planted to this
variety has resulted in an increase in damage from culm rot.
It attacks young seedlings, causing a rotting of the roots and
basal parts of the plants. Oats retarded in growth by over-
grazing, cold weather, or lack of fertility are subject to serious
damage and often die of culm rot infections. Plants attacked by
this organism may or may not show reddening of the leaves,
although the red-leaf symptom often appears under conditions
of poor nutrition. Culm rot symptoms are somewhat similar to
Victoria blight (to be described later), since both diseases are







Growing Oats in Florida


caused by similar fungi which attack about the same area of the
oat plant.
True culm rotting occurs at the time the heads are starting to
fill with grain, causing the plants to lodge. The stems break
over near the soil line, become water-soaked, and later turn black.
This black color is due to the growth and sporulation of the
fungus on the stems. Culm breaking causes considerable loss
of grain because of the difficulty of harvesting lodged oats.
Control.-Damage from culm rot can be materially decreased
by sowing seed that has been cleaned and properly treated, (see
page 29) on land which has not grown oats for at least two
years. Keeping the land in good fertility and using carefully
controlled grazing also helps to keep down the effects of culm
rot. No satisfactory resistant varieties have yet been developed,
but the wide differences in resistance among varieties indicates
good possibilities for such development.

LEAF SPOT
Oat leaf spot (sometimes called leaf blotch) is caused by
Helminthosporium avenue Eid. and is one of the most prevalent
oat diseases in the Southern States. Amounts of damage are
difficult to determine, for oats often yield quite well even when
the leaves show large numbers of spots. However, this disease
is affected to a great extent by climatic conditions, and when
humid conditions and mild temperatures prevail for a consider-
able period of time serious losses often occur.
First or primary infections appear on the first leaf soon after
emergence, and result from either seed- or soil-borne fungi. The
first spots on the new leaves resemble small (1/16 inch) dark
purple doughnuts. Later the spots grow together and become
oblong to linear in shape and reddish-brown in color. The infec-
tion may become so severe that the leaves turn yellow and die.
Secondary infections, spreading from one plant to the other,
occur rapidly under humid, shaded conditions where moisture
stands on the oat plants for considerable lengths of time.
Spores from these secondary infections that become lodged
in or on the developing oat seed are carried over to the next
year's crop. Most Florida oat seeds carry large numbers of
spores of the leaf spot fungus. Seeds in some lots have been 100
percent infected; few if any seed lots in Florida have been found
free of the organism.







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Control.-Seed treatment with 1/2 ounce per bushel of Ceresan
M will kill the seed-borne spores and give some protection to the
germinating seed. Crop rotation is beneficial in reducing the
amount of fungus in the soil. No really resistant varieties are
known, although differences in susceptibility of varieties have
been demonstrated.4
OAT SMUTS
There are two smut diseases of oats; one called black loose
smut, caused by Ustilago avenue (Pers.) Rostr., and the other
known as covered smut, caused by Ustilago kolleri Wille. There
are a number of different races within each of these two types
of smuts. Loose smut transforms the kernels and the entire
oat head into a mass of black spores, while covered smut attacks
the grain but leaves the glumes or outer covering undamaged.
Oat smuts now cause only small losses, because of the ease of
control by seed treatment.
Control.-Ceresan M, at the rate of 1/2 ounce per bushel prop-
erly applied, will control smuts of oats. It is also possible to
breed resistant varieties. Victorgrain 48-93 and Arlington have
shown good resistance, while Southland and Floriland have
proved to be susceptible to smuts under Florida conditions.

VICTORIA BLIGHT
This disease, caused by Helminthosporium victoria Meehan
and Murphy, was responsible for an almost complete change in
oat varieties in this country from 1948 through 1952. It attacks
many oat varieties which derive their crown rust resistance from
Victoria, a South American variety. The Victoria type of re-
sistance to crown rust is closely associated (genetically linked)
with susceptibility to Victoria blight. This means that oat varie-
ties carrying Victoria crown rust resistance will nearly always
be susceptible to Victoria blight.
This Helminthosporium disease, which caused millions of dol-
lars worth of damage in 1946-1948, has been reported only occa-
sionally since 1949. The shift to resistant varieties such as
Camellia, Southland, Florida 167, Red Rustproof types, and many
others did much to check the spread of this disease.
Victoria blight, like culm rot and leaf spot, is seed-borne and
soil-borne. It is sometimes so destructive that seeds fail to
germinate, and if they do germinate, many seedlings die of root
Earhart, R. W., and H. L. Shands. Oat Varietal Responses to Infection
by Helminthosporium avenue Eid. Agronomy Journal 44: 234-238. 1952.







Growing Oats in Florida


or stem rot at ground level. Infection on older plants advances
upward and is favored by rather high temperatures. Leaves
become half-striped yellow and then turn reddish-yellow before
they wilt and die.
As the infected plants mature the lower part of the stems
becomes black, due to external development and sporulation of
the fungus. These plants are easily pulled up because the roots
have rotted away. Infected plants which reach maturity tend
to lodge, with stem breakage occurring just above the joints.
They yield small amounts of chaffy seed.
Control.-Grow resistant varieties such as Southland and Flori-
land. If susceptible varieties such as Victorgrain 48-93 and
Fulgrain are to be grown, seed treatment will reduce seed-borne
infections but will not control secondary or soil-borne infections.
Late planting of susceptible varieties is desirable to avoid higher
fall temperatures which favor this organism. Crop rotation also
will help to keep down Victoria blight as well as several other
important small grain diseases.

POWDERY MILDEW
Oat powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis avenue El. Marchal.)
is not a common disease in Florida. It has been noticed attack-
ing greenhouse seedlings and some field plantings in shaded areas.
Not much is known about losses from this disease, but in severe
attacks yields of forage and grain can be materially reduced.
Powdery mildew shows up on leaves as grayish-white powdery
masses and may even cover entire leaves. Later the diseased
areas become darker in color and the leaves tend to dry and
wither. Cloudy, cool weather apparently favors the development
of this disease.
Control.-No oat varieties have been found immune to pow-
dery mildew and very few offer even moderate resistance. Little
is known about its control by breeding resistant varieties. No
other control (such as dusting with chemicals) is known to be
practical.
SPECKLED BLOTCH OR BLACK STEM
This disease of oats, caused by Leptosphaeria avenaria G. F.
Weber (Septoria avenue Frank), has become of major impor-
tance in the Corn Belt; but it has been of little consequence in
the Southern States, although it is becoming more prevalent.







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The black-stem symptom generally is noticed at the point where
the oat leaf joins the stem. Frequently a fluffy white mass of
fungus material myceliumm) can be seen within the hollow por-
tion of infected stems. The speckled-blotch stage on the leaves
is generally masked by other more noticeable leaf diseases, such
as crown rust or leaf spot.
Control.-While no research is being conducted on this dis-
ease in Florida, resistant varieties are being bred for states in
which it has become of major importance.

BACTERIAL DISEASES
There are two very minor diseases of oats in Florida caused
by bacteria: halo blight, caused by Pseudomonas coronafaciens
(Elliott) Stapp., and bacterial stripe, caused by P. striafaciens
(Elliott) Starr and Burk. These are cool-weather diseases which
may occur sporadically throughout Florida during winter, but
disappear quickly as warm weather returns. These diseases are
spread by insects, so their distribution during peaks of infection
is associated with aphid and leafhopper outbreaks.
The water-soaked spots or stripes appear mostly on the leaves.
As these spots become larger they form irregular clear areas in
halo blight, or long water-soaked stripes in bacterial stripe.
Control.-Seed treatment and crop rotation reduce the primary
phase of these diseases. No practical method of insect control
has been devised, but such a treatment would help in controlling
these bacterial diseases. The breeding of resistant varieties
holds promise, but no specific work is being done in Florida along
these lines.
DOWNY MILDEW
This disease, Sclerospora macrospora Sacc., has been found
in Florida but so far has been of no commercial importance.
Downy mildew on oats can be found and observed best between
heading and harvest time, because infected plants remain green
for several days after normal plants ripen. They appear dwarfed
and erect and produce many tillers but no grain. Frequently
upper leaves and the heads are malformed.
Control.-Care should be taken not to plant seed from in-
fected fields. Seed treatment is not known to be effective and
resistant varieties have not yet been found. Since this disease is
associated with excessive ground moisture, drainage of low
areas has been found quite effective in controlling downy mildew.







Growing Oats in Florida


RED LEAF OF OATS
This is a disease which has attacked oats in Florida for many
years, but very little is known as to its cause or causes. It may
be caused by more than one organism or condition. For example,
several things cause oat leaves to turn red, such as poor nu-
tritional balance, aphid injury, root pruning, and possibly nema-
tode injury or a soil-borne virus.
The typical symptoms of red leaf in the South are reddening
of the leaves and stems, a general decline in vigor, and a stunt-
ing of the plants, with gradual yellowing and death of the plants.
In many cases in Florida and Georgia small areas in fields of
Camellia, Red Rustproof No. 14, and other varieties have been
observed to become red and spread into much larger areas as
the season advances. Areas of three or more acres have been
destroyed by the gradual spreading of red leaf in a few weeks
time.
Control.-No control is known, but rotation, adequate fertiliza-
tion, and general sanitation measures are recommended until
more is learned about red leaf of oats.

BREEDING OATS FOR FLORIDA
The principal reason for an oat breeding program in Florida
is to produce disease-resistant varieties agronomically adapted
to Florida's growing conditions. Since the major oat disease is
crown rust, and the only practical means of controlling it is by
resistant varieties, most attention during the past two decades
has been focused on breeding and selecting oat varieties for
resistance to this disease.
The late J. D. Warner of the North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, Quincy, did much to keep disease-resistant, high-yielding
oat varieties on Florida farms. Quincy 1, Quincy 2, and Florilee
are examples of crown rust-resistant oat varieties released by
the North Florida Station and grown for several years before the
advent of Victoria blight in 1946. Florida 167, developed at
Gainesville, was popular for several years until the coming of
race 45 of crown rust.
In recent years, Southland has shown adequate resistance to
crown rust and Victoria blight, and Floriland promises to give
excellent protection from the prevalent races of crown rust.
However, as new oat varieties are selected and released, new or
previously insignificant races of disease organisms are likely to







Growing Oats in Florida


RED LEAF OF OATS
This is a disease which has attacked oats in Florida for many
years, but very little is known as to its cause or causes. It may
be caused by more than one organism or condition. For example,
several things cause oat leaves to turn red, such as poor nu-
tritional balance, aphid injury, root pruning, and possibly nema-
tode injury or a soil-borne virus.
The typical symptoms of red leaf in the South are reddening
of the leaves and stems, a general decline in vigor, and a stunt-
ing of the plants, with gradual yellowing and death of the plants.
In many cases in Florida and Georgia small areas in fields of
Camellia, Red Rustproof No. 14, and other varieties have been
observed to become red and spread into much larger areas as
the season advances. Areas of three or more acres have been
destroyed by the gradual spreading of red leaf in a few weeks
time.
Control.-No control is known, but rotation, adequate fertiliza-
tion, and general sanitation measures are recommended until
more is learned about red leaf of oats.

BREEDING OATS FOR FLORIDA
The principal reason for an oat breeding program in Florida
is to produce disease-resistant varieties agronomically adapted
to Florida's growing conditions. Since the major oat disease is
crown rust, and the only practical means of controlling it is by
resistant varieties, most attention during the past two decades
has been focused on breeding and selecting oat varieties for
resistance to this disease.
The late J. D. Warner of the North Florida Experiment Sta-
tion, Quincy, did much to keep disease-resistant, high-yielding
oat varieties on Florida farms. Quincy 1, Quincy 2, and Florilee
are examples of crown rust-resistant oat varieties released by
the North Florida Station and grown for several years before the
advent of Victoria blight in 1946. Florida 167, developed at
Gainesville, was popular for several years until the coming of
race 45 of crown rust.
In recent years, Southland has shown adequate resistance to
crown rust and Victoria blight, and Floriland promises to give
excellent protection from the prevalent races of crown rust.
However, as new oat varieties are selected and released, new or
previously insignificant races of disease organisms are likely to








20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


" ....1


Fig. 3.-Airplane view of Main small grain nursery at Gainesville,
1949-50. Each long block contained 200 different strains of grain, making
a total of more than 16,000 in this 8-acre nursery.







Growing Oats in Florida


attack them. As a result, breeding new oat varieties has become
a continuous process to keep ahead of crown rust and other
diseases.
Every year several thousands of new introductions, selections,
and varieties of oats are tested for agronomic adaptability and
disease resistance in large nursery plantings at Quincy and
Gainesville (Fig. 3).
Foreign oats for testing purposes are sent to the Florida Ex-
periment Station from the U. S. Department of Agriculture,
where a large "world collection" of oat seed is maintained. In
the cooperative work with other state experiment stations, much
breeding material also is freely exchanged. The most important
source of new oats in recent years has been from the crosses or
hybrids made by plant breeders in the U. S. Department of Agri-
culture, Florida and other states.
Most oat crosses in Florida are made for the purpose of intro-
ducing disease resistance into early maturing varieties already
adapted to Coastal Plain conditions. For example, Appler, Su-
wannee, Red Rustproof No. 14, Florida 167 and Camellia oats
are all adapted to the climate of this area, but they lack suffi-
cient resistance to crown rust and other diseases. On the other
hand, Landhafer and Santa Fe oats, introduced by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture from foreign countries, have good
resistance to crown rust but are late maturing, poorly adapted
varieties.
The logical thing to do is to make crosses between varieties
which will contribute good adaptation from one parent and dis-
ease resistance from the other. Then by selecting for several
generations under Florida conditions, it is often possible to obtain
lines adapted to the state which also possess superior disease
resistance.
A better understanding of the problems of oat improvement
can be obtained if an explanation is given as to how crosses are
made and how oats are selected and tested. The basic considera-
tion in crossing oats is the make-up of the oat flower.
The oat flower florett) is not showy, is not visited by insects,
and is seldom seen because it is covered by glumes. It contains
both male parts (anthers which contain pollen) and female parts
(stigma, style and ovary). The oat flower is nearly always polli-
nated within the flower by its own pollen. This is called self-
pollination and occurs in more than 99 percent of the flowers,
even when different varieties of oats are growing side by side.







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

To produce oat hybrids it is necessary to prevent self-pollina-
tion by removing the pollen or male part, and to substitute pollen
from another variety at the proper time. The making of an oat
cross is a tedious operation; it is begun by opening a small oat
flower with forceps or small tweezers, removing the three anthers
(pollen sacs) before they shed pollen, and then closing the flower
parts back together without damaging the delicate membranes.
This operation is called emasculation. It is followed, usually
a day later, by the second and most important operation known
as cross-pollination. The small oat flower is again opened care-
fully and ripe pollen from the male parent variety is introduced
by the use of tweezers.
The cross has now been attempted but hybrid seeds still may
not develop properly. For reasons not well understood, only
about one hybrid seed is produced for each 10 flowers pollinated
by hand. Considering the difficulty of making oat crosses, it is
fortunate that only a few hybrid seeds are needed to carry on the
improvement program.
As the crosses are made the oat heads are tagged with small
white tags giving the names of both the parent plants used in the
cross. After the hybrid seeds have developed and ripened prop-
erly, the tags and seeds are carefully harvested and placed in
small envelopes until planting time.
The plants grown from these seeds are called F1 hybrids, mean-
ing the first generation grown after the cross was made. They
are usually grown in large pots in the greenhouse or in some
area where they can be well fertilized and watered and protected
from insects and birds. F1 oat plants exhibit hybrid vigor and if
properly grown will produce an abundance of grain in this first
hybrid generation.
Hybrid oat seeds from crosses made in Florida in March or
April can be matured by May and sent to a more northern state
in time for June planting. Currently, this summer crop is being
grown near Aberdeen, Idaho. The seeds resulting from F, spaced
plants in Idaho can then be returned to Florida for fall planting
the same year. In this way two generations can be grown in a
single year.
From the plant breeding standpoint the important generations
for selection are from F2 to about Fc. During five or six years it
is usually possible to select and reselect plant types which pos-
sess disease resistance, strong straw, early maturity, and high
yield. This selecting is to fix the characters fairly well so that







Growing Oats in Florida


resulting selections will "breed true" for them. Several more
years' testing may be necessary before a potential variety can
be released as a new variety (see variety testing program on
page 8).
At present Florida breeders have developed oat varieties with
combined resistance to crown rust and Victoria blight, plus rea-
sonably good yield and agronomic qualities. The next phase of
the program (selections now in F4 generations) is to add stem
rust resistance to future varieties. The addition of resistance to
leaf spot, culm rot and possibly other diseases needs to be at-
tempted as soon as preliminary studies on the disease organisms
can point out the best way to accomplish the task.
Much research needs to be done on the possible use of rather
wide species crosses in oats. Such relatively new fields of re-
search as embryo cultures, the production of tetraploids or am-
phidiploids, and the use of X-rays and atomic radiations to
produce favorable mutations could well be employed to aid in
securing more diverse parents.

OAT VARIETIES FOR FLORIDA
An oat variety, to be successful in Florida, should be reason-
ably early, resistant to several major diseases, furnish good
grazing, and stand well for combining. These are difficult re-
quirements and only four oat varieties (or closely related types)
are believed worthy of consideration by Florida farmers and
ranchers at present. Recommendations will change as time goes
on, but the following varieties are described and recommended
for 1953.
SOUTHLAND 5
Southland (C. I. 5207) was selected by Chapman at the North
Florida Experiment Station in 1948. It originated from a cross
of D69 x Bond (C. I. 3841) and Fultex (C. I. 3531) made by H. C.
Murphy in 1941 at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station,
Ames. Southland was released to Florida farmers in 1950 and
has become popular in other Coastal Plain States.
Southland is a vigorous-growing oat with broad, coarse leaves
and a strong, upright growth habit. It is a spring-type of oat
and is not cold hardy. Where it is not injured by cold weather,

SChapman, W. H. Southland Oats-A New Variety. Circular S-18.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1950.







Growing Oats in Florida


resulting selections will "breed true" for them. Several more
years' testing may be necessary before a potential variety can
be released as a new variety (see variety testing program on
page 8).
At present Florida breeders have developed oat varieties with
combined resistance to crown rust and Victoria blight, plus rea-
sonably good yield and agronomic qualities. The next phase of
the program (selections now in F4 generations) is to add stem
rust resistance to future varieties. The addition of resistance to
leaf spot, culm rot and possibly other diseases needs to be at-
tempted as soon as preliminary studies on the disease organisms
can point out the best way to accomplish the task.
Much research needs to be done on the possible use of rather
wide species crosses in oats. Such relatively new fields of re-
search as embryo cultures, the production of tetraploids or am-
phidiploids, and the use of X-rays and atomic radiations to
produce favorable mutations could well be employed to aid in
securing more diverse parents.

OAT VARIETIES FOR FLORIDA
An oat variety, to be successful in Florida, should be reason-
ably early, resistant to several major diseases, furnish good
grazing, and stand well for combining. These are difficult re-
quirements and only four oat varieties (or closely related types)
are believed worthy of consideration by Florida farmers and
ranchers at present. Recommendations will change as time goes
on, but the following varieties are described and recommended
for 1953.
SOUTHLAND 5
Southland (C. I. 5207) was selected by Chapman at the North
Florida Experiment Station in 1948. It originated from a cross
of D69 x Bond (C. I. 3841) and Fultex (C. I. 3531) made by H. C.
Murphy in 1941 at the Iowa Agricultural Experiment Station,
Ames. Southland was released to Florida farmers in 1950 and
has become popular in other Coastal Plain States.
Southland is a vigorous-growing oat with broad, coarse leaves
and a strong, upright growth habit. It is a spring-type of oat
and is not cold hardy. Where it is not injured by cold weather,

SChapman, W. H. Southland Oats-A New Variety. Circular S-18.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1950.







24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Southland produces an abundance of green pasture throughout
the winter grazing season. (See Fig 4.)


Fig. 4.-Southland oats growing at Gainesville, Florida, in 1951, showing
the wide leaves and vigorous, upright growth of this variety.








Growing Oats in Florida


Southland has been quite resistant to crown rust under field
conditions, but may become susceptible if different races of crown
rust should appear. It is susceptible to stem rust, but has
suffered relatively little damage because of its medium early
maturity. It is resistant to Victoria blight, but quite susceptible
to culm rot.
Yields of forage and grain have been high, especially under
good fertilization and management. The grain is heavy and
plump, free of hairs, white in color and of high quality.
FLORILAND'
Floriland (C. I. 6588), released in 1952, was developed from
a cross between Florida 167 (C. I. 4320) and Landhafer (C. I.
3522), made by F. A. Coffman, Division of Cereal Crops and
Diseases, BPISAE, USDA. Selecting, testing, and increasing
the new variety was done principally at the North Florida Ex-
periment Station at Quincy.
The outstanding characteristic of Floriland is excellent re-
sistance to crown rust, the most important oat disease in Florida.
Floriland is an early oat which gives good yields of forage
and grain (see Table 2). It is not resistant to stem rust or
smut, but is more resistant to culm rot than Southland. The
variety tillers well and has better winter hardiness than South-
land, although it should be considered non-hardy and is recom-
mended for planting only in the lower Coastal Plain area of
the Southeastern United States.
The kernels are red and quite hairy. The grain quality is only
fair, but since the variety will be planted chiefly for pasture,
grain quality will be of secondary importance. Seed of Flori-
land oats should be readily available by planting time in 1953.
VICTORGRAIN 48-93
Victorgrain 48-93 is a variety introduced by Coker's Pedigreed
Seed Company, Hartsville, South Carolina, in 1950. It was se-
lected from the Victorgrain variety but was recognized as being
superior to Victorgrain in 1946. Certain features of this variety
indicate that it probably originated from a natural cross of Vic-
torgrain and Fulgrain strain 3.
The average grain yields for three years at six locations in
Florida have been higher than for any other oat variety. Pre-
liminary tests show that Victorgrain 48-93 produces as much
Chapman, W. H. Floriland Oats. Circular S-53. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
1952.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


green forage during the total grazing season as Southland.
Southland produces more early grazing in most seasons, but
Victorgrain 48-93 gives excellent mid-winter and early spring
grazing (see Fig. 5). This is especially true during cold winters.
because Victorgrain is more hardy to cold and sudden periods of
frost than Southland.
Victorgrain 48-93 has shown good resistance to crown rust
but is susceptible to stem rust, as are all Southern oat varieties.
So far it has been highly resistant to most races of smuts and has
shown good resistance to culm rot. Victoria blight attacks it
in greenhouse tests, but this disease has not been prevalent
under field conditions during the past three years.
Victorgrain 48-93 is a good oat for combining because of its
relatively short and strong straw. The kernels are red, large,
plump, smooth, and free of awns and basal hairs. It threshes
clean and yields grain of high quality and high test weight.
Grains of the four varieties of oats recommended for Florida
are shown in Fig. 6.

RED RUSTPROOF OATS
Red Rustproof is the name given to a group of oat varieties
similar in growth habit, maturity, and grain type. These varie-

Fig. 5.-Oat varieties in the Gainesville nursery showing growth made
by Jan. 22, 1953. The four varieties between white stakes are (left to
right) Victorgrain 48-93, Southland, Floriland, and C. I. 6600, a promising
experimental. A general view of rod row yield trials in the background.







Growing Oats in Florida


ties are grown throughout the Southern states under such names
as Nortex, New Nortex, Appler, Ferguson, Hastings Hundred
Bushel, Texas Red, Delta Red, Bancroft, Terruf, and Red Rust-
proof No. 14. They may vary slightly in height, maturity, and
cold hardiness but all belong to the same general type.
Red Rustproof varieties tiller or stool out quite well under
most conditions and spread into a winter rosette of rather fine,
short leaves. They are more hardy than the spring oat varieties
like Southland and Floriland, and can stand considerable cold
weather. They are fine-stemmed and rather thick-growing and
the straw is usually weak. Red Rustproof oats do not furnish
heavy grazing in the fall, but usually come into prime produc-
tion in early spring. They are late to mature, which is sometimes
a disadvantage in Florida.


Fig. 6.-Typical grain samples of Southland, Victorgrain 48-93, Floriland
and Red Rustproof No. 14 oats.







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

These oats are "rust-proof" only in the sense that they are
"late rusters" and may escape some damage from crown rust,
especially during years of light infection. Actually they are
quite susceptible to crown rust and are greatly damaged in years
of heavy crown rust infection. The Red Rustproof types are
susceptible to stem rust and, because of late maturity, are some-
times damaged by this disease. They are quite resistant to
culm rot, several races of smut, and Victoria blight.
The grain of all Red Rustproof oats is light red in color, long
and slender, with a heavy brush of basal hairs and medium heavy,
non-twisted awns. The heavy hulls and awns on the grain of
these oats are not objectionable unless the oats are grown pri-
marily for grain.
Probably the most common Red Rutsproof oat variety grown
in Florida is Red Rustproof No. 14, which was introduced by the
Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia. The general
description given for the Red Rustproof group of oats fits this
variety. It is uniform and as well adapted to Florida condi-
tions as any Red Rustproof oat.
NOTE.-As this bulletin goes to print two new disease-resistant varieties
of oats are being released to Florida growers. Sunland and Seminole are
described fully in Circular S-63.

CULTURAL PRACTICES
SOILS FOR OATS
Oats can be grown on a wide variety of Florida soils but
usually grow best in the general farming area of northern Flor-
ida on rather heavy sandy loam soils. Light sandy soils are
nearly always lower in fertility and quite subject to drought.
For best oat production the fertility of most soils should be in-
creased by legumes and other cover crops and by the addition
of fertilizers.
Flatwood soils are not considered satisfactory for oats because
of poor drainage. Oat plants will not tolerate excessively wet
soil for more than a few days. They have not proved well
adapted for growing on organic soils such as muck or peat.

CROP SEQUENCE
Oats can follow almost any crop which can be removed in time
for proper seedbed preparation. They are commonly planted
following row crops such as corn, cotton, peanuts, or tobacco,
but may follow weeds or such crops as cattail millet, cowpeas,







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

These oats are "rust-proof" only in the sense that they are
"late rusters" and may escape some damage from crown rust,
especially during years of light infection. Actually they are
quite susceptible to crown rust and are greatly damaged in years
of heavy crown rust infection. The Red Rustproof types are
susceptible to stem rust and, because of late maturity, are some-
times damaged by this disease. They are quite resistant to
culm rot, several races of smut, and Victoria blight.
The grain of all Red Rustproof oats is light red in color, long
and slender, with a heavy brush of basal hairs and medium heavy,
non-twisted awns. The heavy hulls and awns on the grain of
these oats are not objectionable unless the oats are grown pri-
marily for grain.
Probably the most common Red Rutsproof oat variety grown
in Florida is Red Rustproof No. 14, which was introduced by the
Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia. The general
description given for the Red Rustproof group of oats fits this
variety. It is uniform and as well adapted to Florida condi-
tions as any Red Rustproof oat.
NOTE.-As this bulletin goes to print two new disease-resistant varieties
of oats are being released to Florida growers. Sunland and Seminole are
described fully in Circular S-63.

CULTURAL PRACTICES
SOILS FOR OATS
Oats can be grown on a wide variety of Florida soils but
usually grow best in the general farming area of northern Flor-
ida on rather heavy sandy loam soils. Light sandy soils are
nearly always lower in fertility and quite subject to drought.
For best oat production the fertility of most soils should be in-
creased by legumes and other cover crops and by the addition
of fertilizers.
Flatwood soils are not considered satisfactory for oats because
of poor drainage. Oat plants will not tolerate excessively wet
soil for more than a few days. They have not proved well
adapted for growing on organic soils such as muck or peat.

CROP SEQUENCE
Oats can follow almost any crop which can be removed in time
for proper seedbed preparation. They are commonly planted
following row crops such as corn, cotton, peanuts, or tobacco,
but may follow weeds or such crops as cattail millet, cowpeas,







28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

These oats are "rust-proof" only in the sense that they are
"late rusters" and may escape some damage from crown rust,
especially during years of light infection. Actually they are
quite susceptible to crown rust and are greatly damaged in years
of heavy crown rust infection. The Red Rustproof types are
susceptible to stem rust and, because of late maturity, are some-
times damaged by this disease. They are quite resistant to
culm rot, several races of smut, and Victoria blight.
The grain of all Red Rustproof oats is light red in color, long
and slender, with a heavy brush of basal hairs and medium heavy,
non-twisted awns. The heavy hulls and awns on the grain of
these oats are not objectionable unless the oats are grown pri-
marily for grain.
Probably the most common Red Rutsproof oat variety grown
in Florida is Red Rustproof No. 14, which was introduced by the
Coastal Plain Experiment Station, Tifton, Georgia. The general
description given for the Red Rustproof group of oats fits this
variety. It is uniform and as well adapted to Florida condi-
tions as any Red Rustproof oat.
NOTE.-As this bulletin goes to print two new disease-resistant varieties
of oats are being released to Florida growers. Sunland and Seminole are
described fully in Circular S-63.

CULTURAL PRACTICES
SOILS FOR OATS
Oats can be grown on a wide variety of Florida soils but
usually grow best in the general farming area of northern Flor-
ida on rather heavy sandy loam soils. Light sandy soils are
nearly always lower in fertility and quite subject to drought.
For best oat production the fertility of most soils should be in-
creased by legumes and other cover crops and by the addition
of fertilizers.
Flatwood soils are not considered satisfactory for oats because
of poor drainage. Oat plants will not tolerate excessively wet
soil for more than a few days. They have not proved well
adapted for growing on organic soils such as muck or peat.

CROP SEQUENCE
Oats can follow almost any crop which can be removed in time
for proper seedbed preparation. They are commonly planted
following row crops such as corn, cotton, peanuts, or tobacco,
but may follow weeds or such crops as cattail millet, cowpeas,







Growing Oats in Florida


soybeans, or hairy indigo. As explained above, it is desirable
to have oats follow a legume crop because of the additional avail-
able nitrogen. Oats should not follow oats or other small grain
crops year after year because of the build-up of soil-borne dis-
ease organisms under such a system.
Oats are sometimes plowed under as a green manure crop to
precede tobacco or vegetables. Considerable amounts of organic
matter are produced by green oats, but they do not "fix" nitrogen
as do legumes. Nematodes are not known to be harbored to any
great extent by oats; this is one advantage when oats precede
tobacco or vegetable crops such as squash, okra, or tomatoes.

SEEDBED PREPARATION
Oats respond well to good cultural practices. Any method of
preparing the soil which will give a firm seedbed and three to
four inches of loose, well tilled soil on top will be satisfactory
for planting oats. This can be accomplished by plowing and
disking, or in some cases by simply disking the land several times.
It is desirable to plow under or cover with soil as much as possi-
ble of the vegetation. Planting will be made easier and the
vegetation will have a better chance to decompose if it is turned
under several weeks before planting time.

SEED TREATMENT
Seed oats should be treated with / ounce of Ceresan M per
bushel. Seed treatment tends to reduce seed-borne disease or-
ganisms; this insures a stronger, more uniform growth of young
oat plants. If done properly, it will give complete control of
smut and will greatly reduce the infection of Helminthosporium
diseases so common on oat seed in Florida.
Ceresan M (ethyl mercury p-toluene sulfonanilide) is a dust
which can be purchased at seed stores. It is irritating to breathe
and precautions noted by the manufacturer should be carefully
observed. Seed treating can be done by thoroughly mixing the
seed and the proper amount of dust in a barrel treater or other
tight container. Mixing in the drill box is not recommended.
Some seed companies do custom seed cleaning and treating.
They usually use the slurry method, in which the material is
mixed with a small amount of water and applied to the seed in
a special machine. The seed then dries with a thin film of Cere-
san M on each seed. Either the dry or the slurry method will







30 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

give satisfactory results if the mixing is done thoroughly and
the proper amount of Ceresan M is applied.

TIME OF PLANTING
Time of planting oats depends upon weather conditions, soil
preparation and the use to be made of the crop. If early grazing
is needed, oats may be planted as early as September. This prac-
tice is recommended only when early fall pasture is needed, be-
cause oat plants growing in warmer weather are more subject
to Victoria blight and other Helminthosporium diseases.
Late October to mid-December is the time when most oats are
planted in Florida. Early-planted oats often are damaged by
periods of drought and hot weather. Oats planted in November
usually yield the highest returns in pasture and grain.

TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF DATE OF PLANTING ON YIELD OF FORAGE AND GRAIN
FROM SOUTHLAND AND RED RUSTPROOF NO. 14 OATS AT GAINESVILLE IN
1950-1951.
Total Forage in Tons Grain Yields in bu/A
Planting Dates of Green Weight No clipping after Feb. 26
per Acre but allowed to set grain
October I, 1950 (Clipped 3 times)
Southland .................. 3.62 34.2
R. R. P. No. 14 ...... 3.02 25.5
November 1, 1950 ... (Clipped 2 times)
Southland .................. 4.23 42.5
R. R. P. No. 14 ....- 2.49 26.5
December 1, 1950 (Clipped 1 time)
Southland .................. 4.14 I 52.0
R. R. P. No. 14 ...... 2.12 1 29.6

Table 5 shows the yields of forage and grain from two oat
varieties planted at three different dates in 1950. Southland
oats planted October 1 and clipped three times did not yield
as much forage and grain as the same variety planted in No-
vember and clipped only twice. Even after clipping four tons
of green weight per acre from Southland, the yields of grain were
good from the late-planted plots. Red Rustproof No. 14 gave less
yields of forage and grain than Southland and the differences
due to date of planting were not so pronounced. There is a
strong indication that later planting is best in Florida; however,
the plants should be well established before cold weather comes.







Growing Oats in Florida


This means that oats should be planted at least by the middle
part of December if they are to be successful in most seasons.

RATE OF PLANTING
Two bushes, or 64 pounds, per acre are generally a satisfactory
rate of planting. If seed is costly, 11/ bushels of good seed oats
will give economical stands on well-prepared land. In one experi-
ment where planting rates were stepped up from two to as high
as six bushels per acre forage yields were just as high from the
two bushel rate of seeding as they were from the heavier rates.
Planting at heavy rates may even be detrimental to yields if
soil moisture and fertility levels are low.

METHODS OF PLANTING
Planting oats with a grain drill is the best method to insure
an even stand, because this gives a uniform depth of planting.
Drilling also gives a more accurate rate of seeding than other
methods. Broadcasting and disking the seed into the seedbed is
a less satisfactory method which may be used when a drill is
not available.
To insure even stands, oats should be planted in moist soil.
In the sandy soils of Florida, strong germinating oats will
come up through three to four or more inches of soil. Rather
than plant at a depth beyond three inches, it would be better
to wait for a rain to insure adequate soil moisture for prompt
and even germination.
FERTILIZERS FOR OATS
A 6-6-6, 4-10-7, or similar fertilizer should be evenly applied
at the rate of 300 to 500 pounds per acre at planting time. The
proportion of plant nutrients and the amount of fertilizer to
apply depend upon the previous crop, the general level of soil
fertility and the amount of grazing required. If the previous
crop was a legume such as hairy indigo or cowpeas, less addi-
tional nitrogen will be needed. If the soil is sandy and low in
fertility, a generous application of complete fertilizer will help
to insure more winter grazing and a better yield at harvest time.
Harris7 has shown that oats need copper for maximum growth.
He also demonstrated that copper is deficient in certain Florida
soils. If this element is known to be deficient, a 15 pound applica-
'Harris, H. C. A nutritional disease of oats apparently due to the lack
of copper. Science 106: 398. 1947.







32 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

tion of copper sulfate per acre mixed with the complete fertilizer
usually will correct the difficulty.

NITROGEN TOP-DRESSING FOR OATS
Much experimental work has been done on nitrate fertilization
of oats. However, it is still difficult to give definite rules about
applying nitrate fertilizers to oats, since so much depends upon
economic considerations, weather conditions, and the use to be
made of the crop.
In Florida, where most oats are grazed, it is considered good
practice to apply 20 to 24 pounds of nitrogen at planting time
in the complete fertilizer. An additional 24 to 32 pounds is
usually applied around early February during the growing season
in the form of nitrate of soda, ammonium nitrate or ammonium
sulfate. The amounts indicated represent the nitrogen content
only in the top-dresser; since the percentage of nitrogen varies
with the sources mentioned, the total poundage per acre would
also vary, depending on the nitrogen content. It has been found
that when ever grazing is needed, and moisture and temperature
conditions are favorable, an application of 100 to 150 pounds of
nitrate of soda (or equivalent) will make oats turn green and
grow rapidly within a few days after it is made. Too heavy
an application of nitrogen in the late growth stage frequently
causes lodging and makes oats difficult to harvest for grain.
In some parts of Florida where equipment has been available,
anhydrous ammonia and nitrogen solutions have been success-
fully applied to oats.

GRAZING MANAGEMENT
Oats should be six to eight inches tall and have a well-devel-
oped root system before livestock are allowed to graze them. If
pastured too early the stand will be injured by livestock tramp-
ing and pulling up the small plants.
Rotational grazing of oats is good practice. One area can
be uniformly grazed rather closely for two or three weeks while
other areas are making good growth for subsequent grazing.
Since many farmers grow oats for both forage and grain,
it is important to discontinue grazing at the proper time in the
spring to allow for profitable grain yields. One year's experi-
mental results at Quincy showed that clipping oats until Feb-
ruary 15 reduced the yield of grain about 25 percent (Table 6).
An additional two weeks of clipping beyond this date cut the







Growing Oats in Florida


grain yields in half. Preliminary clipping results indicate that
grazing oats after March 1 may greatly reduce grain yields.
In most seasons a more profitable grain crop can be harvested
if all grazing is stopped by February 15.

TABLE 6.-AVERAGE GRAIN AND FORAGE PRODUCTION OF OATS AS INFLUENCED
BY CLIPPING TERMINATION DATE AT QUINCY, FLORIDA, 1951-52.*
SPounds Green I Bushels Grain
Clipping Termination Date Forage per Acre I per Acre
No clipping .............................0 82.8

February 1 ......- ..................... 3,071 74.3
February 15 ........................ 4,232 61.5
M arch 1 ......-- .............-- ........... 5,813 43.0
March 15 ..................... 7,222 31.3
A pril 1 ...................- ............... 9,805 10.4
Average of Southland and Victorgrain 48-93 for three planting dates.
OATS AS A HAY CROP
Oats should be cut for hay when the grain is in the soft dough
stage. The oats are usually cut with a mowing machine, wind-
rowed with a side-delivery rake and allowed to dry. Usually
they are then baled with a pickup baler. Oat bales should be
stored in a barn or mow. Oat hay also can be stacked loose in
a barn if baling is not practical.

HARVESTING GRAIN
Most Florida oats are harvested for grain with a combine. The
grain should be ripe and quite dry and the straw should be brittle
before combining. Combining is seldom successful when started
too soon following a rain or a heavy dew.
The cylinder speed, spacing of teeth or cylinder bar, and the
adjustment of the air blast should be done according to the manu-
facturer's directions. This will insure against wasting and de-
hulling the grain.
CLEANING OATS
Oats do not need to be cleaned for feeding purposes. For
seeding, oats should be carefully cleaned of large trash, weed
seeds, other crop seeds, and inert matter such as hulls and chaff.
In many communities custom seed cleaning facilities are avail-
able at moderate cost and within easy trucking distance. One







34 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

advantage of buying Registered or Certified oat seed is that it
has been carefully cleaned and will meet all rigid certified seed
standards.
STORING OATS
Oat grain can be stored in sacks or in vermin-tight, dry bins,
but special care must be taken with combined oats to be certain
the grain has low moisture content. If oat grain is damp after
harvest some method of artificial drying should be provided. It
may be necessary to spread the grain on a dry floor and turn it
several times to reduce the moisture content. Where artificial
dryers are available the grain can be sacked loosely and dried for
several hours with a draft of warm air.
If the moisture content is higher than 13 percent the grain
may mold or heat. Such spoilage will result in unfit or low-class
feed and will undoubtedly reduce germination and value for seed.
Frequent sampling of the grain from deep in the bin or from
middle sacks will help to determine if heating or spoiling is in
progress. Dry grain has a pleasant straw-like odor; while a
slight musty, sour or damp odor warns of spoilage. To reduce
grain losses further, protect oats from rodents and insects.

FUMIGATION
Thoroughly clean bins before storing new grain. Remove all
old grain and other material which could harbor insects and
thoroughly sweep the room or bin. A good practice is to spray the
empty bin with a 2.5 percent water suspension of DDT at the
rate of 2 gallons per 1,000 square feet of surface.
If insect control by fumigation is to be successful, an air-tight
bin is necessary. Most fumigating materials are heavy liquids
which evaporate to gases and permeate all levels of the grain.
If bins are not made tight, the gases will escape and poor fumi-
gation will result.
Fumigants most commonly used for killing insects in stored
grain are mixtures of the following heavy liquids:
1. Carbon tetrachloride ...................... ............ 4 parts
Carbon bisulfide ....... ................... 1 part
2. Carbon tetrachloride --................. ....--.......- 1 part
Ethylene dichloride ........................................... 3 parts
These commercially prepared fumigants are sold under various
trade names. They will not damage grain if applied at the
recommended rate, which varies from 3 to 6 gallons per 1,000
bushels of grain. Manufacturers' recommendations are usually







Growing Oats in Florida


given in quarts per 1,000 cubic feet of bin space. The fumigants
are usually applied by spraying on top of the grain. THESE
MATERIALS ARE DANGEROUS AND CARE SHOULD BE
TAKEN NOT TO BREATHE THE FUMES OR SPILL THE
MATERIAL ON THE SKIN OR CLOTHING.
Carbon bisulfide (sometimes called high life) is dangerous to
use as a fumigant in its pure form because of fire and explosion
hazards. Pyrenone is a relatively new treatment for grain which
may prove of value in Florida. If oats are grown for seed and
are not to be fed, insects can be controlled by putting a thin layer
of DDT dust (5%) on every 12 inches of oats as they are stored
in the bin.
CERTIFIED SEED
The production of an ample supply of certified seed of the
recommended oat varieties is important if the Florida oat pro-
gram is to be successful. Certified seed production requires
special cleaning and treating equipment and storage facilities,
but above all its requires an appreciation for high quality seed
and a feeling of pride in turning out a superior product.
Certified seed means that the ancestry of a particular variety
can be certified in an unbroken line (year by year) back to
breeder's stock at the Experiment Station or other reliable
source. It also means that the oat variety passed rigid field
inspections for genetic purity, and careful tests in the State
Seed Laboratory for mechanical purity, germination, weed seeds
and other factors. Certified seed is the best assurance that the
variety is "true to name," pure and of high quality and germina-
tion.
The State Department of Agriculture has charge of certifica-
tion of crop varieties in Florida. Farmers and seed producers
interested in producing certified oat seed should contact the
Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.

SUMMARY
Oats are grown as a winter pasture and grain crop principally
in northern and western Florida. Usually, Florida plants from
140,000 to 160,000 acres to oats annually. A high percentage
of this acreage is pastured at least once from November through
March. Less than one-fourth of the planted acreage is harvested
for grain.
Diseases are the greatest single menace to the oat crop. For
more than two decades it has been necessary to breed and select







Growing Oats in Florida


given in quarts per 1,000 cubic feet of bin space. The fumigants
are usually applied by spraying on top of the grain. THESE
MATERIALS ARE DANGEROUS AND CARE SHOULD BE
TAKEN NOT TO BREATHE THE FUMES OR SPILL THE
MATERIAL ON THE SKIN OR CLOTHING.
Carbon bisulfide (sometimes called high life) is dangerous to
use as a fumigant in its pure form because of fire and explosion
hazards. Pyrenone is a relatively new treatment for grain which
may prove of value in Florida. If oats are grown for seed and
are not to be fed, insects can be controlled by putting a thin layer
of DDT dust (5%) on every 12 inches of oats as they are stored
in the bin.
CERTIFIED SEED
The production of an ample supply of certified seed of the
recommended oat varieties is important if the Florida oat pro-
gram is to be successful. Certified seed production requires
special cleaning and treating equipment and storage facilities,
but above all its requires an appreciation for high quality seed
and a feeling of pride in turning out a superior product.
Certified seed means that the ancestry of a particular variety
can be certified in an unbroken line (year by year) back to
breeder's stock at the Experiment Station or other reliable
source. It also means that the oat variety passed rigid field
inspections for genetic purity, and careful tests in the State
Seed Laboratory for mechanical purity, germination, weed seeds
and other factors. Certified seed is the best assurance that the
variety is "true to name," pure and of high quality and germina-
tion.
The State Department of Agriculture has charge of certifica-
tion of crop varieties in Florida. Farmers and seed producers
interested in producing certified oat seed should contact the
Florida State Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, Florida.

SUMMARY
Oats are grown as a winter pasture and grain crop principally
in northern and western Florida. Usually, Florida plants from
140,000 to 160,000 acres to oats annually. A high percentage
of this acreage is pastured at least once from November through
March. Less than one-fourth of the planted acreage is harvested
for grain.
Diseases are the greatest single menace to the oat crop. For
more than two decades it has been necessary to breed and select







36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

oat varieties for resistance to crown rust and other serious dis-
eases prevalent in Florida. Crown rust is the most important
disease in Florida. The only practical means of controlling crown
rust and several other diseases is by breeding resistant varieties.
Other diseases of importance in Florida are stem rust, culm
rot, leaf spot, smuts, Victoria blight, powdery mildew, speckled
blotch, bacterial diseases, downy mildew, and red leaf of oats.
Oat varieties at present recommended for growing in Florida
are Southland, Floriland, Victorgrain 48-93 and Red Rustproof
No. 14.
Oats grow best on rather heavy sandy loam soils. The fer-
tility of most soils should be increased by legumes or other cover
crops and by the addition of fertilizers. From 300 to 500 pounds
per acre of a 6-6-6, a 4-10-7, or similar fertilizer should be applied
at planting time.
Seed oats should be treated with 12 ounce of Ceresan M per
bushel to reduce damage from seed-borne diseases.
Oats respond well to good cultural practices. They should be
drilled into a well prepared seedbed at the rate of two bushels
per acre.
The optimum time to plant oats is in November. Early plant-
ing is somewhat hazardous because of drought and diseases,
while late-planted oats are more likely to be damaged by cold
weather.
A winter top-dressing of from 24 to 32 pounds of nitrogen per
acre is recommended. If the oats are to be grazed heavily,
double this amount may be necessary for proper growth. The
time of applying nitrogen and the amounts to apply will depend
upon economic, weather and grazing conditions.
Oats should not be grazed too early, or overgrazed; rotational
grazing is suggested.
Oats for hay should be harvested when the grain is in the soft
dough stage.
Oats for grain generally are harvested with a combine. The
grain should not contain more than 13 percent moisture for safe
storage. Certain precautions should be taken to store oats away
from rodents, and to fumigate for control of insect pests.
The production of an ample supply of certified seed of the
recommended oat varieties is important to the Florida oat pro-
gram. The State Department of Agriculture in Tallahassee has
charge of the certification of oat varieties in Florida.




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