• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Front Matter
 History
 Research
 Grading and packing
 Methods of packing and grading
 Causes of broken packages
 Results of breakage
 Summary and conclusions
 Official United States and Florida...






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 254
Title: Grading, packing and stowing Florida produce
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026525/00001
 Material Information
Title: Grading, packing and stowing Florida produce
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 59 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ensign, M. R
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1932
 Subjects
Subject: Farm produce -- Grading -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm produce -- Storage -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm produce -- Packing -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by M.R. Ensign.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026525
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924114
oclc - 18204810
notis - AEN4719

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Front Matter
        Page 2
    History
        Page 3
    Research
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Grading and packing
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 12
    Methods of packing and grading
        Page 15
        Page 14
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Causes of broken packages
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 25
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Results of breakage
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 40
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 44
        Page 43
    Official United States and Florida standards for the grading of the principal fruits and vegetables
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
Full Text


October, 1932


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Wilmon Newell, Director -.


GRADING, PACKING AND STOWING

FLORIDA PRODUCE

By M. R. ENSIN...


Fig. 1.-A light weight container that carries, protects and displays the
product to excellent advantage is desirable for Florida produce.


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


kl~le? 4


Bulletin 254









EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir.. Research
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. Fulghum, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant



MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist .
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, M.S., Associate
J. D. Warner, M.S., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Specialist in Dairy Hus-
bandry
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Associate in Animal Nutri-
tion
E. F. Thomas, D.V.M., Assistant Veterinarian
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Assistant Animal Hus-
bandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant in Dairy In-
vestigations
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Assistant
J. M. Coleman, B.S.. Assistant
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. Jones, M.S., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist"
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D.. Specialist*
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
E. F. Grossman, M.A., Entomologist
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A, Assistant
P. W. Calhoun, Assistant, Cotton Insects

HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
Harold Mowry, B.S.A., Horticulturist
M. R. Ensign, M.S., Associate
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A.. Pecan Culturist
C. B. Van Cleef, M.S.A., Greenhouse Foreman

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
**Head of Department.


BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. Yonge, Chairman, Pensacola
A. H. Blanding, Bartow
Raymer F. Maguire, Orlando
Frank J. Wideman. West Palm Beach
Geo. H. Baldwin, Jacksonville
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee


BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate Agronomist
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Assistant Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
ogist
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Associate Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Assistant Entomologist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
B. A. Bourne, M.S., Sugarcane Physiologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Assistant Horticulturist
Stacy O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist



FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathol-
ogist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. E. Nolen, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
West Palm Beach
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
Monticello
Fred W. Walker, Assistant Entomologist
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist







GRADING, PACKING AND STOWING FLORIDA PRODUCE
By M. R. ENSIGN

The majority of the vegetable and fruit growers of Florida
have never had an opportunity to observe the handling of perish-
able produce at the large markets of the country. Since they are
normally occupied with the details of production, frequently they
have rather meager information regarding some of the modern
methods employed and how these methods may affect them. Too
few realize that the horticultural industry of Florida is suffering
an economic loss of millions of dollars annually due to poorly
graded produce packed in ill-adapted packages and carelessly
stowed in cars. It seems desirable, therefore, to present to the
growers some of the facts recently secured at two large terminal
markets, in the hope that such information may point the way to
more successful merchandizing of their produce.
HISTORY
Florida vegetable growers, some 30 years ago, introduced some
of the first field-grown produce onto Northern markets during
the winter and early spring months. Up until the freeze of 1895,
the chief horticultural endeavor had been in the culture of citrus
fruits. This freeze severely curtailed citrus production for a
period of years and turned the people's attention toward vegetable
growing. At that time the demand was strong for all kinds of
produce, since the supply during our shipping season was very
limited. At the inception of the truck industry little considera-
tion was given to grading, packing or packages, since nearly any-
thing brought a fair price regardless of appearance or quality.
Today an entirely different situation exists. Not only has the
acreage devoted to vegetables within the state increased enor-
mously during the past 10 years but other areas in California,
Texas, Louisiana and other Southern states have become keen
competitors.* In addition to these, considerable quantities of
potatoes, tomatoes and other vegetables are imported each year
from Mexico, Cuba and other West Indian Islands. As frequently
happens, these new areas introduced new and better varieties to-
gether with closer grading and more attractive packages in an
effort to capture the markets, while Florida with an established
market did not realize the necessity of similar improvements. As
a result, Florida has suffered severely and in some cases disas-
trously.
*See Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Buls. 224 and 238.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RESEARCH
Data have been collected from time to time in an effort to clas-
sify accurately the different reasons for the apparent decline in
popularity of Florida produce. All of these have indicated the
importance of correct methods of grading and packing, two items
that have received relatively little attention in Florida. To cor-
roborate these findings, brief studies were made on two of the
largest markets, New York and Philadelphia.** While these are
not extensive enough to determine exactly the relative importance
of the various factors involved, they clearly show that Florida
produce is not graded closely enough or packed properly in the
majority of cases. While further investigations will be carried
on, it is deemed wise to bring to the attention of the growers
the outstanding facts found in these investigations. The data
are admittedly incomplete but they tell a definite story and the
photographs show specifically the conditions found.

The vegetable industry of Florida is suffering severely on ac-
count of inter-state and foreign competition. In Table I data are
presented to show the average annual trends in total car-lot ship-
ments from Florida and from competing areas. These data are
for 10 leading truck crops and are given on a percentage basis.

Of the 10 crops included in this study, only three show a favor-
able balance for Florida, namely, string beans, cabbage and pep-
TABLE I.-AVERAGE YEARLY CHANGES IN CARLOAD SHIPMENTS OF FLORIDA
VEGETABLE CROPS AND FROM COMPETING AREAS, INCLUDING FOREIGN COUN-
TRIES, FROM 1925 TO 1931.*
Average yearly change (percent) Foreign Stored
Crop Florida Competing areas Competition Competition
String beans ........ + 18.4 + 14.5 .
Cabbage ........... + 13.6 0.5 ... 4.4
Celery ............. + 5.1 + 13.5 ... 6.2
Cucumbers ......... 5.9 + 8.1 ..
Eggplant ........... + 2.9 + 18.5 ...
Peppers ............ + 20.4 7.3
Lettuce ............ 11.0 + 5.7
Potatoes, white ...... + 3.0 + 7.6 11.1
Tomatoes .......... 1.1 + 8.7 11.4 .
Watermelons ....... + 4.6 + 4.5 ..
Mean gain per year.. 5.0 7.3 .
Note: The + and signs indicate whether the change in production has
been above or below the average for the 7-year period.
*Unpublished data by C. V. Noble, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
**Just as this publication goes to press, J. W. Lloyd and H. M. Newell
report similar studies made at the Chicago Terminal in University of Illinois
Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 379. The conclusions based upon these studies point
out many of the same types of damage to produce upon arrival at that-mar-
ket, as found at New York and Philadelphia.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 5

pers. The increase in string bean shipments is due largely to
the reclamation of the muck soils of the Everglades where beans
are produced in large quantities. The pepper business seems to
show little competition. The data regarding cabbage are some-
what misleading, since they do not show all the facts. These will
be examined later.

annual Sk\pnents
of foYm na'toe
20



18



16








L)
-3




01
o





6



4
s195 26 27 28 29 30 Z1
Year
Fig. 2.-Annual shipments (thousands of carloads) of tomatoes from Florida
and from competing areas, 1924 to 1931.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The crop showing the greatest decline is lettuce. This loss to
the vegetable industry of Florida amounts to millions of dollars
annually, and was due to the introduction of the Iceberg type of
lettuce which Florida has been unable to grow successfully.
While varietal problems do not directly bear upon the question
of grading and packing, they do have an indirect relationship of
great significance, since quality and uniformity of produce are
cardinal principles of successful marketing. Varieties must show
a clear adaptation to the region in which they are produced if
these qualities are realized. The introduction and the creation of
strains and varieties adapted to a region and having the qualities
which the trade demands is obviously fundamental to the suc-
cess of the vegetable industry, irrespective of high standards of
grading and packing. Obviously, if vegetables of high quality
and uniformity cannot be produced, they cannot be packed.
The figures on the movement of tomatoes from Florida, as
shown in Fig. 2, are somewhat surprising. One partial explanation
for the decided decline in shipments from 1927 may be found in the
unfavorable weather conditions persisting, particularly over the
lower East Coast area, during most of this time. With the intro-
duction of the Marglobe variety, the quality of Florida tomatoes
was greatly improved, and this has had a stabilizing effect upon
the industry in spite of weather handicaps, real estate inflations,
economic depressions and keen competition. The increase in for-
eign competition alone has been 11.4 percent per year, as indi-
cated in Table I, for the 7 years studied, while that from com-
peting areas has been nearly three-fourths as great.
Celery and cucumbers both show an unfavorable balance for
Florida. Poor grading and packing, together with inferior quality,
seem to be the most important issues involved.
The trends in the Irish potato shipments are presented graph-
ically in Fig. 3 and show that shipments from competing areas
have been increasing slightly more than twice as fast, on the
average, as those from Florida. A considerable portion of this
increase is due to the large quantities of Northern grown potatoes
that are still in storage at the time of Florida's shipping season.
(Table I.)
The above comparisons are made for a relatively short period
of time. The same picture of the relative volume of cabbage
production as shown in Table I, for instance, is not obtained when
the acreage devoted to this crop since 1916 in Texas is compared
with that in Florida over the same time, as shown in Fig. 4.
Florida in 1916 had a large potential market for the expansion






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 7

of her cabbage industry. Competing areas have taken advan-
tage of the opportunity. This fact is further demonstrated in
Fig. 5 where the shipments of cabbage in hundreds of cars by
months are shown as averages for the years 1924, '25 and '26.
Geographically, Florida is advantageously located, so far as
proximity to the large centers of consumption is concerned. Con-


Yinnua\ Shipments
o 90oatoes&


Year
Fig. 3.-Annual shipments (thousands of carloads) of white potatoes from
Florida (below) and from all other competing areas, 1924 to 1931 inclusive.


120

110

100
Id
fd 90
o
I-

0


t'o
f7
I-I,
0
o
^6





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sidering transportation costs and quickness of delivery, this
favorable location should make Florida cabbage a favorite in the
markets of the Southeastern and Eastern states. That this is not
the case, however, is clearly shown by the figures in Table II.

TABLE II.-RECEIPTS OF FLORIDA AND TEXAS CABBAGE, BY CARS, IN 14
MARKETS DURING PAST FOUR YEARS.
1927 1928 1929 1930
Place Texas Florida Texas Florida Texas Florida Texas Florida
Akron ... ... 14 ... 20 ... 21
Atlanta 76 42 75 19 130 27 46 73
Baltimore 54 159 30 167 51 174 21 181
Birmingham 119 1 111 ... 179 ... 167 4
Boston 170 63 138 26 237 59 166 205
Buffalo 38 34 50 7 68 13 44 52
Chicago 553 16 529 9 744 16 603 77
Cincinnati 119 23 83 2 110 8 108 50
Jacksonville 1 ... ... 1 ... 4 ... 3
Nashville 10 ... 76 1 80 ... 54 1
New York 115 701 177 518 378 741 203 1,046
Philadelphia 115 345 118 217 201 189 142 331
Pittsburgh 277 13 162 1 167 1 195 9
Richmond ... ... 13 25 29 39 13 38
TOTAL 1,647 1,397 1,576 993 2,394 1,271 1,783* 2,070
*A freeze in January practically stopped shipments for the remainder of
the shipping season.

TABLE III.-PRICE COMPARISONS FOR FLORIDA AND TEXAS CABBAGE ON 6
MARKETS ON 8 DIFFERENT DAYS.
Average Price
Date Place la. (1-bu. hampers) Texas (2% bu. crates) Ratio
Per pkg. Per ton Per pkg. Per ton Fla. Texas
12-22-31 Philadelphia $1.30 $37.14 $2.50(bags) $50.00 100 135
New York 1.00 28.57 2.12 42.40 100 148
Pittsburgh 1.25 35.71 2.37 47.40 100 133
12-17-31 New York 1.50 42.85 2.75 55.00 100 128
12-24-31 Chicago 1.50 42.85 1.87 37.40 100 87
12-28-31 Cleveland 1.50 42.85 2.25 45.00 100 105
New York 1.50 42.85 2.12 42.40 100 99
Pittsburgh 1.00 28.57 2.12 42.40 100 148
Chicago 1.75 50.00 2.75 55.00 100 110
1- 6-32 New York 1.50, 42.85 2.75 55.00 100 128
Chicago 1.37 39.14 2.42 48.40 100 124
Boston 1.57 44.91 2.75 55.00 100 122
1.87* 53.40* ....... ..
12-30-31 Cleveland 1.37 39.14 2.25 45.00 100 115
2-15-32 New York 1.31 37.43 2.62 52.40 100 140
2-17-32 1.07 30.57 2.50 50.00 100 164

Mean of 15 quotations 1.36 39.00 2.41 48.20 100 124
*Round type (Copenhagen Market) not included in averages.






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 9

The total carloads of cabbage unloaded in 14 Eastern markets
from Texas and from Florida for each year from 1927 to 1930,
inclusive, are shown. For such close markets as Birmingham,
Atlanta, Nashville and Cincinnati, the decided preference shown


Compraoahye cabbage acreage
Florida I
T'r-s ----.--
I




II
'.a. I



I a
S--Te as


I \ 0

I \ I \ I
i \ n ;


year
Fig. 4.-Acreage of cabbage in Florida and Texas by years, 1916 to 1931.

for Texas cabbage, in spite of freight charges of $2 to $6 more
per ton, shows that something is radically wrong.
When comparisons are made of prices received for Florida and
Texas cabbage the inequalities are further emphasized. Such a
comparison is shown in Table III. Six different markets on eight
different days are included.
On account of the difference in the size and type of package used
by Texas and Florida growers, the only satisfactory basis for a






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


price comparison was the rate paid per ton. Ten to 20 packages
per car from a number of cars from the two areas were weighed.
On this basis the weight of Texas cabbage per crate was near 100
pounds on the average, while the Florida product weighed less
than 70 pounds per hamper. Some compensation was made in
the weights of Florida cabbage used in the computations because
the heads were unusually light in the season of 1931-32 on account

J F M A M J J A SO N D
I 1 I II I I I I I I [ -


EARLY AND SECOND EARLY


I- -I I I i I0
~-~-~- _^---- -CCALIFORNIA-^--- ---


4 24
20 20
16 i TEXAS 16
12 T 12





8 8FLOIDA
4 4iI- I- I I I 14
0 0
12 I" 2
GEORGIA, SOUTH CAROLP )iA
8 AD NORTH CAROLINA '
0I


o 40
0I -- I I I 1 =W.0
16 -- -16
12 LA., MISS. AND ALA. 1 1
"8- a
4 4

8 0BL8
VIRGINIA
4 4 Z o
40i m I n0


S


Fig. 5.-This graph shows clearly the competition which Florida faces on
the markets from various early cabbage producing areas. The principal one,
of course, is Texas. Note the large increase in shipments from Texas during
February, March and April, and from other Southern states during April and
May. Average shipments for the years 1924, 1925 and 1926. (Courtesy Bur.
of Railway Economics.)


4
0 -






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 11

of drought and warm weather. The weights indicated above were
therefore used to determine the price per ton.
The average price paid for the Texas cabbage is thus seen to
exceed that paid for the Florida product by approximately 25 per-
cent. While the data are too few to do more than indicate a con-
dition, they emphasize the necessity for further studies in this
connection.
For instance, there is but one case where both the pointed and
round type from Florida are quoted on the same market. The
latter sold at a premium of $8.50 per ton if we admit the same
weight of cabbage, which is probably not the case. The round
type is the heavier, so that if correction for this were made, the
difference would be less important. Furthermore, it is interesting


Fig. 6.-Pointed head cabbage packed in 11/ bushel hamper. Note the lack
of uniformity in size and trimming. Heads at extreme left badly crushed
on account of bulge pack. Compare this with Fig. 7.


Fig. 7.-Round type cabbage packed in 2% bu. Western lettuce crate. This
lot was selected at random to compare with that shown in Fig. 6. It was put
up in a packinghouse. Note the uniform size and trimming.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to note that the round type from Texas sold for a few dollars per
ton more than the same type from Florida on the same market.
A comparison between the Florida and Texas cabbage as it appears
on the market may be seen by examining Figs. 6 and 7 which show
typical samples. The Texas cabbage was graded and packed in a
packinghouse, the Florida product was indifferently graded and
packed in the field. Table IV shows the chief differences between
the cabbage coming from these two areas.
TABLE IV.-THE CHIEF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FLORIDA AND TEXAS
CABBAGE AS IT GOES ON THE MARKET.
Variable
characteristics Florida Texas
Type Pointed heads, not so firm Round heads, very firm
Grade Field run, lack uniformity Standard grades, uniform,
put up in packinghouse
Trimming Not closely or consistently
trimmed Closely trimmed
Package 1% bushel hamper 2% bushel slat crate
Weight (actual) About 70 lbs. About 100 lbs.
Billed weights 56.7 lbs. 85 lbs.
General appearance Poor Good

To determine the relative importance of the various items
listed above, more detailed information must be secured. Here
again the question of variety or type asserts itself, yet the impor-
tance of proper grading, packing and general appearance cannot
be overlooked.
All the facts presented above with respect to the trends in pro-
duction of truck crops from Florida and their reception on the
markets rather forcefully indicate an unfavorable condition, no
small part of which is due to the continued use of obsolete methods
of grading and packing. Such facts do not argue for an increased
and profitable vegetable industry for Florida.

GRADING AND PACKING
By the term "grading" is meant that operation whereby an
effort is made to group together the fruits or vegetables of the
same variety that most nearly resemble each other as to shape,
size, color, ripeness and quality. There are several reasons why
grading is such an important step in successful marketing:
1. Graded produce has a much more attractive appearance than
a miscellaneous collection. The appeal through the eye largely
determines whether or not a sale is made and also governs, to a
large extent, the price offered. Figures 6 and 7 show this rather
forcefully. It is especially important that Florida vegetables be





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 13

carefully graded, since the climate and soil conditions under which
they are grown are conducive to wide variations and, in addition,
there are the inherent variations incident to the planting of
numerous strains and varieties. In many cases Florida crops have
been so poorly trimmed and washed that these operations have
had to be repeated before sales to retail stores are attempted, and
all this expense is charged back to the producer. The necessity
of establishing and maintaining a reputation for high-grade prod-
uce should not be overlooked.
2. Grades that are fully standardized and enjoy a good reputa-
tion provide a basis upon which buying and selling can be done
by wire. This facilitates the better distribution of goods, since
inspection is not necessary. Many cars of graded produce are
sold by telephone or telegram while they are rolling.
3. Certain markets require No. 1 grades while others take only
second or third grade produce. Grading makes it possible to
supply such demands.
4. Ungraded produce not only brings a low price in competition
with graded goods, but frequently demoralizes an otherwise stable
market. Careful grading prevents the expense of packing and
shipping inferior produce which serves only to glut the market.
5. Grading provides a basis for shipping point inspection.
In view of the foregoing reasons for standardized grading, the
Florida Legislature of 1927 enacted the following Act, which
provided:
FLORIDA STATE GRADING ACT
Section 1. That the standard grades of all fruits and vegetables shall be
the same as those of the United States grades as now promulgated or which
may be promulgated by the United States Department of Agriculture.
Section 2. That the Florida State Marketing Bureau, cooperating with
the United States Department of Agriculture, shall, when requested by the
shipper, furnish carlot inspection of fruits and vegetables at shipping point,
furnishing certificates in conformity with those used by the United States
Department of Agriculture in shipping point inspection, provided the expense
or charge of such inspection shall be paid by the shipper.
Section 3. That all fees for inspection shall be paid to the State Marketing
Commissioner, who shall deposit same in a fund to be known as the Cooper-
ative Inspection Fund, and all expenses for inspection service shall be paid
from said fund upon the approval and at the direction of the State Marketing
Commissioner.
Section 4. That all such cooperative Government certificates shall be
accepted as prima facie evidence in the courts of Florida.
Section 5. That the State Marketing Commissioner shall employ such
assistants as are necessary to carry out the provisions of this Act.
Section 6. That all laws or parts of laws in conflict with this Act be and
the same are hereby repealed.
Section 7. That this Act shall take effect upon its becoming a law.
This Act became a law so that shipping point inspection is now
available to any group of growers where vegetables or fruits are





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


shipped in quantity.* Some of the advantages of this service
follow:
"1. Assists in maintaining a good grade and pack while the commodity is
still under the control of the packinghouse manager.
2. Aids to a great extent in maintaining a uniform grade and pack.
3. Describes the quality of the commodity so that selling organizations
may more intelligently market it.
4. Creates more confidence among growers when several are loading to-
gether or when pooling.
5. Assists in the settlement of claims.
6. Assists in settling disputes between seller and buyer. Certificates
cover the following points:
Condition of Car and Equipment.
Condition of Load and Containers.
Pack.
Size.
Maturity; Color.
Quality and Condition.
Grade.
The duties of the inspectors are not merely to issue these certificates but
to assist the shipper or grower in every way possible to meet and maintain
the grade and pack.
The certificates issued by these inspectors are accepted as Prima Facie
Evidence in the Courts of Florida and since the service is under Federal
Supervision has this same standing in the Federal Courts. Other states are
also providing by law that the certificates shall be accepted as Prima Facie
Evidence in their courts."**

It is readily apparent that such shipping point inspection service
is based upon standard grades and packs. The definition of the
various grades and tolerances for the chief vegetable crops are
given in the appendix.

METHODS OF PACKING AND GRADING
There are two possible classifications in considering the methods
of grading and packing: (1) the place of grading, i. e., whether
in the field or packinghouse; (2) the height of the pack, i. e.,
whether flat or bulge. These are considered in turn.
Most of the cabbage, beans, lettuce, beets, carrots and potatoes
shipped out of Florida are field graded and packed. These vege-
tables cannot be graded properly by the laborer in the field but
should be graded in a packinghouse by skilled labor. There is a
decided preference shown on the markets for well trimmed and
washed vegetables. In recent years especially adapted machinery
has been designed to wash such crops as celery, potatoes, beets,
and carrots. Some of these machines are now in operation in
some of the producing areas of the state, and are proving very

*Application for such service should be made to the State Marketing
Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla.
**Excerpt from statement by O. G. Strauss, Federal Supervisor in Charge,
Orlando, Fla.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to note that the round type from Texas sold for a few dollars per
ton more than the same type from Florida on the same market.
A comparison between the Florida and Texas cabbage as it appears
on the market may be seen by examining Figs. 6 and 7 which show
typical samples. The Texas cabbage was graded and packed in a
packinghouse, the Florida product was indifferently graded and
packed in the field. Table IV shows the chief differences between
the cabbage coming from these two areas.
TABLE IV.-THE CHIEF DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FLORIDA AND TEXAS
CABBAGE AS IT GOES ON THE MARKET.
Variable
characteristics Florida Texas
Type Pointed heads, not so firm Round heads, very firm
Grade Field run, lack uniformity Standard grades, uniform,
put up in packinghouse
Trimming Not closely or consistently
trimmed Closely trimmed
Package 1% bushel hamper 2% bushel slat crate
Weight (actual) About 70 lbs. About 100 lbs.
Billed weights 56.7 lbs. 85 lbs.
General appearance Poor Good

To determine the relative importance of the various items
listed above, more detailed information must be secured. Here
again the question of variety or type asserts itself, yet the impor-
tance of proper grading, packing and general appearance cannot
be overlooked.
All the facts presented above with respect to the trends in pro-
duction of truck crops from Florida and their reception on the
markets rather forcefully indicate an unfavorable condition, no
small part of which is due to the continued use of obsolete methods
of grading and packing. Such facts do not argue for an increased
and profitable vegetable industry for Florida.

GRADING AND PACKING
By the term "grading" is meant that operation whereby an
effort is made to group together the fruits or vegetables of the
same variety that most nearly resemble each other as to shape,
size, color, ripeness and quality. There are several reasons why
grading is such an important step in successful marketing:
1. Graded produce has a much more attractive appearance than
a miscellaneous collection. The appeal through the eye largely
determines whether or not a sale is made and also governs, to a
large extent, the price offered. Figures 6 and 7 show this rather
forcefully. It is especially important that Florida vegetables be





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 15

satisfactory, not only from the standpoint of efficiency but from
the increased price which washed produce brings. A considerable.
portion of celery is still field-packed, although washing and pre-
cooling practices are on the increase.
The packing shed need not be an expensive structure and the
equipment is simple. Plenty of light and ventilation, provision
for the easy and rapid movement of the produce through the house
and plenty of grading bins are the chief requirements. Space for
the storage and assembling of containers may be made a part of
such a structure. Adequate supervision of the grading and pack-
ing is, of course, essential, but even this is not necessarily a costly
service and with proper care the entire packing costs can be kept
very low.
During the past 10 years a marked change has taken place with
respect to the height of pack used in both vegetable and fruit
containers. The original intent of the slightly bulged pack was
to prevent a loose pack at destination due to shrinkage. This was
the argument advanced especially in the case of oranges. But
certain growers conceived the idea of overpacking their containers
as a direct bid for the buyers' attention on a highly competitive
market. A typical example of such effort is shown in the follow-
ing advertisement:
"-- Brand lettuce heads are carefully sized for uniformity and
to secure the maximum number of salable heads per crate. Then every
crate is deliberately overpacked to a point where lidding under heavy
pressure is required. This means more heads per crate of salable
lettuce."
This procedure was naturally encouraged and eventually de-
manded by the buyers, so that an ever-increasing height of bulge
has resulted. In Fig. 8 is shown the condition of cabbage as it
arrived at the market in overfull or bulge-packed crates. In
Table V is shown the upward trend in the amount of lettuce packed
in crates from 1922 to 1930, an increase of approximately 23
pounds per crate.
In connection with these investigations, 20 packages of Western
lettuce were weighed in February, 1932, at the New York Ter-

TABLE V.-ANNUAL INCREASES IN WEIGHTS OF LETTUCE IN WESTERN
CRATES AT SHIPPING POINT.
Year Weight, lbs. Year Weight, lbs.
1922 84.8 1927 95.6
1923 86.8 1928 97.1
1924 88.5 1929 100.4
1925 92.7 1930 107.0(estimated)
1926 93.6





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


shipped in quantity.* Some of the advantages of this service
follow:
"1. Assists in maintaining a good grade and pack while the commodity is
still under the control of the packinghouse manager.
2. Aids to a great extent in maintaining a uniform grade and pack.
3. Describes the quality of the commodity so that selling organizations
may more intelligently market it.
4. Creates more confidence among growers when several are loading to-
gether or when pooling.
5. Assists in the settlement of claims.
6. Assists in settling disputes between seller and buyer. Certificates
cover the following points:
Condition of Car and Equipment.
Condition of Load and Containers.
Pack.
Size.
Maturity; Color.
Quality and Condition.
Grade.
The duties of the inspectors are not merely to issue these certificates but
to assist the shipper or grower in every way possible to meet and maintain
the grade and pack.
The certificates issued by these inspectors are accepted as Prima Facie
Evidence in the Courts of Florida and since the service is under Federal
Supervision has this same standing in the Federal Courts. Other states are
also providing by law that the certificates shall be accepted as Prima Facie
Evidence in their courts."**

It is readily apparent that such shipping point inspection service
is based upon standard grades and packs. The definition of the
various grades and tolerances for the chief vegetable crops are
given in the appendix.

METHODS OF PACKING AND GRADING
There are two possible classifications in considering the methods
of grading and packing: (1) the place of grading, i. e., whether
in the field or packinghouse; (2) the height of the pack, i. e.,
whether flat or bulge. These are considered in turn.
Most of the cabbage, beans, lettuce, beets, carrots and potatoes
shipped out of Florida are field graded and packed. These vege-
tables cannot be graded properly by the laborer in the field but
should be graded in a packinghouse by skilled labor. There is a
decided preference shown on the markets for well trimmed and
washed vegetables. In recent years especially adapted machinery
has been designed to wash such crops as celery, potatoes, beets,
and carrots. Some of these machines are now in operation in
some of the producing areas of the state, and are proving very

*Application for such service should be made to the State Marketing
Bureau, Jacksonville, Fla.
**Excerpt from statement by O. G. Strauss, Federal Supervisor in Charge,
Orlando, Fla.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 8.-Hampers overfilled with cabbage cannot be loaded in the approved
method, but must be loaded on their sides. Note the mis-shapen packages
and very unattractive appearance that results when the hampers are un-
loaded. The heads that protrude above the tops of the hampers often are
badly torn and bruised.

minal. They ranged from 109 to 133 pounds, with an average of
125.3 pounds per package, gross weight. Some idea of the height
of the bulge on such crates may be had by examining Figs. 9, 10,
11, 12 and 29. The package used for Western lettuce was designed
to carry about 75 pounds, so that the average container, based
upon the above weights, was actually overpacked about 60 percent
by weight. The same tendency was found to apply to practically
all commodities examined at this time. The results of these exam-
inations are found in Table VI.
The table shows both hampers and crates of cabbage, celery,
peppers, lettuce and citrus to be overpacked, with a considerable
breakage of containers. Some of the reasons for this breakage
that were most apparent are given in the table.






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 17


Fig. 9.-Heavy chunk icing was partly responsible for some breakage in
this car of peas. Note the very high bulge. When the paper lining tore, the
peas sifted out.


Fig. 10.-Broken containers of Savoy cabbage on the pier. Frequently
this condition is what is meant when your commission merchant informs you
that your produce "arrived in bad condition." The produce actually was not
damaged to any appreciable extent, but the condition creates a bad psycho-
logical effect upon the receivers or buyers.










TABLE VI.-CONDITION OF CARS OF PRODUCE UPON ARRIVAL AT PIER 28, NEW YORK. FEBRUARY 14-17, 1932.


Car Shippi
No. point
20663 Texas
51112 Florid:

33769 "
15911 Texas
20285 "
78477 Florid:
31942 "
20730 Texas
20800 "
62897 Florida
62223 "
25647 Texas
65567 Florid
26245 Califo:
67418 Florid
63321 "
37719 So. Ca
50212 Califo
19034 Florid

61719 "
75483 "


Avg.
No. Height excess
ng Type or No. pkgs. broken of wt. per Reasons for breakage
Commodity variety per car pkgs. bulge pkg.
Cabbage Copenhagen 320 53 3%" 15.3 Excessive bulge
a Wakefield 424 48 loose
tops 4-5" 7.5 Poor container
440 33 5-7" 6.7 Excessive bulge
Copenhagen 315 93 5""
320 51 5%" 6.8 Loose load; impact
a 430 45 0-7" -3.2
"Wakefield 424 7 5-6"
"Copenhagen 320 56 4-5" 16.2 Excessive bulge
315 27 3-5" "
a Wakefield 430 22
440 27 3-6" "
Copenhagen 227 2 3-5" Slats pushed in at top
a Celery ? 384 11 Slight Poor nailing
rnia ? 340 1 None
a Beans Bountiful 537 14 Hamper wire pulled out
Peppers Ruby King 480 8 Tops off-poor nailing
rolina Radishes 600 95 Poor nailing and no bracing
rnia Lettuce Iceberg 318 57 33" 49.3 Bulge
a Tangerines 30 Trial shipment of 30 crates No re-coops
Oranges 20 20 "
Tangerines 349 0 0
Oranges '360 33 8.6 Excessive bulge





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 19

The evidence then seems to indicate that the bulge pack has
assumed such proportions in the produce business that grave
economic losses are directly or indirectly attributable to its use.
Consider, for example, the amount of produce which the grower
gives as a premium to attract the buyer to his product. Let us
assume that he has 12 carloads of 400 packages each and these


Fig. 11.-These over-packed crates of cabbage arrived in good condition
because of a light weight wire around each end. Note how well they are
braced by the transverse car strips. There is no evidence here of impact
damage.

are overpacked 25 percent by weight. He virtually furnishes the
buyer three cars of produce gratis. Of course, this would not be
a net profit to the grower for freight charges* would have to be
deducted as well as package and selling costs on these three cars.
The chief concern of the grower, however, should be in the
serious consequences which develop as a result of the high bulge
pack. These may be considered under two main heads: (1) the
damage inflicted upon the produce itself, due to too great pressure,

*But the railroads are not unmindful of the freight that they have been
hauling gratis, due to the overfull or bulge pack. They are asking for new
billing weights based upon the weight of the bulge pack containers.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


and (2) the breakage of the containers. These will be considered
in the order given.
Camp** has pointed out that grapefruit in bulge pack held in
cold storage for 30 days showed a deterioration of the fruits where
they were flattened by compression. Fifield*** found the same
for oranges. The tissue underneath the point of compression
seemed to break down and dry out, making the fruit unsalable.
This condition is shown in Fig. 12.


Fig. 12.-Cross-section of Marsh Seedless grapefruit from cold storage
experiments, showing internal breaking down due to pressure in packing.
(From Ann. Rept. 1931.)

An initial test on the effects of the bulge pack on the keeping
and ripening of tomatoes under conditions comparable to those in
transit and subsequent storage shows that 53.4% of the fruit by
weight was lost by crushing and decay in the usual bulge pack in
contrast to 36.7% loss in a flat pack, other factors being the same.
**Annual Rept., Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 1931.
***Thesis for Master's degree, 1932, Fla. Agr. College.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 21

The "usual" bulge is shown in Fig. 13 and one of the types of
injury incident to compression in such a bulge pack is shown in
Fig. 14.
Where crushed ice is used in the containers, the bulge pack
seems to be directly responsible for the laceration and bruising of
the plant tissue by the sharp ice particles. Such produce, espe-
cially lettuce, has been observed to rot and deteriorate very rapidly
when removed from the packages out of refrigeration.
The evidence shows, therefore, that when any produce such as


Fig. 13.-Over-full tomato lugs just loaded in car. This is not regarded
as a high bulge, yet the pressure necessary in nailing on the covers and
placing the car strips has distorted the shapes of a large percentage of the
tomatoes in this car. This means ruptured tissues that will "leak" when the
tomatoes begin ripening.


Fig. 14.-Tomatoes showing typical injury due to compression in bulge pack.
(Courtesy U. S. D. A.)





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


pomaceous fruits, grapes, citrus and even green tomatoes are sub-
jected to the great pressure usually necessary in the creation of a
bulge pack and the nailing on of the lids; that when such com-
pressed produce remains under this pressure for a period of days,
the plant tissues are badly bruised, distorted and ruptured. Such
goods are, therefore, subject to discount, damage-claim payments
or entire rejection on the part of the receiver. The losses and
costs thus accruing are passed to the grower.
There is another angle to the question of bulge packs that war-
rants some attention. This investigation shows that with the
growing demand on the part of the buyers for a higher and higher
bulge there has developed among certain shippers what may be
termed a "false pack." This has taken two forms. In certain
containers such as the double space citrus crate the center partition
has been raised so that it, rather than the fruit, takes the pressure
of the bulging lid. In the other case, the appearance of a high
bulge is given by pyramiding the fruit or vegetables in the con-
tainer. In this case no more produce is put into each container
than with the flat pack and in some cases the net weight of the





















Fig. 15.-On account of the bulge pack, these boxes of oranges could not be
loaded in the most approved fashion, but had to be set up end on end. The
covers are about 1 inch longer than the boxes. The height of the bulge was
not quite great enough to take up this excess length of cover. As a result,
the cover and not the box took the weight of the boxes and the load above,
forcing off the covers. The nails sheared through the cleats.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 23

contents was less than that of an ordinary flat pack. But the
pyramiding of the contents in the latter case subjected the produce
to the same pressure as in the true bulge pack.
In Table VI the number of broken packages in the car of produce
observed at the New York Pier No. 28 are indicated, together with
some of the most obvious reasons therefore. The bulge pack is
responsible for the majority of broken packages, yet there are
other causes.
As the car doors are opened to be unloaded at these markets,
anyone not familiar with the conditions rather expects to see the
produce in the orderly arrangement in which it started out from
the shipping point. But, after inspecting a considerable number
of cars, such an observer begins to realize that the number of cars
arriving with little or no breakage is quite small. Some typical
examples of the appearance of the produce as the cars are opened
are shown in Figs. 8, 9, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 23.










. ,. .4-.- -







Fig. 16.-Damage claims for this shipment were instituted against the rail-
road company on the grounds of "impact" damage. There is every evidence
of impact, but the whole trouble was a loose load to begin with.

At Pier 28, New York, an accurate count of all broken packages
in each car is made by the foreman who checks the total number
of packages from each car. A compilation of these data is shown
in Table VII giving the number of cars of fruits and vegetables
arriving each month and the total number of packages per month
that arrived in a broken condition. These latter figures have been
converted into equivalent cars using 400 packages as constituting





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 17.-Florida celery in the car showing broken packages due to faulty
nailing and bulge pack. Note how the leaves are crushed by the upper
crates, thus injuring the appearance of the product.
an average carload. The percentage of cars of broken packages
for vegetables and fruits are shown in the last two columns. The
data cover a period of 13 months from January, 1930, to January,
1931, inclusive.
TABLE VII.-MONTHLY ARRIVALS OF CARLOADS OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
SHOWING NUMBER OF BROKEN PACKAGES AT PIER 28, NEW YORK CITY.
No. of Cars No. Broken Pkgs. Broken Packages in
Month Vegetable Fruit Vegetable Fruit Equivalent Carloads
% %
Veg. Fruit Veg. Fruit
1930
January 2,692 2,600 30,380 15,150 76.0 37.9 2.82 1.46
February 3,113 2,315 73,294 37,283 183.2 93.2 5.89 4.05
March 3,764 2,297 103,016 43,488 258.0 108.6 6.86 4.70
April 4,564 1,803 96,398 41,840 241.0 104.6 528 5.70
May 6,107 1,825 53,832 24,223 134.7 60.6 2.20 3.32
June 6,214 2,014 61,479 18,064 153.8 45.2 2.47 2.24
July 2,840 2,538 34,828 12,536 87.2 31.3 3.07 1.23
August 757 2,475 16,361 17,437 40.9 43.6 5.40 1.76
September 778 1,191 13,626 10,228 34.0 25.6 4.37 2.15
October 1,086 1,489 17,575 13,447 43.9 33.6 4.04 2.26
November 1,727 1,814 20,256 17,597 50.6 44.0 2.93 2.42
December 2,803 2,423 29,575 26,502 73.9 66.3 263 2.73
1931
January 2,927 2,238 31,652 12,125 79.1 30.3 2.70 2.80
'Total 39,372 27,022 582,272 289,920
Mean 3,028.6 2,078.6 44,790.2 22,301.5112.0 55.75 3.90 2.83






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 25

One of the interesting facts disclosed by the above data is
the sharp rise in the percentage of broken vegetable containers
during the months of February, March and April, a time that
corresponds with the maximum movement of vegetables from
Florida. There is another slight rise during the months of
August, September and October. The largest percentage of
broken fruit packages is in February, March and April, the
months of greatest movement of Florida citrus. In general it
will be observed that the breakage is much greater with vege-
table than with fruit packages. Only two exceptions are noted,
these in May and December. Information was not available to
determine the reasons for this fact. Data for only one month
of 1931 were available, but it is interesting to note that the per-
centage of broken packages of fruit was almost double that for
the same month, 1930.
Table VII shows that in the 13 months covered, there were
885,192 broken packages handled. If all the broken packages
containing vegetables were loaded into cars of 400 packages
each it would make a train of 1,456 cars or 37 percent of all cars
shipped. On the same basis, there would have been 723 cars
of broken fruit containers or nearly 27 percent of all the cars of
fruit shipped.
Figures for breakage of vegetable and fruit packages com-
bined for the years 1929, 1930, 1931, are as follows:
1929 1930 1931
Total cars unloaded .................... 58,726 60,429 61,289
Total broken packages.................. 1,172,456 838,415 895,275
Percent equivalent cars of broken packages 49.9 34.7 36.5
Taking the total figures for 1929, 1930 and 1931, there is a
tendency toward a reduction in the percentage of broken con-
tainers. This seems to indicate that shippers are beginning to
realize that broken packages constitute a serious liability to the
produce industry. But when 36.5 percent of the containers
handled at this one terminal market in 1931 were received in a
broken condition, it means that there is still much room for im-
provement.
CAUSES OF BROKEN PACKAGES
Engineers have designed packages of various sizes based upon
the volume specified by the Bureau of Standards of the U. S.
Dept. of Agriculture. These packages are constructed to with-
stand certain normal stresses and strains. When they are over-
packed, necessitating lids or covers an inch or more longer than






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the crate so as to make them reach, it is obvious that such con-
tainers are subjected to abnormal strains for which they were
not designed. A considerable breakage therefore is to be ex-


Fig. 18.-Car of peppers showing effect of impact and loose loading. Only
two transverse car strips per tier were used, allowing the load to shift and
telescope. There is evidence, also, of careless nailing.
pected. Some examples of such breakage are shown in Figs. 9,
10, 15, 17, and 18.
IRREGULAR LOADING OR STOWING
The high bulge pack has made the normal and most acceptable
methods of stowing the packages in the car impracticable or im-
possible. The hamper, for example, when overfilled with cabbage,
as shown in Figs. 6, 8, and 19, cannot be loaded alternately with
tops and bottoms up (Fig. 24) but must be loaded on their sides.
Consider also the packages of citrus in Figs. 15 and 16. The
high bulge pack dictates the loading of the containers on end.
This does not admit of as tight and secure a load as if they were
loaded end to end with the tops up. As it is, many of the covers
on the lower layers of boxes have been forced off. This is due




























Cb










Fig. 19.-The over-full or bulged cabbage hampers are difficult to handle on hand trucks. Either the hampers slide
or the contents sift out as they are transported from the car to the pier. Note the difference (in the background) of
the hampers of beans at the right and those of cabbage at tle left. For beans the hamper does very well.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to the fact that the covers are made an inch or more longer than
the boxes and unless the bulge is high enough to absorb this
excess length, the covers will project over the ends of the boxes
and take the weight not only of that box but of the entire load
on top of it. A shearing of the end cleats by the nails is inevitable,
due to the leverage produced, especially when the load shifts and
the boxes are tilted as shown in Fig. 15.
The normal position for loading the Western lettuce crate is top
up. Note how impossible this method is from an examination
of Fig. 11. These crates were so designed that the upright posts.


Fig. 20.-Three desirable containers, adaptable to a wide variety of prod-
uce. They are made in various sizes, and are strong but light in weight.
Each of them fulfills the requirements of good containers.

at the corner joints would sustain a heavy load. When placed on
its side, however, the cross-head pieces are required to take the
load and are not equal to it and a large percentage of breakage





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 29

results. The large bulging tops are the weakest part of the crate,
so that with the sidewise rocking of the car when in motion many
of these give way, as shown in Figs. 9, 10, and 16.
POOR AND ILL-ADAPTED CONTAINERS
The development of suitable containers in which to market
perishable produce has been quite unscientific. From the begin-
ning of the industry when old bags and boxes of odd shapes and
sizes were used up until the present time some progress has been
made toward the ideal container. But every producing area
developed a number of containers of various types and sizes
peculiar to that area, with little or no thought of the basic prin-
ciples involved. The result has been a great multiplicity of mis-


Fig. 21.-Carload of cabbage as it arrived at the Chicago market. Note
the lack of appreciable bulge or loose pack. There is no evidence of load
shifts, because the container lends itself to regular and safe stowing and
bracing. No breakage and no damage claims entered into the handling of
this car, and it brought top price.

cellaneous containers that tradition continues in use, although
many of them have no real merit, especially in view of the present
trends in market demands, keen competition, and the bulge pack.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


An acceptable container for fruits and vegetables should pro-
vide:
1. Maximum strength with minimum weight.
2. Adequate ventilation.
3. Ease and rapidity of handling and safety of stowing.
4. Advantageous display of the produce without subjecting it
to injury.
5. Adaptability to various kinds of fruits and vegetables so as
to reduce the number of types to a minimum.
6. Fixtures for ease of opening for inspection.
7. The price should be reasonable.
The increased freight charges arising from the excessive weight
of packages alone is a factor that cannot be disregarded when
fractions of cents per unit mean great sums in the aggregate.
One illustration of the continued use of a container that is far too
heavy and bulky is the potato barrel. Not only is the initial cost
of this container large but the shipping weight is 185 lbs. against
the net weight of 165. If a bushel box weighing but 4 lbs. were
substituted for the barrel, 1,664 lbs. per car of useless weight
could be saved. The assumption here is that 185 barrels con-
stitute an average carload.


Fig. 22.-The use of mesh bags for such commodities as cabbage and new
potatoes is being tried. Perhaps this may partly solve the breakage problem.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 31

The barrel is also a good example of an undesirable container
from the standpoint of ease of handling, ease of inspection, and
the displaying of the contents to good advantage, and it may be
open to the further objection that it provides inadequate venti-
lation.
In contrast, examine Figures 20, 21, and 22. The containers
shown here possess all the requirements of good containers as
listed above, as well as two other desirable, though not essential,
features: (1) They are manufactured in several sizes-as the
bushel, 11/2 bushel and 2/% bushel. This makes them adaptable to
a considerable number of vegetables or fruits such as carrots,
corn, cucumbers, cabbage, beets, peppers, eggplants, potatoes
(both Irish and sweet), squash, lettuce and other leafy vegetables
requiring package icing. They may also be used for citrus, pears
and muskmelons. (2) These containers do not admit of a high
bulge. The adoption of such containers would insure a small
initial cost on the basis of quantity production and, of still greater
consequence, they would give Florida a limited number of types
of real merit.
Certain light weight containers have been used for heavy and
odd-shaped produce for which they are ill adapted. The veneer






















Fig. 23.-This car was designated as having "arrived in bad condition."
Note how the covers of the hampers have sprung or come off, allowing the
contents to sift out, mixing three grades of cucumbers on the floor of the car.






















Ti



I jr

not-~


Fig. 24.-For light weight produce, such as peas and beans, th e hamper is satisfactory. The veneer top here shown and most
commonly seen should be replaced by the cross-wise slat ted top. (See page 44, Dulaney's Loading Rules No. 7.)





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 33

hamper, for example, is not a suitable package for cabbage, cu-
cumbers, beets, carrots, radishes, lettuce, sweet corn or peppers,
especially where a bulge pack is attempted. Figures 8, 19, 23,
and 24 show the appearance at the market of some of these com-
modities in hampers. One buyer of Florida lettuce stated that
he paid only for the two top layers in each hamper, for this was
all he could count on. If more were good he was just lucky. This
condition is no doubt due in part to the conical shape of the
hamper which tends toward greater compression and lack of
aeration at the small end. Package icing in the hamper also is
impractical. For beans and possibly peas the hamper may serve
a purpose. Where no bulge is used and the tops are well secured
onto the inner hoops of the hamper, it is a rather attractive pack-
age, as shown in Fig. 24.
A striking illustration of a container that exhibits the contents
to good advantage in contrast to one that does not is afforded in
Fig. 25.
Another impractical and cheap package is shown in Fig. 26.
The lack of rigidity of the side walls of the round bottomed basket
permits it to compress or sag under pressure, damaging the pro-
duce and allowing it to sift out. Fortunately, this container has
practically disappeared from the trade. The tub basket with
built-up bottom has replaced it. In 1931 the Georgia peach crop
was marketed with relatively little loss and at satisfactory prices
where the quantity per package was limited to four pecks of
peaches and the top .layer ring-packed. In previous years an
attempt had been made to crowd five pecks into the round-bot-
tomed basket. The consequent waste, damage and loss were
very large.
There is a tendency on the part of growers to demand light
weight and cheap containers without due consideration to
strength. The kinds and sources of woods used for packages vary
widely in their ability to resist stress and strain. Cross-grained
and knotty pieces should be carefully avoided.
IMPROPER ASSEMBLING AND CARELESS NAILING
The proper sizes and kinds of nails as well as the number and
placement in various containers have been carefully studied by
engineers. As a result, specifications on these points are now
made for all packages admitted to the railroad tariff schedules.*
Failure to observe these regulations is responsible for a con-
siderable part of the breakage of packages in transit and handling
at the markets. As examples, examine Figures 17 and 18. The













Kii~r~ ~L Lri1 ti


Fig. 25.-Note the difference in general appearance between Florida celery (left) and that at the right. The crate on
the right' displays the contents to excellent advantage. It is the stalks that should be exhibited, and not the leaves.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 35


Fig. 26.-Much of the damage that occurred to this car of peppers in round
bottom baskets is due to an improper, ill-adapted container.

side pieces were nailed with too short a nail. It requires a much
longer nail to withstand the same stress when driven with the
grain of the wood than when driven at right angles to it. As light
as peppers are, there is little excuse for broken packages. Con-
tainers assembled on the piece basis are frequently faulty and
the saving of a few cents in this connection frequently means the
loss of dollars at the market on account of breakage.
The bulge pack has made the secure nailing of the lids difficult.
The angle at which the lids rest upon the head piece during this
operation does not make a good job the rule. The tendency is to
drive the nails at an angle rather than squarely into the head
piece, thus splitting it and weakening their holding force. Obser-
vations at the packinghouses fully confirm the statement. (See
Fig. 17.)


*The tariff schedule that applies to Florida is called the Dulaney Tariff.






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 25

One of the interesting facts disclosed by the above data is
the sharp rise in the percentage of broken vegetable containers
during the months of February, March and April, a time that
corresponds with the maximum movement of vegetables from
Florida. There is another slight rise during the months of
August, September and October. The largest percentage of
broken fruit packages is in February, March and April, the
months of greatest movement of Florida citrus. In general it
will be observed that the breakage is much greater with vege-
table than with fruit packages. Only two exceptions are noted,
these in May and December. Information was not available to
determine the reasons for this fact. Data for only one month
of 1931 were available, but it is interesting to note that the per-
centage of broken packages of fruit was almost double that for
the same month, 1930.
Table VII shows that in the 13 months covered, there were
885,192 broken packages handled. If all the broken packages
containing vegetables were loaded into cars of 400 packages
each it would make a train of 1,456 cars or 37 percent of all cars
shipped. On the same basis, there would have been 723 cars
of broken fruit containers or nearly 27 percent of all the cars of
fruit shipped.
Figures for breakage of vegetable and fruit packages com-
bined for the years 1929, 1930, 1931, are as follows:
1929 1930 1931
Total cars unloaded .................... 58,726 60,429 61,289
Total broken packages.................. 1,172,456 838,415 895,275
Percent equivalent cars of broken packages 49.9 34.7 36.5
Taking the total figures for 1929, 1930 and 1931, there is a
tendency toward a reduction in the percentage of broken con-
tainers. This seems to indicate that shippers are beginning to
realize that broken packages constitute a serious liability to the
produce industry. But when 36.5 percent of the containers
handled at this one terminal market in 1931 were received in a
broken condition, it means that there is still much room for im-
provement.
CAUSES OF BROKEN PACKAGES
Engineers have designed packages of various sizes based upon
the volume specified by the Bureau of Standards of the U. S.
Dept. of Agriculture. These packages are constructed to with-
stand certain normal stresses and strains. When they are over-
packed, necessitating lids or covers an inch or more longer than





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


LOAD SHIFTS AND IMPACTS

Reference to Table VI shows that some breakage of containers
is ascribed to load shifts and impacts. That impacts do occur no
one doubts, for a heavy train that must be moved in a minimum
of time over all kinds of country in all sorts of weather cannot be
handled like a dozen pullman cars. This fact has been recognized
by the carriers and they have carried on much research work in
trying to devise methods of stowing and bracing that will success-
fully protect goods from damage by ordinary impacts. The re-
sults of these investigations and the loading rules, known as the
Dulaney Tariffs, are available to all Florida growers and shippers.
A sample page is reproduced, giving detailed loading directions
for crates:

STANDARD CONTAINERS AND LOADING RULES NO. 7.
LOADING RULES FOR CRATES
BUSHEL CRATE-TYPES A AND B.. SMALL CABBAGE CRATE.
5-PECK CRATE. CABBAGE BARREL CRATE-TYPES A AND J
PEPPER CRATE. WIREBOUND VEGETABLE CRATE.
PINEAPPLE CRATE. WIREBOUND BARREL CRATE.
LETTUCE CRATE. WIREBOUND HALF-BARREL CRATE.
SMALL VEGETABLE CRATE. WIREBOUND CORN CRATE.
CAULIFLOWER CRATE.
1. All crates must be loaded lengthwise of the car, either with tops up or
on the sides.
2. Loading First Stack at Each End of Car: Place crates in first layer
across the car on floor tight against bunker wall, leaving equal spaces between
crates and also between crates and car wall if desired.
3. Apply two carstrips to the top of the crates directly over the ends of
the crates, one strip butting against one car wall and the other strip butting
against the opposite wall. Carstrips must be of dimensions not less than
inch by 1 inch by 8 feet; they must be of sound lumber and of uniform
thickness.
4. Each strip must be nailed to each crate with one nail, either cement-
coated or plain, of a length not less than 1/ inch nor more than %/ inch greater
than the thickness of the carstrip.
5. Complete the stack by placing additional crates directly above those
already in place. All layers must be stripped and the strips nailed as de-
scribed in paragraphs 3 and 4.
6. Loading Remaining Stacks: Place second stack of crates across car
in front of crates in first stack with all crates in tight contact with crates in
the first stack. Strip each layer and nail each strip in the same manner as
described for the first stack. Load succeeding stacks in the same manner,
keeping crates tight against crates previously loaded, and stripping and
nailing strips to each layer.
7. Filling Excess Space: When the crates do not entirely fill the length-
wise space in the car, brace the load by the use of a center gate, an end bulk-
head or bulkheads, and/or spacing strips as described in paragraphs 8, 9,
and 10.
8. Bracing the Load with a Center Gate: Brace the load with a center
gate (type A) constructed as described on page 52, using one crosspiece on
each side of the gate for each layer of crates or with a center gate (type B)
constructed as described on page 53, using one upright on each side of the
gate for each row of crates.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 37

9. Bracing the Load with an End Bulkhead: Brace the load with an end
bulkhead or bulkheads (type A) constructed as described on page 54, using
one crosspiece for each layer of crates or with an end bulkhead or bulkheads
(type B), constructed as described on page 55, using one upright for each
row of crates.
10. Bracing the Load with Spacing Strips: Place one strip horizontally
against the center of each layer of crates, nailing it securely with one nail to
each crate. Strips must be of uniform thickness and not less than 1 inch
wide. Not more than 1% inches of space may be taken up between any two
adjacent stacks, and not more than two strips may be used at any one place,
one being nailed on top of the other. Not more than six inches of space may
be taken up in the car through the use of spacing strips; if the space in the car
is greater than six inches, some or all of it must be taken up by an end bulk-
head or bulkheads or the entire space may be taken up by a center gate.
In Figures 15, 16, 18 and 23 is shown typical damage due to
improper loading. Car 62328, shown in Fig. 18, had but one trans-
verse car strip between the third and fourth tiers of crates when
the loading stipulations require such stripping for every tier at
both ends of the crates. The load shifted and the crates nested.
In Car 66063, Fig.
27, the spacing
strip brace was
valueless due to
the initial loose-
ness of the load
and the brace was
not constructed
according to regu-
lations. An end
gate or center
gate should have
been used. Loose
loading can be
overcome effec-
tively only by
using jacks. Car
No. 37719 was a
car of radishes
with no evidence
of any bracing.
There were 95
broken containers
in this one car.
in this one cFig. 27.-The result of a loose load. The center gate
Thebuckling of brace was of no value. The boxes have shifted and
the containers in telescoped or "nested."
Car 51338, Fig. 16, is clearly the result of impact. But prior to
the impact there was a loose load which shifted. Contrast this





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 28.-This car arrived wit1 out any breakage. It, too, was subjected to
impacts incident to the moving of a heavy train, but it had been properly
stowed and braced. Note the absence of bulge pack.

with the conditions shown in Figures 11, 21, and 28, where jacks
were used before the cars were released. Cars of citrus from
Florida are evidently much less carefully stowed and braced than
those from California. Greater breakage and more damage
claims result to Florida fruit, as indicated by the following report
from an experienced market observer:
"Pittsburgh Produce Terminal advise that 25 to 50 percent of
the loss and damage to shipments of oranges and grapefruit from
Florida is due to bulge pack and excessive bulge pack. There is
practically no loss and damage to this commodity from California
due to this cause, a flatter pack being used.
"The shipments from California are very well stowed, while
shipments from Florida are poorly stowed; most of damage from
California due to cut sides and easily repaired."
It is possible to reduce losses due to impact almost to the van-
ishing point with little or no additional expense to the shipper.
Such expense should be looked upon as exceedingly cheap insur-
ance, for the losses and costs which accrue at the markets very
quickly outweigh the costs of a thorough job at the point of origin
(Fig. 28).






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 39

During the month of November, 1931, 45 cars of eggs were
shipped from the Pacific coast to Eastern markets-a distance of
about 3,000 miles. These were in trains of vegetables and fruits,
and were therefore subjected to all the impacts which they re-
ceived. Of the 9,000,000 eggs only 546 were broken-only 1 out
of 16,000 or about 1 doz. per car. The damage claims on eggs
are therefore exceedingly low. The standard egg crate is very
fragile, but, by adhering to well-known methods of stowing and
bracing, the breakage in transit and consequent loss is almost
negligible.
BREAKAGE INCIDENT TO UNLOADING
Produce in cars to be unloaded at Pier 28, New York, is brought
over from the Jersey shore on large floats-10 cars per float.
When the cars are run onto these floats it sometimes happens that
the doorway of the car loaded last at point of origin is to the
outside of the float. Since the runway is in the center of the
float, the "breaking of the load", that is, getting out the first
package, is quite difficult in such cases and sometimes a package
or two is broken in this way. Also, when top ice has been used,
sometimes packages are frozen together and in separating them
an occasional package is broken.
BREAKAGE DUE TO TOP ICING

When large cakes of ice are thrown on top of the packages in
a loaded car some breakage results at that time (Fig. 9). Top
icing should be done with cracked or flaked ice. This would also
do away with the breakage incident to the melting ice softening
the slats of the containers and crushing the contents. While
breakage and damage to produce from this cause do not appear
to be large, it is a contributing factor, and can and should be
stopped.
WILFUL BREAKAGE

At most of the important market terminals there is a type of
receiver who has no hesitancy in wilfully breaking the packages
as he unloads the car. This affords him, first, an opportunity of
heavily discounting the price paid for the produce, and, second,
he can institute damage claims against the carrier. If both suc-
ceed, as they too frequently do, he is in a position to undersell the
honest consignee and at the same time make a large profit. So
prevalent did this practice become at one large market that the
railroad company was compelled to put guards in the yards while






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the cars were being unloaded. If broken packages were not the
rule, these disreputable operators could not use this method of
carrying on their nefarious trade. Its connection with the bulge
pack is evident. The method of unloading the produce at the New
York Terminal does not admit of this practice.
RESULTS OF BREAKAGE
1. Creates bad psychological effect upon all who handle or see
the produce.
2. Causes a mixing of grades.
3. Causes damage to produce.
4. Makes payment of re-cooperage charges necessary.
5. Provides the basis for the filing and payment of most dam-
age claims.
Each of these factors is considered, in the order given.
1. Creates bad psychological effect upon all who handle or see
the produce.
Consider, for example, the natural reaction of a prospective
buyer, railroad employee, market inspector or any visitor at the


Fig. 29.-Cabbage packed in Western lettuce crates, supposed to hold 2%
bushels. Note the very high bulge. These crates were over-packed about
18 percent by weight. This lot was just opposite the Florida cabbage shown
in Fig. 27.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 41

terminals to the conditions exhibited in Figures 9, 10, 16, 17, 18,
19, 23, and 26. It is important to remember that such produce
is not the only produce upon the market, but that large quantities
of well-graded, attractive-appearing vegetables and fruits are
offered on this same market, such as shown in Figures 21, 22, 24,
25, and 29. If one assumes for a moment the role of buyer, it is
evident which lot he would choose and for which he would will-
ingly pay the best price. But the buyer is not the only one who
contributes toward giving produce from any given area a good
or bad reputation. Even the stevedores readily recognize the
origin of various packages and rate them as good or bad (Fig. 19).
2. Causes a mixing of grades.
Where ill-adapted, poorly-constructed or improperly stowed
containers such as shown in Figures 18 and 23 are used for
vegetables or fruits of two or more grades in the same car, a
mixture of these grades is imminent. The broken containers in
these cases were re-coopered and then refilled from the mixture
of grades on the floor of the car, so that the cost of the original
grading was lost, since the produce sold as "ungraded." Not
only did the shipper of these cars of peppers and cucumbers lose
heavily, but all growers and shippers of peppers and cucumbers,
especially from that same territory, were penalized on that market
on account of the bad cars. A few such arrivals can and often
do completely demoralize an otherwise steady market.
3. Causes damage to produce.
Fruits and vegetables of most kinds cannot be shunted about
and bruised without inflicting serious damage thereto. When
the cabbage shown in Figures 8, 10, and 19 were repacked, many
of the heads had been torn. A considerable number of citrus
fruits were cut, mashed and bruised as the result of the load shift
shown in Fig. 16.
Such conditions do afford the unscrupulous buyers and jobbers
an opportunity of heavily discounting the price and at the same
time filing damage claims, even when the contents of the packages
show little or no actual damage.
4. Makes payment of re-cooperage charges necessary.
On the night of February 14, 1932, there were 468 cars of vege-
tables and fruits unloaded at Pier 28 in New York. This required
a force of 315 men working from 4 p. m. Sunday until daylight
Monday. Forty-seven of these men, or approximately 15 percent,
spent their entire time re-coopering broken packages. In Fig.
10, 56 broken crates out of a load of 320 are shown being re-coop-
ered on the pier. The men who re-cooper these packages are






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


equipped with spare parts of all the principal containers that come
into that market and they have become very adept at making
over badly wrecked containers. This service is a necessity and
must be paid for either directly or indirectly by the growers. It
should therefore be evident that responsibility for a carload of
produce does not cease when the seal is attached at the loading
point.
5. Provides the basis for the filing and payment of most damage
claims.
In 1930 the railroads of the United States disbursed $36,239,240
for loss and damage claims. Of this amount, $5,762,019, or
approximately 16%, was for fresh vegetables, the largest single
item. Two and eight-tenths percent, or $1,020,105, went to pay
damage claims for citrus fruits.
Considering some of the chief fresh produce items separately,
the data given in Table VIII are illuminating.

TABLE VIII.-Loss AND DAMAGE CLAIMS DISBURSED BY THE RAILROADS OF
THE UNITED STATES FOR THE YEAR 1930, FOR 18 COMMODITIES; ALSO AVERAGE
AMOUNT PAID ON FLORIDA SHIPMENTS BASED UPON NATIONAL FIGURES.


Commodity
Tomatoes
Carrots
Cantaloupes
Cauliflower
Lettuce
Cucumbers
Peppers
Plums-Prunes
Lemons
Watermelons
Oranges
Grapefruit
Mixed vegetables
Celery
Strawberries
Cabbage
Potatoes-White
-Sweet


Cars
Originated
34,137
12,299
23,826
10,040
55,636
7,616
3,140
8,712
14,250
58,759
64,200
19,981
31,127
26,326
10,535
38,059
251,800
18,543


Loss and Damage
Amount Per car


$1,366,783
366,901
542,498
222,127
1,128,395
150,806
57,988
156,939
178,014
603,958
627,705
183,335
293,925
246,179
76,994
173,294
579,084
98,967


$40.04
29.83
22.77
22.12
20.28
19.80
18.47
18.02
12.49
10.28
9.78
9.17
9.44
9.35
7.31
4.55
2.30
5.34


Cost in
No. cars, Fla. damage
av. 1921-31 claims
8,082 $323,603.28
5 149.15
34 774.18
7 154.84
1,741 35,307.48
1,885 37,323.00
1,552 28,665.44
0 ........
0
8,376 86,105.28
23,745 232,226.10
19,906 182,538.02
3,636 34,323.84
7,946 74,295.10
1,110 8,114.10
2,310 10,510.50
5,290 12,167.00
128 683.52


Total .................


...................... 85,753


$1,066,940.83


The most striking fact shown in the above table is the large
amount paid per car and in the aggregate in damage claims for
tomatoes. It represents nearly three times that paid for the
average commodity. From the research work already referred
to, regarding the effects of the bulge pack, much of this loss is
undoubtedly attributable directly to this one cause.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 43

The total damage claims paid of over a million dollars per year
represent a loss of this amount to the growers of Florida annually.
In fact, it is larger than the amount shown, for the citrus ship-
ments in the past two years have exceeded the average for the
9-year period by a considerable margin. This is also true of straw-
berries and watermelons, and the data do not include beans and
some fruits. Furthermore, there is evidence that the damage
claims paid per car on some of the commodities from Florida are
larger than the average for the country, thus swelling the total
claims.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Evidence has been advanced that indicates the failure of Florida
to maintain her quota of increased production of a majority of
her vegetable crops as compared to competing areas. New pro-
duction areas are crowding Florida vegetables off the markets
through the creation of better varieties, closer grading and the
use of better and more attractive packages.
The bulge pack is directly and indirectly costing the vegetable
and fruit growers millions of dollars annually. Not only do they
lose a legitimate profit on the excess produce put into each over-
packed container, but the consequent damage to the produce and
the package paves the way for discounted prices, re-cooperage
charges and immense damage claim payments, all of which the
growers pay. The indications are that relatively few damage
claims are collected by the growers, the chief beneficiaries being
the receivers and shippers.
The breakage of containers in transit due to poor nailing and
assembling as well as the use of poor containers is far too great.
These factors, coupled with loose stowing and lack of correct
bracing of the load in the car, result in large losses. Growers
must realize that a carload of well-graded, properly packed prod-
uce stowed in the car according to tariff regulations has a real
intrinsic value, ranging from hundreds to thousands of dollars;
that such a car will arrive at the markets in first-class condition
under ordinary circumstances, and that the chances of realizing
a profit on such a car are many times greater than on many that
are now rolling. In many instances such better order cars could
be put into the markets at no greater cost than is now expended.
Better management and supervision of labor appear to be needed.
But, granting that such costs may be somewhat increased at point
of origin, they must be regarded as excellent insurance against
huge losses at the point of destination. In the field of competitive






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the cars were being unloaded. If broken packages were not the
rule, these disreputable operators could not use this method of
carrying on their nefarious trade. Its connection with the bulge
pack is evident. The method of unloading the produce at the New
York Terminal does not admit of this practice.
RESULTS OF BREAKAGE
1. Creates bad psychological effect upon all who handle or see
the produce.
2. Causes a mixing of grades.
3. Causes damage to produce.
4. Makes payment of re-cooperage charges necessary.
5. Provides the basis for the filing and payment of most dam-
age claims.
Each of these factors is considered, in the order given.
1. Creates bad psychological effect upon all who handle or see
the produce.
Consider, for example, the natural reaction of a prospective
buyer, railroad employee, market inspector or any visitor at the


Fig. 29.-Cabbage packed in Western lettuce crates, supposed to hold 2%
bushels. Note the very high bulge. These crates were over-packed about
18 percent by weight. This lot was just opposite the Florida cabbage shown
in Fig. 27.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


selling, a good reputation cannot be over-valued and at the present
time Florida produce does not generally enjoy this distinction. In
order to establish a reputation for high quality and at the same
time effectively reduce the losses now sustained, the following
recommendations are offered:
1. Careful and constant investigations to determine the market
demands.
2. The creation of new and better adapted varieties and strains
of fruits and vegetables through a systematic program of plant
introduction, plant breeding and selection.
3. The planting of vegetables and fruits should be limited to
only a few of those strains and varieties that show a clear adapta-
tion to the Florida environment and that are in good demand on
the markets. This would insure more uniform and higher quality.
4. Closer grading and inspection at point of origin.
5. Strong, light and easily handled packages that display the
contents to advantage should be used. The number of kinds and
types of such containers should be reduced to a minimum in
the interests of standardization and ease of selling as well as the
economy of buying such containers. A rectangular shaped con-
tainer admitting of no large bulge is the logical type, so far as
packing, stowing and handling with the least breakage and loss
are concerned.
6. A strict adherence to the loading rules as specified in the
Dulaney tariff, both as to the assembling and nailing of the con-
tainers and to the stowing and bracing of the load, would effec-
tively reduce waste.





Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 43

The total damage claims paid of over a million dollars per year
represent a loss of this amount to the growers of Florida annually.
In fact, it is larger than the amount shown, for the citrus ship-
ments in the past two years have exceeded the average for the
9-year period by a considerable margin. This is also true of straw-
berries and watermelons, and the data do not include beans and
some fruits. Furthermore, there is evidence that the damage
claims paid per car on some of the commodities from Florida are
larger than the average for the country, thus swelling the total
claims.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Evidence has been advanced that indicates the failure of Florida
to maintain her quota of increased production of a majority of
her vegetable crops as compared to competing areas. New pro-
duction areas are crowding Florida vegetables off the markets
through the creation of better varieties, closer grading and the
use of better and more attractive packages.
The bulge pack is directly and indirectly costing the vegetable
and fruit growers millions of dollars annually. Not only do they
lose a legitimate profit on the excess produce put into each over-
packed container, but the consequent damage to the produce and
the package paves the way for discounted prices, re-cooperage
charges and immense damage claim payments, all of which the
growers pay. The indications are that relatively few damage
claims are collected by the growers, the chief beneficiaries being
the receivers and shippers.
The breakage of containers in transit due to poor nailing and
assembling as well as the use of poor containers is far too great.
These factors, coupled with loose stowing and lack of correct
bracing of the load in the car, result in large losses. Growers
must realize that a carload of well-graded, properly packed prod-
uce stowed in the car according to tariff regulations has a real
intrinsic value, ranging from hundreds to thousands of dollars;
that such a car will arrive at the markets in first-class condition
under ordinary circumstances, and that the chances of realizing
a profit on such a car are many times greater than on many that
are now rolling. In many instances such better order cars could
be put into the markets at no greater cost than is now expended.
Better management and supervision of labor appear to be needed.
But, granting that such costs may be somewhat increased at point
of origin, they must be regarded as excellent insurance against
huge losses at the point of destination. In the field of competitive







Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 45

APPENDIX

Official United States and Florida Standards for the grading of
the principal fruits and vegetables.

STRING BEANS, WAX OR GREEN
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of beans of similar varietal characteristics which
are fairly bright, fresh, fairly young and tender, firm, of reasonably uniform
size, and free from damage caused by dirt, leaves, leaf stems, foreign matter,
hail, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by weight, of the beans in any lot may be below
the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed a total of 5 percent, shall
be allowed for the defects causing serious damage, and not more than 2-5 of
this amount or 2 percent, shall be allowed for beans affected with soft rot.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of beans of similar varietal characteristics which
are fairly fresh, firm and free from serious damage caused by dirt, leaves,
leaf stems, foreign matter, hail, disease, insects, or mechanical or other
means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by weight, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of this grade.
Unclassified shall consist of beans which are not graded in conformity
with any of these grades.
U. S. Fancy is provided for the use of those who wish a special grade for
the superior beans which meet its requirements. -
U. S. Fancy shall consist of beans of similar varietal characteristics which
are well formed, bright, clean, fresh, young and tender, firm, of reasonably
uniform size and free from damage caused by leaves, leaf stems, foreign
matter, hail, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by weight, of the beans in any lot may be below
the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed a total of 5 percent, shall
be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than 2-5 of
this amount or 2 percent, shall be allowed for beans affected with soft rot.
DEFINITION OF GRADE TERMS
As used in these grades:
1. "Similar varietal characteristics" means that the beans in any con-
tainer are of the same color and general type. For example, wax and green
beans, or beans of the Refugee and Valentine types must not be mixed.
2. "Firm" means that the beans are not wilted or flabby.
3. "Damage" means that the beans are injured to an extent readily
apparent upon examination. Beans showing spots due to Blight, Anthrac-
nose or similar spots are damaged.
4. "Serious damage" means that the beans are injured to such an extent
as to seriously injure the appearance or keeping quality of the lot.
March 31, 1927.
BUNCHED BEETS
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of beets of similar varietal characteristics which
are firm, fairly smooth, free from decay and from damage caused by growth
cracks, dirt, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means. The tops shall
be fresh and either full size or cut back to not less than 6 inches in length.
Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of the beets shall be 11
inches.
In order to allow for variation incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 5 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the specified






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


minimum diameter. In addition, not more than 10 percent, by count, of any
lot may be below the remaining requirements of this grade but not more
than one-tenth of this amount, or 1 percent, shall be allowed for decay.
Unclassified shall consist of beets which are not graded in conformity
with the foregoing grade.
SIZE TERMS
The following terms are provided for describing the diameters of any
lot: Small means less than 2 inches; Medium means 2 to 3 inches inclusive;
Large means over 3 inches.
BUNCHING
Bunches shall be fairly uniform in size.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Damage" means any injury which materially affects the appearance of
the lot and causes appreciable waste in the ordinary preparation for use.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension of the root taken at right
angles to the longitudinal axis.
"Firm" means that the beets are not soft, flabby or shriveled.
"Fresh" means that tops of beets are not badly wilted and are practically
free from discolored or decayed leaves.
August 9, 1927.
CABBAGE
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of heads of cabbage which are of one type, of
reasonable solidity and well trimmed; which are not soft, withered, puffy or
burst; which are free from soft rot, seed stems and from damage caused by
discoloration, freezing, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by weight, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of this grade but not to exceed one-fifth of this amount or 2 percent
may be allowed for decay.
U. S. NO. 2
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of heads of cabbage which do not meet the re-
quirements of the foregoing grades.
SIZE
In addition to the statement of grade, any lot may be classified as Small,
Medium, Large, Small to Medium, or Medium to Large.
Pointed: Small, under 11/ lbs.; Medium, 11/2 to 3 lbs.; Large, over 3 lbs.
Domestic; Small, under 2 lbs.; Medium, 2 to 5 lbs.; Large, over 5 Ibs.
Danish: Small, 3 lbs.; Medium, 3 to 6 lbs.; Large, over 6 lbs.
In order to allow for variations in sizing not more than a total of 15 per-
cent, by weight, of any lot may vary from the size specifications but not more
than 10 percent may be either above or below requirements for each class.
This tolerance is in addition to the tolerance for the grade.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"One type" means that all the lot is Pointed, Danish, Domestic, Savoy or
Red as the case may be. Pointed type includes such varieties as Early Jersey
Wakefield, Charleston Wakefield, Early York, Winningstadt, and others
which normally develop oblong, conical or pointed shaped heads. Danish
type includes such late maturing varieties as Danish Ballheads or Hollander,
Danish Roundhead, etc., and such early maturing varieties as Cannonball,
Danish Summer Ballhead, etc., which normally develop hard, tight leaved,
compactly formed heads. A head of any such variety even after trimming






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 47

will appear tight and smooth leaved around the basal portion and when
viewed from the stem end, circular and regular in outline. Domestic types
include such varieties as Succession, All Head Early, Flat Dutch and others
that are commonly termed Domestic and which normally develop heads flat
in shape and less compactly formed than those of the Danish type. The
term also includes such varieties as Copenhagen, Glory of Enkhuizen and
others that develop heads roundish in shape but which in solidity of head
and storage qualities are similar to the Flat Domestic type.
"Reasonable solidity" means fairly firm for pointed type cabbage and
southern Domestic type cabbage. Northern Domestic type cabbage shall be
firm and Danish or Hollander type fairly hard.
"Well trimmed" means that the head shall have not more than four
wrapper leaves attached and any portion of these leaves appreciably injured
by worms or other means shall be removed, and the stem shall be not longer
than one-half inch.
"Soft" means loosely formed or lacking compactness.
"Puffy" means that the heads are very light in weight in comparison to
size and have air spaces in the central portion. They normally feel firm at
time of harvesting but soften quickly. They are known as "Balloon Heads"
in certain sections.
"Seed stems" means those heads which have seed stalks showing or in
which the formation of seed stalks has plainly begun.
"Free from damage" means that the head shall not be injured to an extent
readily apparent upon examination.
Oct. 1, 1924.
BUNCHED CARROTS
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of carrots of similar varietal characteristics which
are firm, fairly well formed, fairly smooth, free from decay and from damage
caused by growth cracks, dirt, disease, insects, mechanical or other means.
The tops shall be fresh and either full size or cut back to not less than 6
inches in length. Unless otherwise specified, the minimum diameter of the
carrots shall be one inch.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 5 percent, by count, of any lot, may be below the specified
minimum diameter. In addition, not more than 5 percent, by count, of any
lot may be below the remaining requirements of this grade but not more
than one-fifth of this amount or 1 percent, shall be allowed for decay.
Unclassified shall consist of carrots which are not graded in conformity
with the foregoing grade.
SIZE TERMS
The following terms are provided for describing the diameter of any
lot: Small means less than 1% inches; Medium means 1% inches to 2
inches, inclusive; Large means over 2 inches.
BUNCHING
Bunches shall be fairly uniform in size.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Damage" means any injury which materially affects the appearance of
the lot or causes appreciable waste in the ordinary preparation for use.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension of the root taken at right
angles to the longitudinal axis.
"Firm" means that the carrots are not soft, flabby or shriveled.
"Fresh" means that tops of carrots are not badly wilted and are prac-
tically free from discolored or decayed leaves.
"Fairly well formed" means that the carrots are not so forked or mis-
shapen as to cause an appreciable waste in the ordinary preparation for use.
August 9, 1927.






48 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

ROUGH CELERY
U. S. NO. 1
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of well trimmed stalks of celery of similar vari-
etal characteristics which have fairly good heart formation and which are
fairly well blanched, not pithy or wilted and which are free from damage
caused by seed stems, freezing, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means.
See size for specifications on stalk length.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent by count, of the stalks in any lot may be below
the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-fifth of this tolerance
or 2 percent shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. No. 2
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of stalks of celery which do not meet the require-
ments of U. S. No. 1.
SIZE
Where celery in sized and uniformly packed in standard containers the
number of stalks may be stated in terms of dozens and half dozens.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing, the number
of stalks in any container shall not vary more than 5 percent from the
number indicated.
STALK LENGTH
Stalk length may be stated in terms of the nearest even inch as 18 in.,
20 in., etc., in accordance with the facts but unless otherwise specified the
minimum stalk length of the U. S. No. 1 celery shall be 18 inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing not more than
5 percent of the stalks may be shorter than the specified minimum stalk
length.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Well trimmed" means that the outside coarse and damaged branches have
been removed and the portion of the root remaining is not more than 3
inches in length.
"Stalk" means an individual plant.
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the stalks in any container
have the same color and character of growth. For example, celery of Giant
Pascal and Golden Self-blanching types must not be mixed.
"Fairly good heart formation" means that the inner heart branches shall
be of reasonable number, length and stockiness.
"Fairly well blanched" means that the stalks are of a light greenish to
white color. Green spots are not fairly well blanched.
"Pithy" means that the branches have an open texture with air spaces
in the central portion.
"Free from damage" means that the celery shall not be injured to an
extent readily apparent upon examination.
"Seed stems" means those stalks which have seed stems showing or in
which the formation of seed stems has plainly begun.
Jan. 6, 1925.
CITRUS FRUITS (FLORIDA)
GRADES
U. S. Fancy shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal characteristics
which are mature, firm, well formed, smooth, thin skinned, free from decay,
bruises, creasing, scale, scab, black or unsightly discoloration, ammoniation,
from cuts which are not healed, and from damage caused by dirt or other
foreign materials, sprouting, sprayburn, dryness, limb rubs, thorn scratches,
scars, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 49

In this grade not more than 75 percent of the surface of each fruit may
show light discoloration. In addition to the statement of grade any lot may
be further classified as Bright or Golden as hereinafter defined.
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal characteristics
which are mature, firm, well formed, fairly smooth, fairly thin skinned, free
from decay, bruises, creasing, black or unsightly discoloration, from cuts
which are not healed and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign
materials, sprouting, sprayburn, dryness, limb rubs, thorn scratches, scars,
scale, scab, ammoniation, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
In this grade (except when designated U. S. No. 1 Russet) not more than
75 percent of the surface of each fruit may show light discoloration. In
addition to the statement of grade any lot may be further classified as Bright,
Golden or Russet, as hereinafter defined.
U. S. No. 2 (Choice) shall consist of citrus fruits of similar varietal char-
acteristics which are mature and fairly firm, which may be slightly rough
and slightly misshapen but which are free from decay, bruises, black or
unsightly discoloration, from cuts which are not healed, and from serious
damage caused by dirt or other foreign materials, sprayburn, dryness, limb
rubs, thorn scratches, scars, scale, scab, ammoniation, creasing, disease,
insects or mechanical or other means.
In addition to the statement of grade any lot may be further classified as
Bright, Golden, or Russet, as hereinafter defined.
COLOR CLASSIFICATION
Any lot of fruit may be classified according to the amount of discoloration
as follows: Bright, when the surface of the fruit shows not more than 20
percent light discoloration. Golden, when the surface of the fruit shows not
more than 75 percent light discoloration. Russet when the surface of the
fruit shows no black or unsightly discoloration.
TOLERANCE
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling
in each of the foregoing grades the following tolerances will be permitted
in the grades as specified:
U. S. Fancy and U. S. No. 1 Grades
Not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of either of these grades other than for discoloration, but not more
than one-twentieth of this amount or % percent shall be allowed for decay.*
In addition, not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may not meet the
requirements relating to discoloration but not to exceed one-fourth of this
amount or 21/2 percent, shall be allowed for black or unsightly discoloration.
U. S. Fancy Bright or Golden, and U. S. No. 1 Bright or Golden Grades
Not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of any of these grades but not to exceed one-fourth of this amount or
2% percent, shall be allowed for black or unsightly discoloration and not
more than one-twentieth of this tolerance or % percent, shall be allowed
for decay.*
U. S. Fancy Russet, U. S. No. 1 Russet, U. S. No. 2 Bright, Golden or
Russet Grades
Not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of any of these grades, but not more than one-twentieth of this amount
or % percent, shall be allowed for decay.*



*Decay, or other deterioration developing in transit on citrus fruits otherwise up to the
grade shall be considered as affecting the condition and not the grade.





50 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

DEFINITIONS OF GRADE TERMS
As used in these grades:
1. "Similar varietal characteristics" means that the fruits in any con-
tainer are similar in color and shape.
2. "Firm" as applied to grapefruit and oranges of the Mandarin Group
(Tangerines, Satsumas, King, Mandarin) shall be interpreted to mean that
the fruit shall not be badly puffy or the skin very loose. Such fruit if dry
shall not be considered firm.
3. "Free from damage" means that any injury from the causes men-
tioned shall not materially affect the appearance or the edible or shipping
quality of the fruit.
4. "Light discoloration" means smooth light russeting or any other
smooth surface discoloration of a darker color provided it does not detract
from the appearance of the fruit to a greater extent than the maximum or
light discoloration allowed in each grade.
5. "Fairly firm" as applied to oranges means that the fruit is slightly
soft but not bruised; as applied to grapefruit means that the skin may be
thick and slightly puffy; as applied to Mandarin, Satsuma, Tangerine, King
and other varieties of the Mandarin group means that the skin of the fruit
is not badly puffy but may be slightly loose.
6. "Slightly rough" means that the skin is not of smooth texture but is
not creased or badly wrinkled.
7. "Slightly misshapen" means that the fruit is not of characteristic
shape but is not decidedly pearshaped, elongated or sharply pointed.
8. "Serious damage" means that any injury from the causes mentioned
shall not seriously affect the appearance or the edible or shipping quality
of the fruit.
Nov. 24, 1926.
GREEN CORN
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of ears of green corn of similar varietal charac-
teristics which are well trimmed, well formed, and free from damage caused
by smut or other disease, insects, mechanical or other means. Cobs shall
be well filled with plump and milky kernels and well covered with fresh,
green husks.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements
of this grade.
U. S. Fancy shall consist of ears of green corn which meet all the re-
quirements of U. S. No. 1 grade except that the ears shall be free from
insect injury instead of free from damage caused by insect injury.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements
of this grade.
Unclassified shall consist of green corn which is not graded in conformity
with either of the foregoing grades.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the ears in any container
are of similar color and character of growth. Ears of field and sweet corn
or white and yellow corn shall not be mixed in the same container.
"Well trimmed" means that the ears are practically free from loose husks
and that the shank shall not extend more than 1 inch beyond the point of
attachment of the outside husk.
"Well formed" means that the ears are not stunted. Nubbins are not
well formed ears.
"Damage" means injury from any cause which materially affects the
appearance or edible quality of the ear. Ears showing worm injury extend-
ing not more than 1% inches from the tip of the cob shall not be regarded






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 51

as damaged, but worm injury affecting the kernels on other parts of the
cob shall be considered as damaged.
"Well filled" means that the rows of kernels show fairly uniform develop-
ment, and that the appearance and quantity of the edible portion of the ear
are not materially affected by poorly developed rows.
"Plump and milky" means that the kernels are well developed but not
over mature or shriveled.
"Fresh" means that the husks are not badly wilted, dried or turning
yellow or brown.
January 20, 1927.
EGGPLANTS
U. S. NO. 1
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of eggplants of similar varietal characteristics
which are firm, fairly smooth, of good characteristic color, fairly well shaped,
which are free from damage caused by disease, insects, mechanical or other
means. If count is specified, the eggplants shall be reasonably uniform in
size in the packages.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements for this grade,
but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. NO. 2
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of eggplants which are firm and which are free
from serious damage caused by disease, insects, mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements for this grade,
but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. NO. 3
U. S. No. 3 shall consist of eggplants which do not meet the requirements
of the foregoing grades.
MARKING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIZE
The size of eggplants may be designated in terms of count or minimum
diameter.
Where the minimum size is specified, in order to allow for variations
incident to proper packing, not more than 5 percent, by count, of the egg-
plants in any package, may be below the size specified.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the eggplants shall be alike
as to shape and general characteristics.
"Firm" means that the eggplants shall not be flabby or soft.
"Good characteristic color" means that the eggplants are uniformly col-
ored a deep purple. Streaked color, light purple, reddish or yellowish color
shall not be considered good characteristic color.
"Fairly well shaped" means that those of the long type such as Florida
High Bush may be either cylindrical or slightly curved but that they shall
not be materially deformed; those of thick, chunky type such as New York
Improved may show the characteristic scallops at the base and may be
slightly curved, but they shall not be materially deformed.
"Fairly smooth" means that any scars present do not materially affect
the appearance, shape or color.
"Free from damage" means that the eggplants are not injured to an
extent apparent upon examination.
"Serious damage" means such damage as can be removed without material
loss in preparation for use.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles to the longi-
tudinal axis.
April 14, 1925.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


AMERICAN (EASTERN TYPE) BUNCH GRAPES
GRADES
U. S. Fancy shall consist of grapes of one variety which are well colored,
mature, firmly attached to capstems, not shattered, split, crushed, dried, wet
or soft; which are free from mold, decay, mildew, berry moth, russeting, and
from damage caused by freezing, disease, insects or other means. Not less
than 75 percent of the bunches shall be compact for the variety and the
remainder shall be fairly compact. Compact portions of bunches consisting
of no less than five (5) berries may be used to fill open spaces between
whole bunches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, of the berries, by weight, of any lot may be below
the requirements of this grade, but not more than 1/10 of this amount or 1
percent may be affected by mold or wet decay. In addition, not more than
5 percent, by weight, of any lot may consist of bunches which are straggly.
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of grapes of one variety which are fairly well
colored, mature, firmly attached to capstems, not shattered, split, crushed,
dried, wet or soft, which are free from mold, decay, mildew, berry moth,
excessive russeting and from damage caused by freezing, disease, insects or
other means. Bunches shall not be straggly.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent of the berries, by weight, of any lot may be below
the requirements of this grade, but not more than 1/5 of this amount or 2
percent, may be affected by wet mold or wet decay. In addition, not more
than 15 percent, by weight, of any lot may consist of straggly bunches.
MIXED VARIETIES
Any lot of grapes consisting of more than one variety which meets all
other requirements of either "U. S. Fancy" or "U. S. No. 1" may be desig-
nated as "U. S. Fancy Mixed" or "U. S. No. 1 Mixed."
Unclassified. Grapes which are not graded in conformity with the fore-
going grades may be designated as Unclassified.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Mature" means that the grapes are juicy, palatable and have reached
that stage of development at which the skin of the berry easily separates
from the pulp. Frozen or slightly frosted stock should not be confused with
mature stock.
"Well colored" means that the berries shall show full color characteristic
of the variety.
"Fairly well colored" means that not less than 75 percent, by weight,
shall show full color characteristic of the variety. 25 percent may show
partially or poorly colored berries which are not characteristic of immature
berries.
"Shattered berries" means berries which have separated from the bunch.
"Compact bunches" means well filled bunches, with no open spaces.
"Fairly compact" means that bunches are well filled but that the berries
are not closely spaced as in "compact bunches."
"Straggly" means a decidedly open bunch with large open spaces and
very few berries. Small immature shotberries characteristic of the Worden
variety should be disregarded unless they are excessive in number and de-
tract materially from the appearance of the lot.
May 12, 1926.
LETTUCE
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar varietal character-
istics which are fresh and well trimmed; which are not decayed, split or burst,
and which are free from seed stems and doubles and from damage caused by






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 53

dirt, wilting, freezing, tip burn, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
The appearance of the wrapper leaves shall not be seriously affected from any
cause. Not less than 75 percent of the heads of Iceberg type lettuce shall
be firm and the remainder shall be fairly firm. Heads of Big Boston type
lettuce shall be fairly firm.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be soft or otherwise
below the requirements of this grade, but this tolerance shall not permit in
any lot of Iceberg type lettuce fewer than 75 percent of heads which are
firm and free from defects not allowed in U. S. No. 1.
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar varietal character-
istics which are fresh, which are not decayed, split or burst, and which are
free from seed stems and from damage caused by wilting, tip burn, disease,
insects or mechanical or other means and from serious damage caused by
freezing.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements
of this grade.
U. S. Fancy shall consist of heads of lettuce of similar varietal charac-
teristics which are fresh and well trimmed, and which are not decayed, split
or burst, and which are free from tip burn, seed stems and doubles and from
damage caused by dirt, wilting, freezing, disease, insects, mechanical or other
means. The wrapper leaves shall be of a good green color and free from
damage from any cause. Not less than 50 percent of the heads of Iceberg
type lettuce shall be hard and the remainder shall be firm. Heads of Big
Boston type lettuce shall be firm.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be soft or otherwise
below the requirements of this grade, but this tolerance shall not permit in
any lot of Iceberg type lettuce fewer than 50 percent of heads which are
hard and free from defects not allowed in U. S. Fancy.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the heads in any container
have the same color and characteristic leaf growth. For example, lettuce
of the Iceberg and Big Boston types must not be mixed.
"Fresh" means crisp and green.
"Well trimmed" means that the coarse outer leaves have been removed
leaving the head protected by green wrapper leaves. Heads which show a
considerable number of wrapper leaves in excess of those required to protect
the head shall not be regarded as well trimmed. Heads showing a ragged
appearance caused by the removal of portions of the outside leaves shall not
be considered U. S. No. 1.
"Seed stems" means those heads which have seed stems showing or in
which the formation of seed stems has plainly begun.
"Fairly firm" means that although the head is not firm, it is well formed
and not soft or spongy.
"Hard" means that the head is solid.
"Free from damage" means that the heads shall not be injured to an
extent readily apparent upon examination.
"Free from serious damage" means free from any injury which causes a
loss of a portion of the edible part of the head. The loss of the crispness
due to freezing shall not be considered serious damage. Wrapper leaves
which show brown margins shall not be regarded as seriously damaged unless
the injury is extensive enough to affect the general appearance of the head.
Dec. 1, 1926.
POTATOES (WHITE)
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of potatoes of similar varietal characteristics
which are not badly misshapen, which are free from freezing injury and soft






54 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

rot, and from damage caused by dirt or other foreign matter, sunburn, second
growth, growth cracks, hollow heart, cuts, scab, blight, dry rot, disease,
insects, or mechanical or other means.
The diameter of potatoes of round varieties shall be not less than 1%
inches and of potatoes of long varieties 1% inches, but lots of potatoes which
are not less than 1 inches in diameter and which meet the remaining re-
quirements of this grade may be designated "U. S. No. 1, 1% inches mini-
mum."
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 5 percent, by weight, of any lot may be below the prescribed
size. In addition not more than 5 percent, by weight, may be damaged by
hollow heart, and not more than 6 percent may be below the remaining re-
quirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-sixth of this amount or 1
percent shall be allowed for potatoes affected by soft rot.*
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of potatoes of similar varietal characteristics
which are free from freezing injury and soft rot and from serious damage
caused by sunburn, second growth, growth cracks, hollow heart, cuts, scab,
blight, dry rot, disease, insects, or mechanical or other means.
The diameter of potatoes of this grade shall be not less than 1% inches.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 5 percent, by weight, of any lot may be below the prescribed
size, and, in addition, not more than 6 percent, by weight, may be below the
remaining requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-sixth of this
tolerance or 1 percent shall be allowed for potatoes affected by soft rot.
U. S. Fancy shall consist of potatoes of one variety which are mature,
bright, well shaped, free from freezing injury, soft rot, dirt or other foreign
matter, sunburn, second growth, growth cracks, hollow heart, cuts, scab,
blight, dry rot, disease, insect or mechanical injury and other defects.
The size shall be stated in terms of minimum diameter or minimum weight
or of range in diameter or weight following the grade name, but in no case
shall the diameter be less than 2 inches.**
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 5 percent, by weight, of any lot may vary from the size stated
and, in addition, not more than 6 percent, by weight, of any lot may be
below the remaining requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-sixth
of this tolerance or 1 percent shall be allowed for potatoes affected by
soft rot.*
DEFINITION OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Mature" means that the outer skin (epidermis) does not loosen or
"feather" readily during the ordinary methods of handling.
"Bright" means free from dirt or other foreign matter, damage or dis-
coloration from any cause, so that the outer skin (epidermis) has the attrac-
tive color normal for the variety.
"Well shaped" means the normal, typical shape for the variety in the
district where grown, and free from pointed, dumb-bell shaped, excessively
elongated, and other ill-formed potatoes.
"Soft rot" means any soft or mushy condition of the tissue, such as slimv
soft rot, wet fusarium or wet breakdown following freezing injury or sunscald.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles to the longitu-
dinal axis. The long axis shall be used without regard to the position of
the stem (rhizome).
"Free from damage" means that the appearance shall not be injured to

*Soft rot or other deterioration developing in transit on potatoes otherwise up to grade
shall he considered as affecting the condition and not the grade.
"*Such statement as the following will be considered as meeting the requirements: "U. S.
Fancy, 2 to 3% inches ;" "U. S. Fancy, 10 ounces to 16 ounces ;" "U. S. Fancy, 2 inches mini-
mum ;" "U. S. Fancy, 10 ounces minimum."






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 55

an extent readily apparent upon casual examination of the lot, and that any
damage from the causes mentioned can be removed in the ordinary process
of preparation for use without appreciable waste. Loss of outer skin (epi-
dermis) shall not be considered as an injury to the appearance.
"Badly misshapen" means of such shape as to cause appreciable waste in
the ordinary process of preparation for use.
"Free from serious damage" means that the appearance shall not be
seriously injured to an extent readily apparent upon casual examination of
the lot and that any damage from the causes mentioned can be removed in
the ordinary process of preparation for use without a waste of 10 percent or
more of the total weight.
June 30, 1927.
FRESH PEAS
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of peas of similar varietal characteristics which
are fresh, tender, well filled, firm, of reasonably uniform maturity, free from
excessive moisture, decay, mildew injury, freezing injury and from' damage
caused by hail, dirt, leaves or other foreign matter, disease, insects, or
mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by weight, of any lot may be below the require-
ments of this grade but not more than one-half of this tolerance or 5 percent,
shall be allowed for defects causing serious damage, and not more than one-
tenth of this tolerance or 1 percent shall be allowed for decay.
Unclassified shall consist of peas which are not graded in conformity with
the foregoing grade.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the peas in any container
shall be of the same color and general type.
"Reasonably uniform maturity" means that the peas in any container
shall be of about the same stage of maturity.
"Free from excessive moisture" means that the peas shall not be water-
soaked.
"Damage" means any injury from the causes mentioned which materially
affects the appearance or edible quality.
"Serious damage" means any injury that seriously affects the edible or
shipping quality. Peas affected with mildew injury and freezing injury shall
be considered as being seriously damaged.
May 6, 1926.
SWEET PEPPERS
U. S. NO. 1
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of sweet peppers of similar varietal character-
istics (1), which are green but not immature (2), which are well formed (3),
fairly smooth and firm (4), and which are free from damage (5), caused by
sunscald, freezing, disease, insects, hail, scars or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variation incident to proper grading and handling
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements
of this grade, but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. NO. 2

U. S. No. 2 shall consist of sweet peppers of similar varietal character-
istics which are green but not immature, which may be slightly misshapen
(6), which are firm and free from serious damage (7) caused by sunscald,
freezing, disease, insects, hail, scars or mechanical or other means and from
any defects or injury that has penetrated through the fleshy outer wall of
the pepper.






56 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the requirements
of this grade, but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
U. S. NO. 3 (CULLS)
U. S. No. 3 (Culls) shall consist of sweet peppers which do not meet the
requirements of the foregoing grades.
(Numerals in parentheses refer to definitions of terms employed in these
grades.)
RED OR MIXED PEPPERS
Peppers which conform to the requirements of either U. S. No. 1 or U. S.
No. 2 except as to color, if uniformly red or turning red shall be designated
"U. S. No. 1 Red" or "U. S. No. 2 Red" or if mixed red and green shall be
designated "U. S. No. 1 Mixed" or "U. S. No. 2 Mixed."
MARKING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIZE
The size of peppers in any lot may be stated either in terms of minimum
size or in terms of range of sizes.
The size of peppers of long, slender varieties such as "Ruby King" shall
be designated in terms of length, as "U. S. No. 1-3 inch minimum" or "U.
S. No. 1-212 to 4 inches."
The size of peppers of short, thick varieties such as "Ruby Giant" shall
be designated in terms of diameter (8), as "U. S. No. 1-2% inch minimum"
or "U. S. No. 1-2 to 3 inches."
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling
not more than 5 percent, by count, of the peppers in any package, if a
minimum size only is given, may be below the minimum size specified, or if a
range of sizes is given, may fall outside the range specified.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
(1) "Similar varietal characteristics" means that the peppers shall be
alike as to type and general characters of the fruit.
(2) "Immature" means that the seeds are not fully developed and that
the peppers have not reached the stage of maturity which will insure a
proper completion of the ripening process.
(3) "Well formed" means that the peppers are of the normal, typical
shape for the variety. Peppers which are only slightly curved in form shall
be permitted in U. S. No. 1.
(4) "Firm" means that the pepper is fairly solid and fairly substantial
in structure. It may yield slightly to pressure but is not soft, limp or pliable.
(5) "Free from damage" means that the peppers are not injured to an
extent readily apparent upon examination.
(6) "Slightly misshapen" means more than normally grooved, curved or
indented. Specimens of the type commonly known as "buttons," or which
are decidedly crooked, constricted or otherwise so seriously deformed as to
detract materially from the appearance of the pepper, shall be excluded from
U. S. No. 1 and U. S. No. 2.
(7) "Serious damage" means surface blemishes covering more than 15
percent of the surface of the pepper in the aggregate, or any deformity so
Serious as to cause a loss of over 10 percent of the volume of the pepper in
the ordinary process of preparation for use.
(8) "Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles to the
longitudinal axis.
It is understood that the development in transit (or after harvesting and
packing) of decay, over-maturity and other deteriorating factors that are
progressive in their character, shall be considered as influencing condition
rather than grade. If a lot of U. S. No. 1 or U. S. No. 2 peppers when re-
ceived in a terminal market contains no more than 2 per cent, by count, of
peppers showing decay nor a total of more than 5 per cent, by count, of






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 57

peppers which have deteriorated in condition from any cause, such lot shall
be considered a good commercial delivery for the grade.
Nov. 19, 1923.
STRAWBERRIES
GRADES
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of strawberries of one variety, with the cap
(calyx) attached, which are firm, not overripe, underripe, or undeveloped;
and which are free from mold or decay and from damage caused by dirt,
moisture, foreign matter, disease, insects or mechanical or other means.
Unless otherwise specified, the minimum size shall be not less than three-
quarters of an inch in diameter.
In order to allow for variations other than size incident to proper grading
and handling, not more than 10 percent, by volume, of the strawberries in
any lot may be below the requirements of this grade, but not to exceed one-
half of this tolerance or 5 percent, shall be allowed for defects causing serious
damage, and not more than 1/5 of this amount, or 1 percent, shall be allowed
for decay.
In addition, not more than 5 percent, by volume, of the strawberries in
any lot, may be below the specified minimum size.
Unclassified shall consist of strawberries which are not graded in con-
formity with the foregoing grade.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Overripe" means dead ripe, becoming soft, a condition unfit for shipment
and necessitating immediate consumption.
"Underripe" means so immature that less than two-thirds of the surface
of the berry is of a pink or red color.
"Undeveloped" means not having attained a normal shape and develop-
ment owing to frost injury, lack of pollination, insect injury, or other causes.
"Button" berries are the most common type of this condition.
"Damage" means any injury from the causes mentioned which materially
affects the appearance, edible or shipping quality.
"Serious damage" means that the strawberries are soft or leaky; or have
broken skins. Strawberries which are caked with dirt or which show no pink
or red color shall be considered seriously damaged.
"Diameter" means the greatest dimension at right angles to a straight
line running from the stem to the apex.
April 7, 1926.
FRESH TOMATOES
U. S. NO. 1
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of tomatoes of similar varietal characteristics
which are mature but not overripe or soft; well formed, fairly smooth, which
are free from damage caused by sunscald, puffiness, catfaces, growth cracks,
freezing, disease, insects, hail, scars, or mechanical or other means.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than a total of 10 percent, by count, of any lot may be below the
requirements of this grade but not to exceed a total of 5 percent, by count,
may be allowed for tomatoes which are seriously damaged and not more than
one-fifth of this amount or 1 percent may be allowed for tomatoes which are
affected by decay.
U. S. NO. 2
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of tomatoes which are mature but not overripe
or soft, which are free from serious damage caused by sunscald, catfaces,
growth cracks, freezing, disease, insects, hail, scars or mechanical or other
means and from any defects or injury that has penetrated through the fleshy
outer wall of the tomato.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,






58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

not more than a total of 10 percent, by count, may be below the requirements
of this grade, but not more than one-fifth of this amount, or 2 percent, may
be allowed for decay.
MARKING REQUIREMENTS FOR SIZE
The minimum size, numerical count, or description of pack of the tomatoes
in any package shall be plainly stenciled or otherwise marked on the package.
"Minimum size" means the greatest diameter of the smallest fruit meas-
ured at right angles to a line running from the stem to the blossom end. It
shall be stated in terms of whole and quarter inches, as 2 inches minimum,
2% inches minimum, 2 inches minimum, and so on, in accordance with the
facts. In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more
than 10 percent, by count, of the tomatoes in any package may be below the
minimum size specified.
"Description of pack" applies particularly to California conditions and
shall be designated according to the arrangement of the tomatoes in the top
layer in a lug as 5-5, 5-6, 6-6, and so on in accordance with the facts. The
figures represent the number of rows of tomatoes each way in the lug and
it is understood that the two bottom layers of tomatoes in any lug shall not
contain more than one additional row each way, i. e., that in 5-5 pack the
tomatoes in the two bottom layers must not be smaller than will pack 6 rows
each way as 6-6.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Similar varietal characteristics" means that the tomatoes shall be alike
as to firmness of flesh and shade of color, i. e., that soft-fleshed early maturing
varieties shall not be mixed with firm-fleshed mid-season and late varieties
or bright red varieties mixed with varieties having a purplish tinge.
"Mature" means that the contents of the seed cavities have begun to
develop a jelly or glue-like consistency and the seeds are fully developed.
"Well formed" means the normal, typical shape for the variety.
"Fairly smooth" means not noticeably ridged, angular, indented or other-
wise misshapen.
"Free from damage" means that the tomatoes shall not be injured to an
extent readily apparent upon examination.
"Free from damage caused by puffiness"-Tomatoes damaged by puffiness
are usually angular, flat-sided and thin-walled. Such tomatoes shall not be
considered damaged unless one or more locules are distinctly open.
"Catfaces" means irregular, dark, leathery scars usually found at the
blossom end, but sometimes on the sides. If shallow and no greater in total
area than a dime they shall be allowed in U. S. No. 1.
"Growth cracks" are ruptures or cracks radiating from the stem end. If
well healed over and not longer than %Y inch they shall be allowed in
U. S. No. 1.
"Serious damage" means surface blemishes covering more than 15 per-
cent of the surface in the aggregate or any deformity so serious as to cause
a loss of over 20 percent in the ordinary process of preparation for use.
Revised March 11, 1925.

WATERMELONS
U. S. NO. 1
U. S. No. 1 shall consist of watermelons of similar varietal characteristics
which are mature but not overripe, well formed, and free from decay, white-
heart, anthracnose and from damage caused by other disease, sunburn, in-
sects, or mechanical or other means. (See size requirements.)
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, may be below the requirements of this
grade but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay and not more
than 1/5 of the total tolerance or 2 percent, may be badly misshapen or
seriously damaged by any means.






Bulletin 254, Grading, Packing and Stowing Fla. Produce 59

U. S. NO. 2
U. S. No. 2 shall consist of watermelons of similar varietal character-
istics which are mature but not overripe, which are not badly misshapen and
which are free from decay, white-heart, and from serious damage caused by
sunburn, disease, insects or mechanical or other means. (See size require-
ments.)
In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling,
not more than 10 percent, by count, may be below the requirements of this
grade, but no part of this tolerance shall be allowed for decay.
UNCLASSIFIED
Watermelons which are not graded in conformity with either of the fore-
going grades may be designated as Unclassified.
SIZE
Where the size of watermelons is stated in terms of average weight,
Unless Otherwise Specified, the melons in any lot averaging less than 30
pounds shall not vary more than 4 pounds below the stated average, and the
melons in any lot averaging 30 pounds or more shall not vary more than 6
pounds below the stated average.
Size may also be stated in terms of minimum weight.
In order to allow for variations incident to proper sizing, not more than 5
percent, by count, of the watermelons in any lot may be below the size
requirements.
TABLE OF WEIGHTS
Minimum Weight Tolerance Permitted
Average Weight (Unless Otherwise for Melons Below the
Specified Minimum Weight
20 .................... 16 5%
22 .................... 18 5%
24 .................... 20 5%
26 .................... 22 5%
28 ................... 24 5%
30 .................... 24 5%
32 .................... 26 5%
34 .................... 28 5%
36 .................... 30 5%
38 .................... 82 5%
40 .................... 34 5%
42 .................... 36 5%
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS
As used in these grades:
"Mature" means having reached the stage of development at which the
melon is palatable.
"Well formed" means having the characteristic shape but not necessarily
the perfect shape of the variety.
"Not badly misshapen" means that the melons are not bottlenecks or
gourdnecks, but may be tapered at the ends or slightly constricted.
"Free from damage" means that the melons are not injured to an extent
readily apparent upon examination. Melons showing a greenish yellow sun-
burned spot not larger than 9 inches square shall not be considered as dam-
aged, but melons showing sunburn in excess of this amount or which show
any pronounced golden yellow color shall be regarded as damaged.
"Serious damage" means any injury which affects the edible quality of
the melon or which detracts materially from its appearance. Melons show-
ing sunscald are regarded as seriously damaged. Melons showing not more
than 15 flatly elevated anthracnose spots which are not cracked or pitted shall
not be considered as seriously damaged.
August 12, 1925.




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