• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Introduction
 Climatic adaptations
 Propagation
 Cultural methods
 Soil adaptations
 Light requirements
 Desirable characterisitics
 Species and varieties
 Ground cover for special purpo...
 Additional materials possibly suited...
 Index to common names






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 364
Title: Ground covers for Florida gardens
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026555/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ground covers for Florida gardens
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 60 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Crevasse, J. M ( Joseph M. ), 1915-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1941
 Subjects
Subject: Ground cover plants -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Gardens -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J.M. Crevasse, Jr.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: Originally presented as: Thesis (M.S.)--University of Florida, 1941.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026555
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924597
oclc - 18229891
notis - AEN5224

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Climatic adaptations
        Page 4
    Propagation
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Cultural methods
        Page 7
    Soil adaptations
        Page 8
    Light requirements
        Page 9
    Desirable characterisitics
        Page 9
    Species and varieties
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Ground cover for special purposes
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Additional materials possibly suited as ground covers
        Page 58
        Page 59
    Index to common names
        Page 60
Full Text



-P.,









BulletinI 364 ,,. I November, 1941
I'I\ERSIT~ OF FLORIDA .AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NE\'iELL, Director, Gainesville, Florida

Ground Covers for Florida Gardens
By J. M. CREVASSE, JR. ,



















1.ill








EXECUTIVE STAFF BOARD OF CONTROL
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL. D., President H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
of the University3 W. M. Palmer. Ocala
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir., N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Research T. T. Scott, Live Oak
W. M. Fifield, M. S., Asst. Dir., Admin. J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
J. Francis Cooper, M. S. A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor' BRANCH STATIONS
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor' NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian J. D. Warner, M.S. Agron. in Charge
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3 R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3 Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant3 Husbandman
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
AGRONOMY A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Chg.
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomists John H. Jeffries, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists Chas. K. Clark, Ph.D., Chemist
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. A. Carver, Ph. D., Associate W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
ANIMAL INDUSTRY EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' a J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Chg.
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman' J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist' F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterina biologist
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Paras i oownsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., PoL Husb.' H. WT'idder, M.S., Asst. An. Husb.
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in utritiorrn-W. T. "see, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso ate SiDay .5-- Ca ton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
Manufactures T Y.iL ,A R-lI&er2
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst n. Husb.' F. S. Andews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., so Dairy -Roy A. air, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
Husbandman3 -.J.. ffman, M. S., Asst. Hort.
L. L. Rusoff, Ph.D., Asst. in An. tf.'T -TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
L. E. Mull, M.S,, Asst. in Dairy Tech. Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
CJ K. Moore, M. S. Asst. Poultry Husb. in Charge
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURE S. J. Lynch., B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate W. CENTRAL FLA. STA.,
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate BROOK
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant BROOKSVILLE
Max run M.S.Assistant W. F. Ward M.S., Asst. An. Husband-
ECONOMICS, HOME man in ChargeH
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.' man in Charge'
Ruth Overstreet, RN., Assistant RANGE CATTLE STA., WAUCHULA
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist W. G. Kirk., Ph.D., Animal Husbandman
ENTOMOLOGY in Charge
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist' FIELD STATIONS
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate Lee
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
HORTICULTURE in Charge
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist' K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate Pathologist
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.' Plant City
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist Hastings
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort. A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist' E.N. MeCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist' Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY Monticello
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.' Bradenton
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Horti-
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist culturist in Charge
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
SOILS Sanford
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist Charge, Celery Investigations
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist Lakeland
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate'
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist 'Head of Department
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist 'In cooperation with U. S.
Geo. D. Thornton, M. S., Asst. Chemist sCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.

Gift of Issuing oftio






GROUND COVERS FOR FLORIDA
GARDENS

J. M. CREVASSE, JR.1

CONTENTS
Climatic Adaptations ____ __ 4
Propagation ..___ ___ 5
Cultural Methods 7
Soil Adaptations 8__________________ 8
Light Requirements 9
Desirable Characteristics ______ .. 9
Species and Varieties ___0______ ___ 10
Ground Covers for Special Purposes ---- ..- 56
Additional Materials Possibly Suited as Ground Covers-- 58
Index to Common Names_-___----. 60

INTRODUCTION
During the past 20 years there has been a tremendous in-
crease in gardening interest in Florida, in large part resulting
from the activity of the Garden Clubs. The mild climate and
abundant rainfall of the state are conducive to development of
attractive gardens, but there are also some handicaps to be over-
come. One of the serious problems of ornamental gardening in
Florida has been the treatment of those areas of ground which
are unsuited to development as lawns because of dense shade,
competition of roots, steep slope, or for any other reason, but
which are unsightly if left uncovered. This bulletin presents the
results of a survey of the native and exotic plant materials found
in Florida suitable for use as ground covers.
Horticulturists are not wholly agreed as to the definition of a
ground cover. Some are inclined to think of it as possessing the
same characteristics and performing the same functions as a
lawn grass. Others would broaden the definition to include all
fairly low growing plants which can cover bare ground on which
grass fails to grow or can be used where grasses are not desired,
as in parkways. The latter position is that taken in this bulletin.
As used hereafter, the term "ground cover" will include any
plant or group of plants other than the grasses which will sat-
isfactorily cover the ground, forming a compact and attractive
cover, and either growing naturally to a height of not more than
10 or 15 inches or readily maintained within this height by prun-
ing or shearing.

'The material contained in this bulletin was presented to the Graduate
Council of the University of Florida on April 30, 1941, in partial ful-
fillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Agri-
culture. This study was carried out under the Florida Federation of
Garden Clubs Fellowship in Horticulture, for the award of which the
writer is deeply grateful.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Ground covers are generally used around and under trees,
in parkways, on slopes and banks, pnd in rock and sunken gar-
dens. However, there is no set rule which says a ground cover
cannot be used wherever one may be desired. And the use of
ground covers in some of the most unexpected places is one of
the secrets of the success of some outstanding gardens.
Some ground covers have characteristics similar to the lawn
grasses and may be handled in the same way. Examples of such
covers would include Dichondra", Meibomia, and Phyla. Taking rec-
ommended ground covers as a whole, few can be mowed or
tramped, as most of them stand from 4 to 12 inches in height.
In parts of the United States extensive use is made of shrubs
as ground covers. Such shrubs generally have a very low and
spreading habit of growth, and when subjected to constant and
careful pruning make a very compact and attractive cover. Al-
though the use of shrubs for covering the soil in Florida is still
in its infancy, there is present a bountiful source of plant ma-
terials that can satisfactorily be used for this purpose. Examples
of some such plants are Carissa grandiflora, Bauhinia galpini, Cepha-
lotaxus spp., Elaeagnus spp., Ilex vomitoria and I. bullata, Juniperus
chinensis var. pfitzeriana and Pyracantha spp.

CLIMATIC ADAPTATIONS
The climate of Florida is such that there occur within the
state three distinct groups of ground cover plant materials-
those that are tender, semi-hardy and hardy.
To aid in locating the different sections to which the various
ground covers are adapted, the accompanying map has been pre-
pared (Fig. 1). It is divided into three sections: 1, South Florida,
2, Central Florida, and 3, North and Northwest Florida. Although
there are no clear-cut lines of definition between these sections,
still certain species may be grown successfully in one section
and not in the other two.
The tender ground covers are confined almost entirely to
that part of South Florida which is relatively frost free, or to
section 1 on the accompanying map. Within the area designated
as section 2 there occurs a group of plants that as a whole are
semi-hardy. Many of these, however, may be grown throughout

2Nomenclature of native plant material follows Small, John K.,
Manual of the Southeastern Flora 1933. Nomenclature of cultivated plant
materials and all family names follow Bailey, L. H., Hortus, 1935.





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


the state with equal success. The hardy forms are generally
grown throughout North and Northwest Florida with the great-
est satisfaction.


L




AEV VMAR ON
Fig. 1.-Map showing the three zones of Flor-
ida as used in the description of species in this 3
bulletin. OR
Many of the supposedly tender osE OLA
ground covers have been found to be for0 O"
semi-hardy and thus are suitable for NO -
use in parts of Central Florida. ,,r"O
Tribulus and Wedelia when grown in ..0
protected spots have endured tem- w'.111
peratures as low as 26 degrees Fah- .. '
renheit without injury. Probably all
of the tender forms will endure much
lower temperatures if they are al- o DA
lowed to mature and become hard- -'oo
ened prior to a freeze.
A few of the covers require a
long dormant period in order to be grown with success. Such is
the case with Hedera and probably also with Ajuga and Vinca.
Gelsemium will thrive in the warmer sections of the state, but a
long dormancy is conductive to a profusion of flowers in the
spring.
Certain of the ground covers, such as Phyla and Zamia, can be
grown successful throughout the state. They are among the
few that can endure almost any of the ecological conditions oc-
curring within Florida.
PROPAGATION
Most of the plants recommended as ground covers may be
propagated by seed when it is obtainable. The scarcity of seed
of some plants such as the -Sarawak-bean makes this method
an unreliable means of propagation for them. In other cases, as
in that of the gopher-apple, propagation by seed must be relied





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


upon entirely, since cuttings..are -next.-to impossible to -root and
transplanting has not proven successful.
In many cases seeds may be sown directly in the place where
the plants are intended to grow. Where such a practice is em-
ployed the area should be spaded and the soil thus made loose
and friable before the seeds are sown. The size of the seec,
amount of seed available, and size of the mature plant will prob-
ably govern the distance apart for sowing the seed. Sometimes,
as in the case of the junipers and wintercreeper, it will be found
necessary to plant the seed in a flat and then transplant the
seedlings to pots for a season or more, before setting them out
in the place where they are intended to cover the ground. Ferns
and selaginellas may be grown from spores on a special medium
of well seasoned peat, but this is very difficult to accomplish.
The easiest and most commonly used means of propagating
the ground covers is by vegetative methods-cuttings, layers and
division. Many of the species are propagated almost entirely by
cuttings. Those species that are herbaceous in texture may be
rooted satisfactorily at any season, but in winter bottom heat
must be provided. Woody and semi-woody species are generally
most satisfactorily rooted in summer and early fall. Under
Florida conditions bottom heat is seldom necessary unless the
propagation practices extend through the winter months.
Watkins" describes several propagating frames that may be
used successfully and economically by the average gardener. Ac-
tually the frame is of much less importance than the rooting
medium and the humidity of the bed. Some plants will root well
in a medium of sand alone and others do well in a medium of
sand and peat mixed. Each plant apparently has its preferred
medium. On the whole, a medium of /2 peat moss and % white
quartz sand has given excellent results in the rooting of cuttings.
Cuttings should preferably be made 3 to 4 inches long, the
position of the basal cut being unimportant for most ornamental
plants grown in Florida. Several leaves at the tip end of the
cutting should be left, the others being stripped off or cut away.
Often the position in which the cutting is inserted in the bed may
mean the difference between success and failure. Where a cut-
ting is inserted in an upright position in the bed, transpiration is
always greater than if the cutting is placed in a slanting posi-

'Watkins, John V. Propagation of Ornamental Plants. Fla. Ag. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 347. 1940.






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


tion with the leaves resting on the rooting medium. Of course,
if humidity is maintained at a constant level within the propa-
gating frame, the position in which the cutting is inserted in the
bed is of little moment; but the humidity in the small and inex-
pensive propagating frame of the average gardener is rarely
maintained at a constant level.
After the cutting has been inserted in the bed, the soil should
be firmed about it and then well watered. Subsequent water-
ings should be made at least twice a day, preferably once about
noon and again late in the evening.
When plants have developed a fair root system they may be
transplanted directly to the bed in which they are to grow, or
they may be left in pots until they have attained sufficient size
for transplanting.
Many plants may be successfully grown by planting the cut-
tings directly in the bed where they are intended to serve as
ground cover. Those that may be treated in this manner include
Ajuga, Asystasia, Dichondra, Meibomia, Mitchella, Peperomia, Phyla,
Pilea, Spironema, Wedelia, and Zebrina. Plants so treated should be
kept well watered until they have become established.
Propagation by layering is quite commonly employed with
Gelsemium, Juniperus, Lonicera, and Pyrostegia. Layering consists
of laying a branch or stem on the earth and covering it with soil.
After the roots have formed on the layered branch or stem, it
is cut from the parent plant and transplanted to where it is in-
tended to grow. Layering may be performed at any season of the
year, but most rapid results probably are obtained during the
summer months.
The increase of plants by division is perhaps the easiest and
most rapid means of plant propagation. Division is simply the
process of dividing plants that have rootstocks or tubers, or pro-
duce offsets or suckers, the parts being cut or broken into pieces.
The following ground covers are successfully propagated by di-
vision: Ajuga, Asparagus, Liriope, Ophiopogon, Saxifraga, Spironema,
Vinca, and Viola.

CULTURAL METHODS
Ground cover materials are very diverse in their cultural re-
quirements, and no attempt is made here to discuss the special
culture of each individual cover. Instead, the general principles
underlying successful culture for ground covers as a whole are
outlined.






8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

A thorough cultivation of the bed preparatory to setting the
plants is of utmost importance. This may be accomplished by
spading the soil to a depth of 6 to 8 inches. All roots, weeds and
foreign material should be removed, and before planting the
soil should be raked level and then moistened. Often a liberal
quantity of decomposed organic matter spaded into the soil be-
fore planting will prove beneficial in helping the young plants
to become established. Shading of the newly set plants may or
may not be practiced; however, if the plant has a good root sys-
tem and the soil is not allowed to dry out, shading is seldom
necessary.
Ground covers, like grasses, cannot be cultivated once they
are established. With several of the lower growing forms such as
Dichondra and Phyla, one may find it advantageous to cover the
sod completely once every year or two with three-fourths of an
inch of good garden soil or pulverized muck. With such plants
as Ajuga, Tribulus, and Vinca, a mulch of finely pulverized dairy
manure has been found to be very beneficial. But with the ma-
ijority of the ground covers, no form of mulching is practiced.
Like grasses, ground covers demand a certain amount of
nitrogen for maintaining a vigorous growth. Certain of the more
vigorous ones, such as Zebrina, require an almost constant supply
of readily available nitrogen; while some of the slower growing
and woody forms, as Geobalanus, appear to require little, if any,
fertilizer. An application of a complete fertilizer (4-7-3 or 4-8-3)
once each year, preferably in the spring, should prove sufficient
Tor most of the ground covers.
With few exceptions ground covers require some attention
to their water supply, just as do grasses. Some are relatively
drought-resistant and others are very easily injured if the
water supply is deficient. Proper attention to the needs of the
plant, especially where moisture-loving species are grown on
relatively dry soils, will be amply repaid in the increased at-
tractiveness of the ground cover.
Pruning, shearing and mowing are discussed under the
species headings.
SOIL ADAPTATIONS
On the whole, soil requirements of the various recommended
ground covers differ little. The only requisite seems to be a
plentiful supply of moisture and nutrients available to satisfy
the demands of the growing plant. Only a few ground cover






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


materials seem to demand a certain definite soil type or soil pH
range. Dolichos hosei has a preference for nearly neutral or basic
soils, while Mitchella repens seems to require soils having an acid
reaction. Most of the covers grow best at a nearly neutral or
slightly acid soil reaction.
Almost all ground covers thrive better on rich soils than on
poor soils, but many, especially those that are drought-resistant,
may be grown successfully on high sandy soils. Certain covers,
such as Phyla, Tribulus, and Zamia, will do equally well on rich or
poor soils, and once established they are very drought-resistant.
Only a few covers are tolerant of either dry sandy soils or
water-logged soils, the greater part of them preferring one that
is moist but well drained. Some, such as Pilea, Wedelia, and Zebrina,
are definitely moisture-loving plants and although they will not
tolerate a water-logged soil they do demand a moist soil. Only
two of the ground covers can tolerate a water-logged soil.
Phyla nodiflora and Spilanthes americana can endure submersion in
water for days without injury.

LIGHT REQUIREMENTS
In the later discussion of adaptability and requirements of
the several species the terms "full sunlight", "partial shade" and
"full shade" are used. These terms are defined as follows:
When a plant is grown in an open and unshaded location re-
ceiving 75 percent or more direct rays from the sun, it is refer-
red to as growing in full sunlight. When a plant is grown in
a partly shaded location not receiving more than 40 to 50
percent of the total direct rays from the sun, whether the shade
occur during the morning or afternoon hours, or whether it be
distributed throughout the day, it is considered as growing in
partial shade. And when a plant receives no direct rays from the
sun and the shade is consistent throughout the day, as would
occur under large evergreen trees, this is referred to as a full
shade condition.

DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS
Certain features or characteristics of ground covers deter-
mine their relative desirability. Such characteristics would in-
clude light requirements, soil adaptations, resistance to low tem-
peratures, salt tolerance, ability to endure mowing or shearing,
tolerance to tramping under foot, time required to develop an






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


materials seem to demand a certain definite soil type or soil pH
range. Dolichos hosei has a preference for nearly neutral or basic
soils, while Mitchella repens seems to require soils having an acid
reaction. Most of the covers grow best at a nearly neutral or
slightly acid soil reaction.
Almost all ground covers thrive better on rich soils than on
poor soils, but many, especially those that are drought-resistant,
may be grown successfully on high sandy soils. Certain covers,
such as Phyla, Tribulus, and Zamia, will do equally well on rich or
poor soils, and once established they are very drought-resistant.
Only a few covers are tolerant of either dry sandy soils or
water-logged soils, the greater part of them preferring one that
is moist but well drained. Some, such as Pilea, Wedelia, and Zebrina,
are definitely moisture-loving plants and although they will not
tolerate a water-logged soil they do demand a moist soil. Only
two of the ground covers can tolerate a water-logged soil.
Phyla nodiflora and Spilanthes americana can endure submersion in
water for days without injury.

LIGHT REQUIREMENTS
In the later discussion of adaptability and requirements of
the several species the terms "full sunlight", "partial shade" and
"full shade" are used. These terms are defined as follows:
When a plant is grown in an open and unshaded location re-
ceiving 75 percent or more direct rays from the sun, it is refer-
red to as growing in full sunlight. When a plant is grown in
a partly shaded location not receiving more than 40 to 50
percent of the total direct rays from the sun, whether the shade
occur during the morning or afternoon hours, or whether it be
distributed throughout the day, it is considered as growing in
partial shade. And when a plant receives no direct rays from the
sun and the shade is consistent throughout the day, as would
occur under large evergreen trees, this is referred to as a full
shade condition.

DESIRABLE CHARACTERISTICS
Certain features or characteristics of ground covers deter-
mine their relative desirability. Such characteristics would in-
clude light requirements, soil adaptations, resistance to low tem-
peratures, salt tolerance, ability to endure mowing or shearing,
tolerance to tramping under foot, time required to develop an






10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

adequate covering of the ground, and resistance to insect anc
disease pests.
A good ground cover should have all or many of these de
sired characteristics that are necessary to make it an inexpen
sive and yet highly satisfactory covering of the soil. Thos(
plants recommended are the ones that provide the most desirable
and satisfactory covers under varying conditions of use ir
Florida.
SPECIES AND VARIETIES
The following ground covers have been arranged in alpha
betical order according to their botanical names. Following the
botanical classification is the common name or names by whici
the plant is more frequently referred to in Florida. The num
ber denoting the section of the state to which it is adapted (Map
Fig. 1) follows the common name, and last is the name of the
family to which the plant belongs.
Ajuga genevensis L. (A. rugosa Hort., A. alpina Hort.) Geneva bugle
weed. (3.) LABIATAE.
The Geneva bugle-weed, a native of Europe and the Orient
is a herbaceous perennial creeping by stolons and having erec
stems at time o:
flowering. (Fig
2.) The darl
green leaves arc
oblong-elliptic oi
obovate, a n
about 11/2 inches,
1 ong Flowers
are blue anc
borne in terminal:
spikes in earl3
summer.
This plant ma3
be grown quite
successfully ir
L_. either sun or
Fig. 2.-The Geneva bugle-weed, Ajuga genevensis. shade. Since it
prefers a well drained, heavy soil, it is questionable whether ii
will do well on the light sandy soils of Central and South Florida
It is hardy throughout the state. No mowing or shearing is re-
quired since the plant seldom exceeds 1 or 2 inches in height ex-






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


cept at time of flowering. Tramping of the bugle-weed is not
advised. It is one of the most vigorous of the ground cover plant
materials, and if the plants are set in the fall or early spring a
good covering may be had in two or three months.
It is propagated by seeds, cuttings and divisions, most com-
monly by the last method. Plants may be set 4 to 8 inches
apart each way and preferably during the fall or early spring.
The Geneva bugle-weed has long been used as a ground
cover in the Northern states. Gradually its use has spread
southward, and now several large and attractive plantings are to
be found in Northwest Florida. It may be used very satisfactor-
ily as a covering under trees, for slopes and banks, in parkways,
and as an edging.
Ajuga tottenhami, a garden form with bronze leaves and blue
flowers, is also well adapted to extreme Northwestern Florida.
So far as is now known, Ajugas can positively be recommended
only for extreme North and Northwest Florida.

Asparagus sprengeri Regel. Asparagus-fern. (1, 2.) LILIACEAE.

The asparagus-fern, a native of South Africa, is a herbaceous
perennial having numerous trailing stems to about 8 inches
high, and fleshy, tuberous, white roots. The leaves are reduced to
scales and the branchlets cladodess) are rich green, linear, 2 to
11/2 inches long and borne in fascicles of three. Flowers are
whitish-pink, fragrant, and borne in open racemes during early
summer. The fruit is a bright-red berry, % inch in diameter, and
ripens in late fall.
This plant does well in full sunlight or in partial shade,
and seems to prefer a moist, fertile soil having either an acid or
a basic reaction. It will endure temperatures as low as 22 de-
grees Fahrenheit but is not recommended for the northern half
of the state. It cannot endure tramping. Once established, the
growth is vigorous and a good covering may be had in a grow-
ing season or less.
Propagation is by seeds and division. Seeds germinate in
about four weeks. Plants may be set 8 to 12 inches apart each
way.
The asparagus-fern makes a very attractive and desirable
cover when grown in moist, fertile soil. A poor soil usually will
result in a yellowing of the foliage and a general dwarfing ef-
fect. This plant is especially adapted to covering rocky slopes





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and banks, and often it is used in window boxes and hanging
baskets.
Asystasia coromandeliana Ness (A. gangetica
T. Anders.) Asystasia. Coromandel. (1.)
ACANTHACEAE.
Asytasia, native to the trop-
ics of the Old World, is an erect
Sor scandent herb sometimes
clambering to a height of 4 feet
or more when mechanical sup-
port is provided. The leaves are
"-"' light green, opposite, ovate and
f to 3 inches long. (Fig. 3.) The
S. tubular flowers, purplish to
white in color, are about 1 inch
/ long and borne in racemes to 6
inches long.
Asystasia is best adapted to
full sunlight, but may be grown
quite well in partial shade. It
never seems to become acclimat-
ed to full shade, however, and
while it may do well for a time
it is not successful over a per-
iod of years. The plant is not
very exacting in its soil require-
ments and if given a plentiful
supply of water will succeed on
almost any soil type. Soil reac-
tion has little or no effect on
the vigor of asystasia. It is ten-
der and not recommended for
use where the temperature gen-
Fig. 3.-Asystasia or coromandel. rally falls below 28 degrees
Fahrenheit. This is one of the few ground covers that can be
maintained as low as the lawn grasses by consistent mowing.
Sometimes the plant is allowed to make a cover 3 to 15 inches
high and in such instances frequent hearings must be given to
keep it in shape and under control. It will stand a limited
amount of tramping but not as much as the lawn grasses.
Asystasia is one of the most vigorous of the recommended




Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


ground covers, and where properly cared for a good cover may
be had in a few months.
Propagation is by cuttings and layers. Plants should be set
8 to 10 inches apart each way.
Greatest use of asystasia is in South Florida where it is used
as a ground cover for partly shaded locations and also to cover
bare stumps, large rocky areas and small walls and arbors. In
South Florida the flowering period extends throughout the
year, a very desirable feature of this plant.

Cuphea hyssopifolia HBK. Cuphea. (1.) LYTHRACEAE.
Cuphea, a native of Mexico and Guatemala, is a small ever-
green shrub seldom exceeding 12 to 15 inches in height. The
leaves are opposite, linear to lanceolate, and about 1/2 inch long.
The small, light violet flowers are produced throughout the
year in South Florida. The fruit is a minute capsule.
This plant is apparently a sun-loving plant, but may be
grown very successfully in partial shade. It seems to prefer
no particular soil type and variation in soil reaction has little
effect on its vigor of growth. It is not recommended for those
sections of Florida where temperatures much below freezing are
likely to occur. No form of shearing or mowing is required ex-
cept that over a period of years some trimming may be neces-
sary. Because of its shrubby type of growth, cuphea will not
endure tramping. Being a small and slow growing shrub, a
good covering cannot be expected under a year unless large
plants are used. It cannot endure dry soils.
Propagation is by seeds and cuttings. Tip cuttings taken in
spring or summer may be potted in 6 to 8 weeks. Plants ready
to be transplanted to the bed should be set 6 to 12 inches apart.
Although the use of cuphea as a ground cover is not com-
mon, it is one of the most dependable and attractive shrubs that
can be employed. It requires but a minimum of care and is
especially adapted for bright sunny locations. It is quite ex-
tensively used as an edging or border plant and as a pot speci-
men.
Dichondra carolinensis Michx. Dichondra. (1, 2, 3.)
DICHONDRACEAE.
Dichondra is native to the Southern states and is found
growing in hammocks, pinelands, and along banks and road-
sides. It is a creeping herb seldom exceeding 1 or 2 inches in




14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

height. The bright green, alternate leaves are reniform to sub-
orbicular, and about %/ to 1 inch across. (Fig. 4.) The flowers
are axillary and more or less inconspicuous. The fruit is a cap-
sule.


Fig. 4.-Dichondra is found in many lawns.


Apparently this plant does equally well in sun or shade,
and it seems to prefer the moister soils, but may be grown suc-
cessfully on almost any of the heavier soils of Florida. Differ-
ences in pH of the soil have little effect on its vigor of growth.
Dichondra is one of the few ground cover plant materials that are
hardy throughout Florida and may be grown with equal success
throughout the state. Since the height of this plant is seldom
more than 1 or 2 inches, there is no need of mowing or shearing.
It also may be tramped as well as any of the lawn grasses.
Dichondra spreads rapidly and a good covering may be had in
two or three months.
The main objection to the use of this plant is its susceptibil-
ity to the ravages of the Alternaria fungus. Infection by the fun-
gus starts in the leaf, then travels into the stem, and eventually
down into the stolon. Little is known concerning the factors




Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


that facilitate the growth and spread of this disease, or the con-
trol of it on dichondra.
Propagation is by cuttings and by division of the sod. In
establishing a cover, good results can be had by using small
pieces of sod set 8 to 12 inches apart. If cuttings are employed,
they may be spaced as close as 3 to 4 inches.


Fig. 5.-Dichondra (foreground) seems to grow equally well in sun or shade.

Provided the Alternaria fungus does not appear, the merits of
dichondra as a ground cover for either sunny or shady locations
cannot be surpassed. It has the virtue of being one of the lowest
growing ground cover materials adaptable to Florida conditions.
(Fig. 5.)
Dolichos hosei Craib. Sarawak-bean. (1.) LEGUMINOSAE
The Sarawak-bean, a native of Borneo, is a trailing legume
covering the ground in a manner similar to velvet beans and sel-
dom exceeding 6 inches in height. (Fig. 6.) The leaves are tri-
foliate, leaflets being dark green, broadly ovate, and to 2V2 inches
long. The small yellow flowers are pea-like and seldom seen.
The fruit is a small pod, rarely found.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Although grown mostly in shady locations, the Sarawak-
bean is not necessarily a shade-loving plant. It grows quite
vigorously in full sunlight, but under such conditions it meets
with severe competition from rank growing weeds, which are
not so troublesome under shady conditions. This plant is ap-
parently best adapted to the calcareous soils of South Florida,
since it does not thrive where the soil pH is below 6.5. It is
very tender and thus adapted only to relatively frost-free areas.
Because of its height and its habit of growth, this species cannot
be mowed but shearing from time to time may be necessary to
keep it under control. It can endure a limited amount of tramp-
ing but not so much as lawn grasses.
The Sarawak-bean is a vigorous grower and a good covering
of the soil may be expected in a few months, although it is rath-
er difficult to establish. Because of its vigorous habit of growth
it is not recommended except where a large area is involved.
Propagation is by cuttings, and seeds when obtainable. Be-
ing a shy bearer, seeds are hard to find. Plants should be set 12
to 18 inches apart each way, during the rainy season.
The Sarawak-bean may be used quite successfully where a
broad bank or slope is involved, or a large area under the shade
Fig. 6.-The Sarawak-bean, Dolichos hosei, makes rank growth, seldom exceeding
6 inches in height.




Ground Covers jor Florida Gardens


of trees, and in some parts of the world it is used as a ground
cover for orchards and groves. Since it is a legume, it may
prove a very valuable ground cover for the groves of South
Florida.

Euonymus radicans Sieb. Wintercreeper. (1, 2, 3.) CELASTRACEAE.
The wintercreeper, a native of Japan, is a low evergreen
shrub having trailing stems that root at the nodes and sometimes
climb to a height of 20 feet. The
leaves are dull green with whitish
veins, oval and up to 2 inches long.
(Fig. 7.) Greenish-white flowers are
produced during summer. The
fruit is a greenish-white cap-
sule.
This plant may be grown
with equal success in full sun-
light or in partial shade, and has
a preference for a moist fertile
soil having a slightly acid re-
action. It is hardy and thus
may be used throughout the
state; however, it is doubtful
whether it can be used success-
fully along the seashore. Shear- Fig. 7.-Winter-creeper, Euonmyus
ing of this plant may be required radicans.
from time to time. It is not suitable for tramping, since a good
cover of the plant may stand 8 to 15 inches in height. Under
optimum conditions of growth a good covering of the winter-
creeper may be expected in six months or less.
It is propagated by seeds, cuttings and layers, with layer-
ing the method commonly used. Plants should be set 12 to 18
inches apart.
In the northeastern United States wintercreper is often usea
as a substitute for ivy in the covering of walls, rocks, and trunks
of trees. In the South little use has been made of it for covering
the ground, but it is recommended here. For banks and slopes it
rivals Gelsemium and Lonicera.

Ferns (1, 2, 3.) POLYPODIACEAE.
The ferns recommended are natives of Florida and the tropics.
They are terrestrial, perennial plants having a horizontal or




18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

short erect stem (rhizome) developed underground. Leaves
(fronds) are from a few inches to several feet long, bearing
fruiting structures (sori) as dots on the lower surface of the
leaves.
With the exception of one fern, Polystichum adiantijorme, all
those recommended are best adapted to shaded locations. As a
whole they prefer a loose, fibrous soil, moist, but well drained.
Heavy soils and standing water are to be avoided. Variation in
the soil pH apparently has little effect on their vigor of growth.
Of the ones recommended, all are hardy throughout Florida
except Nephrolepis acuminata (Fig. 8). Ferns will not endure
tramping, neither do they require any form of cutting, except the
removal of dead fronds. Under conditions of optimum growth a
good covering of ferns cannot be expected in less than three to
four months.
They are propagated by division, buds or offsets that form on
the fronds of certain kinds, and by spores. Spores should be sown
on a well prepared soil or peat surface and not watered or covered
on top. From 8 to 12 months usually are required to produce good
ferns from spores. When transplanted to where they are intended


Fig. 8.-Ferns often add attractiveness to the landscape and are available in
wide variety. Nephrolepis acuminata is shown.





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


to grow they should be set from 6 to 12 inches apart, depending
on size and habit of growth.
Ferns are generally grown for their gracefulness and beauty
of foliage. Thus when used as a cover for the soil they not only
furnish a suitable covering but also add charm to the garden.
They may be used satisfactorily as a covering for broad areas, as
under large evergreen trees, or they may be confined to small
and restricted areas. Sometimes they are used as an informal
edging or border, and quite often they are grown in window
boxes and as pot specimens.
Those ferns recommended for ground covers include Cyrtomium
falcatum Presl, Nephrolepis cordifolia Presl, N. exaltata Schott, N.
acuminata Kuhn, Polystichum adiantiforme J. Sm., and Phyllitis scolo-
pendrium Newman.

Ficus radicans Desf. Trailing Fig. (1, 2.) MORACEAE.
Ficus radicans, of unknown origin, is a creeping or trailing vine
with opposite, lanceolate leaves, slightly rounded at the base,
and up to 2 inches long. (Fig. 9.) Flowers are inconspicuous.
This plant does well in sun or shade and prefers the moister,
heavier soil types. Differences in soil reaction have little effect
on its vigor. It is doubtful whether it will endure the same de-
gree of cold as its close relative, Ficus pumila L., the creeping fig.
However, it can tolerate temperatures as low as 26 degrees Fah-
renheit without injury. Mowing is not to be recommended, but
an occasional shearing may prove necessary. Tramping is also
not recommended, although it can be endured in limited amount.
Unlike Ficus pumila, this vine is easily established and makes a
vigorous growth so that a good covering may be obtained in
six months.
It is propagated by cuttings and layers, the latter method
being used in Florida. Plants should be set about 12 to 18 inches
apart each way.
Ficus radicans is much more suitable for ground cover purposes
than F. pumila. (Fig. 9.) It grows more vigorously and is more easi-
ly propagated. Also, the stems of F. radicans never become large
and woody as do those of F. pumila.

Gelsemium sempervirens Ait. Carolina Yellow Jessamine. (1, 2, 3.)
LOGANIACEAE.
The Carolina yellow jessamine is native to Florida and is
found widely distributed in low woods and thickets. It is a twin-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ing evergreen shrub having opposite, dark green, lanceolate
leaves that are up to 4 inches long. The flowers may be solitary
or in small cymes, yellow, and to 11/2 inches long. (Fig. 10.) The
flowering season is during the early spring. The fruit is a capsule
to 1 inch long.
This plant will
flourish and
flower better in
full sun. It may
be grown suc-
cessfully in par-
tial shade, but
under shaded
conditions there
is very much less
flower production
than in full sun-
light. It is best
adapted to ham-
mock soils but
may be grown
successfully on a
wide variety of
soils if well sup-
plied with mois-
ture. Since it
prefers an acid
reaction in the
soil it is ques-
tionable wheth-
Fig. 9.-Trailing fig. Ficus radicans, left, and creeping er it can be
fig, F. pumila, right.
grown on the
calcareous soils of South Florida. Being quite hardy, it is used
successfully throughout the state otherwise. This plant can-
not be mowed because of its twining and trailing habit of growth,
but shearing may be practiced as needed. Where plants are set
in the late winter a fair covering of the soil may be expected
by the end of summer.
Propagation is by cuttings, layers and seed. Layering is the
method generally used. Young plants should be set 8 to 12 inches
apart.





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Where slopes, banks and large open areas are involved, the
Carolina yellow jessamine is highly recommended. It should not
be used in small crowded locations, nor should it be planted near
shrubs or trees because of its twining habit of growth. Often it is
used as covering for arbors and fences. When in flower, this
plant is hard to surpass in beauty.

Geobalanus oblongifolius Small. (Chrysobalanus oblongifolius Michx.)
Gopher-apple. Ground-oak. (1, 2, 3.) ROSACEAE.

The gopher-apple is a native of Florida and is found in abun-
dance along the coastal sand dunes and pinelands. It is a small
shrub 3 to 8 inches tall and having underground stems. (Fig. 11.)
The leaves are
gray-green, o b-
lanceolate to el-
liptic and up to
4 inches long. The
fragrant p 1 u m-
like flowers are
produced in ter-
minal cymes dur-
ing the summer
months. The fruit
is a cream-color-
ed drupe to 11/2
inches long.
Fig. 10.--The Carolina yellow jessamine, Gelsemiunm In its native
sempervirens, is an attractive vine. condition this
plant is almost always found growing in full sunlight and on
the dry sandy soils that occur both along the Florida coast and
inland. On these soils the pH ranges from slightly acid to slight-
ly basic. In cultivation it will thrive under much the same condi-
tions. Since the plant is hardy, it may be used throughout the
state. It is one of the few ground covers that can endure direct
exposure to salt spray without injury. It needs no form of cut-
ting and cannot be tramped because of its woody upright stems.
The gopher-apple is a slow grower, even from seed; thus a good
cover cannot be expected for many months.
It is questionable whether the gopher-apple will succeed on
very acid soils. Its use, therefore, will be confined to the nearly
neutral soils of coastal areas and to South Florida.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Since it is very
difficult to trans-
plant from the
wild, it must be
propagated al-
most entirely by
seed. Ripe fruits
a r e sometimes
very difficult to
find. Cuttings are
next to impossi-
ble to root, so
i that this method
is not advised.
The gopher-ap-
ple is one of the
best covers for
the dry sandy
soils, commonly
called sand
dunes, that occur
along the Florida
coast. Few other
Fig. 11. The gopher-apple, Geobalanus oblongifolius. ground cover ma-
terials will grow
and thrive under such conditions. With agaves and yuccas form-
ing a background and Geobalanus the foreground, a very pleasing
effect may be had at small expense. (Fig. 12.)
Glottiphyllum depressum N. E. Brown (Mesembryanthemum depressum
Haw.) Fig-marigold. (1, 2.) AIZOACEAE.
The fig-marigold, a native of South Africa, is a prostrate
perennial herb, stemless or nearly so, with narrow tongue- or
strap-shaped leaves that are soft and pulpy, up to 4 inches long.
(Fig. 13.) Flowers are yellow, to about 1/z2 inches across, and
borne in late spring and early summer.
This plant is definitely a sun-loving plant and does not do
well in shade. It is adapted to a wide range of soil types provided
they are dry. In Florida it has grown vigorously on fertile
garden soils with a pH range of 4.0 to 6.0. Being a subtropical
plant, it is doubtful whether it can endure temperatures much
below freezing. This plant has the virtue of being one of the






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


few that can endure direct exposure to salt spray without in-
jury. The habit of growth and extreme succulence of the fig-
marigold do not make either mowing or shearing desirable and
do not permit tramping. Since this plant has a moderately vig-
orous habit of growth a good covering of the soil may be ex-
pected in a season.
Propagation is by seeds and cuttings. The cuttings are pre-
ferably taken in summer and fall and are generally allowed
to dry out partially before planting. Cuttings of the fig-mari-
gold will root under the same conditions as those under which
the plant grows. They are generally set directly in the bed about
4 to 6 inches apart.


Fig. 12.-Geobalanus gives a pleasing foreground effect on coastal sands.

The genus Glottiphyllum embraces a group of plants that are
extremely succulent in texture and which are able to endure
extreme heat and drought. They are adapted only to those areas
of Florida whose soils are semi-arid or nearly so. Such areas
would include the coastal sand dunes, possibly parts of the ridge
section, and those other areas that are more or less semi-arid.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


As a covering for barren rocky places, for dry sandy banks and
slopes, and for use in rock gardens, this plant is hard to sur-
pass. (Fig. 14.)


N


Y


Fig. 13.-The fig-marigold, Glotti-
phyllur, a prostrate perennial herb.
cannot be mowed or tramped


Hedera canariensis Willd. (H. alge-
riensis Hort.) Algerian Ivy. (3.)
ARALIACEAE.
The Algerian ivy, native to
the Canary Islands and North
Africa, is an evergreen vine,
slightly woody, and climbs by
aerial roots. The leaves are shal-
lowly 3- to 7-lobed and cordate
at the base. (Fig. 15.) Flowers
are small, greenish-white, and
in racemose umbels. The fruit
is a berry.
This plant is definitely a
shade-loving plant and is sel-
dom found growing in full sun-
light. It has long been assumed
that the ivies preferred a rich,
moist soil having a pH similar
to that required' by azaleas
(pH 4.0 to 6.5). However, in sec-
tions of the state they are found
growing as luxuriantly in near-
ly neutral and basic soils as in
acid soils. This one is hardy
throughout the state, and is
quite resistant to salt spray. It
because a good cover will fre-


quently stand 6 inches or more in height, but shearing may be
practiced as needed. Under optimum conditions for growth a
good cover of the Algerian ivy cannot be expected under a year.
Propagation is by cuttings, layers and seed. In Florida, cut-
tings and layers are employed almost entirely. Cuttings may be
made in autumn or spring and rooted under glass. Plants should
be spaced 12 or more inches apart.
In Northwest Florida Algerian ivy is the most commonly used
ground cover. It is confined to the northern part of the state be-
cause its success depends upon a long dormant period, and in





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Fg,. 14.-As a covering for barren, rocky places, Glottiphyllum (foreground) is
hard t surpass.
Central and South Florida the climate is such that dormancy
seldon occurs. In the extreme north and northwestern part of
the sta;e this ivy cannot be surpassed. It is usually employed as a
ground cover under and around large evergreen trees, in shady
parkways, and sometimes as an informal edging. In the northern
states itsmost frequent use is that of a wall covering, and some-
times it 1 used for this purpose in Florida.
Freque-tly Hedera helix L. is confused with H. canariensis. The
English iv3 (H. helix) has smaller leaves and the young leaves
have the dark green color that is characteristic of the mature
ones; where; the Algerian ivy (H. canariensis) has larger leaves
and the younj leaves are a yellowish-green. The ivy grown in
Northwest Florida is usually the Algerian.
Juniperus conferte Parl. (J. littoralis Max.) Shore Juniper. (1, 2, 3.)
PINACEAE.
The shore juriper, a native of Japan, is a procumbent spread-
ing shrub, seldon more than 15 inches in height. (Fig. 16.) The
leaves are scale-lke or linear and green to blue-green in color.
(Fig. 17.) Flowersare small and in catkins. The fruit is a berry-
like cone maturing in one or two years.





26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Junipers are sun-loving plants, and thus do best in full sun-
light. They prefer the heavier soil types that contain or are
underlain with clay. Once established they are very drought-
resistant. The range of pH to which junipers are adapted is
not known. They are very hardy, and thus may be used through-
out the state. The habit of growth of the junipers is no:
adapted to tramping, and mowing and shearing are unnecessary.
Since junipers are slow growing plants, a good covering cannot
be obtained for several years unless good-sized plants are exm-
ployed.
Propagation is by seeds, cuttings and grafting. Seeds do rot
always come true to type, and so cuttings are generally used.
These should be taken from tip shoots late in the summer ad
rooted in a mixture of sand and peat. Best results are obtained
with bottom heat, but even so, the cuttings will not be ready to


Fig. 15.-Algerian ivy is an evergreen vine which lov~ shady locations.






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


transplant for four to eight months. Junipers are best trans-
planted during the dormant period, the spacing to be governed
by the size of the plants.
Juniperus sabina var. cupressifolia Ait. (Fig. 17) is not as well
adapted to peninsular Florida as is the shore juniper. There are
probably others that will later be found desirable.
Once established the junipers will flourish under conditions
of heat and drought that many other plants could not endure.
Since they require no shearing or mowing they are easily handled
and may be grown with a minimum of care.

Lantana sellowiana Link & Otto. (L. delicatissima Hort.) Weeping or
Trailing Lantana. (1, 2.) VERBENACEAE.
Weeping lantana, a native of South America, is a shrub hav-
ing weak vine-like or trailing pubescent branches up to 3 feet
long. The leaves are opposite and ovate and to 1 inch long. The
flowers are rosy-lilac and in heads to 1 inch across. In the

Fig. 16.-The shore juniper, Juniperus conferta, is a spreading shrub that sel-
dom grows more than 15 inches high.

elrf71a9f






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


warmer sections of the state flowers are borne in profusion al-
most all of the year. The fruit is a small blue crupe.
Best results with lantana are obtained in full sunlight or
nearly so. In shady locations the plant has a tendency to assume
an erect habit
of growth, and
I few flowers are
produced. It is
not very exact-
ing in its soil
requireine n t s
and makes a
v er y satisfac-
tor y ground
cover when
grown on either
poor or fertile
soils. Variations
in the pH of the
soil apparently
have little ef-
fect on its vigor
of growth. The
Fig. 17.-Branch tips of Juniperus conferta (left) and foliage is sub-
Juniperus sabina var. cupressifolia (right). ject to injury
when the temperature falls below 25 degrees Fahrenheit. Although
the foliage may be killed to the ground the plant will generally
sprouts out in the spring. L. sellowiana and several other species of
Lantana are very resistant to salt spray. It cannot be mowed or
tramped, but once or twice each year it may need to be trimmed
quite severely to keep it low and compact. A good cover of this
plant may be had in six weeks or less.
Lla tana is very susceptible to rust, Puccinia lantanae, which
is m manifested by yellow spots on the leaves. The only known
control for this disease is by eradication of infected plants.
It is propagated by cuttings, layers and seed. Cuttings taken
during the spring and summer will produce well-rooted plants
in four to six weeks. Young plants may be set 8 to 12 inches apart.
Weeping lantana is one of the most frequently used ground
covers in Central Florida. (Fig. 18.) Sometimes it is used alone
as a cover; sometimes it is supplemented with the prostrate
forms of junipers and the low growing forms of jasmine. Often







Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


it is allowed to cover and droop over low walls, and frequently
it is used as an informal edging. For use in hanging baskets and
window boxes, this plant is also very good.

Liriope spicata Lour. Creeping Liriope. Creeping Lilyturf. (1, 2, 3.)
LILIACEAE.
Creeping liriope, a native of China and Japan, is a perennial
grass-like herb having dark green linear leaves and long, slender,
jointed rootstocks just beneath the surface. Flowers are lilac-
purple to white, and borne in spikes or racemes that are produced
in summer. The flowers are followed by one-seeded, berry-like,
blue-black fruits that persist for some time.
Creeping liriope is especially adapted to shady locations, do-
ing well in partial to full shade. It may also be grown in full sun
but not with such good results. It seems to prefer no particular
soil type and does well on either very fertile or very poor soils.
Once established, it is quite resistant to drought and is tolerant
to wide variation in soil reaction. It is hardy throughout the
Fig. 18.-Weeping lantana is widely grown as a ground cover in Central Florida.




Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


p
r


I^


Fig. 19.-Lirope is especially adapted to shady locations.
(Cut courtesy L. H. Bailey.)






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


state, and can endure direct exposure to salt spray without
injury. It requires no cutting, and cannot endure tramping.
Where Liriope spicata is used, a good covering may be obtained
in a much shorter time than if the bunching forms (L. muscari
Bailey and L. muscari var. exiliflora Bailey) are employed. Where
the bunching forms are used they should be planted very close
if a covering of the soil is to be expected in a short time.
Liriope, like ophiopogon, may become so dense in a period
of four to five years that it is necessary to break the clumps in
small pieces and reset.
Propagation is by division and by seeds, with division the
commonly used method. Plants may be set at any season, and
are spaced about 3 to 6 inches apart, depending on size of the
plants and the species used.
Once established, liriope stands second to none in its resist-
ance to heat and drought, and tolerance to shade. Since it is
adapted to both poor and fertile soils, it may be grown success-
fully throughout the state. It grows well under the shade of
trees or tall shrubs, forming a cover equal to and frequently
much preferred to lawn grasses. Sometimes it is used as a cov-
ering for parkways, and in the northern half of the state it is
frequently used as an edging.

Lonicera japonica Thunb. (Nintooa japonica Sweet.) Japanese Honey-
suckle. (1, 2, 3.) CAPRIFOLIACEAE.
The Japanese honeysuckle, a native of eastern Asia, is a
climbing evergreen shrub, rooting at the nodes where the stem
comes in contact with the soil. Its oblong leaves are dark green
and glossy and up to 3 inches long. The fragrant, tubular flowers
are about 11/2 inches long and are white on opening, later chang-
ing to yellow. (Fig 19.) Flowering is heaviest during the spring
and early summer. The fruit is black and berry-like.
This plant does well in sun or shade and apparently prefers
the heavier soil types. These soils should be well drained and
with a pH on the acid side (pH 4.5 to 6.5). It is very hardy and
thus may be used quite successfully throughout the state. Under
proper care the Japanese honeysuckle will form a mass of
tangled vines some 6 to 8 inches in height, so that it cannot be
mowed or tramped. Shearing may be necessary from time to
time to keep the plant under control. A good cover of this plant
may be expected in a season or less, as it makes a fairly vigor-
ous growth.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Unless subjected to strict control at all times, the Japanese
honeysuckle will spread beyond where it was intended to grow
and soon become a nuisance.
It is propagated by seeds, cut-
tings and layers, usually by lay-
ering. Plants may be set 12 to
18 inches apart.
This plant may be used under
B ^many varied conditions of soil
and light, but because of its vig-
orous habit of growth and its
tendency to climb, its use is
restricted. The most desirable
Sand frequent use made of it is
on banks and slopes.
Meibomia cana Blake. (Desmodium
incanum DC. M. supina Britton)
Fig. 19 e J e Tick-trefoil. Tick-clover. (1, 2.)
Fig. 19.-The Japanese honeysuckle,
Lonicera japonica, is a widely grown LEGUMINOSAE.
vine which sometimes becomes a pest.
The tick-trefoil is a native of
the West Indies, Central and South America, and southern Flor-
ida, where it is found along roadsides, in pinelands and in ham-
mocks. It is a procumbent, woody perennial, assuming an erect
habit of growth at the tips when flowering. The leaves, consist-
ing of three leaflets, are oval or elliptic and up to 2 inches long.
(Fig. 20.) The small purplish flowers are pea-like and borne in
racemes. The fruit is a several-jointed loment.
The plant does equally well in sun or shade. In shade, the
plant will tend to assume a more erect habit of growth, which
will necessitate more frequent mowings. It seems to prefer the
lighter well drained soils having a pH of 4.0 to 8.0. It has been
known to endure temperatures as low as 25 degrees Fahrenheit
without injury. Under ideal conditions of growth it will prob-
ably withstand much lower temperatures than this. It will en-
dure mowing and tramping as well as any of the lawn grasses.
Since this plant is not a vigorous grower, a good cover cannot
be expected for six months or more unless the cuttings are set
close together.
One objection to the use of Meibomia cana as a ground cover is
its slow growth. Once established, however, it is very persistent.
Another objection to the use of this plant is its fruit. The several-






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Fig. 20.-The tick-trefoil, Meibomia cana.


jointed loments
are usually
provided with
hooked hairs
which cling to
almost any-
thing touching
them although
by mowing
frequently
during the
summer
months the
flowering tips
are prevented
from develop-
ing and few
fruits are
formed. Also,
the old stems
m a y become
exposed after
a few seasons,
making ugly
spots in the
center of a
clump. When
this occurs it is
often best to
resurface the
soil or reset
the plants.
Propagation
is by seeds and
cuttings. A n
easy means of
collecting and
sowing the
seeds of this
plant is to take
a burlap bag
and draw it






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


over a stand of the plant that is in seed. The seed will
stick to the burlap bag and in order to get many seed the
bag may have to be drawn over the plants several, times. After
a sufficient number have stuck the bag may be cut into pieces
about 2 inches square, and these are then planted in rows 4 to 6
inches apart. Sometimes the seed may require a year to germi-
nate. When cuttings are employed they may be planted as close-
ly together as one chooses-the closer together they are planted
the sooner a good cover will be obtained.
The tick-trefoil has every possibility of becoming as suitable
a cover for landscape use as the lawn grasses. (Fig. 21.) It can
endure an equal amount of tramping, is quite drought-resistant
and has no serious insect pests or diseases. Being a legume, it
may enrich the soil by adding nitrogen.

Mitchella repens L. Partridge-berry. Twin-berry. Squawberry. (2, 3.)
RUBIACEAE.
The partridge-berry is found native from Florida to Nova
Scotia and occurs in abundance in damp woods and hammocks.
It is an evergreen, prostrate herb with trailing and rooting stems,


Fig. 21.-The tick-trefoil has covered the ground in this landscape scene.






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


seldom exceeding more than a few
inches in height. The leaves are op-
posite, round-ovate, and dark green with
white veins, and to 3/ of an inch long.
(Fig. 22.) The small white flowers oc-
cur in pairs and are borne during the
spring. The fruit is a scarlet berry,
about 1/3 inch across.
In the wild condition the partridge-
berry is found growing in the deep
shade of the hammocks. Under culti-
vation it demands the same conditions,
being unable to grow and thrive in full
sunlight. It prefers hammock soils con-
taining an abundance of leaf mold. An
acid reaction ranging from pH 4.0 to 6.5
Fig. 22.-The partridge-berry. is to its liking. It is hardy throughout
most of the United States, and thus may be used without danger
of frost damage. This plant will endure a limited amount of
tramping, and since a good covering will seldom exceed 1 or 2
inches in height, no mowing or shearing is required. Being a
slow grower, a good cover cannot be developed in less than six
months at least unless good-sized sods are used in setting.
Propagation is mainly by cuttings or sods taken from the
woods. It is best to take cuttings in the spring of the year and
set them about 4 to 6 inches apart each way. Newly set plants
are generally covered with a layer of leaves which prevents the
cuttings from drying out and at the same time acts as a protec-
.tion until they have become established. Sods may be treated
the same as cuttings in this regard.
The merits of the partridge-berry as a ground cover for
Florida have not been fully realized. In the North it is used quite
extensively for this purpose. Being a native plant, it is readily
obtained in hammocks throughout Central and North Florida.
Its use is confined to shady locations and it is especially adapted
to small or restricted areas.
Ophiopogon japonicus Ker. (Mondo japonicum Adams.) Dwarf Lily-
turf. Dwarf Ophiopogon. (1, 2, 3.) LILIACEAE.
The dwarf lilyturf, native to Japan and Korea, is a low-grow-
ing perennial having underground stems and dark green grass-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


like leaves that may be up to 12 inches long.( Fig. 23.) The flow-
ers are small and lilac-colored, and produced on short racemes
that are hidden by the foliage. The fruit is a blue one-seeded
berry about 1/4 inch in diameter.
This plant may be grown successfully in full sunlight or in
partial to full shade. Its greatest use is in shady locations. It is
not restricted to any soil type and even does well on very poor
soils, and once established it is quite drought-resistant. Vigor is
little affected by variations in soil reaction. Like liriope, it is
hardy throughout Florida and can endure direct exposure to salt
spray without injury. It cannot be mowed, but Hume' recom-
mends that it be cut back to the ground once each year. It will
not endure tramping. Even though ophiopogon is planted close
together, a good covering of the soil cannot be expected for
many months as this plant is not a vigorous grower.
In three to five years the dwarf lilyturf will become sod-
bound and very unattractive. When this occurs the sod should
be broken up and replanted.

'Hume, H. Harold: Gardening in the Lower South. Macmillan. 1929.
Fig. 23.-Dwarf ophiopogon is hardy throughout Florida and can endure adverse
conditions.
EiiMa nRiZn-Im .minim_____________.







Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Propagation is by division and seeds. Plants are generally
divided and reset during the fall or spring, and may be spaced
from 3 to 6 inches apart.
Ophiopogon is used in much the same way as liriope for
covering the ground but has one definite advantage in its dwarfer
habit of growth. Liriope usually will stand 3 to 5 inches higher
than ophipogon. Liriope likewise has one advantage over
ophiopogon in the production of attractive lilac-purple to white
flowers during the summer months. The flowers of ophiopogon
are seldom seen as they are hidden by the drooping leaves. How-
ever, both are used in much the same way, and where extreme
conditions of heat, drought and shade are encountered, the use
of these two plants should certainly receive consideration.

Peperomia crassifolia Hort. Peperomia. (1.) PIPERACEAE.
Peperomia, a native of tropical America, is a succulent herb
with stout, erect or decumbent stems, sometimes reaching a
height of 18 to 20 inches and capable of rooting along the nodes.
Leaves are alternate, fleshy, oblanceolate or obovate, to about


Fig. 24.-Peperomia is one of the most satisfactory ground covers for South
Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


3 inches long. The green flowers are minute and borne in dense
slender spikes. The fruit is an inconspicuous berry.
This plant is best suited to shaded locations, doing as well in
full shade as in partial shade. In its native habitat, it is found
growing in the most fertile hammock soils of tropical America.
Under cultivation it thrives when grown under the same soil con-
ditions. A moist soil containing an abundance of organic matter
and either acid or basic in reaction is to its liking. Peperomia is
a tender tropical plant, but will stand temperatures as low as 28
degrees Fahrenheit without injury. It cannot be mowed be-
cause of its height, but can be sheared. Once or twice each year
it may be necessary to shear it back so that a compact and even
growth will be maintained. The fleshy and erect stems will not
endure tramping. Peperomia is not a robust grower, and even
under conditions of optimum growth a good cover cannot be
expected under six months.
It is propagated by cuttings. These should be rooted in flats
or pots of good garden soil and in partial shade. Rooting may
be facilitated by covering the cuttings with cheesecloth. The
rooted cuttings may be planted 4 to 8 inches apart.
Peperomia is undoubtedly one of the most satisfactory of
the ground cover materials recommended for South Florida. Its
waxy, dark green leaves
provide an even balance
for almost any landscape.
(Fig. 24.) Besides its
widespread use as a
ground cover, it also is
used as an edging, and
for pot specimens.
Phyla nodiflora Greene.
(Lippia nodiflora Michx.)
Lippia. Cape-weed. Fog-
fruit. (1, 2, 3.) VER-
BENACEAE.
Lippa, native through-
out the Southern states,
is found in Florida along
roadsides, on sand dunes
and prairies, and in ham-
Fig. 25.-Lippia, Phyla nodiflora, is a per- mocks. It is a creeping
annial herb. mocks. I is a creeping





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


perennial herb rooting at the nodes and seldom exceeding 3
inches in height except where mechanical support is provided.
The leaves are spatulate, greenish to purplish in color, and about
1 inch long. (Fig. 25.) The flowers, rose-purple to nearly white,
are borne in congested axiliary spikes almost the year around.
The fruit is a small nutlet.
This plant will flourish in full sunlight or shade, but plants
grown in the shade have a tendency to grow more erect. Lippia
apparently prefers no one soil type and does well on soils
of both acid and basic reaction. It thrives on the high,
dry sand dunes along the coast; it also will thrive in low
moist places where it may be covered with water for days. Once
established, it is more drought-resistant than the common lawn
grasses. It is quite hardy throughout the state, and is resistant
to salt spray. Since it is low growing it may be mowed and
tramped as are the lawn grasses. Lippia has a vigorous habit of
growth, and when properly cared for a good covering may be
had in two or three months.
Propagation is by cuttings. An easy means of establishing a
cover of lippia is by using small sods instead of cuttings. Sods
may be set 8 or more inches apart, depending on their size.
Where cuttings are employed they should be set 4 to 6 inches
apart.
Lippia sometimes occurs in the lawn of Florida as a weed and
is therefore considered
undesirable. However,
many important ground
cover materials are real-
ly weeds in their native
habitat, and when the
choice of a covering is
under consideration,
Phyla nodiflora should not
be avoided simply be-
cause it occurs as a weed
in Florida gardens. It has
the merit of being one
of the few ground covers
that serves the same pur-
poses as the lawn grass-
Fig. 26.-Two species of Pilea-creeping Char-
es. ley, left, and artillery plant, right.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Pilea nummulariaefolia Wedd. Creeping Charley. (1.) URTICACEAE.
Creeping Charley, a native of the West Indies, is a perennial
succulent herb having creeping stems that root at the nodes and
seldom exceeds 1 or 2 inches in height. The dark green, orbicular
leaves are hairy and about /4 inch across. (Fig. 26.) Flowers and
fruit are inconspicuous.
This plant does well in sun or shade, and prefers a moist but
well drained, fertile soil, either acid or basic in reaction. In pro-
tected areas it will endure temperatures as low as 28 degrees
Fahrenheit. No form of shearing or mowing is required with
this plant, as its growth seldom exceeds 1 or 2 inches in height.
Since it is very succulent in texture it cannot endure tramping.
It is a very vigorous grower and a good cover sometimes may be
had in a few months.
Although this plant prefers a moist but well drained soil, it
will not endure a water-logged soil. Under such conditions the
plant may soon develop a rot that affects both stem and leaf.
Propagation is by cuttings. If available, small sods may be
transplanted to the desired location and set several inches apart.
In this way a good covering is obtained in a minimum of time.
Where cuttings are employed, they are set 3 to 6 inches apart.
The greatest use made of creeping Charley at present is in
rock gardens and in hanging baskets. However, it is to be rec-
ommended as a ground cover.

Pilea microphylla Liebm. Artillery Plant. (1.) URTICACEAE.
The artillery plant is a native of Mexico, but in parts of
South Florida it has escaped from cultivation and become nat-
uralized. It is a succulent herb having erect stems becoming
very diffuse. The leaves are opposite and dark green, ovate or
obovate, and about /4 inch long. (Fig. 26.) The flowers are
unisexual and inconspicuous. The fruit is an achene.
Apparently this plant does well in sun or in partial shade,
and will succeed on nearly any soil type. It seems to be adapted
to a wide range of soil reaction and will endure temperatures as
low as 26 to 28 degrees Fahrenheit. No cutting is required ex-
cep:, perhaps, that after a period of four or five years it may be
desirable to head the plant back severely in order to get a much
lower and more compact growth. Since a good cover will some-
times stand 12 or more inches high, it will not withstand tramp-
ing. This plant grows vigorously when properly cared for, and






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Fig. 27.-The artillery plant makes a satisfactory ground cover in comparatively
frost-free areas.
a good covering of the soil may be had in a few months under
such conditions.
Propagation is by seeds and cuttings. Cuttings made of older
growth are preferred as they give a more compact plant. Plants
should be set 4 to 12 inches apart.
In South Florida the artillery plant is one of the commonly
used plants for edging. It also makes a very satisfactory ground
cover and is recommended for this usage in comparatively frost-
free areas. (Fig. 27.)

Pyrostegia ignea Presl. (P. venusta Baill. Bignonia venusta Ker.) Flame-
vine. (1, 2.) BIGNONIACEAE.
The flame-vine, a native of Brazil, is an evergreen woody
vine climbing by tendrils. The opposite leaves are 3-foliate,
ovate to ovate-oblong, dark green in color, and about 2 inches
long. The crimson-orange flowers, about 3 inches long, are
borne in drooping panicles during early spring. (Fig. 28.) The
fruit is a pod.
This vine is a sun-loving plant, may be grown successfully in
part shade, but in complete shade soon dies out. It may be grown






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


on a wide range of soils provided an ample supply of nutrients
and water is available during the growing season. Apparently it
does equally well with acid or basic soil reaction. It has been
subjected to temperatures of 24 degrees Fahrenheit without in-
jury, and in protected spots the plant could probably endure
lower temperatures. Mowing cannot be employed, but shearing
may prove to be a necessity to keep it under control. It will en-
dure a limited amount of tramping without injury. Since this
plant is a vigorous grower, a good covering of the soil may be
had in a few months.
It is propagated by natural layers, cuttings and seed when
obtainable. Softwood or hardwood cuttings taken during sum-
mer or fall and rooted under glass may be ready for transplanting
in about two months. Plants should be set 12 to 24 inches apart
each way.
The flame-vine makes a very vigorous growth and for this
reason should never be confined to small or restricted areas. Its
use is fully realized on broad slopes and banks and here it will
rival the merits of any ground cover material. (Fig. 28.) It is more

Fig. 28.-The flame vine in full bloom is one of the most beautiful sights of
early spring in Florida.





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


widely grown for its handsome crimson-orange flowers than for
its ground cover value. Frequently it is allowed to cover trees,
fences and arbors.
Saxifraga sarmentosa L. (Sekika sarmentosa Moench.) Strawberry-
geranium. (2, 3.) SAXIFRAGACEAE.
The strawberry-geranium, native to East Asia, is a tufted,
herbaceous perennial seldom more than 6 to 10 inches in height,
and having long slender stolons resembling the strawberry. The
leaves are basal and clustered, orbicular-cordate, and to about 4
inches across. They are reddish below and green veined with
white above. Flowers are numerous, white, to 1 inch across, and
borne in late spring and early summer. The fruit is a capsule.
This plant seems to do best in part shade but may be grown
in full sunlight if partial shade is provided during the hot sum-
mer months. It is probably adapted to any of the heavier soil
types. In Florida it is grown frequently on heavy loams and
clays. The range of pH to which it is adapted is not known.
Since it is very hardy, it can be used throughout the state with-
out danger of frost damage. It cannot be tramped and requires
no cutting, except possibly the removal of dead leaves from time
to time. This plant reproduces by stolons and thus is capable of
covering a large area in a relatively short time.
Propagation is by division, runners and seed, the first two
being more commonly employed. Probably the most opportune
time for transplanting is fall or spring. Plants may be spaced 3
to 6 inches apart.
Saxifraga sarmentosa is a highly desirable ground cover ma-
terial for use in North and Northwest Florida. Whether it is
adaptable to the soil and climatic conditions of South and Central
Florida is not yet determined. It is recommended for use on
rocky soils, as a covering in small and restricted areas, and par-
ticularly in rock gardens. Frequently it is used in window boxes
and as an informal edging.
Selaginella spp. Selaginella. (1, 2, 3.) SELAGINELLACEAE.
Selaginella caulescens Spring. and S. uncinata Spring., both na-
tive to the Old World tropics, are moss- or fern-like branching
herbs having erect or prostrate stems. The scale-like leaves are
4-ranked, of two sorts, forming an upper and a lower plane.
Leaves of S. caulescens are bright green, those of S. uncinata a pale
blue-green. (Fig. 29.) No flowers are produced, and spores are
minute.





44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

The selaginellas are a shade-loving group of plants that do
best under partly shaded situations. They prefer a moist soil
containing an abundance of organic matter and either acid or
basic in reaction. S. caulescens is hardy throughout Florida, but
the hardiness of S. uncinata has not yet been determined. They
are not adapted
to mowing, but
shearing may be
practiced as need-
ed. They also
cannot withstand
tramping. Under
optimum condi-
tions the selagi-
nellas will make
fairly vigorous
g growth, and a
Good covering of
the soil may be
had in a single
season.
Propagation
is by spores, cut-
tings and divis-
ion. Both species
are more fre-
Squently increas-
ed by division.
Young plants or
divisions should
be set 8 to 15
g. 29.--Selaginella caulescens, left, and S. uncinata, right. inches apart.
The selagi-
nellas constitute a very large genus and although only two are
here recommended many more may prove as adaptable for
ground covers in Florida.
Selaginella caulescens is an erect form, fern-like in appearance,
and is particularly adapted for covering the ground under trees
and high shrubs. Frequently it is used in combination with
ferns, ophiopogon, and other plants.




Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Selaginella uncinata has prostrate stems, is a very vigorous
grower, and should never be grown in small or restricted areas.
It is especially desirable for use on mild slopes and banks, large
rocky areas, and other large bare places. It will do well in full
sunlight or partial shade.
Spilanthes americana Hieron. (S. repens Michx.) Spilanthes. (1, 2, 3.)
COMPOSITAE.
Spilanthes, a native of Florida and the Southern states, is
found in abundance along roadside ditches and in damp prairies.
It is a creeping
or spreading per-
ennial herb some-
times reaching a
height of 8 to 10
inches when me-
chanical support
is provided. The
leaves are a
bright green,

late, and about 2
inches long. (Fig.
30.) Flowers are
yellow, in termi-
nal heads to
about 1z inch
across, and borne
in profusion all
year in Central
and South Flori-
da. The fruit is
an achene.
In its native
habitat, spilan-
thes is usually
found in full sun- Fig. 30.-Spilanthes is found along roadside ditches and
light. In shady in other damp places.
locations the growth becomes open and erect and few flowers
are produced. It may be grown on a wide range of soils pro-
vided they are moist. When grown on the common, well drain-





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ed garden soils, the plant becomes open and stunted in growth.
Frequently it is found growing in shallow water. This plant may
be used throughout the state, as it is quite hardy. The matting
habit of growth would suggest that it might endure mowing;
however, this is not advised. It can endure only a limited amount
of tramping. Since spilanthes has a vigorous habit of growth, a
good covering of the soil may be had in a few months.
Propagation is by cuttings and layers. Either method may
be used quite successfully. Cuttings may be set about 4 to 6
inches apart. Since the plant is commonly found throughout
most of the state, sods of it may be transplanted from the wild
to the garden with a saving in time and labor.
Where a ground cover is desired for a low and moist situa-
tion, spilanthes is worthy of consideration. Once established, it
requires but minimum care. In and around rock gardens, sunk-
en gardens and lily pools, it should prove very adaptable.

Spironema fragrans Lindl. Spironema. (1.) COMMELINACEAE.
Spironema, a native of Mexico, is a perennial succulent herb
having numerous stolons or runners and short, thick stems, 6 to
10 inches in height. The leaves and stems are spotted with pur-
ple. Leaves are alternate and horizontal, about 12 inches long,
and yellow green in color. The small white flowers are clustered
on branched terminal panicles about 3/2 feet in height, and are
borne during spring and early summer.
This plant prefers full sunlight but may be cultivated suc-
cessfully in partial shade. It may be grown on a wide range of
soil types provided there is an abundance of moisture present in
the soil. Normal variation in range of the soil pH apparently has
little or no effect on its vigor of growth. In protected spots it
will endure temperatures of 28 degrees Fahrenheit without in-
jury. It cannot withstand tramping, shearing or mowing. Since
it has a vigorous habit of growth, a good covering of the soil may
be had in two or three months, under optimum conditions for
growth.
Propagation is by division and by stolons or runners. Plants
should be set 12 to 18 inches apart each way.
The use of spironema as a ground cover is certainly not yet
common, but where an unusual, yet attractive, cover is desired,
the merits of this plant should be considered. It is particularly
adapted for use in rock gardens and sunken gardens, and as a
covering around large evergreen trees. (Fig. 31.)






























Fig. 31.-Spironema is especially adapted to use as a ground cover around large trees.
Trachelosperum jasminoides Lem. (Rynchospermum jasminoides Lindl.)
Confederate-jasmine. Star-jasmine. (1, 2, 3.) APOCYNACEAE.
The Confederate-jasmine, a native of China, is a twining
evergreen shrub, having opposite, dark green leaves that are
ovate to ovate-lanceolate and to about 3 inches long. The
white fragrant flowers are salver- or star-shaped, about 1 inch
across, and borne in terminal or axillary cymes during the
spring. (Fig. 32.) The fruit is an inconspicuous follicle.
This plant does best in full sunlight, but may be grown suc-
cessfully in part shade. It apparently prefers no particular soil
type and does well on very fertile and very poor soils. Normal
variation in the range of the pH of the soil seems to have little
effect on its vigor of growth. Being quite hardy, it may be
grown successfully throughout Florida. It cannot withstand
tramping or mowing, but shearing may prove necessary from
time to time. If planted near shrubs or trees the long twining
stems will soon reach out and encircle them. For this reason,
Confederate-jasmine is not advised for use around shrubs or trees
unless a strict control is maintained. A good covering of the
soil may be obtained in a season under average growing condi-
tions.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 32.-The Confederate-jasmine, Trachelospermum jasminoides.
Propagation is by cuttings and layers. Softwood cuttings
will root more readily when taken in the spring or summer.
Plants may be set from 12 to 30 inches apart.
Trachelospermum jasminoides, like Lonicera japonica, may be
grown under many conditions of soil and light, but because of its
twining and vigorous habit of growth, its use is restricted. How-
ever, where slopes, banks and large open areas are involved, it
will provide a good covering. More frequently it is grown on
arbors and trellises. It is prized for its frangrant white flowers,
borne in profusion during the spring.

Tribulus cistoides L. Caltrops. Bur-nuts. (1.) ZYGOPHYLLACEAE.
Caltrops is a native of tropical America, and in parts of South
Florida it has escaped from cultivation and become naturalized.
It is a diffusely branching perennial herb with stems clinging





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


close to the ground and sometimes reaching a length of 4 feet or
more. The gray-green pinnate leaflets are elliptic and up to V1
inch long. Yellow buttercup-like flowers, about 1 inch across,
are produced in profusion from spring until fall. The fruit is a
spiny achene.
This plant requires full sunlight. In shade it soon dies out,
and even in partial shade it does not do well as a ground cover.
Although adapted to the sandy soils of South Florida, it will do
well on many of the heavier soil types of the state. Its growth
apparently is not affected by usual variation in soil reaction.
The plant is killed to the ground by temperatures of 280F., but in
these cases the roots are seldom injured and with the advent
of warm weather the plant sends out new shoots. Caltrops can-
not withstand tramping. No cutting is required unless to keep
within bounds. A good cover crop may be had in six weeks or
less, depending on the size of the plants used and the season of
transplanting.
Propagation is by seed and cuttings. Cuttings are almost
exclusively employed, even though they are difficult to root,
since seed are usually scarce. Best results are obtained by using


Fig. 33.-Caltrops, Tribulus cistoides, is prized for its flowers as well as for its
ground cover value. It requires sunny locations.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a medium of sand or sand and peat equally mixed. The cuttings,
taken during the summer months, should be watered only lightly
and kept covered with cheesecloth. The rooted cuttings may be
set from 15 to 30 inches apart each way.
Caltrops is prized for its yellow buttercup-like flowers as
much as for its ground cover value. The production of these
bright yellow flowers places the plant in a class separate from
most other ground cover plant materials, as ground beautifica-
tion qualities should certainly be considered when selecting a
cover for sunny locations. It is used quite extensively in the
lower East Coast section as a covering for parkways and for
banks and slopes that are not too steep. (Fig. 33.)

Vinca minor L. Common Periwinkle. Running-myrtle. (2, 3.)
APOCYNACEAE.
The common periwinkle is native to Europe, but in parts of
the eastern United States it has escaped from cultivation and
become naturalized. It is a trailing, evergreen herb, sometimes
forming a cover 6 to 8 inches thick. The opposite, glossy leaves
are green and heart-shaped, and seldom exceed 1% inches in
length. The lilac-blue flowers, about 3/4 inch across, are salver-
shaped and appear in the spring and early summer. The fruit is
a follicle that seldom matures.
The plant may be grown with equal success in full sunlight
or in partial to full shade. It prefers the lighter soil types, and
these should be moist but well drained. The range of pH to
which it is adapted has not been determined. This species is
quite hardy and thus can be used without danger of frost damage.
It cannot be mowed because of its height, neither will it endure
tramping. If planted during the spring or summer and provided
with a plentiful supply of water until established, a good cover
may be obtained in a few months.
Propagation is by cuttings and division. Cuttings should be
made during the spring and summer; division during the fall or
early spring. Plants should be set about 8 to 10 inches apart each
way.
The common periwinkle is one of the best ground covers
for use in the northwestern part of the state. Since it does well
in sun or shade, it is used extensively for bedding around trees
where grass fails to grow. It is also excellent for covering
banks, rocky slopes, as an edging, and is used to some extent in
window boxes. Where a few clumps of Ajuga are allowed to






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


grow in a mass planting of Vinca minor, a most attractive cover is
obtained during the flowering season. By its matting habit of
growth it protects the soil from erosion and discourages com-
peting plants.
The periwinkle more frequently grown in Northwest Florida
under the name Vinca minor is Vinca major L. This one is more
erect in growth habit, has leaves up to 2 inches long and flowers
that are from 1 to 2 inches across. It too makes a very desirable
ground cover in sun or shade. Probably Vinca major can be used
farther south in Florida than Vinca minor. Certainly the latter is
not to be recommended for use in South Florida until more is
known concerning its range.
The Madagascar periwinkle, Vinca rosea L., is an erect herb, 1
to 2 feet high, and should not be confused with the common peri-
winkle described above. It is the periwinkle common along the
seacoasts of Florida.

Wedelia trilobata A. Hitchc. Wedelia (1, 2.) COMPOSITAE.
Wedelia is a native of tropical America, and in parts of
South and Central Florida it has escaped from cultivation and
become naturalized. It is a diffusely branching and creeping
perennial herb, rooting at the nodes. The leaves are opposite and
elliptic, about 2 to 3 inches long, notched and slightly lobed, and
bright green in color. The flowers are yellow and borne in erect
heads on solitary peduncles about 1/2 inch across. The fruit is an
achene.
This plant will thrive in sun or shade, and does well on any
soil type if provided with ample moisture and plant nutrients.
Differences in soil pH appear to exert little influence on the vig-
or of Wedelia. In protected spots it will stand a low of 20 degrees
Fahrenheit. However, this does not imply that it should be
used in North Florida, as the risk would be too great. This is one
of the few ground cover materials that may be used along the
seashore without injury. Wedelia may be tramped and mowed;
however, the best covers of this plant often stand 6 or 8 inches in
height and this would be too high to justify mowing. A good
cover of this plant may be expected in several months under con-
ditions of optimum growth.
Propagation is by cuttings, which root readily under almost
any conditions. Cuttings should be set 4 to 8 inches apart each
way.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


if,. 34.-Wedelia is a most dependable and attractive ground cover for parts
of Central and South Florida.

Wedelia is one of the most attractive and dependable ground
cover materials for use in South and parts of Central Florida.
Under trees, around rock gardens and fish pools, and as a cover-
ing in parkways, this plant cannot be surpassed. (Fig. 34 and
cover.) Extensive use also is made of it against walls and on
slopes and banks. Sometimes it is used as an edging, but where
so used regular attention is required.

Zamia spp. Coonties. (1, 2, 3.) CYCADACEAE.
The counties are native to Florida and are found along the
coastal sand dunes, in flatwoods, pinelands, hammocks and on
shell mounds. They are fern-like plants usually reaching a height
of 15 to 24 inches and having underground tuber-like stems. (Fig.
35.) The leaves are dark green, glossy, varying in size with the
species. The flowers are represented by scales and borne in
cones which may be staminate or pistillate. The large seed is
drupe-like.
Coonties are among the few plants that will endure the
glaring sunlight of the coastal sand dunes and also the complete
shade of the hammock. They are almost as diverse in their tol-







Ground Covers for Florida Gardens 53

erance of soil types as they are regarding light. Frequently they
are found growing on dry shell banks; then again on rich organic
soils. Apparently the plant will thrive on soils of varied reaction.
They are hardy throughout Florida and will endure direct expos-
ure to salt spray without injury. No cutting is required except
for the removal of dead fronds. Because of their height, they
cannot be tramped. Where plants are set fairly close in the bed,
a good covering may be expected within a season.
These plants are very susceptible to Florida red scale. This
pest may be controlled by oil emulsion sprays.
Propagation is by seeds, offsets and division when there is
more than one crown. Seed should be sown shallowly and the
young plants potted soon after germination. Plants of zamia
should be set about 12 to 20 inches apart each way.
Zamia is a splendid cover for the sand dunes and shell banks
which occur along the coast. Also, it is one of the few ground
cover materials that can be recommended for complete shade.
Once established, it is very resistant to heat and drought. It is
particularly desirable for use in combination with succulents
such as glottiphyllum, tradescantia, and others of similar charac-
ter.

Fig. 35.-Zamia integrifolia, member of the coontie group, grows under glaring
sunlight or complete shade.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Four species of Zamia are recognized by Small as occurring
in Florida. These are Zamia integrifolia Ait., Z. angustifolia Jacq.,
Z. silvicola Small and Z. umbrosa Small. They differ mainly in
leaf size, shape, venation, etc., and all are included in a single
species by many authorities. All of the four can be used success-
fully as ground covers. The one most frequently seen and grown
is Zamia integrifolia. However Zamia umbrosa has much the larger
leaflets and makes a denser cover, and is recommended over the
other three as a ground cover.


Fig. 36-Wandering Jew, Zebrina pendula, roots easily and grows best in shady
locations.
Zebrina pendula Schnizl. (Tradescantia zebrina Hort.) Wandering Jew.
(1.) COMMELINACEAE.
Wandering jew, a native of Mexico, is a perennial, decum-
bent, succulent herb rooting at the nodes and forming a carpet
up to 4 inches in height, except where allowed support. The
leaves are purple beneath and striped with white above; ovate-
oblong, and up to 4 inches long. The flowers are red-purple, and
in clusters between two boat-shaped bracts of unequal size.
This plant does best in shady locations. In full sun it has
a tendency to become dwarfed and die out. It prefers a moist





Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


soil containing an abundance of organic matter, and does equally
well on both acid and basic soils. Wandering jew is strictly a
tender plant, but it has been known to endure temperatures of
26 to 28 degrees Fahrenheit. Because of its succulent nature and
its habit of growth, it cannot be tramped or mowed. Shearing
may be necessary from time to time in order to keep it under
control. This plant makes a very vigorous growth, especially
during the spring and summer, and if newly set plants are
properly cared for during this time a good cover may be ex-
pected in a few months.
This plant is second to no other ground cover material in its
ease of rooting, and propagation is entirely by cuttings. These
are preferably set about 6 to 8 inches apart each way, and until
they are established the soil should be maintained in a fairly
moist condition.
If properly cared for no other ground cover can surpass
Zebrina pendula as a covering for the soil. For use around large
trees, in rock gardens and as a covering under high shrubs, it
is hard to find its equal. (Fig. 36.) Often it is used as a house
plant, especially in hanging baskets and in mixtures with other
plants.

ACKNOWELDGMENTS
The writer is deeply grateful to the many members of the Florida
Federation of Garden Clubs and to nurserymen who have aided in the
collection of the various ground cover plant materials. Special acknowl-
edgment is made to Miss Lillian E. Arnold of the Agricultural Experi-
ment Station Herbarium for help in identifications; to Erdman West,
Dr. K. Dahlberg, T. B. McClelland, R. A. Carrigan and J. R. Henderson
for helpful information concerning species, culture, propagation, soil
pH, soil type, diseases, etc. To Dr. H. S. Wolfe, Head of the Department
of Horticulture, University of Florida, I am indebted for criticism, sug-
gestions, and corrections. Finally, the writer wishes to record his deep
obligation to Dr. H. H. Hume, Dean of the College of Agriculture, who
suggested the undertaking of this work, who has been a resourceful
counselor at all times, and whose life-long intimacy with Florida gar-
dening has been a source of much helpful information regarding these
plant materials.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


GROUND COVERS FOR SPECIAL PURPOSES

NATIVE GROUND COVERS
Dichondra carolinensis Mitchella repens
Ferns Phyla nodiflora
Gelsemium sempervirens Spilanthes americana
Geobalanus oblongifolius Zamia spp.
Meibomia cana

EXOTIC GROUND COVERS
Ajuga spp. Lonicera japonica
Asparagus sprengeri Ophiopogon japonicus
Asystasia coromandeliana Peperomia obtusifolia
Cuphea hyssopifolia Pilea spp.
Dolichos hosei Pyrostegia ignea
Euonymus radicans Saxifraga sarmentosa
Ficus radicans Selaginella spp.
Glottiphyllum depressum Spironema fragrans
Hedera canariensis Trachelospermum jasminoides
Juniperus spp. Tribulus cistoides
Lantana sellowiana Vinca spp.
Liriope spp. Wedelia trilobata
Zebrina pendula


GROUND COVERS FOR FULL SUNLIGHT


Ajuga spp.
Asparagus sprengeri
Asystasia coromandeliana
Cuphea hyssopifolia
Dichondra carolinensis
Dolichos hosei
Euonymus radicans
Ficus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Geobalanus oblongifolius
Glottiphyllum depressum
Juniperus spp.
Lantana sellowiana
Liriope spp.


Lonicera japonica
Meibomia cana
Ophiopogon japonicus
Phyla nodiflora
Pilea spp.
Polystichum adiantiforme
Pyrostegia ignea
Saxifraga sarmentosa
Spilanthes americana
Spironema fragrans
Trachelospermum jasminoides
Tribulus cistoides
Vinca spp.
Zamia spp.


GROUND COVERS FOR PARTIAL SHADE


Ajuga spp.
Asparagus sprengeri
Asystasia coromandeliana
Cuphea hyssopifolia
Dichondra carolinensis
Dolichos hosei
Euonymus radicans
Ferns
Ficus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Hedera canariensis
Liriope spp.
Lonicera japonica
Meibomia cana


Mitchella repens
Ophiopogon japonicus
Peperomia obtusifolia
Phyla nodiflora
Pilea spp.
Pyrostegia ignea
Saxifraga sarmentosa
Selaginella spp.
Spironema fragans
Trachelospermum jasminoides
Vinca spp.
Wedelia trilobata
Zamia spp.
Zebrina pendula






Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


GROUND COVERS FOR FULL SHADE


Ajuga spp.
Dichondra carolinensis
Dolichos hosei
Ferns
Ficus radicans
Hedera canariensis
Liriope spp.
Mitchella repens
Ophiopogon japonicus


Peperomia obtusifolia
Pilea nummulariaefolia
Selaginella spp.
Spironema fragrans
Vinca spp.
Wedelia trilobata
Zamia spp.
Zebrina pendula


TENDER GROUND COVERS
Asystasia coromandeliana Pilea nummulariaefolia
Cuphea hyssopifolia Spironema fragrans
Dolichos hosei Tribulus cistoides
Nephrolepis acuminata Wedelia trilobata
Peperomia obtusifolia Zebrina pendula

SEMI-HARDY GROUND COVERS


Asparagus sprengeri
Glottiphyllum depressum
Lantana sellowiana


Meibomia cana
Pilea serpyllifolia
Pyrostegia ignea


HARDY GROUND COVERS


Ajuga spp.
Dichondra carolinensis
Euonymus radicans
Ferns
Ficus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Geobalanus oblongifolius
Hedera canariensis
Juniperus spp.
Liriope spp.

GROUND COVERS
Ajuga spp.
Asparagus sprengeri
Asystasia coromandeliana
Cuphea hyssopifolia
Dichondra carolinensis
Euonymus radicans
Gelsemium sempervirens
Geobalanus oblongifolius
Glottiphyllum depressum
Lantana sellowiana
Liriope spp.
Lonicera japonica
Meibomia cana


Lonicera japonica
Mitchella repens
Ophiopogon japonicus
Phyla nodiflora
Saxifraga sarmentosa
Selaginella spp.
Spilanthes americana
Trachelospermum jasminoides
Vinca spp.
Zamia spp.

FLOWERING IN SPRING AND SUMMER
Mitchella repens
Ophiopogon japonicus
Peperomia obtusifolia
Phyla nodiflora
Pilea spp.
Saxifraga sarmentosa
Spilanthes americana
Spironema fragrans
Trachelospermum jasminoides
Tribulus cistoides
Vinca spp.
Wedelia trilobata
Zebrina pendula


GROUND COVERS FLOWERING IN FALL AND WINTER


Asystasia coromandeliana
Cuphea hyssopifolia
Meibomia cana
Pilea serpyllifolia


Pyrostegia ignea
Spilanthes americana
Wedelia trilobata





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


GROUND COVERS TOLERANT OF SALT SPRAY


Dichondra carolinensis
Ficus radicans
Glottiphyllum depressum
Hedera canariensis
Lantana sellowiana
Liriope spp.


Lonicera japonica
Phyla nodiflora
Ophiopogon japonicus
Tribulus cistoides
Wedelia trilobata
Zamia spp.


GROUND COVERS REQUIRING NO MOWING OR SHEARING


Ajuga spp.
Asparagus sprengeri
Dichondra carolinensis
Geobalanus oblongifolius
Ferns
Glottiphyllum depressum
Juniperus spp.


Liriope spp.
Mitchella repens
Pilea nummulariaefolia
Ophiopogon japonicus
Saxifraga sarmentosa
Zamia spp.


ADDITIONAL MATERIALS POSSIBLY SUITED AS
GROUND COVERS

In addition to the 40 ground covers that have been recom-
mended, there are also 110 other plant materials that, so far as
the author knows, possess few undesirable characteristics or
traits and may under certain conditions prove to be very good
for use as ground covers. These plant materials are here listed
in alphabetical order. Those marked with an asterisk (*) are
native plants.


Acanthospermum australe*
Alternanthera spp.
Aechmea spp.
Amerimnon Brownei*
Ampelopsis arborea*
Amsonia ciliata*
Anemopaegma Chamberlaynii
Angelonia spp.
Antigonon leptopus
Asparagus plumosus
Aspidistra elatior
Bauhinia galpini
Batis maritima*
Bignonia radicans
Billbergia spp.
Borreria laevis*
Bramia Monnieri*
Calathea spp.
Carissa grandiflora
Centella repanda*
Cephalotaxus spp.
Ceratostigma Willmottianum
Clematis spp.
Clytostoma callistegioides
Cissus rhombifolia
Cracca chrysophylla*
Crinum spp.


Cryptanthus spp.
Decumaria barbara*
Diodia virginiana*
Doxantha Unguis-cati
Echites Echites*
Ernodea littoralis*
Eucharis grandiflora
Euphorbia spp.
Ferns*
Fittonia spp.
Galactia floridana*
Galactia regulars*
Gerbera spp.
Glandularia spp.*
Gouania lupuloides*
Helianthus debilis*
Hemerocallis spp.
Hemigraphis colorata
Heuchera spp.
Houstonia procumbens*
Hydrocotyle spp.*
Hyptis atrorubens
Isnardia palustris*
Iva imbricata*
Jasminum dichotomum
Jasmimum simplicifolium
Ludwigia suffruticosa*







Ground Covers for Florida Gardens


Mallotonia gnaphalodes*
Maranta spp.
Mazus reptans
Meibomia spp.
Melanthera spp.*
Mentha spicata
Mimosa strigillosa*
Neptunia floridana*
Okenia hypogaea*
Operculina dissecta*
Parthenocissus spp.*
Passiflora suberosa*
Pellonia spp.
Pentas spp.*
Pharbitis cathartica*
Philodendron spp.
Philoxerus vermicularis*
Phlox subulata
Plumbago capensis
Proserpinaca pectinata*
Pycnothymus rigidus*
Quercus Chapmanii*
Raimannia Drummondii*
Rhacoma ilicifolia*
Rhoeo discolor


Rhynchosia cinerea*
Rosa bracteata
Rubus spp.
Rumex hastatulus*
Sagotia triflora*
Sansevieria spp.
Saxifraga spp.
Scaevola Plumieri*
Senecio confusus
Sesuvium Portulacastrum*
Smilax spp.*
Spathiphyllum floribundum
Stokesia spp.
Strobilanthes spp.
Strophostyles helvola*
Taxus cuspidata
Tecoma spp.
Thunbergia spp.
Tradescantia spp.*
Urechites lutea*
Valerianoides jamaicensis*
Vigna spp.*
Vitis spp.*
Yucca filamentosa*
Zephyranthes spp.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


INDEX OF COMMON NAMES


Agave ...-...------.-.
Algerian ivy -----
Artillery-plant -_-....
Asparagus-fern ---
Asystasia ..---

Bugle-weed, Geneva
Bur-nuts ----


Page
.-- 22
... 24
.-_ 40
-. 11
-. 12

.-10
-- 48


Caltrops ----.------------.------- 48
Capweed ----------------.---------- 38
Carolina yellow jessamine .- 19
Confederate-jasmine ....------ 47
Coonties ----...........------ --- : 52
Coromandel -. -.-------------__ 12
Creeping Charley -----.--------- 40
Creeping fig -.-------------------- 19
Creeping liriope ---------------- 29
Creeping lilyturf ...------------- 29
Cuphea -------------- 13

Dichondra -------------- ------- 13
Dwarf lilyturf ------.......- 35

English ivy -------------------- 25

Ferns .--.....--- .. 6, 17
Fig-marigold -------------.. ------ 22
Flame-vine ------ 41
Fog-fruit ------------. 38

Geneva bugle-weed ----------- 10
Gopher-apple ----5, 21
Ground-oak --- 21

Ivy, Algerian .----------------- 24
Ivy, English 25

Japanese honeysuckle .-------- 31
Jessamine, Carolina yellow--- 19
Juniper ....--------- .. 6, 25


Page
Lantana, trailing or weeping-- 27
Lilyturf, creeping --- 29
Lilyturf, dwarf ----_ 35
Lippia ...-----------------------_. 38
Liriope 29, 36, 37


Madagascar periwinkle

Ophipogon --------------

Partridge-berry ---
Peperomia --.------------
Periwinkle, common -----
Periwinkle, Madagascar

Running-myrtle --

Sarawak-bean ---
Selaginella _-- --
Shore juniper ------_.----
Spilanthes --------..-----
Spironema ----.......-_.---
Squawberry -------
Star-jasmine -----...--
Strawberry-geranium ---


31, 35


.----- 34
-------- .37
----- 50
----- 51

----- 50

- --5, 15
--- 6, 43
.-.---.. 25
-.-.___ -45
---__~..- 46
-.------- 34
----. 47
.- ... 43


Tick-clover -----------.---------- 32
Trick-trefoil ----------------------- 32
Trailing fig ----------------------- 19
Trailing lantana -----------------_ 27
Twin-berry _.------------------_. 34

Wandering jew ----------------. 54
Wedelia -----..---------------.---- 51
Weeping lantana _.... ------ 27
Wintercreeper .-----------.----- 17

Yellow jessamine, Carolina_ 19
Yucca _....-...--------------.... 22




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