• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 American bunch type
 Muscade type
 Disease and insect control
 Spray schedule recommended for...
 Summary
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 324
Title: Grape growing in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026526/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grape growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
Loucks, Kenneth W ( Kenneth Wilfred )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Grapes -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 36.
Statement of Responsibility: by R.D. Dickey and Kenneth W. Loucks.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026526
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924550
oclc - 18214038
notis - AEN5177

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    American bunch type
        Page 6
        Botany
            Page 6
        Varieties
            Page 7
        Location of the vineyard, preparation of the soil, and propagation
            Page 8
            Cuttings
                Page 9
            Grafting and layering
                Page 10
        Planting the vineyard
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Trellising, training, and pruning
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Cultivation
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Fertilization and cover cropping
            Page 17
        Harvesting and marketing
            Page 18
            Page 19
    Muscade type
        Page 20
        Botany
            Page 20
        Varieties
            Page 21
        Pollination and male vines
            Page 22
        Pollution and male vines
            Page 22
        Propagation and planting the vines
            Page 23
        Trellising, training, and pruning
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
        Fertilization
            Page 27
        Harvesting and uses
            Page 28
    Disease and insect control
        Page 28
        Fruit diseases
            Page 29
            Downy mildew
                Page 30
        Leaf diseases
            Page 31
        Insects
            Page 32
            The aphid, the grape cane-borer, and the leaf-cutting ant
                Page 33
    Spray schedule recommended for control of grape pests
        Page 34
    Summary
        Page 35
    Literature cited
        Page 36
Full Text


Bulletin 324


September, 1938


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director








GRAPE GROWING IN FLORIDA


By

R. D. DICKEY and KENNETH W. LOUCKS


Fig. 1.-A 6-year-old Florida Beacon


vineyard with the vines trained on a Munson 3-wire
canopy trellis.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA








EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.BJ., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal. Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
0. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hushb.
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers. M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist"*
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist**
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D.. Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Victor F. Nettles, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. Terry, Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Jos. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Horticul.
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Associate Plant Path.
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist In
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge,
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.











CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTION .................-......... .................... ........................... 5
AMERICAN BUNCH TYPE ........................................................... ................... 6
B otany ...................................................................................... ................... 6
V varieties .......................................................................................................... 7
R ootstocks ............................................................... ... .. 7
Location of the Vineyard ........................................... ....................... 8
Preparation of the Soil ................................ ............ ...... .............. 8
P ropagation ................................................................................................... 8
C uttings ................................................................................................ 9
G rafting ......................................................................... ...................... 10
Layering ........................................ .................... .......... 10
Planting the Vineyard .......................................................... 11
Trellising, Training and Pruning ............................... ..................... 13
Cultivation ........................................ ............. ......................... 15
Fertilization and Cover Cropping ........................................................ 17
Harvesting and Marketing ........... ................................................... 18
MUSCADINE TYPE ................................................................................................... 20
B otany .................................................................................. .................... 20
V varieties .................................................................... ...................................... 21
Scuppernong ............................................ ..................... 22
T hom as ............................. ....................................... ...................... 22
Jam es ....... ...................... ... ... ... ................................. .. 22
F low ers ....................................-...............-................... 22
Pollination and Male Vines .............................................. ..................... 22
P ropagation ........................................................................ ..................... 23
Planting the Vines .................................... ----. ....... ............ 23
Trellising, Training and Pruning ...................-- .. ....................... 24
F fertilization ..... ................................................ .... ............................... 27
Harvesting and Uses ........ ............ .............................. ............ 28
DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL .......................-.......-- ........................ 28
Fruit Diseases .....................-----------. -- ............-....... 29
B lack R ot ..................................... .......... ................... 29
B hitter R ot ......................................................... .............. .......... ....... 29
Downy Mildew ......................................... ............ ................. 30
A nthracnose ................................................... .......... ..... .......... 31
Leaf D diseases ....................................... ...... .. .. ............ .... 31
In sects ........................ ............ .............. ... ....... .......... 32
The Grape Leaf Folder ..................- -...-........... ........................ 32
T he A phid ............................................................................................ 33
The Grape Cane-Borer ................................................. 33
The Leaf-Cutting Ant ...................................................................... 33
SPRAY SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED FOR CONTROL OF GRAPE PESTS ................ 34
SUMMARY ....-- --.................................. --- ---... ......................... 35
LITERATURE CITED ........ ........ .....................---... ........................... 36






































































Fig. 2.-Niagara grafted on 6-year-old Florida Beacon rootstock. (Scion put in March 16,
1936; photographed June 27, 1936.)








GRAPE GROWING IN FLORIDA
By R. D. DICKEY and KENNETH W. LOUCKS

INTRODUCTION
Since the first settlers established themselves in Florida,
grapes have been looked upon as one of the fruits which should
become commercially important. Because of the abundance of
wild grapes found growing everywhere, it was thought by
pioneers that grape growing would be relatively easy. Culti-
vated varieties of the European type were introduced but did
not survive. As time passed and new varieties of American
type were developed in the northern part of the United States,
they were tried repeatedly and also met with little success.
It has often been necessary, by hybridizing, to incorporate
the blood of native wild grapes of a locality with that of culti-
vated ones to obtain domesticated varieties which will survive
local conditions. Dr. T. V. Munson (9)1 secured wonderful re-
sults by using native grapes in obtaining new varieties adaptable
to the environment of Texas. Only during the past 15 or 20
years have varieties known to be suitable to Florida conditions
been available and they are varieties which were obtained, for
the most part, through Munson's hybridizing efforts with wild
grapes.
A considerable area in Florida is well adapted to the culture
of grapes of some kind. The average yield per acre during the
past five years has been estimated at approximately 2,500 pounds.
Yields of 6,000 pounds per acre have been obtained, but such
a high yield probably could not be maintained with the varieties
now being grown. However, if the vines are properly sprayed
and cared for, it seems reasonable to expect that as much as
3,500 pounds per acre could be readily produced.
Of the several hundred varieties of grapes widely grown
in the United States, only a few have proven successful under
Florida conditions and under the present viticultural practices.
The European or vinifera varieties, derived from Vitis vinifera,
together with crosses containing any high percentage of these
grapes are unsatisfactory. The so-called American grapes de-
rived from the several native species, which may be distin-
guished from the European in that their flesh is soft and the
skin separates from it readily, are the only ones which have
'Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


proven adaptable. Of these, only those derived by crossing with
Southern native species have proven outstanding in Florida.
Within this latter group the Muscadines, of which the Scupper-
nong is a familiar variety, can be separated from the other
species on the basis of the fact that most varieties drop their
fruit from the vines when ripe, and the fruit does not grow in
distinct bunches. The Muscadine group grows well over a con-
siderable area and as a juice grape it has special advantages.
By far the greatest number of varieties of American grapes
belong to the so-called bunch type.

AMERICAN BUNCH TYPE
BOTANY
The grape belongs to the Vitaceae or grape family. In the
classification given by Bailey (2) all grapes belong to the genus
Vitis, and this genus is divided into two groups, the Euvitis
and the Muscadinia. Varieties in the Euvitis group have loose,
shreddy bark, which separates in long thin strips, nodes with
diaphragms, forked tendrils, and pyriform seeds. He divides
the Euvitis into two types, the first type being represented by
Vitis vinifera L., which he describes as "the wine grape grown
extensively in California, as well as in Europe, and also in glass
graperies; skin and pulp mostly adhering in the ripe fruit".
Because of this last characteristic, they are often spoken of as
"meaty grapes". Common varieties are: Thompson Seedless,
Ribier, Golden Chasselas, Tokay and Muscat.
The second type, which he describes as "of more modern
domestication or introduction, representing the commercial kinds
in North America outside the California region, and exotic spe-
cies grown for ornamentation; skin of the matured berry usually
separating freely from the pulp". The last mentioned char-
acteristic is responsible for grapes belonging to this type fre-
quently being called "slip skin". This type is represented by
many species, such as: Vitis rupestris, Labrusca, cordifolia,
aestivalis, Simpsonii, vulpina and others. It is mainly by selec-
tions, hybridizing and from seedlings of these species that
the familiar American bunch grapes have become established.
Familiar varieties of these are: Concord, Catawba, Delaware,
Niagara, and Moore's Early.
To the Euvitis group belong all the species of Vitis except
rotundifolia. and Munsoniana, which form the Muscadinia group.
They are commonly called "Muscadine" or "Rotundifolia" grapes.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


proven adaptable. Of these, only those derived by crossing with
Southern native species have proven outstanding in Florida.
Within this latter group the Muscadines, of which the Scupper-
nong is a familiar variety, can be separated from the other
species on the basis of the fact that most varieties drop their
fruit from the vines when ripe, and the fruit does not grow in
distinct bunches. The Muscadine group grows well over a con-
siderable area and as a juice grape it has special advantages.
By far the greatest number of varieties of American grapes
belong to the so-called bunch type.

AMERICAN BUNCH TYPE
BOTANY
The grape belongs to the Vitaceae or grape family. In the
classification given by Bailey (2) all grapes belong to the genus
Vitis, and this genus is divided into two groups, the Euvitis
and the Muscadinia. Varieties in the Euvitis group have loose,
shreddy bark, which separates in long thin strips, nodes with
diaphragms, forked tendrils, and pyriform seeds. He divides
the Euvitis into two types, the first type being represented by
Vitis vinifera L., which he describes as "the wine grape grown
extensively in California, as well as in Europe, and also in glass
graperies; skin and pulp mostly adhering in the ripe fruit".
Because of this last characteristic, they are often spoken of as
"meaty grapes". Common varieties are: Thompson Seedless,
Ribier, Golden Chasselas, Tokay and Muscat.
The second type, which he describes as "of more modern
domestication or introduction, representing the commercial kinds
in North America outside the California region, and exotic spe-
cies grown for ornamentation; skin of the matured berry usually
separating freely from the pulp". The last mentioned char-
acteristic is responsible for grapes belonging to this type fre-
quently being called "slip skin". This type is represented by
many species, such as: Vitis rupestris, Labrusca, cordifolia,
aestivalis, Simpsonii, vulpina and others. It is mainly by selec-
tions, hybridizing and from seedlings of these species that
the familiar American bunch grapes have become established.
Familiar varieties of these are: Concord, Catawba, Delaware,
Niagara, and Moore's Early.
To the Euvitis group belong all the species of Vitis except
rotundifolia. and Munsoniana, which form the Muscadinia group.
They are commonly called "Muscadine" or "Rotundifolia" grapes.







Grape Growing in Florida


The Scuppernong is a familiar variety, and is frequently but
erroneously used synonymously with muscadine.
VARIETIES
During the past 10 or 15 years several Florida growers have
made very extensive experiments with more than 400 different
varieties of grapes. Of this large number tested, Florida Bea-
con, Carman and Niagara stand out above all others in growth
and production and therefore these make up the larger percent-
age of commercial grapes in this state. Although a limited
number of Bailey, Lamonto, Muench, Fredonia, R. W. Munson
and Portland are being grown, they have given varying and
often unsatisfactory results.
Niagara, Fredonia, Lamonto, Portland and R. W. Munson
ripen their fruit in the early part of the season. This may vary
from the last of May to the last of June, depending on the year.
Bailey and Florida Beacon come into bearing in mid-season,
or from the middle of June to the middle of July.
Carman and Muench are late varieties which ripen from the
last of June to the last of July.
The fruit of Niagara and Portland is white or yellow, while
that of all other varieties mentioned is blue or black.
Florida Beacon, R. W. Munson, Bailey, Muench and Lamonto
do well on their own roots, but have been successfully grafted
onto Florida Beacon, R. W. Munson, Herbemont, Marguerite,
Lukfata and Vitis Champini. There seems to be some indica-
tion that, if the stock is properly chosen, grafting is an aid
to all varieties.
It is difficult to classify any variety definitely as a vigorous
grower because, under certain conditions and with certain root-
stocks, they all make rank growth. In a general way, Florida
Beacon, Carman, Lamonto, R. W. Munson, Bailey, Muench and
Niagara may be called vigorous growers, and Fredonia and Port-
land are not so vigorous.
The exact identity of the variety which is called Florida Bea-
con (Beacon) is not known, but it is generally thought to be
Munson's variety Extra, which was misnamed upon its intro-
duction into Florida several years ago. Mowry (8) states that
Extra and Florida Beacon (Beacon) no doubt are of the same
hybrid parentage and are possibly one and the same variety.
Rootstocks.-The principal rootstocks which have been used
in Florida are: Florida Beacon, R. W. Munson and Vitis
Champini. They have been used successfully as stocks for the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


varieties mentioned and are necessary for Niagara, Fredonia
and Portland.
Observations would indicate that Lukfata may be a very de-
sirable stock because of its freedom from producing sprouts
below the graft.
A partial list of varieties which may be used for rootstocks
is: Florida Beacon, R. W. Munson, Vitis Champini, Marguerite,
Herbemont and Lukfata.
In old vineyards it has been found impossible to fill in skips
caused by dead vines by replanting to Florida Beacon, because
of the fact that young Florida Beacon vines planted in old vine-
yards fail to grow. Sometimes these spaces are filled in by
planting a vigorous rootstock variety such as Vitis Champini
which may be grafted to the desired variety during the second
or third season.
LOCATION OF THE VINEYARD
The necessity for good air and water drainage should be kept
in mind in selecting a location for the vineyard. Too steep a
slope should not be chosen because of the increased cost of labor
and difficulty in cultivating and spraying. The site should not
dry out too readily because grapes do not thrive in a situation
which runs to too great extremes in moisture. Soil fertility
is of importance and is probably best maintained with annual
cover crops in conjunction with fertilizers.
The vineyard should be located near hard-surfaced roads be-
cause grapes used for table market should not be hauled over
rough roads. Much of the fruit can be sold locally on roadside
stands and to truckers, if the vineyard is convenient to main
highways.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
The soil should be thoroughly prepared before planting. If
it is in good cultural condition, little preparation is necessary
other than thorough plowing and harrowing. If the land has
been idle, at least one season of preparation by growing a cover
crop should precede the setting of the plants.
PROPAGATION
If the grower wishes to bring the vineyard into bearing in
the shortest time possible, the best method is to purchase from
a dependable nursery vigorous one-year-old plants which have
produced strong fibrous root systems. Such planting stock will
grow more rapidly in the vineyard and come more quickly into






Grape Growing in Florida 9

bearing than poorly rooted home produced vines. Planting stock
which is two years old may be as good as that one year old, if
properly chosen but it is easier to pick out the vigorous vines
from the one-year stock than from the two-year, and conse-
quently the one-year vines usually are preferable. Some vari-
eties desirable for planting do not grow well on their own roots
and must be grafted onto other stocks. Where this is done the
rootstocks are planted in the same manner and receive the same
care as the other varieties until the second season, when they
are grafted to the desired varieties.
Cuttings.-For the person who plans his vineyard far enough
in advance so that growing of his own nursery is practical, cut-
tings are frequently the cheapest method of getting a start.
They may be the best in the long run if sufficient care is given
to the vines in the nursery. Hardwood cuttings constitute the
most common method of propagating grapes. The cuttings may
be obtained at almost any time after the vines become dormant
until about two weeks before the sap begins to flow in the spring.
However, if the cuttings are obtained early in the dormant period
they may be handled so that a good callus formation will be
obtained and better root growth will develop when the cuttings
are set out the following spring.
Wood of about pencil size or slightly larger should be chosen
from one-year-old canes which are comparatively straight, well
matured, and with well developed buds. The cutting should be
8 to 12 inches long and carry three or four buds spaced four to
six inches apart. These specifications may be varied somewhat
if there is a scarcity of suitable canes, but extremes in length
or diameter should be avoided. When making cuttings it is
customary to make a straight cut at the top about an inch above
the upper bud and a slanting cut through the lower node opposite
its bud. The inch of wood above the upper node prevents dry-
ing out of this bud when the cutting is lined out and the slant-
ing cut through the lower node accelerates rooting.
The cuttings should be bound into bundles of about 50 each
with the lower ends even. After they are labeled and securely
bound they should be buried in trenches in a well drained loca-
tion with the butt ends up and covered with 6 to 8 inches of
soil. The purpose of inverting the cuttings in the trench is to
encourage callusing of the butt ends while the tops remain
dormant. In the spring it is well to observe the cuttings at
frequent intervals to see that the top ends are still dormant






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and not starting sprouts. As soon as they show evidence of
sprouting they should be set in nursery rows when the soil
has been suitably prepared, or this may be done any time after
danger of frost is past.
The cuttings should be set three or four inches apart in the
nursery row and deep enough that only the top bud is showing
above ground. The rows should be spaced far enough apart
to facilitate easy cultivation. The nursery should be thoroughly
cultivated throughout the summer and irrigated during dry
periods, and a side-dressing of fertilizer should be applied in
early summer so that vigorous plants may be produced to set
in permanent locations the following spring. A mixture similar
to that suggested under the section on fertilization and cover
cropping should be satisfactory, with the exception that the per-
centage of potash should be reduced somewhat. Approximately
75 percent stand is not uncommon and, if the season is favor-
able, a larger percentage may be obtained.
Grafting.-Certain varieties of grapes appear to be desirable
but, because of poor growth on their own roots, they become
much improved in vigor, production and longevity by grafting
onto more hardy rootstocks. Where grafting of grapes is prac-
ticed in Florida it is done by the cleft method. The scion is
inserted in the cleft made in the rootstock about one inch below
the surface of the soil and an earth mound is built around and
to the top of the scion to maintain its moisture. If the mound
begins to dry out, water should be poured on it at frequent
intervals until the scion has made a strong union with the root.
Grafting can be done at any time from the first of February
until growth starts in the spring, but the scions inserted late
in this period start off more readily and are less likely to dry
out. The sprouts from the scion should be so pruned that one
strong cane is trained to the wire and some substantial support
should be provided, otherwise the young vines may be broken
off by strong winds. Grafting is used to fill in skips in old
vineyards and to give vigor to weak-growing but otherwise de-
sirable varieties (Figs. 2 and 3).
Layering.-Certain varieties of grapes, especially muscadines
and some of those used for rootstocks, are best propagated by
layering. For the bunch type this operation is best performed
during the winter months. It is accomplished by laying down
in a small trench pruned canes, attached to the mother plant,
of the past season's growth and covering them to a depth of






Grape Growing in Florida


about six inches. Shoots will form at practically all covered
nodes and roots will form opposite the shoots by fall, when the
canes should be taken up, divided into separate plants and set
in the desired location. A slight incision in the node opposite
each bud usually will facilitate rooting.


.B B i^ ^^- A ... 5 -. .. .. .#- .-q


Fig. 3.-Niagara grafted on Florida Beacon. The top is three years old, the rootstock six.

This method is used frequently at pruning time to fill in vacan-
cies in vineyards by pulling down canes grown during the past
season and burying them in short trenches where skips occur.
A few buds are left at the end of the cane from which a new
vine is developed by selection and pruning of the most vigorous
sprout. After sufficient growth has been obtained the old mother
cane is cut away. Sometimes this takes two years but usually
one is sufficient. By this method skips can be filled in old vine-
yards if it is desired to replace with a variety grown on its
own root.
PLANTING THE VINEYARD
The rows in the vineyard should be spaced far enough apart
to allow for two-horse cultivation and spraying. The vines
should be spaced sufficiently wide in the rows to reduce to a
minimum competition between the roots of adjoining plants
for plant food and moisture. Also sufficient space should be







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


allowed for one season's growth of vine without too much over-
lapping. The usual practice is to make the rows 10 feet apart
and to space the vines eight feet in the row, which requires
approximately 544 plants to set an acre. A few vineyards have
been set with the vines at four-foot intervals in the row, but
this is not a general practice. This close setting cuts down on
the cost of cultivation, pruning and spraying, but approximately
one-half more fertilizer is used per vine than in the more spaci-
ous planting. The best time for transplanting is from the first
of December until growth starts in the spring. Early planting
is preferred.
In setting the vines it is important that they be planted in
straight rows to facilitate cultivation without injury. One good
method is to use a wire or strong cord marked by knots at
desired intervals and, by stretching this between the end posts
of each row, which have been set in correct positions, the loca-
tion can be marked with small sticks at the knots. It is cus-
tomary to run the rows north and south so that both sides of
the vines can receive direct rays of sunlight some time during
the day. However, there are some locations in which this may
not be desirable because of prevailing cross winds during the
early part of the growing season which whip the vines seri-
ously. If the planting is to be a large one, it is advisable to
omit rows at convenient intervals to serve as driveways in the
vineyard. If the rows are exceptionally long, cross alleys also
are desirable for facilitating such operations as spraying, fer-
tilizing and harvesting.
When the plants are being handled in the field, care should
be taken that the roots be kept moist, and if they have become
very dry in the nursery or elsewhere it is well to soak them in
water for some time before planting. A good way to do this is
to carry them in a bucket of water until they are placed in the
hole for setting, but wet sacks are very convenient to use under
some conditions. If vines are received before preparations are
complete for planting they should be kept in some moist place
or heeled-in to keep them from drying out. To insure placing
the plants in straight rows, some method such as the planting
board should be used in placing the plants in the holes. Before
planting the vines should be pruned to two or three buds and
all broken and decayed roots removed and the main roots short-
ened to six to 10 inches, depending upon the vigor of the root
system (Fig. 4). The holes should be of sufficient size to per-






Grape Growing in Florida


mit all roots to be placed without crowding and for the plants
to be set slightly deeper than they were in the nursery. A hand-
ful of bonemeal should be placed in the bottom of each hole and
lightly covered with top soil, then a little surface soil should
be placed in the bottom of the hole in the shape of a flat cone.
The hole should be deeper at the edge than at the center and






















Fig. 4.-Young Florida Beacon plant as it was dug from the nursery (left) and pruned
for planting (right).
the roots spread out so they have a downward trend. Roots
on the lower whorl should be spread out over the bottom cone
and enough soil thrown in to fill up the next whorl of roots.
The hole is filled in that manner until all the root whorls are
covered and the ground level reached. The soil should be worked
about the roots with plenty of water during the process of
planting and when the hole has been filled to the ground level
it should be firmly packed by tramping. If care is taken to keep
the roots moist at all times and to pack the soil firmly about the
roots, much loss of vines will be prevented.
TRELLISING, TRAINING AND PRUNING
The term pruning generally means the removal of wood to
regulate fruit production and also the training of vines in such
way that their growth will not interfere with cultural practices.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


To prune a grape vine properly, one must know what, where
and how much wood should be left. The fruit is borne on the
new growth produced from the previous season's wood and
therefore it is entirely useless to leave on the vines any wood
over a year old, except for framework. If vines are too severely
pruned an excess of wood but a small amount of fruit will be
produced. On the other hand, if insufficient pruning is done
wood production will be light and the fruit will be borne in many
small clusters and the individual berries in these clusters will
tend to be small. Consequently, a balance must be maintained
and some experience is necessary to know how much wood to
leave on individual vines. However, vines of varieties now
grown in Florida appear to carry 40 to 60 buds to good ad-
vantage. The best canes are those which are pencil size or a
little larger, on which the buds are plump and well formed,
and usually four of such canes containing 10 to 15 buds each
are left on a vine (Fig. 5). That the bearing wood may be
kept close to the main trunk, it is well to leave about three
spurs with two buds each near the center of the vine and near
the lower wire from which fruiting canes may be obtained the
following year.
The best system of training bunch grapes in Florida is on
the familiar Munson three-wire canopy trellis (Fig. 1). The
posts are set in the rows at 16 to 24-foot intervals in such
manner that two or three vines can be planted between them.
All posts should be long enough to stand at least 51/ feet above
ground and the ones on the ends should be well braced and
somewhat larger than the others. No. 10 to No. 12 galvanized
smooth wire is suitable for trellising and 400 to 600 pounds
are required per acre. All trellis wires should be tightly stretched
to avoid sagging between posts. The lower wire, to which the
vines are first trained, should be stapled to the posts 4/2 to 5
feet or even more about the ground. Vines growing on trellises
lower than this have been found to have more disease than
those growing on higher trellises. The first season or two, de-
pending on the amount of growth, the vines are forced to grow
onto this wire by removing all lateral buds until the wire is
reached, when the terminal bud is pinched out and the two
upper laterals are forced to grow on the wire, one in each
direction.
As soon as any considerable growth is made along the lower
wire (usually during the second season) the two upper wires






Grape Growing in Florida


should be placed on the trellises. This is done by fastening
18 to 24-inch cross arms on top of the posts at such a distance
that the wires stretched on them will be 6 to 8 inches above
the lower wire. Wires are fastened to the outer ends of the
cross arms so that they are at least 18 inches apart. The prin-
ciple of this type of trellis is to train the bearing canes upon
the lower wire and allow the excess seasonal growth to grow
upon the upper wires and form a canopy of shade over the
fruit which hangs from the lower wire, where it is in a more open
situation and will dry out more readily after moist conditions
and also can be readily covered with spray materials (Fig. 6).



S.i


Fig. 5.-A pruned Florida Beacon vine. Renewal spurs should have been left on the trunk
at or near the base of the canes.

CULTIVATION
Because grape vines are shallow rooted, weeds seriously com-
pete with them for moisture and fertilizer and should be kept
away from the young vines until they are well established.
Shallow cultivation is desirable. During the first season or two
some intercropping is allowable, but after the vines are three
years old no crops, except cover crops, should be grown in the
vineyard.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Cultivation of the vineyard ceases at the time of or just
previous to harvesting. The cover crop is allowed to grow
and remain standing until it is necessary to work it into the
soil so that it will not interfere with pruning. This first opera-
tion of cutting the cover crop may be done with a disk harrow,
stalk cutter, or any other implement that will cut and break
the growth up enough to incorporate it partially with the soil.
If the cover crop has grown up among the vines it will be neces-
sary to cut it with hoes and move it to the middles between
the rows.


.EE 9 EE -- : I. J
.. ; r -^JiLt ',-

Fig. 6.-A 6-year-old Florida Beacon vine with a heavy crop of fruit.

To help in the control of diseases and insects, it is usually
considered a good sanitary practice to remove the prunings
from the vineyard and burn them. If this precaution is not
considered necessary, the prunings may be worked into the soil
during the successive cultivations, which in any event should
follow at intervals frequent enough to control weeds and have
the cover crop well incorporated in the soil by the middle of
May. Sometimes for weed or disease control it becomes ex-
pedient to turn the soil in the vineyard with a plow. Whenever
this is necessary it should be done before any abundance of






Grape Growing in Florida


new growth is made and great care should be used not to break
more roots than is absolutely necessary. If disease control is
contemplated by plowing, it should be done just before growth
starts in the spring. A very thorough job of this operation
should be performed and great care used in actually turning
under all materials which have accumulated on the surface dur-
ing the past season.
To reduce the cost of vineyard care, cultivation should be
done only when necessary to eliminate competing vegetation.
The berry or grape hoe drawn by one mule is a very convenient
tool for working close to the vines and will eliminate much
hand labor. In spite of all labor-saving devices, a certain amount
of hoeing will be necessary, but it should be done when it is
most efficient, usually rather early in the growing season before
the weeds have made extensive growth.

FERTILIZATION AND COVER CROPPING
Fertilization is necessary to grow and maintain a grape vine-
yard successfully in Florida. Of the major plant foods nitrogen
is the most important single element. No experimental data
are available upon which to base recommendations for the fer-
tilization of bunch grapes in Florida. Furthermore, there is no
standard practice employed by growers to serve as a basis for
formulating a recommendation. The situation is further com-
plicated in that growers using relatively diverse practices may
all obtain approximately the same results. However, experi-
mental results obtained by several workers in other localities
provide valuable and useful information. It has been repeatedly
shown that the three principal plant foods-nitrogen, phos-
phorus and potassium-are needed. Of these, nitrogen is the
most beneficial and often serves as the limiting factor for suc-
cessful growth, with potassium next in importance, and phos-
phorus relatively less so.
Commercial fertilizers analyzing from 5 to 8 percent nitro-
gen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 6 to 8 percent potash
should be satisfactory. As a general rule, from two to three
pounds of fertilizer per year are applied to mature vines. When
only one application is made it is usually done about the middle
of March. Frequently, though, the fertilizer is divided into two
applications, the first in early spring just as growth starts and
the second during the last of May. The first year after plant-
ing it is desirable to make about four applications of fertilizer






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of one-fourth pound each to the young vines during the grow-
ing season. In this mixture the nitrogen percentage should be
higher and the phosphoric acid and potash relatively lower than
for bearing vines. Fertilizers should be applied over the entire
area occupied by the roots, which means that after three years
the entire ground should be covered.
The addition of organic matter to the soil by the growing
and turning under of cover crops is a very desirable practice,
recognized as very helpful in keeping the vines healthy and
vigorous. Only in this manner may the organic matter con-
tent of the soil be maintained. By the use of cover crops the
soil temperature during the summer is reduced, the water-
holding capacity of the soil is increased, and leaching and ero-
sion are reduced. Aeration is increased and bacterial action
accompanying decomposition increases the availability of certain
plant nutrients.
Leguminous cover crops when inoculated with the proper
bacteria are very desirable for this purpose as, in addition to
the organic matter added, they may also increase the nitrogen
content of the soil. Up to the present time it has not been found
necessary to artificially inoculate the crops usually planted as
summer cover crops. Of the several leguminous plants used
for this purpose in Florida, Crotalaria has proven satisfactory.
Two species, Crotalaria spectabilis and C. striata, apparently
are giving best results.
The addition of organic matter by the use of barnyard man-
ure is quite desirable but it is almost impossible to obtain this
material in sufficient quantities.
HARVESTING AND MARKETING
Harvesting of the grape crop in Florida for table use is a
very exacting operation. Grapes should never be offered for
sale until they are ripe. For the novice this stage is difficult
to determine, inasmuch as the varieties grown take on colors
quite similar to those characteristic of ripeness several days
before they are ripe and, if picked on the basis of color alone,
are frequently presented to the public in a very unpalatable
condition. Therefore, great care should be used to pick the
grapes which are ripe and this must be done very soon after
they have reached that stage because weather conditions in
Florida are such that in normal seasons the fruit will not re-
main on the vine in sound condition many days after it is ripe.
The usual procedure is to pick the fruit at about three-day






Grape Growing in Florida


intervals, placing it in shallow field boxes in the vineyard and
taking it to a packinghouse where it is sorted for quality and
packed in containers. Grapes should never be piled over eight
inches deep if they are intended for dessert uses, and six inches
is about the upper limit
for depth in the packages.
Wooden lugs similar to those
used for tomatoes and large
enough to hold approximate-
ly 20 pounds of fruit appear
to be the most practical con-
tainers to use (Fig. 7).
Great care should be exer-
cised in all operations where
the fruit is handled so that
it does not become bruised.
Well picked fruit of good
quality will hold up on the
market for a week to 10 or
15 days but, on the whole,
the crop must be moved from
the vineyard to the con-
sumer in as short a time as
possible unless certain meas-
ures are taken for its preser-
vation, such as storage at Fig. 7.-Florida Beacon grapes packed in a
low temperatures. Experi-
ments have shown that grapes placed in storage at a tempera-
ture of 30 to 33 degrees F. in regular commercial cold storage
rooms where the relative humidity averages rather high may
be kept for as long as two months. Sound grapes to be used
for juice purposes can be kept at this temperature for a longer
period. When they are taken from cold storage some means
should be used to remove rapidly the moisture which condenses
on them as soon as they are exposed to warmer air. A strong
current of air from a natural breeze or a blast such as produced
by electric fans gives satisfactory results.
Most bunch grapes grown in Florida are sold on local markets
and are moved to these from the grower's packing shed almost
entirely by truck. The grower may sell his grapes directly to
truckers who, in turn, may dispose of them to local markets,
or may haul them to markets in other states. Many growers






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


located near main highways dispose of all or part of their crop
on roadside stands. A small percent of the crop is made into
grape juice or utilized in the home for making various culinary
products, such as jelly, jam, marmalade and butter.

MUSCADINE TYPE
The muscadine or Rotundifolia grapes, which include two
botanical species, are native to the South Atlantic and Gulf
states. Of these, Vitis rotundifolia Michx. is by far the more
important species, of which the Scuppernong is the best known
variety. This was the first native species to be domesticated
by early Colonial settlers. It has long been famous throughout
the South for its fruit and for wine making, and is the type
commonly seen growing on arbors in dooryard gardens through-
out this area. Several other varieties belonging to this group
are grown in Florida.
In a general way the information previously given for the
American bunch type of grapes relative to location of the vine-
yard, preparation of the soil, cultivation and cover cropping
would apply equally well to the muscadine or Rotundifolia vari-
eties with the exception that, where the vines are trained on
an overhead arbor, usually no cultivation is given.
BOTANY
The muscadine group is composed of two species: Vitis rotun-
difolia Michx., which is native to the South Atlantic and Gulf
states, extending well down into peninsular Florida, and V.
Munsoniana Simpson, which has as its native habitat south
Georgia, peninsular Florida, the Florida Keys, and the borders
of the Gulf of Mexico. In the classification given by Bailey (2)
these two species comprise the Muscadinia group of the genus
Vitis, while Small (11) has separated this group as a genus.
The principal differences separating this group from the
American bunch type are that most varieties drop their fruit
from the vine when ripe, the fruit does not grow in distinct
bunches, and the tendrils are simple rather than branched or
forked. In addition, the pith is continuous through the nodes,
the bark adheres closely on young branches-is not shreddy-
and the seeds are flattened with transverse wrinkles on the
sides.
V. rotundifolia Michx., from which practically all varieties
now in cultivation were derived, is a dioecious species. That is,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


located near main highways dispose of all or part of their crop
on roadside stands. A small percent of the crop is made into
grape juice or utilized in the home for making various culinary
products, such as jelly, jam, marmalade and butter.

MUSCADINE TYPE
The muscadine or Rotundifolia grapes, which include two
botanical species, are native to the South Atlantic and Gulf
states. Of these, Vitis rotundifolia Michx. is by far the more
important species, of which the Scuppernong is the best known
variety. This was the first native species to be domesticated
by early Colonial settlers. It has long been famous throughout
the South for its fruit and for wine making, and is the type
commonly seen growing on arbors in dooryard gardens through-
out this area. Several other varieties belonging to this group
are grown in Florida.
In a general way the information previously given for the
American bunch type of grapes relative to location of the vine-
yard, preparation of the soil, cultivation and cover cropping
would apply equally well to the muscadine or Rotundifolia vari-
eties with the exception that, where the vines are trained on
an overhead arbor, usually no cultivation is given.
BOTANY
The muscadine group is composed of two species: Vitis rotun-
difolia Michx., which is native to the South Atlantic and Gulf
states, extending well down into peninsular Florida, and V.
Munsoniana Simpson, which has as its native habitat south
Georgia, peninsular Florida, the Florida Keys, and the borders
of the Gulf of Mexico. In the classification given by Bailey (2)
these two species comprise the Muscadinia group of the genus
Vitis, while Small (11) has separated this group as a genus.
The principal differences separating this group from the
American bunch type are that most varieties drop their fruit
from the vine when ripe, the fruit does not grow in distinct
bunches, and the tendrils are simple rather than branched or
forked. In addition, the pith is continuous through the nodes,
the bark adheres closely on young branches-is not shreddy-
and the seeds are flattened with transverse wrinkles on the
sides.
V. rotundifolia Michx., from which practically all varieties
now in cultivation were derived, is a dioecious species. That is,






Grape Growing in Florida


male or staminate flowers and female or pistillate flowers are
borne on separate plants. It is impossible to distinguish be-
tween male and female vines
except at blooming time, when
it is comparatively easy to do so.
The male flowers produce long,
upright stamens, possessing
large anthers and fertile pollen.
The ovules are small, cushion-
shaped and aborted in appear-
ance, lacking pistils (Fig. 8).
The female flowers have well
developed pistils which give to
the ovules a bottle-shaped ap- Fig. 8.-Female (above) and male musca-
pearance. The anthers are small dine grape flowers.
and are on short recurved filaments at the base of the ovules
(Fig. 8). Pollen is produced but is sterile. Only the female
vines bear fruit.
VARIETIES
Both white and black fruited forms have been found in the
species Vitis rotundifolia Michx. Of these, Scuppernong is by
far the best known variety. In fact, it is so well known that
often all varieties in the muscadine group are called "Scupper-
nong", and the black-fruited varieties "black Scuppernongs".
Likewise, due to the different colors of the fruit, they are often
divided into two groups, the white fruited ones being called
Scuppernong and the black fruited varieties Muscadine. These
are obviously incorrect designations, as muscadine is a group
name for all varieties derived from the two species comprising
this group and Scuppernong is merely the name of one variety
with white fruit which falls in this group.
The number of varieties under cultivation is quite large and,
of these, practically all have been derived from V. rotundifolia
Michx. Of this list a few only are grown in Florida, namely:
Scuppernong, Thomas, James and Flowers. The first two vari-
eties comprise the greater part of the total.
Muscadine grapes are particularly desirable for the home
orchard, as their fruit ripens after the season for bunch grapes
has ended. The varieties grown differ in their time of ripening
which makes it possible to have this type of grape from late in
July through August and September. In the order of ripening
they are Thomas, Scuppernong, James and Flowers.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Scuppernong.-This is the most extensively grown and best
known of all the muscadine varieties and is an example of the
white-fruited type. There is considerable variation within this
variety as is evidenced by the fact that fruit on individual
vines may vary considerably in size, flavor, thickness and color
of skin from bronze to dull green. There is enough difference
in these strains to warrant care in the selection of those of
superior quality for propagation. This variety has large berries
of good quality, and ripens in mid-season. It is suitable for local
markets, home use, or juice, and is excellent for wine.
Thomas.-In Florida this variety is next in importance to
Scuppernong. The berries are medium in size and reddish-purple
in color. The quality is excellent and it is generally considered
as one of the best table varieties. It ripens early and is suitable
for local market and home use.
James.-The berries are large, blue-black and of fair quality.
It ripens somewhat later than Scuppernong, and is satisfactory
for local market and home use.
Flowers.-Berries are medium in size and black in color. It
ripens late. Due to its poor quality this variety is adapted to
culinary uses only.
POLLINATION AND MALE VINES
In the muscadine group of grapes it has been repeatedly ob-
served that the female plants are self-sterile and require fer-
tilization by pollen from male plants before they will set fruit.
The failure of muscadine vineyards or arbors to set fruit often
is due to the absence of nearby male plants to supply the needed
pollen. The obvious correction of this condition is to obtain
male vines from a nursery and set them near the female vines.
It is likewise evident that male vines should be interplanted
with female vines at time of planting so that this condition will
be prevented. Recommendations as to the number of male vines
in proportion to the female vines to set in a planting are quite
variable, and until recently experimental data bearing on this
point were very limited. Armstrong et. al. (1), working at
Experiment, Georgia, with the Hunt variety, found that vines
more than 50 feet distant from a male vine are reduced mate-
rially in yield.
Husmann (6) states that all of the catalogued and commer-
cially grown muscadine varieties are pistillate or female-flowered
and incapable of self-fertilization.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Scuppernong.-This is the most extensively grown and best
known of all the muscadine varieties and is an example of the
white-fruited type. There is considerable variation within this
variety as is evidenced by the fact that fruit on individual
vines may vary considerably in size, flavor, thickness and color
of skin from bronze to dull green. There is enough difference
in these strains to warrant care in the selection of those of
superior quality for propagation. This variety has large berries
of good quality, and ripens in mid-season. It is suitable for local
markets, home use, or juice, and is excellent for wine.
Thomas.-In Florida this variety is next in importance to
Scuppernong. The berries are medium in size and reddish-purple
in color. The quality is excellent and it is generally considered
as one of the best table varieties. It ripens early and is suitable
for local market and home use.
James.-The berries are large, blue-black and of fair quality.
It ripens somewhat later than Scuppernong, and is satisfactory
for local market and home use.
Flowers.-Berries are medium in size and black in color. It
ripens late. Due to its poor quality this variety is adapted to
culinary uses only.
POLLINATION AND MALE VINES
In the muscadine group of grapes it has been repeatedly ob-
served that the female plants are self-sterile and require fer-
tilization by pollen from male plants before they will set fruit.
The failure of muscadine vineyards or arbors to set fruit often
is due to the absence of nearby male plants to supply the needed
pollen. The obvious correction of this condition is to obtain
male vines from a nursery and set them near the female vines.
It is likewise evident that male vines should be interplanted
with female vines at time of planting so that this condition will
be prevented. Recommendations as to the number of male vines
in proportion to the female vines to set in a planting are quite
variable, and until recently experimental data bearing on this
point were very limited. Armstrong et. al. (1), working at
Experiment, Georgia, with the Hunt variety, found that vines
more than 50 feet distant from a male vine are reduced mate-
rially in yield.
Husmann (6) states that all of the catalogued and commer-
cially grown muscadine varieties are pistillate or female-flowered
and incapable of self-fertilization.






Grape Growing in Florida


PROPAGATION
Varieties of the muscadine type of grape are propagated
almost entirely by layering, as it is very difficult to root cut-
tings. Plants to be used for this purpose should be cut back
severely a year before the layering is to be done. During the
following winter those canes which have originated near the
ground should be used for layering. At the time of layering
all laterals less than approximately 12 inches apart should be
removed and remaining laterals should be cut back to from
eight to 10 inches in length. The lateral branches will make
the top of the new plant. The canes, still attached to the mother
plant, should be placed in a trench and covered to a depth of
from four to six inches. Root growth may be facilitated by
making a slight incision at each node opposite a lateral branch.
By the following winter roots will have formed at most of the
nodes, and at this time the plants may be taken up and divided
by cutting the original cane behind each shoot which now has
its own root system and is therefore an individual plant.
Another method which may be employed is that given by
Armstrong, Pickett and Murphy (1). This operation may be
performed in July when canes of the current season's growth
are layered in trenches and covered with soil to a depth of
from six to eight inches. By winter roots will have formed at
most of the nodes, when the canes may be taken up and divided
into 10-inch rooted cuttings. These cuttings are then lined
out in the nursery row and grown for one year when they are
ready to be planted in the vineyard. Cuttings that have de-
veloped exceptionally strong root systems may be transplanted
to their permanent locations in the field, otherwise they should
be handled as indicated above.
PLANTING THE VINES
Since the grape is a deciduous plant it should be planted
during the winter months when it is completely dormant. This
operation should be performed preferably in December; how-
ever, it may be done in January or February. The information
given in regard to planting American bunch type grapes applies
equally well here, the only difference being in the spacing. This
in turn may vary, depending on whether the vines are to be
trained upon an overhead arbor or on a vertical trellis. Hus-
mann (5) states that when an overhead arbor is to be used
plants are usually spaced 10 by 20, 15 by 15, or 20 by 20 feet.
Due to the fact that Muscadine grapes ultimately grow to be






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


very large and have an extensive root system, it is probable
that the wider spacing, 20 by 20 feet, is more desirable.
Armstrong et. al. (1) recommend that for Georgia conditions
vines be spaced 21 feet apart in rows 14 feet apart, when a
vertical trellis is used. When planted on a commercial scale
the wider spacing is desirable, as the rows are wide enough
apart to allow a hay rake to be used in removing the prunings,
effecting a saving in labor. When grown in the home garden
closer spacing is desirable, 16 to 20 feet apart in rows 10 feet
apart.
TRELLISING, TRAINING AND PRUNING
For many years muscadine grapes were grown entirely on
overhead arbors. Newman (10) was the first to recommend
four-wire vertical trellising. Subsequently, a three-wire vertical
trellis was used and recently Armstrong et. al. (1) recommend
a two-wire vertical trellis for Georgia.




















Fig. 9.-Scuppernong vines trained on an overhead arbor.

The old style overhead arbor is still the most commonly used
trellis for muscadine grapes grown for the home vineyard. This
type of trellis may be constructed in various ways. One method
described by Husmann (5) is to set a post by each vine, and
then set rows of posts running parallel to the rows of vines
and at the end of the rows on the boundaries of the arbor. These







Grape Growing in Florida


posts should reach seven feet above the ground and should be
well braced. No. 10 galvanized iron wires are fastened to the
boundary posts on the, four sides of the arbor and are run along
the tops of the posts in both directions. No. 14 wires spaced
two feet apart are run parallel to the main wires. Often the
arbor may be constructed entirely of wood, and when this is
done two-by-fours are used in place of the No. 10 wire, and
slats spaced three to five feet apart instead of the No. 14 wire.
In this case no extra bracing of the posts is required.
The vine is trained to a single trunk by removing all laterals
as they appear. When it reaches the top of the post it is then
cut off at this point and the resulting shoots are allowed to
grow out over the arbor. After this has taken place usually no
further pruning is given (Fig. 9). However, it has been often
observed that old muscadine vines tend to become unfruitful.
This may be due, in part at least, to the subsequent shading
effect produced by the accumulation of a mass of old vines on
the arbor plus the increased difficulty of proper pollination
brought about by this condition. Though it is not the common
practice to prune muscadine grapes trained on an overhead
arbor, nevertheless it probably would be desirable to practice
some pruning that would thin out and cut back the old top
from time to time. Results obtained from the use of the two
and three-wire vertical trellis would indicate this.
Though the overhead arbor is still the trellis most commonly
used for the rotundifolia varieties grown in the home vine-
yard, a two or three-wire vertical trellis has much to recommend
it. Bearing is more regular, crops are larger and may be har-
vested more easily, and less space is required to produce a given
quantity of grapes.
A trellis is constructed for each row of grapes. A post is set
half-way between each two vines, and should extend seven feet
above the surface of the ground. The posts should be firmly
set and those at the ends securely braced. When a two-wire
trellis is used the bottom wire is stretched three feet and the
top wire about six feet from the ground, leaving three feet
between. If a three-wire trellis is used the bottom wire should
be stretched three feet from the ground, the top wire near the
top of the posts and the second wire midway between the two,
using No. 10 to 12 galvanized wire. The trellis may be con-
structed at the time the vines are set, or the vines may be tied
to stakes the first season, which will save one year's deprecia-
tion of the trellis.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Side shoots that originate the first season should be removed
except two that arise near the height of the first wire. These
should be tied to the wire and one allowed to grow in* each
direction. From this point on, all side shoots should be re-
moved until the vine reaches the top wire, when the top should
be trained in one direction along the wire. The first side shoot
that originates near the top wire should be trained along this
wire in the opposite direction. If a three-wire vertical trellis
is used the same procedure is followed with the exception that
side-branches originating near the second wire are allowed to
remain and are trained along it in opposite directions, and the
top is allowed to grow to the upper wire and is then treated as
described above.

















Fig. 10.-An unpruned muscadine vine trained on a two-wire vertical trellis.

These arms serve as the permanent framework of the plant.
They are allowed to grow until they reach the posts halfway
between the two vines. They are cut back to this point every
year when the vines are pruned. After the establishment of
the permanent framework, pruning consists in annually cutting
back the past season's growth, leaving from two to four buds
on the canes which have any appreciable growth (Figs. 10 and
11). These cuts should be made as close to the main arms as
possible. All tendrils which encircle the arms should be cut,
as they become very tough and may eventually girdle the arms,
causing them to die beyond the point of injury.






Grape Growing in Florida


According to Dearing (3) these arms will begin to decline
in growth and productiveness in from six to eight years. When
this takes place they should be renewed. This is very easily
done by cutting back to a strong lateral that has originated
near the base of the arm. This lateral is then tied to the wire
and develops into a young fruiting arm.
Pruning should be done in the fall and early winter as soon
as possible after the vines have become completely dormant,
usually from late November through December, depending upon
the season and location in the state.

















Fig. 11.-Same vine as in Figure 10, after pruning.
FERTILIZATION
There is very little information based on experimental evi-
dence regarding fertilization of muscadine grapes. Though it
is undoubtedly true that many old vines have never received
applications of commercial fertilizers it has often been observed
that this plant responds to fertilization, as evidenced by an
increase in both growth and yields. As most of the soils upon
which this type of grape is grown are low in organic matter,
the addition of this material by the growing and turning in of
leguminous cover crops and by the use of manures is very desir-
able. Likewise, these soils usually are deficient in the principal
plant foods. Applications of fertilizer containing from 4 to 6
percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid, and 4 to 6
percent potash should be satisfactory. The amount to apply






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


will vary with the age of the vine, the native fertility of the
soil, and the quantity of organic matter supplied. For the first
two or three years after planting one pound of fertilizer per
vine should be applied annually; after that, the rate should'be
from 400 to 800 pounds per acre. The vines usually are fer-
tilized in early May, but it may be advantageous to split the
application, applying the first half as growth starts in the spring
and the second half about the first of July.
Husmann (4) and Armstrong et. al. (1) have observed that
an excess of nitrogen may result in over-production of wood at
the expense of fruit. If this condition should arise, usually it
can be checked by increasing the bearing surface of the vine
or by reducing the nitrogenous materials in the fertilizer. Such
a condition would be desirable for young vines for the first two
or three years after planting, as it would enable them to make
good strong growth and thereby become well established before
fruiting starts. The nitrogen content of the fertilizer for young
vines should be higher than for those of bearing age, and the
phosphoric acid and potash content should be lower.
HARVESTING AND USES
The method employed in harvesting depends to a large ex-
tent upon the way in which the fruit is to be used. If it is
to be sold on local markets it must be picked by hand. How-
ever, if the fruit is to be used in making juice or for culinary
purposes it is left on the vine until completely ripe, when it is
shaken off onto canvas sheets. The berries are then separated
from the leaves and twigs and taken to the place where they
are to be used.
This type of grape is not suitable for marketing like the bunch
grapes, as some of the berries drop from the bunch before
ripening and, if shipped, become smeared with juice so that
they do not present a pleasing appearance. Nevertheless, when
properly handled there is a sale for them on local markets,
since many people regard them highly.
Certain varieties make excellent juice. They have long been
considered very desirable for dessert purposes, for making wines,
jams, jellies and marmalades, and for other culinary uses.

DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL
Disease and insect control in grape vineyards is very import-
ant. In fact, unless some measure of control is used, fungous
diseases of the fruit are certain to ruin the crop. However, if






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


will vary with the age of the vine, the native fertility of the
soil, and the quantity of organic matter supplied. For the first
two or three years after planting one pound of fertilizer per
vine should be applied annually; after that, the rate should'be
from 400 to 800 pounds per acre. The vines usually are fer-
tilized in early May, but it may be advantageous to split the
application, applying the first half as growth starts in the spring
and the second half about the first of July.
Husmann (4) and Armstrong et. al. (1) have observed that
an excess of nitrogen may result in over-production of wood at
the expense of fruit. If this condition should arise, usually it
can be checked by increasing the bearing surface of the vine
or by reducing the nitrogenous materials in the fertilizer. Such
a condition would be desirable for young vines for the first two
or three years after planting, as it would enable them to make
good strong growth and thereby become well established before
fruiting starts. The nitrogen content of the fertilizer for young
vines should be higher than for those of bearing age, and the
phosphoric acid and potash content should be lower.
HARVESTING AND USES
The method employed in harvesting depends to a large ex-
tent upon the way in which the fruit is to be used. If it is
to be sold on local markets it must be picked by hand. How-
ever, if the fruit is to be used in making juice or for culinary
purposes it is left on the vine until completely ripe, when it is
shaken off onto canvas sheets. The berries are then separated
from the leaves and twigs and taken to the place where they
are to be used.
This type of grape is not suitable for marketing like the bunch
grapes, as some of the berries drop from the bunch before
ripening and, if shipped, become smeared with juice so that
they do not present a pleasing appearance. Nevertheless, when
properly handled there is a sale for them on local markets,
since many people regard them highly.
Certain varieties make excellent juice. They have long been
considered very desirable for dessert purposes, for making wines,
jams, jellies and marmalades, and for other culinary uses.

DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL
Disease and insect control in grape vineyards is very import-
ant. In fact, unless some measure of control is used, fungous
diseases of the fruit are certain to ruin the crop. However, if







Grape Growing in Florida


proper spray materials are thoroughly applied at the correct
time, control is readily obtained.
FRUIT DISEASES
The most serious damage to the fruit is done by black rot,
bitter rot and ripe rot. Downy mildew is severe in some sea-
sons. Anthracnose would be of great importance if any vari-
eties high in vinifera blood were being grown. All of these
diseases are controlled by copper sprays according to the
schedule shown on page 34.
Black rot caused by the fungus Guignardia bidivellii (Ell.)
V. & R., first makes its appearance on the leaves about the time
they have reached full size and before they have matured. It
is characterized by reddish-brown dead spots. With the aid of
a hand lens, black pustules containing the spores of the fungus
may be seen scattered on the upper side of these spots.
The disease becomes apparent on the fruit when it is about
half grown as a pale spot which soon turns brownish. Usually
the discoloring soon involves the entire berries which turn black.
Shortly after the spot becomes brown a shriveling of the berry
takes place and, if it does not shell off, it takes on the character-
istic mummied appearance so familiar in vineyards infected
with black rot. The period elapsing from the first appearance
of the spot until the mummied stage is usually six to 10 days.
Depending upon the control measures used, this disease takes
an annual toll of from 5 to 25 percent of the crop. Frequently,
if no control is used, the loss of marketable fruit is 100 percent.
Experiments by Loucks (7) have shown that bordeaux sprays
applied at the blooming period are of the most importance in
controlling black rot on the fruit. Applications put on at other
times in the spray schedule are important, but those during
the blooming period are imperative.
Bitter rot, Melanconium fuligineum (Scrib & Vial.) Cav., and
ripe rot, Glomerella cingulata (Atk.) Spauld. and Von Schrenk,
are noticeable only on the fruit after it has begun to color for
ripening. The berry attacked by either disease becomes soft
and slightly shriveled. Minute pustules become evident and if
conditions are favorable, myriads of black spores soon cover
the berry. Considerable shelling is caused by these late rots,
and they are of much importance because of the fact that they
continue to develop on the fruit after it is packed. For this
reason it is necessary to grade out carefully at packing time
all fruit which shows any sign of these rots.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


These diseases are controlled by the sprays applied after
blooming time. Apparently best control is obtained with bor-
deaux, but due to the residue which it leaves this mixture can-
not be used late in the season and some less staining spray
must be employed. Copper acetate has been the material most
widely used but recent investigations indicate that basic copper
chloride or copper sulfate may be used to good advantage.
Downy mildew, caused by the fungus Plasmopara viticola
(B. & C.) Berl. and De Toni, attacks all the young growing
parts of the plant. It is first noticed on the leaves where yellow-
green spots are seen on the upper surface. These spots soon
become reddish-brown, are irregular in shape and the under-
surface is covered with a white downy growth of the fungus
which is very conspicuous as a dense matted cottony mass.
When the young fruit is attacked, brownish spots appear which
later become covered with the gray downy growth of the fungus.
This gray covering of the lesions has caused rot at this stage
to be called the "gray rot". If the fruits are half grown or
larger before the disease appears they take on a brown or
brownish-purple color, become soft and wrinkled and fall to
the ground. When the disease appears at this stage it is called
"brown rot".
This disease has not been prevalent in Florida for some time.
Control may be obtained by exercising care to cover the under-


Fig. 12.-A sprayed Florida Beacon vine showing abundance of foliage and fruit well
protected from sunburning. (Photo taken June 10.)






Grape Growing in Florida


side of the leaves with the spray materials, especially during
the first applications of the season.
Anthracnose, Sphaceloma ampelinum De By., sometimes called
"bird's-eye rot", is very destructive to all varieties that are high
in vinifera parentage. It is characterized by attacking the young
growth, causing black sunken areas on twigs and tendrils. On
leaves the spots are black, often surrounded by a whitish rim
and frequently the center falls out. Spots on the fruit at first
are usually brown, surrounded by a narrow, dark-purplish mar-
gin. As they increase in size they become lighter in color and
somewhat sunken. The affected fruit does not become soft,
but shrivels slightly and becomes hardened. Often, as with some
other diseases, the seeds protrude from the affected area.
Anthracnose may be controlled by spraying with bordeaux at
frequent intervals during the period of early vine growth.
LEAF DISEASES
Diseases which attack the leaves are very serious in their
effects if allowed to develop unhindered. The principal or-
ganisms which have been found associated with these are Isari-
opsis clavispora (B. & C.) Sacc., Alternaria sp., Pestalozzia sp.
and the imperfect stage of the black rot organism Phoma uvicola
B. & C.

















Fig. 13.-An unsprayed vine of Florida Beacon, showing vine nearly defoliated and fruit
exposed to sunburning. (Photo taken June 10.)

Tests have shown that leaf diseases are very well controlled
if the vineyard is sprayed according to the schedule for con-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


trolling fruit rots (Fig. 12). When not sprayed the vines fre-
quently have been defoliated to the extent that any fruit which
escaped the attacks of fungi were badly sun-burned (Fig. 13).
INSECTS
Insect pests of grapes have not been of any widespread eco-
nomic importance in Florida. The ones most frequently found
are: Leaf skeletonizer, Har-
risina americana Guer.; leaf-
folder, Desmia funerals Hiib-
er; aphid, Macrosiphum illin-
oisensis Shimer.; grape cane-
.l b o r e r, Schistocerus hamatus
SFab.; grape berry moth, Poly-
chrosis viteana Clemens; and
leaf-cutting ant, Atta sp. (Fig.
i4).
Of the damage done by the
ton various insects, that of the leaf
tr skeletonizer is most conspicuous.
S The larvae feed in a very char-
ra .. s .. l acteristic manner. Starting at
S e ". a comlpon point and feeding side
by side in regular rows they re-
treat over the leaf surface. Only
the soft leaf tissue is consumed
Fig. 14.-- urrow of leaf-cutting ant,
showing crescent-shaped mound thrown up and when they have finished
at entrance.
Senrance. feeding on a leaf only the skele-
ton framework is left intact. The larvae are about /2 inch
long, slightly hairy, and sulfur-yellow in color, with four longi-
tudinal black markings. The leaf-skeletonizer is readily con-
trolled by applying an arsenical poison with any of the early
sprays regularly used against the diseases. If it makes its
appearance so late in the season that arsenic is not allowable
it can be readily controlled with any good pyrethrum or derris
spray. These, however, are s ightly higher in cost, and if there
is an evidence of these insects during the early part of the grow-
ing season it is more economical to control them at that time
with an arsenical.
The grape leaf folder feeds upon the tender tissues of the
upper surface of leaves. It forms a shelter for itself by fold-
ing the leaf with its upward surface inward and remains within







Grape Growing in Florida


that improvised leafy envelope. The grown larvae are grass-
green in color and about 3/4 inch long. They are easily com-
bated by using the same methods as for the skeletonizer. All
applications should be made as soon as there is any sign of
leaf-folding. For definite control the insecticide should be put
on with two successive applications in the regular spray schedule.
The aphid which appears on grapes in Florida is dark colored.
It feeds only on the young growth and causes a very slight
amount of shriveling, but its most noticeable effect is a blacken-
ing of the tender twigs, petioles and peduncles. If abundant
during the blooming period it may cause considerable loss of
fruit by injury to the flower buds, bloom and setting fruit.
Otherwise no economic damage has been attributed to this in-
sect. It is controlled by using nicotine sulfate with the next
regular spray application after its presence is detected. Py-
rethrum or derris will control it also.
The grape cane-borer.-The injury from this insect is caused
by the cylindrical brown beetle. It is about 8% inch long, with
the head set well under the body and the posterior end cut off
abruptly and leaving two horn-like protuberances. It bores a
hole into the cane at a bud and causes the cane to die from
that bud outward. Fortunately, it has not caused much damage
in Florida vineyards for it is usually controlled by removing
all cuttings from the vineyards and burning them. Sometimes
it seems expedient to kill the beetles in their holes by using a
wire to crush them.
The leaf-cutting ant has caused considerable damage in nurs-
eries and young plantings. It cuts pieces out of a tender leaf
and carries them into its burrow where a fungus develops on
the leaf particles. This fungus produces a growth which serves
as food for the ant. Several methods of control have been tried,
but the most effective appears to be obtained by spraying the
young foliage at weekly intervals with bordeaux mixture to
which has been added about 3 pounds of lead arsenate per
100 gallons.
A sweetened arsenic poison made according to the following
formula and sparingly poured around the individual burrows
has given good results:
ANT POISON BAIT
Sugar .................................................. 1 lb.
W ater ........................................ 1 pint
Arsenate of soda ...........................125 grains
Honey ........................................ 1 tablespoonful







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Boil the first three ingredients together until the arsenate
of soda is thoroughly dissolved and then add the honey.
Based upon results obtained from five years of tests, the
accompanying spray schedule is recommended for the control
of grape diseases and insects in Florida:

SPRAY SCHEDULE RECOMMENDED FOR CONTROL

OF GRAPE PESTS


Time of Application


I. On dormant vines,
as late in the
spring as possible
before buds burst.

II. One week to 10
days after buds
burst, or when
shoots are 8 to 18
inches long.

III. Bloom opening'.



IV. Bloom open.



V. Fruit just set.

VI. Fruit about %
size.

VII. Fruit about full
size.
VIII. Fruit full size.

IX. As soon as fruit is
harvested.


Purpose

To
Kill spores of fungi
which cause diseases
on leaves, fruit and
vines.
Prevent infection of
leaves, also control
leaf skeletonizer and
flea beetles.

Same as above, also
sucking insects, such
as leaf hopper and
aphids.

Prevent infection of
leaves, fruit and con-
tr o 1 insects listed
above.

Same as above.

Same as above, also
leaf folder.

Same as above.

Same as above.

Control Isariopsis
and other leaf spots.


Materials to Use with
100 gallons of water

Copper sulfate, 8 lbs.,
with a good sticker.


4-4-50 bordeaux without
sticker. Add 2-3 lbs. lead
arsenate to the bordeaux
for chewing insects.

Same as above. Add %
pint of nicotine sulfate
for sucking insects.

Same as above.



Same as above'.

Same as above.

Copper acetate', 4 lbs.,
with % pint SS3'.

Same as above.
4-4-50 bordeaux with
sticker, lead arsenate if
Needed for insects.


'Due to the unevenness with which the bloom opens some seasons, it would be necessary
to repeat this spray every three or four days during such seasons.
2If chewing insects are numerous after the fruit is set when it is not safe to use
arsenate as a poison for them, pyrethrum and derris extracts, put on as a separate applica-
tion, may be used effectively, especially against leaf skeletonizers.
'In place of copper acetate for a stainless spray, 4 lbs. of basic copper chloride and
1/2 pint SS3 sticker to 100 gal. of water may be used, or 3 lbs. of copper sulfate and
pint of SS3 sticker to 100 gal. of water may be used on blue varieties. Copper sometimes
causes a slightly black discoloration of the fruit which is not at all evident on dark colored
varieties, when they ripen, but may become objectionable on light colored fruit.
'SS3 is a spreader-sticker, sodium oleyl sulfate special, containing a resin.






Grape Growing in Florida.


SUMMARY
AMERICAN BUNCH TYPE
Of the large number of varieties of this type tested in Florida
only a few are now being grown commercially and, of these,
Florida Beacon, Carman and Niagara make up the larger per-
centage of the total.
A limited number of Bailey, Lamonto, Muench, Fredonia, R. W.
Munson and Portland are being grown, but with varying and
often unsatisfactory results.
None of the Vinifera varieties are satisfactory in Florida.
Varieties used for rootstocks include Florida Beacon, R. W.
Munson, Vitis Champini, Marguerite, Herbemont and Lukfata,
of which the first three are most important.
Vigorous one-year-old planting stock is most desirable, the
vines being set eight feet in rows 10 feet apart.
Propagation is by hardwood cuttings, grafting and layering.
Correct pruning is necessary for successful grape growing.
Training is upon the familiar Munson three-wire canopy trellis.
Because the grape is a surface rooted plant, whenever culti-
vation is given it should be shallow.
Fertilization is necessary to grow and maintain a grape vine-
yard successfully in Florida. Of the major plant foods, nitrogen
is the most important single element.
The addition of organic matter to the soil by the growing
and turning under of cover crops and by the use of barnyard
manures is a very desirable practice.
Grapes to be offered for sale should never be picked until
they are ripe. Some experience is necessary to determine this
as the varieties take on characteristic colors of ripeness several
days before they are ripe and, if picked on the basis of color
alone, may be in a very unpalatable condition.
Fruit may be kept as much as two months if placed in stor-
age at a temperature of 30 to 33 degrees F. in regular com-
mercial cold storage rooms where the relative humidity aver-
ages rather high.
MUSCADINE GROUP
This group is composed of two botanical species, Vitis rotun-
difolia and V. Munsoniana, and, of these, the first named has
furnished all of the varieties now in cultivation in Florida.
The principal varieties grown are: Scuppernong, which com-
prises a greater part of the total, James, Thomas and Flowers.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Varieties of the muscadine type are propagated almost en-
tirely by layering.
The vines should be planted preferably in December, possibly
in January or February.
When trained on an overhead arbor usually very little prun-
ing is given, but if trained on a two or three-wire vertical
trellis pruning is necessary.
The addition of plant foods by the use of commercial fer-
tilizers and by cover cropping is desirable.
If the fruit is to be sold on local markets it must be picked
by hand. However, if it is to be used for making juice or for
other culinary purposes it is left on the vine until completely
ripe, when it is shaken down onto canvas sheets.
Failure of muscadine arbors or vineyards to set fruit is often
due to the fact that there are no male plants near to supply
the needed pollen. The obvious correction of this condition is
to obtain male vines from the nursery and set them near the
female vines.
DISEASE AND INSECT CONTROL
The various diseases and insects attacking grapes in Florida,
their relative importance and methods for their control are
discussed.
LITERATURE CITED
1. ARMSTRONG, W. D., T. A. PICKETT and M. M. MURPHY. Muscadine
grapes; culture, varieties, and some properties of juices. Univ. of
Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 185: 1-30. 1934.
2. BAILEY, L. H. The standard cyclopedia of horticulture. The Mac-
millan Co. 1922.
3. DEARING, CHARLES. Muscadine grapes. USDA Farmers' Bul. 1785:
1-36. 1938.
4. HUSMANN, GEORGE C. Muscadine grapes. USDA Farmers' Bul. 709:
1-28. 1916.
5. Grape propagation, pruning and training. USDA
Farmers' Bul. 471: 1-24. 1911, revised 1932.
6. Grape districts and varieties in the United States.
USDA Farmers' Bul. 1689: 1-32. 1932.
7. LOUCKS, KENNETH W. Spraying experiments for the control of certain
grape diseases. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 294: 1-16. 1936.
8. MOWRY, HAROLD. Variety tests of grapes. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Ann.
Rept., 1932, page 106.
9. MUNSON, T. V. Foundation of American grape culture. OrangeJudd
Co. 1909.
10. NEWMAN, C. C. Rotundifolia grapes. S. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 132:
1-18. 1907.
11. SMALL, J. K. Manual of Southeastern flora. The Science Press Print-
ing Co. 1933.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs