• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Present status of grape growing...
 American bunch type
 Muscadine type
 Disease and insect control
 Spray schedule recommended for...
 Summary
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 436
Title: Grape growing in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026531/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grape growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 47 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
Loucks, Kenneth W ( Kenneth Wilfred )
Stover, L. H
Parris, G. K ( George Keith ), 1908-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1947
 Subjects
Subject: Grapes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 46-47.
Statement of Responsibility: by R.D. Dickey and Kenneth W. Loucks ; rev. by R.D. Dickey, L.H. Stover and G.K. Parris.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A revision of Bulletin 324"--T.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026531
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925512
oclc - 18253803
notis - AEN6163

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Present status of grape growing in Florida
        Page 6
    American bunch type
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
    Muscadine type
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 28
    Disease and insect control
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 37
    Spray schedule recommended for control of grape diseases and insects
        Page 44
        Page 43
    Summary
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Literature cited
        Page 47
        Page 46
Full Text



/ Bulletin 436 October, 1947
(A Revision of Bulletin 324)

UNIVERSITY OF FLORID A r-
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT TI '-- t
HAROLD MowRY, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA 'v A I .

New Mexico Col!eg of AgrIcultuHt
mud Mechanic Adsr
GRAPE GROWING IN FLORIDA

By R. D. DICKEY and KENNETH W. LOUCKS
Revised by R. D. DICKEY, L. H. STOVER and G. K. PARRIS


Fig. 1.-A 6-year-old Extra (Florida Beacon)
of fruit.


vine with a heavy crop


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


40*,*
.err '










BOARD OF CONTROL


J. Thos. Gurney, Chairman, Orlando
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
M. L. Mershon, Miami
J. Henson Markham, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee




EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University2
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Provost for Agricul-
ture
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Director
L. O. Gratz. Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor'
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager'
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager'
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant'




MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE


AGRONOMY

W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomists
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant




ANIMAL INDUSTRY

A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialistx
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.'
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
P T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.'
C. L. Comar, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.5
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Driggers, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husb.
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
S. John Folks, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. in Dairy Mfs.


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL

C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agri. Economistx '
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associates
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
U. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate


Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)

G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician'
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician'
W. S. Rowan, M.S., Asst. Agr. Statistician2


ECONOMICS, HOME

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist


ENTOMOLOGY

A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant


HORTICULTURE

G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.'


PLANT PATHOLOGY

W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1 '
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist


SOILS

F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist's
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Chemist
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asso. Microbiologist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyor
Wade McCall, B.S.A., Asst. Chemist
J. B. Cromartie, B.S.A., Soil Surveyor


1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
a Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
SOn leave











BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY

J. D. Warner, M.S.. Vice-Director in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agron.
R. C. Bond, M.S.A., Asso. Agronomist
L. G. Thompson, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.


Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit. Wewahitchka
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


Mobile Unit, DeFuniak Springs
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
J. T. Griffiths, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, M.S., Plant Pathologist6
J. E. Benedict, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
James K. Colehour, M.S., Asst. Chemist
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
J. A. Grange B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Pl. Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soil Chemist
A. E. Willson, B.S.A., Asso. Soil Phys.
R. W. Jones, Asst. Plant Path.
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
C. W. Houston, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist


EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE

R. V. Allison. Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. An. Hush.
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Agronomist
C. C. Seale, Asso. Agronomist
L. O. Payne. B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Russel Desrosiers, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
J. C. Hoffman, M.S., Asso. Hort.
C. B. Savage, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Van den Berghe, B.S.. Asst. Fiber Tech.


SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist

W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE

C. D. Gordon, Ph.D., Geneticist in Charges

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
D. W. Jones, B.S., Asst. Soil Tech.
E. R. Felton, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Director in
Charge
A. Alfred Foster, Ph.D., Asso. P1. Path.
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, MILTON
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Asso. Agronomist


FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
G. K. Parris, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge

Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist

Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.II., Horticulturist


Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologists


Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., P1. Path., Glad. Inv.
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst, Hort.


Lakeland

Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist'

1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
s Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
6 On leave.










CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION ........-....... -..----- ...----- ---------- ------- .......... 5
PRESENT STATUS OF GRAPE GROWING IN FLORIDA ....--.------- --------...- 6
AMERICAN BUNCH TYPE ..-...............--..-----------. ---------- 6
Botany -...-.- ...-.- .....- .----------- ---- 6
Varieties --
V varieties -.--.... ..-- -...--.---------.... ... ... -. --- ------- ---.......... .......... 7
Rootstocks ....-. --- 12

Location of the Vineyard ------------------- ----- 15
Propagation .................... -. -.. ---- ---- ---..-. 12



Preparation of the Soil ------ .-..-- ----- -----------
Location of the Vineyard .......... ...---- ----15
Equipm ent .................-..-....---... .... ..16
Preparation of the Soil .......................-....--- -------- 17
Planting the Vineyard .........................-. 17
Care of Young Vines ............-... --.. --...- -- ------.-.. 19
Training, Trellising and Pruning ...........-------- ------- 19
Cultivation ...............23
Cultivation .--.-------------------------------- --------- 2
Fertilization and Cover Cropping .......... ---------------- -- 24
Harvesting, Packing and Marketing ........------.------------ 26
M USCADINE TYPE ............... ------------- ---- -- --- 28
Botany ...-.......-..... ---... ... ..- .. ------ 29
Varieties ................ 29
Varieties --. --. ----------------- --... -- ------ --------- ------- 29
Pollination and Male Vines .................---- ..- ------- 30
Propagation .... ....-.... ......--. --------.. .- -- ---- ---- -- 31
Planting the Vines .....-...........----- ------------ 32
Trellising, Training and Pruning ................---.--- ---- ---- 32
Fertilization -.................... ---.. ----.-- 36
Harvesting and Uses .......-...-......--- ----- -- --- -- ----- -- 36
DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL .....--..--....-------.- -------.-- 37
Fruit and Leaf Diseases ............ --..----- -------.------ -- 37
Fruit Diseases -..-........ ---------.-- ---- ..... .------ --------- -- 38
Leaf Diseases -... ...-....-- ...... ------- ---- ------- --- 39
Root Diseases --- --- -------- ----- --------------- ----- ----- ----- 40
Root Diseases .- --..... ... 40
Insects ..........- .....-.... ---.. --. ---- ----- -- 40
New Fungicides and Insecticides ......---------.--------------- -. 42
SPRAY SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED FOR CONTROL OF GRAPE DISEASES
AND INSECTS -.......---. ..-- ... -- -------------- -- -----. ... 43
SUMMARY .................----------- ..------------ ---- -- 44
American Bunch Type ....-......---...--- -----.-- ----- -.. ..-- 44
Muscadine Type 46
Muscadine Type ......-..... .--- ... .. ..----------......------ --- ------ --- 46
Disease and Insect Control -- ...... ........---- ------- ----- --- --. 46
LITERATURE CITED ..... -..-.. .-----....---- -........- ....-- 46







(A REVISION OF BULLETIN 324)


GRAPE GROWING IN FLORIDA

By R. D. DICKEY and KENNETH W. LOUCKS
Revised by R. D. DICKEY, L. H. STOVER1 and G. K. PARRIS

Introduction
Since the first settlers established themselves in Florida,
grapes have been looked upon as among the fruits which should
become commercially important. Because of the abundance of
wild grapes found growing everywhere, it was thought by pio-
neers that grape growing would be relatively easy. Cultivated
varieties of the European type were introduced but did not sur-
vive. As time passed and new varieties of American type were
developed in the northern part of the United States, they, too,
were tried in Florida repeatedly and met with little success.
Often it has been necessary, by hybridizing, to incorporate the
heredity of native wild grapes of a locality with that of cultivated
ones to obtain domesticated varieties which would survive local
conditions. Dr. T. V. Munson (11) 2 secured wonderful results
by using native grapes in obtaining new varieties adaptable to
the environment of Texas. Only during the past 25 or 30 years
have varieties known to be suitable to Florida conditions been
available and they were obtained, for the most part, through
Munson's hybridizing efforts with wild grapes.
Of the several hundred varieties widely grown in the United
States, only a few have proven successful under Florida condi-
tions and present viticultural practices. European or vinifera
varieties, derived from Vitis vinifera L., and crosses containing
any high percentage of these grapes, are unsatisfactory. Amer-
ican grapes derived from the several native species, which may
be distinguished from the European in that their flesh is soft and
the skin separates from it readily, are the only ones which have
proven adaptable. Only those derived by crossing with Southern
native species have proven outstanding in Florida. Within this
latter group the muscadines grow well over a considerable area
and have special advantages for juicing. By far the greatest
number of varieties of American grapes belong to the so-called
bunch type.

Field Assistant, Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory,
Leesburg, Florida.
2 Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of
this Bulletin.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Present Status of Grape Growing in Florida
Several attempts have been made to establish a commercial
grape industry in Florida and all have failed. The last such ef-
fort reached its height during the 1920's but by the early 1930's
a gradual but certain decline was in progress. Today these vine-
yards have practically disappeared and now very few plantings
are to be found in Florida. Several factors are responsible for
the failures. Some of the most important of these are: The short
average life of vineyards (10 to 15 years) with present varieties;
susceptibility to fruit rots and other diseases which necessitates
a costly spray program; difficulty of marketing the fruit profit-
ably when produced in considerable volume; high cost of trellis-
ing materials.
Experience indicates several important points to be considered
by anyone contemplating growing grapes in Florida. Early sea-
son varieties, such as Niagara and Fredonia, sell for a better
price than mid- or late-season varieties, and an early white grape
will sell at a premium over early black-fruited kinds. A grower
should not attempt to operate more acreage than he can manage
properly. His capacity will depend to a considerable extent upon
how well he is equipped. If time and labor-saving equipment are
available, it is possible for one man to care properly for from 12
to 15 acres. However, it will probably be best to start with
much less, 2 or 3 acres, and gradually increase the planting if
and when possibilities warrant.
Since the productive life of a vineyard in Florida is from 10
to 15 years, successive plantings are suggested. These should
be made at intervals of from 6 to 8 years.
The average yield per acre during the 5-year period, 1934 to
1938, has been estimated at approximately 2,500 pounds. Yields
of 6,000 pounds have been obtained but such a high yield proba-
bly could not be maintained with the varieties now being grown.
However, if the vines are properly sprayed and cared for, it
seems reasonable to expect that as much as 3,500 pounds per
acre could be produced.

American Bunch Type
Botany
The grape belongs to the Vitaceae or grape family. In the
classification given by Bailey (2) all grapes belong to the genus
Vitis, and this genus is divided into 2 sections, the Euvitis and







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Present Status of Grape Growing in Florida
Several attempts have been made to establish a commercial
grape industry in Florida and all have failed. The last such ef-
fort reached its height during the 1920's but by the early 1930's
a gradual but certain decline was in progress. Today these vine-
yards have practically disappeared and now very few plantings
are to be found in Florida. Several factors are responsible for
the failures. Some of the most important of these are: The short
average life of vineyards (10 to 15 years) with present varieties;
susceptibility to fruit rots and other diseases which necessitates
a costly spray program; difficulty of marketing the fruit profit-
ably when produced in considerable volume; high cost of trellis-
ing materials.
Experience indicates several important points to be considered
by anyone contemplating growing grapes in Florida. Early sea-
son varieties, such as Niagara and Fredonia, sell for a better
price than mid- or late-season varieties, and an early white grape
will sell at a premium over early black-fruited kinds. A grower
should not attempt to operate more acreage than he can manage
properly. His capacity will depend to a considerable extent upon
how well he is equipped. If time and labor-saving equipment are
available, it is possible for one man to care properly for from 12
to 15 acres. However, it will probably be best to start with
much less, 2 or 3 acres, and gradually increase the planting if
and when possibilities warrant.
Since the productive life of a vineyard in Florida is from 10
to 15 years, successive plantings are suggested. These should
be made at intervals of from 6 to 8 years.
The average yield per acre during the 5-year period, 1934 to
1938, has been estimated at approximately 2,500 pounds. Yields
of 6,000 pounds have been obtained but such a high yield proba-
bly could not be maintained with the varieties now being grown.
However, if the vines are properly sprayed and cared for, it
seems reasonable to expect that as much as 3,500 pounds per
acre could be produced.

American Bunch Type
Botany
The grape belongs to the Vitaceae or grape family. In the
classification given by Bailey (2) all grapes belong to the genus
Vitis, and this genus is divided into 2 sections, the Euvitis and






Growing Grapes in Florida


the Muscadinia. Varieties in the Euvitis group have loose,
shreddy bark, which separates in long thin strips, nodes with
diaphragms, forked tendrils, and pyriform seeds. Bailey divides
the Euvitis into 2 types, the first type being represented by Vitis
vinifera L., in which the skin and pulp adhere in the ripe fruit,
the so-called "meaty grapes." The wine grapes of California
and Europe belong here. Common varieties are Thompson Seed-
less, Ribier, Golden Chasselas, Tokay and Muscat.
The second type, in which the skin separates freely from the
pulp, is represented by many species such as Vitis ruprestis
Scheele, V. labrusca Linn., V. cordifolia Michx., V. aestivalis
Michx., V. simpsoni Munson, V. vulpina Linn. and others. The
last-mentioned characteristic is responsible for grapes belonging
to this type frequently being called "slip skin." It is mainly by
selections, hybridizing and from seedlings of these species that
the familiar American bunch grapes have become established.
Familiar varieties of these are Concord, Delaware, Niagara,
Moore's Early, Fredonia, Extra (Florida Beacon), Carman and
Bailey.
To the Euvitis group belong all the species of Vitis except V.
rotundifolia Michx. and V. munsoniana Simpson, which form
the Muscadinia group (see p. 28). They are commonly called
"muscadine" or rotundifoliaa" grapes. The Scuppernong is a
familiar variety, and is frequently but erroneously used synony-
mously with muscadine.
Varieties
The selection of varieties is very important and may largely
determine the success of the vineyard. During the past 25 or 30
years more than 400 different varieties of grapes have been given
extensive trials in Florida. Extra (Florida Beacon), Carman
and Niagara stood out above all others in growth and production
and therefore these made up a greater part of the commercial
plantings in this state. Although a limited number of plants of
Bailey, Lomanto, Muench, Fredonia, Portland and R. W. Munson
were grown, they gave varying and often unsatisfactory results.
All varieties of the European or California grape have failed
and should not be planted.
From this list of over 400 varieties tested in Florida there are
a few which have had some degree of success. These are given
in Table 1 and are discussed below.
Extra (Florida Beacon).-This variety has been known by
several names in Florida, among them Florida Beacon, Beacon






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 2.-Niagara grafted on 6-year-old Extra (Florida Beacon) rootstock.
Scion put in March 16, 1936; photographed June 27, 1936.

and Montverde Beacon. The exact identity of the variety which
is called Florida Beacon is not known, but it is generally thought
to be Munson's variety Extra, which was misnamed upon its in-
troduction into Florida several years ago. Mowry (10) states
that Extra and Florida Beacon no doubt are of the same hybrid
parentage and are possibly the same variety. It was the variety
most planted and its popularity was due to its good growth and
yields in comparison with other varieties grown in the state
(Figs. 1 and 3). It has had some success as a table grape for


W :a4,~c








Growing Grapes in Florida


local sales, and in favorable years the crop has been heavy. How-
ever, it has failed in markets outside the state. The most serious
fault of this grape is its high susceptibility to fruit rot diseases,
particularly black rot. To produce marketable crops consistently
it must be sprayed. Extra is grown on its own root and plant
growth generally is not improved by grafting.















Fig. 3.-A 6-year-old Extra (Florida Beacon) vineyard with the vines
trained on a Munson 3-wire canopy trellis.
It is black-fruited with moderately compact bunches; medium
to large globular berries, juicy, with good flavor; shipping qual-
ity good. Fruit ripens in mid-season or from the middle of June
to the middle of July.
Niagara.-The best white grape for Florida (Fig. 4). Fruit
yellowish green, of good quality. This grape has sold on local
markets at a premium over black-fruited varieties. Susceptible
to the fruit rots, especially the ripe fruit rots, and requires
spraying. Very short-lived on its own roots and must be grafted
on a suitable rootstock such as R. W. Munson or Extra. The
grower must propagate his own planting stock, since there is no
known source of grafted plants. Ripens its fruit early-from
the last of May to the last of June, depending on the season.
Shipping quality only fair, as the fruit tends to shell from the
bunch and some of the individual berries split during transit.
Carman.-Another black-fruited grape which was grown to
some extent in Florida a few years ago. Produces large clusters
of medium-sized berries of good quality; shipping quality good.
Not as susceptible to the fruit rot diseases as Extra but probably
will require spraying when grown in commercial vineyards. Suit-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 4.-Niagara grafted on Extra (Florida Beacon). The top is 3 years
old, the rootstock 6.

able for limited local sales and roadside stands and good for
home planting. Does not yield so well as Extra. Better adapted
to the more fertile soils. Grown on its own roots but possibly it
could be made more productive by grafting on a suitable root-
stock. Late-season variety which matures fruit from the last
of June to the last of July.
Muench.-Vines vigorous and yield well. Clusters frequently
large and shouldered. Fruit greenish purple to dark purple at
maturity, small, very sweet; quality good. Appears to be less
susceptible to diseases, particularly the fruit rots, than other
varieties grown in the state, which is the principal point to rec-
ommend it. Ripens slightly later than Carman. May be planted
for home use and to lengthen the season over which fruit are
available for sale on roadside stands. Grown on its own roots.
Bailey.-A black-fruited variety which originated as a seedling
from the same cross as Extra. Like Extra, it must be sprayed
to produce marketable crops and in trials did not yield as well
under the same conditions. Grown on its own roots. It may be
possible to increase yields by grafting on a suitable rootstock
which, thus far, has not been tried. Ripens in mid-season or
from the middle of June to the middle of July.






TABLE 1.-COMPARATIVE DATA ON 6 VARIETIES OF BUNCH GRAPES ADAPTED TO GROWING UNDER FLORIDA CONbITIONS. VARIE-
TIES ARE ARRANGED IN ORDER OF DATE OF MATURITY OF FRUIT.


Preferred Susceptibility
Variety Color of Approx. Date of Root- to Black Rot and
Fruit Maturity stock Other Fruit Dis- Use
eases



Niagara ......... .... Yellowish green Last of May to R. W. Munson Susceptible Local market, road-
last of June or Extra side stands and
home garden

Fredonia .. ... Black with heavy Last of May to R. W. Munson Susceptible Roadside stands


Extra (Florida Bea-
con) .... .


B ailey ... .. ... .... .. ..



Carm an .. ....... ........


Muench .....-..-..... ....--


blue bloom.


Black with blue
bloom


Black with blue
bloom


Black with blue
bloom


Greenish purple to
dark purple


last of June


Middle of June to
middle of July


Middle of June to
middle of July


Last of June to
last of July


Middle of July to
middle of August


or Extra


Own roots


R. W. Munson



Own roots or
R. W. Munson


Own roots


Highly susceptible


Susceptible



Resistant


Highly resistant


Local market, road-
side stands and
home garden

Roadside stands
and juice


Local market, road-
side stands and
home garden

Roadside stands
and home garden







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fredonia.-A black grape which originated from a cross of 2
varieties of Vitis labrusca parentage. Ripens fruit early, about
the same time as Niagara, which is the only point to recommend
it for Florida. Serious faults are: Light and irregular bearer,
susceptibility to the fruit rot diseases, berries shell from the
bunch when ripe. Its only use is for sale on roadside stands
where an early black grape is wanted. Must be grafted on a
suitable rootstock such as R. W. Munson or Extra.

Rootstocks
There is some indication that all varieties, may be benefited
by grafting on a suitable rootstock but little specific information
is yet available.
The principal rootstocks which have been used in Florida are
Extra and R. W. Munson. They have been used successfully for
the varieties mentioned and are necessary for Niagara and Fre-
donia (Figs. 2 and 4).
Observations would indicate that Lukfata may be a very de-
sirable stock because it rarely produces sprouts below the graft.

Propagation
To bring a vineyard into bearing in the shortest possible time,
purchase from a dependable nursery vigorous 1-year-old plants
which have produced strong fibrous root systems. Such planting
stock will grow more rapidly in the vineyard and come more
quickly into bearing than poorly rooted home-produced vines.
Planting stock which is 2 years old may be as good as that 1
year old, if properly chosen, but it is easier to pick out the vig-
orous vines from the 1-year stock and consequently the 1-year
vines usually are preferable.
Some varieties desirable for planting do not grow well on
their own roots and must be grafted onto other stocks. Where
this is done the rootstocks are planted in the vineyard in the
same manner and receive the same care as the other varieties
until the beginning of the second or third season, when they are
grafted to the desired varieties.
Cuttings.-For the person who plans his vineyard far enough
in advance so that growing his own nursery is practical, cuttings
are frequently the cheapest method of getting a start. They may
be best in the long run if sufficient care is given to the vines in
the nursery. Hardwood cuttings constitute the most common
method of propagating grapes. The cuttings may be obtained at







Growing Grapes in Florida


almost any time after the vines become dormant until about 2
weeks before the sap begins to flow in the spring. However, if
the cuttings are obtained early in the dormant period, they may
be handled so that a good callus formation will be obtained and
better root growth will develop when the cuttings are set out the
following spring.
Wood of about pencil size or slightly larger should be chosen
from 1-year-old canes which are comparatively straight, well
matured, and with well developed buds. The cuttings should be
8 to 12 inches long and carry 3 or 4 buds spaced approximately 3
to 6 inches apart. These specifications may be varied somewhat
if there is a scarcity of suitable canes, but extremes in length or
diameter should be avoided. When making cuttings it is cus-
tomary to make a straight cut at the top about an inch above the
upper bud and a slanting cut through the lower node opposite its
bud. The inch of wood above the upper node prevents drying out
of this bud when the cutting is lined out and the slanting cut
through the lower node accelerates rooting.
The cuttings should be bound into bundles of about 50 each
with the lower ends even. After they are labeled and securely
bound they should be buried in trenches in a well-drained location
with the butt ends up and covered with 6 to 8 inches of soil. In-
verting the cuttings encourages callusing of the butt ends while
the tops remain dormant. In the spring it is well to observe the
cuttings at frequent intervals to see that the top ends are still
dormant and not starting to sprout. As soon as they show evi-
dence of sprouting they should be set in nursery rows .when the
soil has been suitably prepared, which may be done any time
after danger of frost is past.
The cuttings should be set 6 to 8 inches apart in the nursery
row and deep enough that only the top bud is showing above
ground. The rows should be spaced 31/ to 4 feet apart to facili-
tate easy cultivation. The nursery should be thoroughly culti-
vated throughout the summer and irrigated during dry periods.
A side-dressing of fertilizer should be applied in early summer
so that vigorous plants may be produced to set in permanent lo-
cations the following spring. A mixture similar to that suggested
in the section on fertilization and cover cropping should be satis-
factory (see p. 24). Approximately 75 percent stand is not un-
common and, if the season is favorable, a larger percentage may
be obtained.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Grafting.-Certain varieties of grapes appear to be desirable
but, because of poor growth on their own roots, they are much
improved in vigor and longevity by grafting onto more vigorous
and long-lived rootstocks (Figs. 2, 4 and 9).
A rootstock, propagated from cuttings as previously described,
is planted in its permanent location in the vineyard and grown
1 or 2 years before grafting. Where grafting of grapes is
practised in Florida it is done by the cleft method. Grafting can
be done at any time from the first of February until growth
starts in the spring, but the scions inserted late in this period
start off more readily and are less likely to dry out.
Cut the rootstock at a smooth place between nodes about 2
inches above the ground 3 days before grafting. If bleeding
occurs, it will stop by the time the scion is inserted. Use com-
pletely dormant 1-year-old wood of the variety to be grafted.
Cut it into suitable lengths, usually 5 to 8 inches, and with 2 or 3
buds. Keep graftwood moist until used by packing in damp
sphagnum moss or sawdust. For stock of this size 1 scion usual-
ly will be sufficient. However, if the stock is large, an inch or
more in diameter, 2 scions should be used (Fig. 5). Split the
stump with a grafting knife, chisel, or grafting tool. The butt
of the scion is cut in a long, tapering wedge which is slightly
thicker on 1 edge. The wedge should start as close to the basal
bud as possible and the thick edge should be adjacent to this bud.
Insert the scion with the thick edge to the outside in the cut in
the stump which is held open with a small screwdriver or graft-
ing tool. Push the scion well down into the cleft and place it so
that the cambium of its outer edge and that of the stump exactly
coincide. Some recommend that top of scion be pushed slightly
outward so that the cambium layers of stock and scion will be
certain of crossing. When this has been done, remove the wedge.
Pressure of the split stump should hold the scion firmly; if not,
it must be tied with raffia or soft string. Do not use grafting
wax but immediately bank the graft with moist soil up to the
top bud of the scion (Fig. 5). Use clean, moist soil from an ad-
jacent middle for the bank.
Grafts must not be allowed to dry out. During dry periods it
will be necessary to water about twice a week and to facilitate
this make a depression in the top of each mound. The vine
should be trained on a stout permanent stake placed by each
plant, otherwise the young vines may be broken off by strong
winds. The sprouts from the scion should be so pruned that 1







Growing Grapes in Florida 15












~ -.- -






Fig. 5.-Diagram illustrating grafting procedure. (After Munson.)
strong cane is left. When 2 scions are used, if both grow, the
most vigorous should be retained, the other removed. All sprouts
coming from the rootstock must be removed. Leave mounds in
place until the young growth has reached the height of the bot-
tom wire of the trellis and then remove them. Any roots which
start from the scion should be cut off, for if the scion roots much
of the value of grafting is lost.
Layering.-This method is used frequently at pruning time to
fill in vacancies in vineyards by pulling down canes grown during
the past season and burying them 6 to 8 inches deep in short
trenches where skips occur. Two or 3 buds are left at the end
of the cane which should be turned up and staked so that these
buds are just above the ground level. A new vine is developed
by selection and pruning to leave the most vigorous shoot, All
shoots except the 1 reserved for the new plant should be removed
from the vine during the growing season. After sufficient growth
has been obtained, the old mother cane is cut away. Sometimes
this takes 2 years but usually 1 is sufficient. By this method
skips can be filled in old vineyards if it is desired to replace with
a variety grown on its own root.
Location of the Vineyard
A considerable area in Florida is well adapted to the culture
of grapes of some kind. It is known that central, northern and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


northwestern Florida are general areas suitable to the growing
of grapes, and that the varieties now used are not satisfactory
when grown in the extreme southern portion of the peninsula
because of mild winter temperatures.
In the area climatically suited to the culture of grapes there
is considerable land that can be used for this purpose. To be
suitable for growing grapes the soil must be well drained. Also,
it must have sufficient elevation in comparison with the sur-
rounding terrain to afford good air drainage. Too steep a slope
should not be chosen because of the increased cost of labor, diffi-
culty in cultivating and spraying and danger of erosion. The
site should not dry out too readily because grapes do not thrive
in a situation which runs to too great extremes in moisture.
Soil fertility is of importance and is probably best maintained
with annual cover crops in conjunction with fertilizers.
Injury by birds is sometimes a factor in producing a crop of
marketable grapes; therefore it is advisable when possible to
establish a vineyard where forests are not adjoining the plant-
ing. The fewer the trees near a grape planting the better. White
varieties suffer less from attack than red and black kinds.
The vineyard should be located near hard-surfaced roads be-
cause grapes used for table market should not be hauled over
rough roads. Much of the fruit can be sold locally on roadside
stands and to truckers, if the vineyard is convenient to main
highways.
Equipment
The equipment for operating a small vineyard is relatively
simple. When either tractor or animal power is already avail-
able, it can be adapted for use in the vineyard. If the grower
expects to use light animal-drawn equipment he will find the
following most useful:
10-inch walking plow (because of its very shallow cutting na-
ture).
A light 6- or 8-blade disk harrow, preferably the reversible
type.
Acme harrow.
Syracuse grape and berry hoe.
Power sprayer.
If power equipment is to be used, 1 of the small tractors, either
walking or riding type, is economical and satisfactory. Many
tractors are now built so that side tools can be attached, some-








Growing Grapes in Florida


times to the hydraulic powerlift system, and with these it is
possible to work close to the vines, thus eliminating much hand
labor.
Hand tools needed are: Hand hoe, rake, shovel, large and small
pruning shears, pruning saw, and a small flame gun.

Preparation of the Soil
The soil should be thoroughly prepared before planting. Clear
the vineyard site of all growth, stumps and large roots and plow
and harrow at least 2 months before planting. If it is in good
cultural condition, little preparation is necessary other than
thorough plowing and harrowing. If the land has been idle, at
least 1 season of preparation by growing a cover crop should
precede the setting of the plants (see p. 24).

Planting the Vineyard
Vineyard rows should be spaced far enough apart to allow for
animal or tractor cultivation and spraying. The vines should be
spaced sufficiently wide in the rows to reduce to a minimum
competition between the roots of adjoining plants for plant food
and moisture. Also sufficient space should be allowed for 1 sea-
son's growth without too much overlapping. The usual practice
is to make the rows 10 feet apart and to space the vines 8 feet
in the row, which requires approximately 544 plants to set an
acre. Vineyards have been planted in which the spacing of vines
in the row ranged from 4 to 10 feet. Close spacing cuts down
on the cost of cultivation and spraying, but approximately 1/2
more fertilizer is used per acre than in the more spacious plant-
ing. The best time for transplanting is from the first of Decem-
ber until just before growth starts in the spring. Early planting
is preferred. It is important that the vines be set in straight
rows to facilitate cultivation without injury.
It is customary to run the rows north and south so that both
sides of the vines can receive direct rays of sunlight some time
during the day. However, there are some locations in which
this may not be desirable because of prevailing cross winds dur-
ing the early part of the growing season which whip the vines
seriously. If the planting is to be a large one, it is advisable to
omit rows at convenient intervals to serve as driveways in the
vineyard. If the rows are exceptionally long, cross alleys also
are desirable to facilitate such operations as spraying, fertilizing
and harvesting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


When the plants are being handled in the field, care should be
taken to keep the roots moist, and if they have become very dry
in the nursery or elsewhere it is well to soak them in water 2 to 4
hours before planting. A good way to keep the roots moist is to
carry them in a bucket of water until they are placed in the hole
for setting, but wet sacks are very convenient to use under some
conditions. If vines are received before preparations are com-
plete for planting, they should be kept in some moist place or
heeled-in to keep them from drying out. To insure placing the
plants in straight rows, a planting board should be used in plac-
ing the plants in the holes.
Before planting, the vines should be pruned to 2 or 3 buds and
all broken and decayed roots removed and the main roots short-
ened to 6 to 10 inches, depending upon the vigor of the root sys-
tem (Fig. 6). The holes should be of sufficient size to permit all
roots to be placed without crowding and for the plants to be set
slightly deeper than they were in the nursery. Grafted plants
should be set with the graft union at least 2 inches above the
ground level.
A handful of bonemeal should be placed in the bottom of each
hole and lightly covered with top soil, then a little top soil should







xc


Fig. 6.-Young Extra (Florida Beacon) plant as it was dug from the
nursery (left) and pruned for planting (right).







Growing Grapes in Florida


be placed in the bottom of the hole in the shape of a flat cone.
The hole should be deeper at the edge than at the center and the
roots spread out so that they have a downward trend. Roots on
the lower whorl should be spread out over the bottom cone and
enough soil thrown in to fill up to the next whorl of roots. The
hole is filled in that manner until all the root whorls are covered
and the ground level reached. The soil should be worked about
the roots with plenty of water during the process of planting and
when the hole has been filled to the ground level it should be
firmly packed by tramping. If care is taken to keep the roots
moist at all times and to pack the soil firmly about the roots,
much loss of vines will be prevented.

Care of Young Vines
It is advisable to bank or mound the young plants up to the
top bud. Also, a basin should be made about each plant to facili-
tate watering during dry periods. Both operations can be con-
veniently done at time of planting. Most years, transplanted
vines begin growth early and the tender shoots may be damaged
by late frosts. Banking will protect the basal buds from which
new shoots will start if the initial growth is injured. The banks
should be removed about the middle of April and are not needed
in succeeding years.
Place a stake at each vine upon which to train the young
growth. Staking will allow cultivation in both directions, thus
saving much hand labor. The young growth as it develops should
be tied to the stake.
Training, Trellising and Pruning
Training, trellising and pruning are so closely related that no
attempt will be made to discuss each separately; rather, the vari-
ous interrelated operations will be explained in the order in which
they occur. The term pruning generally means the removal of
wood to regulate fruit production and also the training of vines
in such a way that their growth will not interfere with cultural
practices.
Care of the vines during the first year has been discussed. Cut
the young plants back to 2 buds during the winter following the
first season's growth, preferably during December or January
(Fig. 7-A). Also, begin construction of the trellis. It is im-
portant that each plant have a stake or wire from base of plant
to the lower wire of the trellis (Fig. 7-B). The best system of
training grapes in Florida is on the familiar Munson 3-wire










SPROUT



SOIL LEVEL


LATERALS \TWO
SPURS



SOIL LEVEL
SOIL LEVI
SOILOL LEVEL

Fig. 7.-Diagram illustrating training, trellising and pruning of grape vines.







Growing Grapes in Florida


canopy trellis (Fig. 3). The principle of this type of trellis is to
train the bearing canes upon the lower wire and allow the excess
seasonal growth to grow upon the upper wires and form a canopy
of shade over the fruit which hangs from the lower wire, where
it is in a more open situation and will dry out more readily after
moist conditions and also can be readily covered with spray ma-
terials (Fig. 1). Posts 4 to 6 inches in diameter and 61/2 feet
long are set in the rows at 24-foot intervals, which allows 3 vines
8 feet apart, or 4 vines 6 feet apart between them. Each post
is set in the ground to a depth of 28 inches, which leaves 50
inches above ground. The posts on the ends should be well
braced and somewhat larger than the others. No. 10 galvanized
smooth wire is suitable for trellising and 500 to 600 pounds are
required per acre. The lower wire is tightly stretched and fast-
ened to the posts about 44 inches from the ground.
When growth begins several sprouts will appear on each plant
(Fig. 7-C). Remove all but the strongest and most vigorous
and tie it to the stake (Fig. 7-D). As this shoot grows it must
be tied to the stake and all lateral shoots pinched out until the
wire is reached when the top is broken off (Fig. 7-E and F.).
Laterals will now grow along the wire in each direction and
should be assisted by tying them to the wire as they elongate
(Fig. 7-G).
The following winter prune the vine to 2 arms each bearing
from 6 to 10 buds, depending upon vigor of the plant, and leave
2 renewal spurs, of 2 buds each, near the base of the arms (Fig.
7-H). The upper wires should now be placed on the trellises.
This is done by fastening 18- to 24-inch crossarms at the top of
the posts. These may be made from 1x4 inch "undressed" lum-
ber. Wires are fastened to the outer ends of the crossarms so
that they are at least 18 inches apart. All trellis wires should be
tightly stretched to prevent sagging between posts.
Fruit will be produced during the third growing season and
no training is required other than to place trailing shoots on the
upper wires and to remove all sprouts which may start from the
trunk below the head. At the end of the third year's growth
the vine will consist of a straight trunk, with 2 arms, from which
have grown numerous canes.
To prune a grape vine properly, one must know what, where
and how much wood should be left. The fruit is borne on the
new growth produced from the previous season's wood and there-
fore it is entirely useless to leave on the vines any wood over a







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


year old, except for framework. If vines are too severely pruned
an excess of wood but a small amount of fruit will be produced.
On the other hand, if insufficient pruning is done, wood produc-
tion will be light and the fruit will be borne in many small clus-
ters and the individual berries in these clusters will tend to be
small. Consequently, a balance must be maintained and some
experience is necessary to know how much wood to leave on in-
dividual vines. Vines of the varieties now grown in Florida ap-
pear to carry 40 to 60 buds to good advantage. The best canes
are those which are pencil size or a little larger, on which the
buds are plump and well formed, and usually 4 of such canes
containing 10 to 15 buds each are left on a vine. All others are
removed except that from 4 to 6 renewal spurs, of 2 buds each,
should be left near the head of the vine for the purpose of pro-
viding canes to bear next season's crop. The arms are wound
around the wire and tied with stout cord, using a square knot,
between the last 2 buds (Figs. 7-J and 8). The general plan of
pruning outlined for the third year should be followed in subse-
quent years. All pruning should be done when the vines are
dormant, preferably during December and January.
Grafts inserted in old roots in the vineyard usually grow vig-
orously and reach the wire during the summer (Fig. 2). They



S". .-_ ....


-4--







.. -' 1. ,






Fig. 8.-A pruned Extra (Florida Beacon) vine. Renewal spurs should
have been left on the trunk at or near the base of the canes.







Growing Grapes in Florida 23

should be trained on the wire and pruned during the following
winter, as previously described for pruning at the end of the
second or third season's growth. Plants grown from field graft-
ing of 1- or 2-year-old stock usually make sufficient growth to
reach the wire during the first season and should be handled in
the same manner as grafts from old roots. The number of arms
retained will depend upon vigor of the vine (Fig. 9). However,
this will necessitate starting construction of the trellis during
the year grafts are made.
Cutivation
Because grapes are shallow-rooted, weeds seriously compete
with them for moisture and fertilizer and should be kept away


Fig. 9.-Niagara grafted on rootstock WR16. Rootstock 2 years old, scion
1 year old. Before (upper) and after pruning.


)r 7
--~- ~







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from the young vines until they are well established. Clean cul-
tivation should be practiced in the vineyard throughout the first
year. In succeeding years a cover crop should be grown.
,The cover crop is allowed to remain standing until it is neces-
sary to work it into the soil so that it will not interfere with
pruning. This first operation of cutting the cover crop may be
done with a disk harrow or stalk cutter. If the cover crop has
grown up among the vines it will be necessary to cut it with hoes
and move it to the middles between the rows. Spring cultivation
of the vineyard begins about March 1, and follows at intervals
frequent enough to control grass and weeds. Although these
operations usually are done with a disk harrow, other methods
are satisfactory. Cultivation ceases at the time of or just previ-
ous to harvesting and the cover crop is allowed to grow.
To help in the control of diseases and insects, usually it is con-
sidered a good sanitary practice to remove the prunings from
the vineyard and burn them. If this precaution is not considered
necessary, the prunings may be worked into the soil during the
successive cultivations. Sometimes for weed or disease control
it becomes expedient to turn the soil in the vineyard with a plow.
Whenever this is necessary it should be done before any abund-
ance of new growth is made and great care should be used not
to break more roots than is absolutely necessary. Plowing, as an
aid to disease control, should be done just before growth starts
in the spring. A very thorough job of this operation should be
performed and great care used in actually turning under all
materials which have accumulated on the surface during the
past season.
To reduce the cost of vineyard care, cultivation should be done
only when necessary to eliminate competing vegetation. The
animal-drawn grape or berry hoe or side tools attached to a
tractor are convenient for working close to the vines and will
eliminate much hand labor. A small flame gun may be con-
veniently used to keep down grass and weeds in the area between
the vines. In spite of all labor-saving devices, a certain amount
of hoeing will be necessary, but this should be done when most
effective, usually rather early in the growing season before the
weeds have made extensive growth.
Fertilization and Cover Cropping
Fertilization is necessary to grow and maintain a grape vine-
yard successfully in Florida. There is no standard practice em-
ployed by growers to serve as a basis for formulating a recom-







Growing Grapes in Florida


mendation. The situation is further complicated in that growers
using relatively diverse practices may all obtain approximately
the same results. However, experimental results obtained by
several workers in other localities provide valuable and useful
information. It has been shown repeatedly that the 3 principal
plant foods-nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium-are needed.
Of these, nitrogen is the most beneficial and often serves as the
limiting factor for successful growth, with potassium next in
importance and phosphorus relatively less.
Commercial fertilizers analyzing from 5 to 8 percent nitrogen,
6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 6 to 8 percent potash should
be satisfactory. As a general rule, from 2 to 3 pounds of ferti-
lizer per year are applied to mature vines. When only 1 applica-
tion is made it is usually done about the middle of March. Fre-
quently, though, the fertilizer is divided into 2 applications, the
first in early spring just as growth starts and the second during
the last of May. The first year after planting make about 4
applications of fertilizer of 1/4 pound each to the young vines
during the growing season. In this mixture the nitrogen per-
centage should be higher and the phosphoric acid and potash
relatively lower than for bearing vines. Fertilizer should be
applied over the entire area occupied by the roots. To accom-
plish this, applications during the first year should be made in a
circle which, with the plant as the center, has a diameter of 2 to
3 feet. From the second or third year on the entire ground should
be covered.
The addition of organic matter to the soil by growing and
turning under cover crops is a desirable practice, recognized as
helpful in keeping the vines healthy and vigorous. Only in this
manner may the organic matter content of the soil be main-
tained. Cover crops reduce the soil temperature during the
summer, increase the water-holding capacity of the soil and re-
duce leaching and erosion. Aeration is increased and bacterial
action accompanying decomposition increases the availability of
certain plant nutrients.
Leguminous cover crops when inoculated with the proper bac-
teria are best for this purpose as, in addition to the organic
matter added, they may also increase the nitrogen content of the
soil. Up to the present time it has not been found necessary to
inoculate artificially the crops usually planted as summer cover
crops in Florida. Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. and C. striata DC
have been used successfully in the past, and more recently In-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


digofera hirsuta L., hairy indigo, is proving excellent. The in-
itial seeding of Indigofera is made broadcast, usually from June
1 to 15, at the rate of 3 to 5 pounds per acre. Indigofera grows
rapidly, making slender stalks, and will be head high by August.
The cover crop remains green until killed by the first frost. It
volunteers readily and appears to be benefited rather than hin-
dered by intensive shallow cultivation in the spring. Volunteer
seedlings usually begin growth in June and cultivation must then
cease. A green weight of 13 tons per acre has been recorded at
Whitney, in Lake County.
The addition of organic matter by the use of barnyard manure
is helpful but it is almost impossible to obtain this material in
sufficient quantities.

Harvesting, Packing and Marketing
Harvesting of the grape crop in Florida is a very exacting
operation. Picking unripe fruit and poor harvesting methods
are mistakes which reduce the quality of the product and are,
therefore, detrimental to both sale and price of fruit. Grapes
should never be offered for sale until they are ripe. For the
novice this stage is difficult to determine, since the varieties
grown take on colors quite similar to those of ripeness several
days before they are ripe and, if picked on the basis of color
alone, are frequently presented to the public in an unpalatable
condition. Therefore, great care should be exercised to pick the
grapes which are ripe; this must be done soon after they have
reached that stage because weather conditions in Florida are
such that in normal seasons the fruit will not remain on the
vine in sound condition. Harvesting usually can be completed
in 3 pickings, although under certain conditions it may be de-
sirable to pick more often. The usual procedure is to pick the
fruit; place it in shallow field boxes in the vineyard, and take it
to the packinghouse. The bunches can be cut from the vine with
pointed spring scissors made for the purpose or with orange clip-
pers. Grapes should never be piled over 8 inches deep if intended
for dessert use, and 6 inches is about the upper limit for depth
in the packages.
Too much emphasis cannot be put upon the necessity for care-
ful and as little handling of the fruit as possible. Failure to ob-
serve these points often has been responsible for table grapes
arriving at the market in poor condition. Picking sometimes is
combined with packing by the use of a rolling packing unit. For







Growing Grapes in Florida


the grower with 3 or more acres this method is worthy of con-
sideration. A small unit packinghouse can be constructed on a
trailer. It should be covered, screened and sufficiently large to
accommodate 2 packers. Operating in conjunction with a pick-
ing crew, the fruit is immediately packed in the vineyard and is
ready to be loaded for hauling to market. The advantages are
speed and a minimum of handling.
Several types of containers have been tried for shipping grapes
to local and out-of-state markets. Of these, wooden lugs similar
to those used for tomatoes and large enough to hold approxi-
mately 20 pounds of fruit appear to be the most practical con-
tainers to use (Fig. 10). Another container which found some
favor is a ventilated fiber board carton holding 3 2-quart baskets
arranged side by side. The desirable feature of this container
is its lightness, an important factor if air transportation is used.
Four and 6-pound baskets
are desirable containers for
use on roadside stands.
Packing should be done as
rapidly as possible after the
fruit is picked. Packers
should be instructed which
bunches to use to make a
good pack. If a bunch needs
more than 1 or 2 quick
touches with the clippers to
rid it of unsightly berries,
it must not be used. Any
variety which shells from
the bunch when being pack-
ed is unfit for shipment.
The fanciest pack of table
grapes in lugs is made by -
using the inverted pack. The
lug is made with the top in
place. It is packed in this
inverted position with thse Fig. 10. Extra (Florida Beacon)
inverted position with the grapes packed in a 20-pound lug.
stems upward. The bottom
is then nailed on. The lug is turned over and when opened, the
fruit presents an excellent appearance. Containers which are
to be shipped should be over weight, particularly those going
any distance, for some weight will be lost in transit. For example,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a lug marked 20 pounds should have 22 to 23 pounds of grapes to
have a net weight of 20 pounds upon arrival.
Great care should be exercised in all operations where the
fruit is handled, so that it does not become bruised. Well-picked
fruit of good quality will hold up on the market for a week to 10
or 15 days. On the whole, however, the crop must be moved to
the consumer in as short a time as possible unless measures are
taken for its preservation, such as storage at low temperatures.
Experiments have shown (4) that grapes kept at a temperature
of 30 to 33 degrees Fahrenheit in regular commercial cold stor-
age rooms where the relative humidity averages rather high
may be kept for as long as 2 months. Grapes intended for cold
storage should be placed there as soon as possible after harvest-
ing. Loucks (9) states that the fruit should be utilized immedi-
ately after removal from cold storage because deterioration be-
gins soon after removal and progresses rapidly if the fruit is
exposed to excessively dry conditions. It is not necessary to
hasten the drying of fruit after removal from cold storage; the
moisture that condenses on the grapes will aid in their preserva-
tion.
Most bunch grapes grown in Florida are sold on local markets
and are moved to these from the grower's packing shed almost
entirely by truck. The grower may sell his grapes directly to
truckers who, in turn, may dispose of them on local markets or
may haul them to markets in other nearby states. Many growers
near main highways dispose of all or part of their crop on road-
side stands. A small percent of the crop is made into grape
juice or utilized in the home for making jam, marmalade and
butter.
Muscadine Type
The muscadine or rotundifolia grapes include 2 species-Vitis
rotundifolia Michx. and V. munsoniana Simpson. V. rotundifolia,
which includes the Scuppernong, was the first native species to
be domesticated by early Colonial settlers. It long has been
famous throughout the South for its fruit and for wine-making.
It is the type commonly seen on arbors in dooryard gardens
throughout this area.
In general, the information previously given for American
bunch grapes relative to location of vineyard, preparation of soil,
cultivation and cover cropping applies equally well to the musca-
dine varieties, except that vines trained on an overhead arbor
usually are not cultivated.







Growing Grapes in Florida


Botany
Vitis rotundifolia Michx. is native to the South Atlantic and
Gulf states, extending well down into peninsular Florida. V.
munsoniana Simpson is native to southern Georgia, peninsular
Florida, the Florida keys and the borders of the Gulf of Mexico.
In Bailey's classification (2) these 2 species compose the musca-
dinia group of the Genus Vitis.
Principal differences between this group and the American
bunch type are that most varieties drop their fruit from the
vine when ripe, the fruit does not grow in distinct bunches,
and the tendrils are simple rather than branched or forked. In
addition, the pith is continuous through the nodes, the bark ad-
heres closely on young branches-is not shreddy-and the seeds
are flattened, with transverse wrinkles on the sides.
V. rotundifolia, from which practically all varieties now in
cultivation were derived, is a dioecious species-male or stami-
nate flowers and female or pistillate ones are borne on separate
plants. Distinguishing between male and female vines is im-
possible except at blooming time,
when it is comparatively easy.
The male flowers produce long,
upright s t a m e n s possessing
large anthers and fertile pollen.
The ovules are small, cushion-
shaped and aborted in appear-
ance, lacking pistils (Fig. 11).
Female flowers have well-devel-
oped pistils which give the
ovules a bottle-shaped appear-
ance. The anthers are small and
aron short recurved filaments Fig. 11. Female (above) and
are on short recurved filaments male muscadine grape flowers.
at the base of the ovules (Fig.
11). Pollen is produced but is sterile. Only the female vines
bear fruit.
More recently, perfect-flowered varieties have been developed.

Varieties
Both white- and black-fruited forms are found in the species
V. rotundifolia. The Scuppernong is by far the best known
variety. In fact, it is so well known that often all varieties in
the muscadine group are called "Scuppernong," and the black-
fruited varieties "black Scuppernongs." Likewise, due to the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


different colors of the fruit, they are often divided into 2 groups,
the white-fruited ones being called Scuppernong and the black-
fruited varieties Muscadine. These are obviously incorrect des-
ignations, as muscadine is a group name for all varieties derived
from the 2 species comprising this group and Scuppernong is
merely the name of 1 variety with white fruit which falls in
this group.
The number of varieties under cultivation is quite large and
practically all have been derived from V. rotundifolia. Only a
few are grown in Florida, namely: Scuppernong, Thomas, James
and Flowers. The first 2 varieties comprise the greater part of
the total.
Muscadine grapes are particularly desirable for the home
vineyard, as their fruit ripens after the season for bunch grapes
has ended. The varieties grown differ in time of ripening,
which makes it impossible to have this type of grape from late
in July through August and September. In the order of ripen-
ing they are Thomas, Scuppernong, James and Flowers.
Scuppernong.-This is the most extensively grown and best
known of all the muscadine varieties and is an example of the
white-fruited type. There is considerable variation within this
variety-fruit on individual vines may vary considerably in size,
flavor, thickness and color of skin from bronze to dull green.
There is enough difference in these strains to warrant care in
the selection of those of superior quality for propagation. This
variety has large berries of good quality and ripens in mid-
season. It is suitable for local markets, home use or juice, and
is excellent for wine.
Thomas.-In Florida this variety is next to Scuppernong in
importance. The berries are medium in size and reddish-purple
in color. The quality is excellent and it is generally considered
as one of the best table varieties. It ripens early and is suitable
for local market and home use.
James.-The berries are large, blue-black and of fair quality.
Ripens somewhat later than Scuppernong, and is satisfactory for
local market and home use.
Flowers.-Berries are medium in size and black in color. It
ripens late. Due to its poor quality this variety is adapted to
culinary uses only.
Pollination and Male Vines
In the muscadine group of grapes it has been repeatedly ob-
served that the female plants are self-sterile and require fertili-







Growing Grapes in Florida


zation by pollen from male plants before they will set fruit. The
failure of muscadine vineyards or arbors to set fruit often is due
to the absence of nearby male plants to supply the needed pollen.
The obvious correction of this condition is to obtain male vines
from a nursery and set them near the female vines.
Male vines should be interplanted with female vines at time of
planting so that this condition will be prevented. Recommenda-
tions as to number of male vines in proportion to female vines to
set in a planting are quite variable. Armstrong et al. (1), work-
ing at Experiment, Georgia, with the Hunt variety, found that
vines more than 50 feet distant from a male vine were reduced
materially in yield.
Husmann (7) states that all of the catalogued and commercial-
ly grown muscadine varieties are pistillate or female-flowered
and incapable of self-fertilization.
In recent years the United States Department of Agriculture,
in co-operation with the North Carolina Agricultural Experi-
ment Station, has developed perfect-flowered varieties capable
of self-fertilization. Such varieties do not require pollination
by a male vine and are capable of pollinating pistillate varieties
like Scuppernong, Thomas and others.
Propagation
Varieties of the muscadine type of grape are propagated al-
almost entirely by layering, as it is very difficult to root cut-
tings. Plants to be used for this purpose should be cut back
severely a year before the layering is to be done. During the
following winter those canes which have originated near the
ground should be used for layering. At the time of layering all
laterals less than approximately 12 inches apart should be re-
moved and remaining laterals should be cut back to from 8 to 10
inches in length. The lateral branches will make the top of the
new plant. The canes, still attached to the mother plant, should
be placed in a trench and covered to a depth of from 4 to 6 inches.
Root growth may be facilitated by making a slight incision at
each node opposite a lateral branch. By the following winter
roots will have formed at most of the nodes, and at this time the
plants may be taken up and divided by cutting the original cane
behind each shoot which now has its own root system and is
therefore an individual plant.
Another method which may be employed is that given by
Armstrong, Pickett and Murphy (1). This operation may be







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


performed in July when canes of the current season's growth
are layered in trenches and covered with soil to a depth of from
6 to 8 inches. The tips of these canes are left uncovered. By
winter, roots will have formed at most of the nodes, when the
canes may be taken up and divided into 10-inch rooted cuttings.
These cuttings are then lined out in the nursery row and grown
for 1 year, when they are ready to be planted in the vineyard.
Cuttings that have developed exceptionally strong root systems
may be transplanted to their permanent locations in the field.
Otherwise they should be handled as indicated above.

Planting the Vines
Since the grape is a deciduous plant it should be planted dur-
ing the winter months when it is completely dormant. This op-
eration should be performed preferably in December; however,
it may be done in January or February. The information given
in regard to planting American bunch type grapes applies equally
well here, the only difference being in the spacing. This, in turn,
may vary, depending on whether the vines are to be trained upon
an overhead arbor or on a vertical trellis. Husmann (6) states
that when an overhead arbor is to be used, plants are usually
spaced 10 by 20, 15 by 15, or 20 by 20 feet. Due to the fact that
Muscadine grapes ultimately grow to be very large and have an
extensive root system, it is probable that the wider spacing, 20
by 20 feet, is more desirable.
Armstrong et al. (1) recommend that for Georgia conditions
vines be spaced 21 feet apart in rows 14 feet apart, when a verti-
cal trellis is used. When planted on a commercial scale the wider
spacing is desirable, as the rows are wide enough apart to allow
a hay rake to be used in removing the prunings, effecting a sav-
ing in labor. When grown in the home garden, closer spacing is
desirable, 16 to 20 feet apart in rows 10 feet apart.

Trellising, Training and Pruning
For many years muscadine grapes were grown entirely on
overhead arbors. Newman (12) was the first to recommend 4-
wire vertical trellising. Subsequently, a 3-wire vertical trellis
was used and recently Armstrong et al. (1) recommend a 2-wire
vertical trellis for Georgia.
The old style overhead arbor is still the most commonly used
trellis for muscadine grapes grown for the home vineyard. This
type of trellis may be constructed in various ways. One method







Growing Grapes in Florida


described by Husmann (6) is to set a post by each vine, and then
set rows of posts running parallel to the rows of vines and at
the end of the rows on the boundaries of the arbor. These posts
should reach 7 feet above the ground and should be well-braced.
No. 10 galvanized iron wires are fastened to the boundary posts
on the 4 sides of the arbor and are run along the tops of the posts
in both directions. No. 14 wires spaced 2 feet apart are run
parallel to the main wires. Often the arbor may be constructed
entirely of wood, and when this is done 2 by 4's are used in place
of the No. 10 wire, and slats spaced 3 to 5 feet apart instead of
the No. 14 wire. In this case no extra bracing of the posts is
required.




















Fig. 12.-Scuppernong vines trained on an overhead arbor.

The vine is trained to a single trunk by removing all laterals
as they appear. When it reaches the top of the post it is then
cut off at this point and the resulting shoots are allowed to grow
out over the arbor. After this has taken place usually no further
pruning is given (Fig. 12). However, it has been observed often
that old muscadine vines tend to become unfruitful. This may
be due, in part at least, to the subsequent shading effect produced
by the accumulation of a mass of old vines on the arbor plus the
increased difficulty of proper pollination brought about by this
condition. Though it is not the common practice to prune mus-








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cadine grapes trained on an overhead arbor, nevertheless it
probably would be desirable to practice some pruning that would
thin out and cut back the old top from time to time. Results
obtained from the use of the 2- and 3-wire vertical trellis would
indicate this.
Though the overhead arbor is still the trellis most commonly
used for the rotundifolia varieties grown in the home vineyard,
a 2- or 3-wire vertical trellis has much to recommend it. Bearing
is more regular, crops are larger and may be harvested more
easily, and less space is required to produce a given quantity of
grapes.
A trellis is constructed for each row of grapes. A post is set
half-way between each 2 vines, extending 7 feet above ground.
The posts should be firmly set and those at the ends securely
braced. When a 2-wire trellis is used the bottom wire is stretched
3 feet and the top wire about 6 feet from the ground, leaving 3
feet between. If a 3-wire trellis is used, the bottom wire should
be stretched 3 feet from the ground, the top wire near the top of
the posts and the second wire midway between the 2, using No.
10 to 12 galvanized wire. The trellis may be constructed at the
time the vines are set, or the vines may be tied to stakes the first
season, which will save one year's depreciation of the trellis.
Side shoots that originate the first season should be removed
except 2 that arise near the height of the first wire. These
should be tied to the wire and one allowed to grow in each direc-
tion. From this point on, all side shoots should be removed until
the vine reaches the top wire, when the top should be trained in
one direction along the wire. The first side shoot that originates
near the top wire should be trained along this wire in the oppo-
site direction. If a 3-wire vertical trellis is used, the same pro-
cedure is followed with the exception that side-branches orig-
inating near the second wire are allowed to remain and are
trained along it in opposite directions, and the top is allowed to
grow to the upper wire and is then treated as described above.
These arms serve as the permanent framework of the plant.
They are allowed to grow until they reach the posts halfway be-
tween the 2 vines. They are cut back to this point every year
when the vines are pruned. After the establishment of the
permanent framework, pruning consists in annually cutting back
the past season's growth, leaving from 2 to 4 buds on the canes
which have any appreciable growth (Figs. 13 and 14). These
cuts should be made as close to the main arms as possible. All









Growing Grapes in Florida


tendrils which encircle the arms should be cut, as they become
very tough and may eventually girdle the arms, causing them
to die beyond the point of injury.


a


*'A


Fig. 13.-An unpruned muscadine vine trained on a 2-wire vertical trellis.


N-I


Fig. 14.-Same vine as in Figure 13, after pruning.


According to Dearing (3), these arms will begin to decline in
growth and productiveness in from 6 to 8 years. When this takes
place they should be renewed. This is very easily done by cut-
ting back to a strong lateral that has originated near the base


''
k
i..~---
--


I i, 1, _"








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the arm. This lateral is then tied to the wire and develops
into a young fruiting arm.
Pruning should be done in the fall and early winter as soon as
possible after the vines have become completely dormant, usually
from late November through December, depending upon the
season and location in the state.
Fertilization
Though it is undoubtedly true that many old vines have never
received applications of commercial fertilizers, it has been ob-
served often that muscadine grapes respond to fertilization, as
evidenced by an increase in both growth and yields. As most of
the soils upon which this type of grape is grown are low in or-
ganic matter, the addition of this material by the growing and
turning in of leguminous cover crops and by the use of manures
is very desirable. Likewise, these soils usually are deficient in
the principal plant foods. Applications of fertilizer containing
from 4 to 6 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid,
and 4 to 6 percent potash should be satisfactory. The amount
to apply will vary with the age of the vine, the native fertility
of the soil, and the quantity of organic matter supplied. For the
first 2 or 3 years after planting, 1 pound of fertilizer per vine
should be applied annually; after that, the rate should be from
400 to 800 pounds per acre. The vines usually are fertilized in
early May, but it may be advantageous to split the application,
applying the first half as growth starts in the spring and the
second half about the first of July.
Husmann (5) and Armstrong et al. (1) have observed that an
excess of nitrogen may result in over-production of wood at the
expense of fruit. If this condition should arise, usually it can
be checked by increasing the bearing surface of the vine by leav-
ing more fruiting buds when the vines are pruned, or by reducing
the nitrogenous materials in the fertilizer. Such a condition
would be desirable for young vines for the first 2 or 3 years after
planting, as it would enable them to make good, strong growth
and thereby become well established before fruiting starts. The
nitrogen content of the fertilizer for young vines should be
higher than for those of bearing age.
Harvesting and Uses
The method employed in harvesting depends to a large extent
upon the way in which the fruit is to be used. If it is to be sold
on local markets it must be picked by hand. However, if the








Growing Grapes in Florida


fruit is to be used in making juice or for culinary purposes, it is
left on the vine until completely ripe, when it is shaken off onto
canvas sheets. The berries are then separated from the leaves
and twigs and taken to the place where they are to be used.
This type of grape is not suitable for marketing like the bunch
grapes, as some of the berries drop from the bunch before ripen-
ing and, if shipped, become smeared with juice so that they dc
not present a pleasing appearance. Nevertheless, when properly
handled there is a sale for them on local markets, since many
people regard them highly.
Certain varieties make excellent juice. They have long been
considered very desirable for dessert purposes, for making wines,
jams, jellies and marmalades, and for other culinary uses.

Disease and Insect Control
Disease and insect control in grape vineyards is very im-
portant, and in most years unless fungous diseases of the fruit
are controlled, losses will be high or complete. Properly applied
and accurately timed, spray materials should give good control.

Fruit and Leaf Diseases
The most serious damage to the fruit is done by black rot,
bitter rot and ripe rot. Downy mildew may be severe in some
seasons. Anthracnose would be important if any varieties high
in vinifera parentage were being grown. All of these diseases
can be controlled by a copper-containing spray.
Black rot, caused by the fungus Guignardia bidicellii (Ell.)
V. & R., first makes its appearance on the leaves about the time
they have reached full size but before they have matured. It is
characterized by reddish-brown, dead spots. With the aid of a
hand lens, black pustules which contain the spores of the fungus
can be seen scattered on the upper surfaces of these spots. The
disease appears on the fruit as a pale spot which soon turns
brownish. Later, this discoloration involves the entire berry
which turns black, shrivels and either falls off or remains at-
tached to the bunch as a shrivelled "mummy." It takes 6 to 10
days for the grape to become mumified after first showing the
discoloration. This disease may cause from 5 to 25 percent loss
of fruit, even if spraying is carried out, and in the absence of a
fungicide losses may be 100 percent. Loucks (8) has shown
that the most effective sprays are those applied at blooming
time. Applications put on at other times in the spray schedule







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


a lug marked 20 pounds should have 22 to 23 pounds of grapes to
have a net weight of 20 pounds upon arrival.
Great care should be exercised in all operations where the
fruit is handled, so that it does not become bruised. Well-picked
fruit of good quality will hold up on the market for a week to 10
or 15 days. On the whole, however, the crop must be moved to
the consumer in as short a time as possible unless measures are
taken for its preservation, such as storage at low temperatures.
Experiments have shown (4) that grapes kept at a temperature
of 30 to 33 degrees Fahrenheit in regular commercial cold stor-
age rooms where the relative humidity averages rather high
may be kept for as long as 2 months. Grapes intended for cold
storage should be placed there as soon as possible after harvest-
ing. Loucks (9) states that the fruit should be utilized immedi-
ately after removal from cold storage because deterioration be-
gins soon after removal and progresses rapidly if the fruit is
exposed to excessively dry conditions. It is not necessary to
hasten the drying of fruit after removal from cold storage; the
moisture that condenses on the grapes will aid in their preserva-
tion.
Most bunch grapes grown in Florida are sold on local markets
and are moved to these from the grower's packing shed almost
entirely by truck. The grower may sell his grapes directly to
truckers who, in turn, may dispose of them on local markets or
may haul them to markets in other nearby states. Many growers
near main highways dispose of all or part of their crop on road-
side stands. A small percent of the crop is made into grape
juice or utilized in the home for making jam, marmalade and
butter.
Muscadine Type
The muscadine or rotundifolia grapes include 2 species-Vitis
rotundifolia Michx. and V. munsoniana Simpson. V. rotundifolia,
which includes the Scuppernong, was the first native species to
be domesticated by early Colonial settlers. It long has been
famous throughout the South for its fruit and for wine-making.
It is the type commonly seen on arbors in dooryard gardens
throughout this area.
In general, the information previously given for American
bunch grapes relative to location of vineyard, preparation of soil,
cultivation and cover cropping applies equally well to the musca-
dine varieties, except that vines trained on an overhead arbor
usually are not cultivated.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


are important, but those during the blooming period are impera-
tive.
Downy mildew, caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola
(B. & C.) Berl. & de Toni, attacks all the young growing parts of
the plant. It is noticed first on the leaves where yellowish-green
spots are seen on the upper surfaces. These spots soon become
reddish-brown, are irregular in shape and the undersurface is
covered with a white downy growth of the fungus which is con-
spicuous as a dense, matted, cottony mass. When the young
fruit is attacked, brownish spots appear, which later become
covered with the gray downy growth of the fungus. This gray
covering of the lesions has caused rot at this stage to be called
the "gray rot." If the fruits are half grown or larger before
the disease appears they take on a brown or brownish-purple
color, become soft and wrinkled and fall to the ground. The
disease at this stage is called "brown rot." Control may be ob-
tained by thoroughly covering the under surface of leaves when
spraying, particularly during the early applications of the sea-
son.
Anthracnose, caused by the fungus Elsinbe ampelina (D By.)
Shear, sometimes called "birds'-eye rot," is very destructive to
all varieties that are high in vinifera parentage. This disease
attacks young growth, causing black, sunken areas on twigs and
tendrils. On leaves the spots are black, often surrounded by a
whitish rim, and frequently the centers of the spots fall away.
On the fruit the spots are at first brown and surrounded by a
narrow, dark-purplish margin. As they increase in size they
become lighter in color and somewhat sunken. Affected fruit
does not soften, but shrivels slightly and becomes hardened.
Often, as with some other diseases, the seeds protrude from the
affected area. Anthracnose can be controlled by spraying at fre-
quent intervals during the period of early vine growth.

Fruit Diseases
Bitter rot, caused by the fungus Melanconium fuligineum
(Scrib. & Vial.) Cav., and ripe rot, caused by another fungus,
Glomerella cingulata (Ston.) Spauld. & Schrenk, are noticeable
on the fruit after it has begun to color for ripening. The berry
attacked by either disease becomes soft and slightly shrivelled.
Minute pustules appear and, if conditions are right, myriads of
black or pink spores soon cover the berry. Considerable shelling
is caused by these late rots and they are of much importance






Growing Grapes in Florida


because they can continue to develop on the fruit after it is
packed. Therefore, it is necessary to grade out carefully, at
packing time, all fruit which shows any sign of these rots. These
diseases are controlled by sprays that are applied after blooming
is over. Dickey and Loucks (4) recommend the use of basic
copper chloride (now copper compound A) or copper sulfate
for the control of these rots, because the residue left by bor-
deaux mixture on the fruit is unsightly.
Leaf Diseases
Diseases which attack the leaves are very serious in their ef-
fects if allowed to develop unhindered. The principal organisms
which have been found associated with these are the fungi Isari-
opsis clavispora (B. & C.) Sacc. (the conidial stage of Myco-
sphaerella personata Higgins), Alternaria sp., Pestalotia spp.,
and Phoma uvicola B. & C. (the imperfect stage of the black rot
fungus). Leaf diseases usually are controlled by the same sprays
that control fruit rots (Fig. 15). Unsprayed vines can be se-
verely defoliated and fruit that escapes being attacked by fun-
gous diseases may be sunburned (Fig. 16).



















Fig. 15.-A sprayed Extra (Florida Beacon) vine showing abundance of
foliage and fruit well protected from sunburning. (Photo taken June 10.)
Plowing under diseased berries, vine prunings and leaves will
aid in controlling diseases which attack these parts of the plant
by reducing the source of infection for the following season.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


f* .- .J1- 'r *


Fig. 16.-An unsprayed vine of Extra (Florida Beacon), showing vine
nearly defoliated and fruit exposed to sunburning. (Photo taken June 10.)

Root Diseases
Mushroom root rot, caused by the fungus Clitocybe tabescens
(Scop. ex Fr.) Bres., has been found to be associated with a
stunting and general failure of development by grape plants in
many vineyards. Affected plants die or become so non-produc-
tive that they are uprooted by growers. New plants set out in
locations where plants succumbed invariably are attacked in like
manner.
The sandy soils which are best suited to grapes in Florida
often are infested with the root-knot nematode, Heterodera mari-
oni (Cornu) Goodey, and this pest may be associated with loss
of vigor by grape plants in old vineyards.

Insects
Insect pests of grapes have not been of any widespread eco-
nomic importance in Florida. The ones most frequently found
are: grape leaf skeletonizer, Harrisina americana (Guer.);
grape leaf folder, Desmia funeralis (HUibner) ; grapevine aphid,
Aphis illinoisensis (Shimer) ; grape cane borer, Amphicerus bi-
caudatus (Say) ; grape berry moth, Polychrosis viteana (Clem-
ens) ; grape flea beetle, Altica chalybea (Ill.) ; and leaf-cutting
ant, Atta sp. (Fig. 17).
The leaf skeletonizer causes the most conspicuous damage of
all these pests. The larvae feed in a characteristic manner,







Growing Grapes in Florida


starting at a common point and feeding side by side in regular
rows as they retreat over the leaf surface. The soft leaf tissue
is consumed and when they have finished feeding on a leaf only
a skeleton framework is left. The full-grown larvae are about
1/2 inch long, slightly hairy, and sulfur-yellow in color, with 4
longitudinal b 1 ack markings.
The leaf skeletonizer is readily ;:
controlled by applying an ars- .*
enical poison with any of the '
early sprays regularly used in
disease control. Do not apply
arsenic until the skeletonizer '' ,
has appeared and never apply .z
this material after the grapes f.' .
are almost ready for market. -
In this latter case, use a pyre- ...j
thrum or derris spray.
The grape leaf folder feeds
upon the tender tissues of the
upper surface of leaves. It
forms a shelter for itself by h
folding the leaf with its upper
surface inward and remains
within that improvised leafy
envelope. The grown larvae are
grass-green in color and about Fig. 17.-Nest of leaf cutting
inch long. They are easily ant, showing crescent- sh aped
3/j inch long. They are easily mound thrown up at entrance.
combated by using the same
methods as for the skeletonizer. All applications should be
made as soon as there is any sign of leaf-folding. For definite
control the insecticide should be put on with 2 successive ap-
plications in the regular spray schedule.
The grapevine aphid is a dark-colored species, varying from a
deep reddish-brown to black. It feeds only on the young growth
and causes a very slight amount of shriveling, but its most no-
ticeable effect is a blackening of the tender twigs, petioles and
peduncles. If abundant during the blooming period it may cause
considerable loss of fruit by injury to the flower buds, bloom and
setting fruit. Otherwise no economic damage has been attrib-
uted to this insect. It is controlled by using nicotine sulfate with
the next regular spray application after its presence is detected.
Pyrethrum or derris sprays and dusts also will control it.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The grape cane borer is destructive principally in the adult
stage, as the larvae or grubs feed only in dead or dying vines.
This cylindrical brown beetle is about /% inch long, with the
head set well under the body and the posterior end cut off abrupt-
ly, leaving 2 horn-like protuberances. It bores a hole into the
cane at a bud and causes the cane to die from that bud outward.
Fortunately, it has not caused much damage in Florida vine-
yards for it is usually controlled by removing all prunings from
the vineyards and burning them. Sometimes it seems expedient
to kill the beetles in their holes by using a wire to crush them.
The leaf-cutting ant has caused considerable damage in nurse-
ries and young plantings (Fig. 17). It cuts pieces out of tender
leaves and carries them into its nest chambers where a fungus
develops on the leaf particles. This fungus produces a growth
which serves as food for the ant. Several methods of control
have been tried. The most effective appears to be spraying the
young foliage at weekly intervals with bordeaux mixture to
which has been added about 3 pounds of lead arsenate per 100
gallons. The ants can be destroyed in their nests with carbon
bisulfide, or a sweetened arsenic poison made according to the
following formula may be sparingly poured around the indi-
vidual openings into the nest.

Ant Poison
Sugar .......... ............. ..... .............. 1 pound
W ater .............................- ... .......... 1 pint
Arsenate of Soda ..................... ........... 125 grains
Honey .. .................... ...... ...... 1 tablespoonful

Boil the first 3 ingredients together until the arsenate of soda
is all dissolved and then add the honey.
The grape flea beetle is a small metallic, greenish-blue insect
about 1/5 inch long. It feeds on the buds and later eats holes
in the leaves, giving them a ragged appearance. The control
measures suggested for the leaf skeletonizer and the leaf folder
will check the flea beetle, also.

New Fungicides and Insecticides
Bordeaux mixture (8-8-100 or 4-4-50) has been a standard
fungicide for many years but it causes injury to grape vines and
fruit, and because it discolors the latter it is objectionable when
the fruit is nearing maturity. Dickey and Loucks (4) recom-
mend a dormant spray of copper sulfate 8 pounds in 100 gallons
of water plus a good sticker, followed by 5 sprays with 8-8-100








Growing Grapes in Florida


bordeaux without a sticker, and when the fruit is nearing full
size a spray of copper acetate 8 pounds in 100 gallons of water.
In place of the stainless copper acetate, they suggest 2 pounds
of basic copper chloride (copper compound A) or 3 pounds of
copper sulfate which may be used on blue varieties of grapes.
After fruit is harvested one more bordeaux spray is applied
(see Spray Schedule).

SPRAY SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED FOR CONTROL OF GRAPE
DISEASES AND INSECTS


Time of Application


A. On dormant vines,
just before buds
burst in spring.

B. Seven to 10 days
after buds open, or
when shoots are 8-
18 inches long.

C. Bloom opening.


D. Bloom open.



E. Fruit just set.

F. Fruit /2 full size.


G. Fruit full size.



H. Fruit full size.

I. After fruit is har-
vested.


Purpose


To kill spores of fungi
which cause diseases of
leaves, fruit and vines.

Prevent fungus infec-
tion of leaves; control
leaf skeletonizer, leaf
folder and flea beetles
if present.

As above, plus control
of aphids if present.


Prevent fungus infec-
tion of leaves and fruit
and control insects if
present.

As above.

As above.


As above.


As above.

Control Is
other leaf
insects if


ariopsis and
spots, plus
present.


Materials to Use with
100 Gallons of Water

Copper sulfate, 8
pounds, with a good
sticker.2

8-8-100 Bordeaux with-
out sticker. Add 2 to 3
pounds of lead ar-
senate if insects are
bothersome.

As above; lead arsen-
ate only if needed; nic-
otine sulfate 3/4 pint
only if needed for aph-
id control.


As above.



As above.

As above but substi-
tute derris or pyre-
thrum for arsenical.

Copper acetate3, 4
pounds with sticker.
Derris or pyrethrum if
needed.

As above.

8-8-100 Bordeaux with
sticker; lead arsenate
only if needed.


1 Due to the unevenness with which bloom opens some seasons, it would be necessary to
repeat this spray every 3 or 4 days during such seasons.
2A sticker can be obtained from companies selling spray materials or local feed and
seed stores.
SIn place of copper acetate for a stainless spray, 4 lbs. of copper compound A plus
sticker to 100 gal. of water may be used; on purple varieties of grapes 3 pounds of copper
sulfate plus sticker to 100 gal. water may be used.








Growing Grapes in Florida


fruit is to be used in making juice or for culinary purposes, it is
left on the vine until completely ripe, when it is shaken off onto
canvas sheets. The berries are then separated from the leaves
and twigs and taken to the place where they are to be used.
This type of grape is not suitable for marketing like the bunch
grapes, as some of the berries drop from the bunch before ripen-
ing and, if shipped, become smeared with juice so that they dc
not present a pleasing appearance. Nevertheless, when properly
handled there is a sale for them on local markets, since many
people regard them highly.
Certain varieties make excellent juice. They have long been
considered very desirable for dessert purposes, for making wines,
jams, jellies and marmalades, and for other culinary uses.

Disease and Insect Control
Disease and insect control in grape vineyards is very im-
portant, and in most years unless fungous diseases of the fruit
are controlled, losses will be high or complete. Properly applied
and accurately timed, spray materials should give good control.

Fruit and Leaf Diseases
The most serious damage to the fruit is done by black rot,
bitter rot and ripe rot. Downy mildew may be severe in some
seasons. Anthracnose would be important if any varieties high
in vinifera parentage were being grown. All of these diseases
can be controlled by a copper-containing spray.
Black rot, caused by the fungus Guignardia bidicellii (Ell.)
V. & R., first makes its appearance on the leaves about the time
they have reached full size but before they have matured. It is
characterized by reddish-brown, dead spots. With the aid of a
hand lens, black pustules which contain the spores of the fungus
can be seen scattered on the upper surfaces of these spots. The
disease appears on the fruit as a pale spot which soon turns
brownish. Later, this discoloration involves the entire berry
which turns black, shrivels and either falls off or remains at-
tached to the bunch as a shrivelled "mummy." It takes 6 to 10
days for the grape to become mumified after first showing the
discoloration. This disease may cause from 5 to 25 percent loss
of fruit, even if spraying is carried out, and in the absence of a
fungicide losses may be 100 percent. Loucks (8) has shown
that the most effective sprays are those applied at blooming
time. Applications put on at other times in the spray schedule







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In the period 1945-46, a number of the newer fungicides have
been tried at the grape experimental farm at Whitney, applying
the materials as sprays. Materials tried were spergon, fermate,
copper A, zerlate, Carbon and Carbide's compound 341, bordeaux
and dithane-zinc-lime. Unsprayed plants have served as checks.
In 1945 the season was so dry that no leaf diseases or fruit rots
appeared, but dithane-zinc-lime spray gave best yields, copper A
produced leaf and fruit burn, spergon was of no distinction,
fermate discolored the fruit with a blackish deposit, and bor-
deaux reduced yields. In 1946 zerlate and Carbon and Carbide's
compound 341 were tested for the first time and dithane-zinc-
lime and bordeaux were used again. Relatively little disease de-
veloped on unsprayed plants but once more the dithane-zinc-lime
spray gave good yields and did a fine job of controlling the little
fruit rot present. Bordeaux, interestingly enough, gave the best
disease control, but it markedly stunted the grape vines with
consequent reduction in yields.
At present, results from preliminary experimental work with
dithane-zinc-lime show promise. However, this work has not
gone far enough to warrant recommending this spray in place
of bordeaux. This spray is made by mixing 2 quarts of dithane
with 100 gallons of water, then adding in succession 11 ounces
of zinc sulfate and 6 ounces of hydrated lime. Most insecticides
are compatible with the spray.
The spray schedule on page 43 is recommended for the control
of grape diseases and insects in Florida.

Summary
Of the several hundred varieties of grapes grown in the
United States, only a few have proven successful in Florida.
European or vinifera varieties, together with crosses combining
any high percentage of these grapes, are unsatisfactory and
should not be planted. Certain varieties of the American grapes,
derived from native species, have proven adaptable.

American Bunch Type
The present status of grape growing in Florida is discussed,
together with several important points that should be considered
by anyone contemplating growing grapes.
Of the large number of varieties of this type tested in Florida,
only a few have been grown commercially and of these Extra








Growing Grapes in Florida


bordeaux without a sticker, and when the fruit is nearing full
size a spray of copper acetate 8 pounds in 100 gallons of water.
In place of the stainless copper acetate, they suggest 2 pounds
of basic copper chloride (copper compound A) or 3 pounds of
copper sulfate which may be used on blue varieties of grapes.
After fruit is harvested one more bordeaux spray is applied
(see Spray Schedule).

SPRAY SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED FOR CONTROL OF GRAPE
DISEASES AND INSECTS


Time of Application


A. On dormant vines,
just before buds
burst in spring.

B. Seven to 10 days
after buds open, or
when shoots are 8-
18 inches long.

C. Bloom opening.


D. Bloom open.



E. Fruit just set.

F. Fruit /2 full size.


G. Fruit full size.



H. Fruit full size.

I. After fruit is har-
vested.


Purpose


To kill spores of fungi
which cause diseases of
leaves, fruit and vines.

Prevent fungus infec-
tion of leaves; control
leaf skeletonizer, leaf
folder and flea beetles
if present.

As above, plus control
of aphids if present.


Prevent fungus infec-
tion of leaves and fruit
and control insects if
present.

As above.

As above.


As above.


As above.

Control Is
other leaf
insects if


ariopsis and
spots, plus
present.


Materials to Use with
100 Gallons of Water

Copper sulfate, 8
pounds, with a good
sticker.2

8-8-100 Bordeaux with-
out sticker. Add 2 to 3
pounds of lead ar-
senate if insects are
bothersome.

As above; lead arsen-
ate only if needed; nic-
otine sulfate 3/4 pint
only if needed for aph-
id control.


As above.



As above.

As above but substi-
tute derris or pyre-
thrum for arsenical.

Copper acetate3, 4
pounds with sticker.
Derris or pyrethrum if
needed.

As above.

8-8-100 Bordeaux with
sticker; lead arsenate
only if needed.


1 Due to the unevenness with which bloom opens some seasons, it would be necessary to
repeat this spray every 3 or 4 days during such seasons.
2A sticker can be obtained from companies selling spray materials or local feed and
seed stores.
SIn place of copper acetate for a stainless spray, 4 lbs. of copper compound A plus
sticker to 100 gal. of water may be used; on purple varieties of grapes 3 pounds of copper
sulfate plus sticker to 100 gal. water may be used.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In the period 1945-46, a number of the newer fungicides have
been tried at the grape experimental farm at Whitney, applying
the materials as sprays. Materials tried were spergon, fermate,
copper A, zerlate, Carbon and Carbide's compound 341, bordeaux
and dithane-zinc-lime. Unsprayed plants have served as checks.
In 1945 the season was so dry that no leaf diseases or fruit rots
appeared, but dithane-zinc-lime spray gave best yields, copper A
produced leaf and fruit burn, spergon was of no distinction,
fermate discolored the fruit with a blackish deposit, and bor-
deaux reduced yields. In 1946 zerlate and Carbon and Carbide's
compound 341 were tested for the first time and dithane-zinc-
lime and bordeaux were used again. Relatively little disease de-
veloped on unsprayed plants but once more the dithane-zinc-lime
spray gave good yields and did a fine job of controlling the little
fruit rot present. Bordeaux, interestingly enough, gave the best
disease control, but it markedly stunted the grape vines with
consequent reduction in yields.
At present, results from preliminary experimental work with
dithane-zinc-lime show promise. However, this work has not
gone far enough to warrant recommending this spray in place
of bordeaux. This spray is made by mixing 2 quarts of dithane
with 100 gallons of water, then adding in succession 11 ounces
of zinc sulfate and 6 ounces of hydrated lime. Most insecticides
are compatible with the spray.
The spray schedule on page 43 is recommended for the control
of grape diseases and insects in Florida.

Summary
Of the several hundred varieties of grapes grown in the
United States, only a few have proven successful in Florida.
European or vinifera varieties, together with crosses combining
any high percentage of these grapes, are unsatisfactory and
should not be planted. Certain varieties of the American grapes,
derived from native species, have proven adaptable.

American Bunch Type
The present status of grape growing in Florida is discussed,
together with several important points that should be considered
by anyone contemplating growing grapes.
Of the large number of varieties of this type tested in Florida,
only a few have been grown commercially and of these Extra








Growing Grapes in Florida


(Florida Beacon), Carman and Niagara made up the larger per-
centage of the total.
A limited number of Bailey, Muench, Fredonia, R. W. Munson,
Lomanto and Portland were grown formerly but with varying
and often unsatisfactory results.

Varieties used for rootstocks include R. W. Munson, Extra
(Florida Beacon) and Lukfata, of which the first 2 are most im-
portant.
Propagation is by hardwood cuttings, grafting and layering.
The vineyard site must have good water and air drainage
and be in an area that is climatically adapted to growing grapes.

The mechanical equipment needed and preparation of the land
for planting are discussed.
Vigorous 1-year-old planting stock is most desirable, the vines
being set 8 feet apart in rows 10 feet apart. Time for planting
is from the first of December until just before growth starts in
the spring. Early planting is preferred.
Correct pruning is necessary for successful grape growing and
should be done when the vines are dormant, during December
and January. Training is upon the familiar Munson 3-wire
canopy trellis.
Because the grape is a shallow-rooted plant, whenever culti-
vation is given it should be shallow.
Fertilization is necessary to grow and maintain a grape vine-
yard successfully in Florida. Of the major plant foods, nitrogen
is the most important single element.
The addition of organic matter to the soil by growing and
turning under cover crops is a very desirable practice. Indigo-
fera hirsuta is proving excellent for this purpose.
Methods of harvesting, packing and marketing are explained
in detail. The necessity for careful handling and picking only
ripe fruit is stressed.
Fruit may ble kept as much as 2 months if placed in storage at
a temperature of 30 to 330 F. in regular commercial cold stor-
age rooms where the relative humidity averages rather high.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Muscadine Type
This group is composed of 2 botanical species, Vitis rotundi-
folia and V. munsoniana, and of these the first named has fur-
nished all of the varieties now in cultivation in Florida.

The principal varieties grown are: Scuppernong, which com-
prises a greater part of the total, Thomas, James and Flowers.
Varieties of the muscadine type are propagated almost entire-
ly by layering.
The vines should be planted preferably in December, but also
in January or February.
When trained on an overhead arbor, usually very little pruning
is done; if trained on a 2- or 3-wire vertical trellis, pruning is
necessary.

The addition of plant foods by the use of commercial fertilizers
and by cover cropping is desirable.
If the fruit is to be sold on local markets it must be picked by
hand. However, if it is to be used for making juice or for other
culinary purposes, it is left on the vine until completely ripe,
when it is shaken down onto canvas sheets.
Failure of muscadine arbors or vineyards to set fruit is often
due to the fact that there are no male plants near enough to sup-
ply the needed pollen. The obvious correction of this condition
is to obtain male vines from the nursery and set them near the
female vines.
Disease and Insect Control
The various diseases and insects attacking grapes in Florida,
their relative importance and methods for their control are dis-
cussed.
Literature Cited
1. ARMSTRONG, W. D., T. A. PICKETT and M. M. MURPHY, JR. Muscadine
grapes; culture, varieties and some properties of juices. Ga. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 185: 1-29. 1934.
2. BAILEY, L. H. The standard cyclopedia of horticulture. The Mac-
millan Co. 1922.
3. DEARING, CHARLES. Muscadine grapes. USDA Farmers' Bul. 1785:
1-36. 1938.
4. DICKEY, R. D., and KENNETH W. LOUCKS. Grape growing in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 324: 1-36. 1938.








Growing Grapes in Florida 47

HUSMANN, GEORGE C. Muscadine grapes. USDA Farmers' Bul. 709:
1-28. 1916.

HUSMANN, GEORGE C. Grape propagation, pruning and training.
USDA Farmers' Bul. 471: 1-24. 1911, revised 1932.

HUSMANN, GEORGE C. Grape districts and varieties in the United
States. USDA Farmers' Bul. 1689: 1-32. 1932.

LOUCKs, KENNETH W. Spraying experiments for the control of certain
grape diseases. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 294: 1-16. 1936.

LOUCKs, KENNETH W. Cold storage prolongs marketing period for
Florida grapes. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 530: 1-2. 1939.

MowRY, HAROLD. Variety tests of grapes. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann.
Rept., p. 106. 1932.

MUNSON, T. V. Foundations of American grape culture. Orange
Judd Co. 1909.

NEWMAN, C. C. Rotundifolia grapes. S. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 132:
1-18. 1907.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Muscadine Type
This group is composed of 2 botanical species, Vitis rotundi-
folia and V. munsoniana, and of these the first named has fur-
nished all of the varieties now in cultivation in Florida.

The principal varieties grown are: Scuppernong, which com-
prises a greater part of the total, Thomas, James and Flowers.
Varieties of the muscadine type are propagated almost entire-
ly by layering.
The vines should be planted preferably in December, but also
in January or February.
When trained on an overhead arbor, usually very little pruning
is done; if trained on a 2- or 3-wire vertical trellis, pruning is
necessary.

The addition of plant foods by the use of commercial fertilizers
and by cover cropping is desirable.
If the fruit is to be sold on local markets it must be picked by
hand. However, if it is to be used for making juice or for other
culinary purposes, it is left on the vine until completely ripe,
when it is shaken down onto canvas sheets.
Failure of muscadine arbors or vineyards to set fruit is often
due to the fact that there are no male plants near enough to sup-
ply the needed pollen. The obvious correction of this condition
is to obtain male vines from the nursery and set them near the
female vines.
Disease and Insect Control
The various diseases and insects attacking grapes in Florida,
their relative importance and methods for their control are dis-
cussed.
Literature Cited
1. ARMSTRONG, W. D., T. A. PICKETT and M. M. MURPHY, JR. Muscadine
grapes; culture, varieties and some properties of juices. Ga. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 185: 1-29. 1934.
2. BAILEY, L. H. The standard cyclopedia of horticulture. The Mac-
millan Co. 1922.
3. DEARING, CHARLES. Muscadine grapes. USDA Farmers' Bul. 1785:
1-36. 1938.
4. DICKEY, R. D., and KENNETH W. LOUCKS. Grape growing in Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 324: 1-36. 1938.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs