• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 Energy use in agriculture
 Crop energy use computational...
 Livestock energy use computational...
 References
 Appendix I. Energy use module input...














Group Title: Economic information report
Title: A user's guide for the energy use module of the FARM Systems Lab budget generator
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026519/00001
 Material Information
Title: A user's guide for the energy use module of the FARM Systems Lab budget generator
Series Title: Economic information report
Alternate Title: FARM Systems Lab budget generator
Physical Description: iii leaves, 27 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Milon, J. Walter
Canler, Edward E., 1951-
Florida Agricultural and Resource Management Systems Laboratory
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida
Food and Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Farms -- Energy consumption -- Computer simulation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Energy consumption -- Computer simulation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: J. Walter Milon, Edward Canler.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "October 1980."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026519
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AHM2475
alephbibnum - 001598333
oclc - 21062398

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Energy use in agriculture
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Crop energy use computational procedures
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Livestock energy use computational procedures
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 23a
    References
        Page 24
        Page 24a
    Appendix I. Energy use module input data form
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
Full Text

J. Walter Milon Economic Information
Edward Canler Report 142



A User's Guide for the Energy Use
Module of the FARM Systems Lab
Budget Generator




















Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Cooperative Extension Service
Governor's Energy Office October 1980
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
























ABSTRACT



This guide explains the calculation procedures and energy coefficients

used to generate energy use budgets with the FARM Systems Lab budget generator

computer program. The energy use module allows the user to determine energy

inputs for fuels and chemicals for major Florida crops. This information can

be used to develop basic agricultural energy input data for different regions

of the State.


























Key Words:User's Guide, Energy Use Module, Energy Analysis,

Energy Conservation



i












TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page



ABSTRACT i

LIST OF TABLES iii

INTRODUCTION 1

ENERGY USE IN AGRICULTURE 2

CROP ENERGY USE COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES 5

Fuel Energy 8

Fertilizer Energy 15

Pesticide Energy 16

Irrigation Energy 17

LIVESTOCK ENERGY USE COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES 20

REFERENCES 24

APPENDIX I ENERGY USE MODULE INPUT DATA FORM 25












LIST OF TABLES

Table Page


1 On Farm Energy Use in U.S. Agriculture, 1940-1970 2

2 Fuel Use Summary: Corn Grain Sample Budget 6

3 Energy Use Summary; Corn Grain Sample Budget 7

4 Speed of Operations with Typical Farm Implements 9

5 Field Efficiencies for Common Farm Operations 10

6 Fuel Use Multipliers for Estimating Fuel Consumption in
Gallons per Hour per Horsepower for Tractors and Gallons
per Hour of Machine Use for Other Self-Propelled Machinery 11

7 Megacalories contained in One Unit of Fuel 12

8 Embodied Energy for Nitrogen Fertilizers per Pound of
Formula 14

9 Embodied Energy in Fertilizers per Pound of Nutrient 14

10 Fuel Use Summary: 20 Cow Dry Lot 22

11 Energy Use Summary: 20 Cow Dry Lot 23

12 Energy Use Module Input Data Form 27
























iii





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A User's Guide to the Energy Use Module of the
FARM Systems Lab Budget Generator

Edward Canler and J. Walter Milon1



INTRODUCTION


The liquid fuel shortages and rising prices for energy during the

past decade have focused attention on the use of energy in food and fiber

production. This report provides a description of a computer program that

can be used to determine energy use in Florida crop and livestock enter-

prises. The computer program is a part of the Florida Agricultural and
2
Resource Management (FARM) Systems Lab Budget Generator. This Manual is

a companion to "A User's Manual for the FARM Systems Lab Crop Budget Gener-

ator" by Bryan E. Melton [8] and the user should consult this document for

a full description of the budget generator system.


















The authors are graduate research assistant and assistant professor,
respectively, in the Food and Resource Economics Department, Institute of
Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. This work was per-
formed in cooperation with the Governor's Energy Office, Tallahassee. The
authors wish to thank Bryan Melton for his assistance in this project.
See [8] for a description of the FARM Systems Lab,






-2-




ENERGY USE IN AGRICULTURE

Agricultural production in the United States is highly energy inten-

sive. Farm production utilizes liquid fuels for farm machinery, natural

gases and electricity for crop drying and irrigation, anhydrous ammonia from

natural gas, phosphorous and potassium fertilizers that require energy for

transportation and manufacturing, and a host of pesticides that are produced

using natural gas and petroleum. The dependence of agricultural production

on energy inputs has increased significantly since World War II.

Table 1 indicates the amount of energy used in on farm agricultural oper-

ations during the period 1940-1970. Overall energy use quadrupled over the

30 year period with the largest increases occurring in the use of fossil fuel

powered machines and fertilizers.



Table 1. On Farm Energy Use in U.S. Agriculture, 1940-1970

9 3
Energy Use (Values multiplied by 10 Mcal )

Component 1940 1950 1960 1970



Fuel & Electricity 70.7 190.0 234.1 295.8

Fertilizer 12.4 24.0 41.0 94.0

Machinery & Equipment 23.4 63.5 65.5 101.3

Irrigation 18.0 25.0 33.3 35.0


Total 124.5 303.4 373.9 526.1



Source: [9, p.309]

3Mcal is an abbreviation for Megacalorie, or 1,000,000 calories.
A calorie is equal to 252 BTU's.






-3-



To gain an understanding the role of energy inputs in agriculture re-

quires a close look at the nature of agricultural energy demands. The

agricultural production process is dependent upon numerous biological fac-

tors that cannot be controlled by the producer. Once set in motion, the

agricultural process must occur in harmony with nature's timetable. Agri-

cultural producers can add various energy inputs to the natural production

cycle to accomplish two purposes: first, to increase productivity and

second, to reduce the variability in the natural system. The biological

cycle of the plant system ultimately determines the timing of energy use.

The use of more energy inputs in agriculture has had beneficial effects.

Between 1940 and 1970 per acre product increased by 66 percent and output

per man-hour increased 205 percent [11]. U,S. farm production is no longer

as susceptible to periods of feast and famine that were common before 1940

and which are still all to common in other countries.

The prospect of near term shortages and rising prices for natural gas

and petroleum products has caused considerable concern about the potential

impact on agriculture. These concerns are especially important in Florida.

The states' warm, humid climate and predominantly sandy soils make agriculture in

Florida particularly dependent on chemical pesticides and fertilizers. It

is estimated that Florida's commercial agricultural production utilized

26.2 x 109 Mcal of energy in 1976 [3, p.65].

This heavy reliance on energy inputs by Florida agricultural producers

makes efficient use of energy inputs particularly important. With the

Energy Use Module of the FARM Systems Lab it is possible to perform de-

tailed analyses of farm operations to identify inefficient energy uses,

Specifically, three objectives can be accomplished:

1) Identify energy inputs by operation and time (month) of use;

2) Determine the energy requirements of alternative cropping





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systems and production methods; and,

3) Analyze the economic feasibility of these alternative systems.

The following is a description of the calculation procedures and en-

ergy coefficients used to generate energy budgets with the Energy Use

Module. The Energy Use Module Input Data Form is presented as an

appendix.








-5-



CROP ENERGY USE

COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES


The energy use information provided by the Energy Use Module is di-

vided into three categories. First is the energy used by farm machinery for

all operations in the budget unit. This component is subdivided into energy

used in gasoline, diesel fuel, and liquid petroleum gas (LPG). The second

category is the embodied energy in the fertilizers and pesticides used in
*
production. Third is the total energy requirement. The energy unit em-

ployed throughout the analysis is the Megacalorie (Meal).

The format for the presentation of this information including actual

estimates for the corn production example used in [8] appears in Tables 2

and 3. Table 2, Fuel Use Summary, identifies the gallons of liquid fuel

used by machinery. Monthly and yearly allocations are given for each type

of fuel as well as the total for all machinery. Table 3, Energy Use Sum-

mary, gives the monthly and yearly allocation of liquid fuels and the em-

bodied energy in each of the fertilizer and pesticide inputs. These are

reported in a common energy unit (Meal) by month and year.

The computational procedures followed by the Energy Use Module for

fuel energy, fertilizer energy, and pesticide energy are presented below.

Since generally unavailable technical data on irrigation systems would be

required, a procedure for calculating energy use in irrigation is not in-

cluded in the budget generator program. However, the irrigation energy

procedure is included in this report for those readers interested in mak-

ing those estimates and who have the necessary technical information.


*
Fertilizers and pesticides are manufactured with a number of different
inputs. Each of these inputs requires energy to transform it to a usable
form. The embodied energy is the sum of all direct and indirect energy
required to produce a unit of output in its final form.




















Table 2; FUEL USE SUMMARY FOR BUDGET NUMBER 104200040 101 3

CORN GAIN SAMPLE BUDGET




FUEL USED IN GALLONS PER HOUR

TRACTOR(2) 3.984
TRUCK 4.030
PICKUP 2.500
SP COMBINE 3.050

FUEL ALLOCATED TO OPERATIONS IN GALLONS PER ACRE COVERED


MACHINE GALLONS POWER UNIT

SP COMBINE 0.894
TANDEM DISK 0.648 TRACTOR(2)
M. PLOW 6 1.378 TRACTOR(2)
SPRAYER 1.321 TRACTOR(2)
-LANTER 0.899 TRACTOR(2)
ROi CULTIVATOR 1.043 TRACTOR(2)

FUEL ALLOCATED TO OPERATIONS FOR THE BUDGET UNIT

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TOTAL FUEL TYPE
TANCEM DISK 0.0 0. 3 1.945 3.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.945 3
M.B. PLOW 60 0.0 0. 1.378 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.378 3
EPFAYER 0.0 0.0 1.321 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.321 3
PLANTER 0.0 0. 3 0.0 0.899 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.899 3
f.OW CULTIVATOR 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 1,043 1.043 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.086 3
SP CCMBINE 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.894 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.894 3
TRUCK 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.000 1
PICKUP 0.0 0.0 0.625 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.250 0.500 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.125 1
TOTALS 0.0 0. 5.269 1.149 1.293 1.293 0.250 2.394 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.649

GALLONS FUEL BY TYPE FUEL TYPES
3.12 GAS 1=GAS
0.0 LP 2=L.P.
8.52 DIESEL 3=DIESEL












TABLE 3: ENERGY USE SUMMARY FOR BUDGET NUMBER 104200043 101 3


CORN GRAIN SAMPLE BUDGET





MONTHLY ENERGY USE IN MEGACALORIES


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 o 10 11 12 TOTAL
MACHINERY
GASOLINE 0*0 0.0 19.53 7.81 7.81 7.81 7.81 46.87 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 97.65
LP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 03. 0.3

DIESEL 0.0 0.0 163.84 31.73 36.81 36.81 0.0 31.55 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 300.73
FUEL SUBTOTAL 0.0 0.0 183.37 39.54 44.62 44.62 7.81 78.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 398.38


FERTILIZER 0.0 0.0 788.22 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 788.22


INSECTICIDES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1083.95 0.0 0*0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1083.95


HERBICIDES 0.0 0.0 204.96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 204.96



TOTAL USE 0.0 0.0 1326.20 39.54 1919.97 44.62 7.81 78.42 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3416.56





SPECIFICATIONS OF FERTILIZERS USED


559 13-13-13 1 13-13-13
560 AMMONIUM NITRATE 2 33- 0- 0





-8-



Fuel Energy

The procedure for calculating fuel energy use by tractors follows

three steps. The first step is to compute the effective field capacity

of the tractor with implement. The effective field capacity is defined

as the number of acres covered in an hour of operation and is computed

by the formula suggested by Bowers [ 1, p. 15]:



Effective Field = Speed (mph) x Width (ft) x Field Efficiency
Capacity 8.25



Ranges of average speeds and field efficiency for common farm operations

are listed in Tables 4 and 5.

The second step is to compute fuel use per hour of operation using

the formula [12, p. 30]:



Fuel Use per = Drawbar Horsepower x Fuel Consumption Multiplier
Hour of Operation



Fuel use multipliers for several sizes of tractors by type of fuel

are presented in Table 6.

The third step is to combine the results of the two formulas above.



Fuel Energy Fuel Use Per Hour x Energy Content of Fuel
Use Effective Field Capacity



The energy content per unit of fuel is given in Table 7.

In order to illustrate the procedure, the following case is consid-

ered: a disking operation on tilled ground, using an 83 horsepower

tractor and a 16 foot disk. First the effective field capacity, or the

acres covered in an hour, is computed:





-9-












Table 4: Speed of Operations with Typical Farm Implements.



Field Operation Miles Per Hour



Moldboard Plow 3.3 5.0
Listing 3.5 4.5
Field Cultivator 3.7 4.7
Disk Harrow Stalk Ground 4.0 6.5
Disk Harrow Tilled Ground 3.5 6.0
Row Crop Planting 3.7 6,2
Small Grain Drilling 2.5 5.5
Spike-tooth Harrowing 3.5 7.2
Packing with Corrugated Roller 3.0 6.0
Row Crop Cultivating 2.0 5.7
Rotary Hoeing 5.6 12.0
Mowing 3.3 5,4
Conditioning Hay 3,3 5.4
Raking 3.5 7.4
Baling 1,5 4.6
Flail type Chopper 3.0 4.5
Field Chopping Green Forage 3.3 4.6
Hay or Straw 3.3 4,6
Row Crops 3.0 4.5

Combining 2,0 3,5
Corn Picking 2,5 3,5
Applying Anhydrous Ammonia 3.0 5,0


Source: Bowers [1],






-10-






Table 5: Field Efficiencies for Common Farm Operations



Field Operation Efficiency (%)



Tillage

Moldboard Plow 75 85
Disk Harrow 77 90
Field Cultivator 75 85
Spring Tooth or
Spike Tooth Harrow 65 76

Cultivation

Row Crop 68 85
Rotary Hoe 80 88

Seeding

Corn Planter
(Corn only) 60 75
(With Fertilizer and/or
pesticide attachment) 45 65
Grain Drill 65 80
Broadcast 65 70

Harvesting

Mower 77 85
Rake 62 89
Baler 69 80
Forage Harvester 50 70
Combine 60 r 75
Corn Picker 55 70
Cotton Picker 60 75
Swather 70 85

Miscellaneous

Sprayer 55 65


Source: Bowers [I],







-11-












Table 6: Fuel Use Multipliers for Estimating Fuel Consumption in Gallons
per Hour per Horsepower for Tractors and Gallons per Hour of
Machine Use for Other Self-Propelled Machinery



Equipment Fuel Multiplier

Gasoline LPG Diesel


Tractor (55 HP) 0.068 .0.080 0.048
Tractor (83 HP) 0.068 0.080 0.048
Tractor (100HP) 0.068 0.080 0.048
Tractor (125HP) 0.068 0.080 0.048
Tractor (150HP) 0,068 0.080 0.048
Truck 4.000 4.710 2.780
Pickup 2.500 2.940 1.740
SP Combin-Grain 7.310 8.600 5.090
SP Combine 4.390 5.160 3.050
SP Swather 2.720 3.200 1.890
SP Swather 2.960 3.520 2.090
SP Baler 3.100 3.600 2.200
SP Bale Wagon 4.000 4.710 2.780
Forage Harvester 7.000 8,300 4.800
Cotton Stripper 0.066 0.080 0,048
Cotton Picker 4.000 4.710 2,780


Source: Walker and Kletke [12],







-12-



















Table 7: MegacaLories contained in one unit of fuel.



Fuel Unit Meal



Gasoline gallon 31.248

Diesel fuel gallon 35.280

LP gas gallon 23.814

Natural gas 1000 feet3 269.010



Source: Dvoskin and Heady [4].







-13-



speed(mph) effective width (ft.) fuel efficiency
5 x 16 x 0.80
= 7.76
8.25



Second, the calculation is made for fuel use per hour:


drawbar horsepower fuel consumption multiplier
x
83 0.068 =5.64



The above results are then used in the formula:


fuel use per energy content (Mcal)
hour of operation in gallon of gasoline

5.64 x 31.25
= 22.7
7.76

effective field capacity



The results indicate that 22.7 Megacalories are used in disking an acre.



The computation of energy use by self-propelled machinery other than

tractors follows a more simplified procedure:


Fuel Energy Use = Fuel Use per Hour x Hours of Use per Acre x Energy
Content of Fuel.



The fuel use per hour multipliers for several types of self-propelled

machinery other than tractors also appear in Table 6. As an illustration,

the case is considered for a diesel grain combine that covers an acre in

five minutes:


Fuel Fuel use hours of use energy content(Meal)
Energy = per hour per acre in gallon of diesel
Use 5.090 x 0.083 x 35.280 =14.96 Meal/
acre


The procedure indicates a use of 14.96 Magalcaleries to combine one acre.







-14-












Table 8: Embodied Energy For Nitrogen Fertilizers per Pound of Formula



Formula Energy
(Mcal/lb)



Ammonia 4.06

Ammonium Nitrate 2.35

Urea 3.37

Ammonium Sulfate 1.80


Source: Fluck and Baird [6, pp. 88-89]










Table 9: Embodied Energy for Fertilizers per Pound of Nutrient



Nutrient Energy
(Mcal/lb)



N 6.59

P205 1.21

K20 0.71



Source: Fluck and Baird [6, pp. 88-89]






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Fertilizer Energy

The production of fertilizers requires large amounts of energy, par-

ticularly in the manufacture of some formulas. Nitrogen sources are the

most energy intensive relative to phosphorus and potassium. (There are,

however, wide differences in the energy requirements for each of the

nitrogen formulas.) The program, therefore, includes the average energy

requirements for each of the nitrogen formulas using the data provided by

Fluck and Baird [6, pp. 88-89]. These requriements appear in Table 8 on

a per pound of formula basis. Mixed fertilizers are often used with

chemical formulas unknown either to the farmer or the energy analyst or

both. To accommodate this situation the program also considers the energy

requirements per pound of nutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium.

These requirements are averages for all formulas under each nutrient,

Table 9.

When the chemical formula for nitrogen is specified, the embodied

energy use is calculated:


Fertilizer Energy Per Pound Pounds
= x
Energy of Formula Applied


Allowance must be made for the percentage content of the nutrient in a

formula in two cases: a) whenever the nitrogen source is unknown, and b)

to compute the energy of the phosphorus and potassium components in all

mixed, or complete, formulas. In these cases, embodied energy is calculated:



Fertilizer _Energy Per Pound % Content of Pounds
= x x
Energy of Nutrient Nutrient Applied



An example will illustrate the calculations. A farmer fertilizes his corn

pre-plant with 13-13-13 at the rate of 500 pound per acre. He also side-

dresses with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 100 pounds per acre. The

energy calculations are as follows:






-16-



a) For the unspecified nitrogen formula, phosphorus, and potassium:


Energy Content of
Per Pound Nutrient Pounds
Nutrient of Nutrient in Fertilizer Applied Meal

Nitrogen 6.59 x 0.13 x 500 =428.3

Phosphorus 1.21 x 0.13 x 500 = 78.7

Potassium 0.71 x 0.13 x 500 = 46.2

Total Embodied Energy in Complete Formula 553.2



b) For specified nitrogen formula:


Energy per Pounds
Pound of Formula Applied Meal
2.35 x 100 = 235.0

Total Embodied Energy in
Specified Nitrogen 235.0

Total Embodied Energy for
All Fertilizers 788.2 Meal/acre



Pesticide Energy

Pesticides (insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, nematicides, and

fumigants) compose another group of agricultural inputs heavily reliant

on energy sources. Many of these chemicals are petroleum derivatives.

The program estimates embodied energy in pesticides by using the energy

coefficients reported by Bullard, et al. [2]. The energy coefficients

were estimated using an input-output table to determine the energy

requirements per 1967 dollar's worth of production in different sectors

of the economy. Agricultural chemicals valued at one 1967 dollar require

45.46 mcal of energy [2, p. 48]. To mitigate the distortions of inflation

the current year dollar value needs to be deflated to the 1967 level






17-



through the use of the appropriate price index as reported by ESCS

[5, p. 8]. Thus, to estimate the embodied energy in pesticides the

following formula is used:

Total Pesticide Current $ Amount of Pesticide x 45.46
Energy Agricultural Chemical Price Index


Assuming that the same corn farmer in the example above spends $41.25

in insecticide and $7.80 in hericide per acre, the embodied energy in

pesticides is computed as follows:


dollars in insecticide purchases

$41.25 x 45.46083.9
= 1,083.9
1.73
April 1980 index
for agricultural chemicals

Total Embodied Energy Per Acre for Insecticides 1,083.9 Meal/are



dollars in herbicide purchases

$ 7.80 x 45.46 = 204.96 Meal/acre
1.73
April 1980 index
for agricultural chemicals


Total Embodied Energy Per Acre for Herbicides 204.96




Irrigation Energy

The energy used in irrigation is limited to that which is contained

in the fuel or electricity necessary to pump and drive the irrigation

system. The energy requirements will vary with well discharge capacity,




This section is optional for readers interested in calculating
energy use in irrigation, and is not included in the FARM System's
energy analysis program.






-18-



depth of well, pump fuel consumption per horsepower hour, and pump effi-

ciency. Hourly fuel requirements for systems with internal combustion

engines are computed as per Harrison and Choate [7, p. 13]:



Hourly Fuel Requirements =

discharge pumping ** fuel
(gallons per min.) x head (ft) x consumption (gal. per hp-hr)
3960 x pump efficiency



Another formula is used for systems with electric motors:



Hourly Kilowatt Requirements =

discharge (gal. per min.) x pumping head (ft.)
5310 x pump efficiency x electric motor efficiency



The hourly fuel requirement figures are then used to calculate total

irrigation energy use per acre with the following formula:


energy content in
hourly fuel or discharge gallon of fuel acre-inches
kilowatt requirement x (gal.per min) x or kilowatt hour x applied
452.6



The corn production example can again be used to illustrate the computa-

tion of irrigation energy use. Five acre-inches are applied during the

production period with a gasoline powered system:





The pumping head is a measure of pressure equal to the difference
of elevation between the source and the point of free discharge adjusted
for correction factors such as friction.
Rates of fuel use per horsepower-hour for different irrigation
systems appear in Harrison and Choate [2, p. 19].


A kilowatt-hour of electricity is equivalent to 2.66 Meal [3, p. 163].









-19-



The corn production example can again be sued to illustrate the computa-

tion of irrigation energy use. Five acre-inches are applied during the

production period with a gasoline powered system:



discharge pumping fuel use per
(gal. per min.) head (ft) hp. hr (gal)
550 x 100 x 0.112
= 1.94
3961 x 0.8 pump efficiency



A total of 1.94 gallons of gasoline are consumed per hour of operation.

This total is then used to compute the total energy use in irrigating

5 acre inches:


energy in acre
hourly fuel discharge gallon of inches
requirement (gal) (gal per min) gas (Mcal) applied
1.94 x 550 x 31.248 x 5 =368.3
452.6
Total Irrigation Energy 368.3 Meal/
acre


















tA kilowatt-hour of electricity is equivalent to 2.66 Meal [3, p. 163].






-20-



LIVESTOCK ENERGY USE COMPUTATIONAL PROCEDURES



There are three major sources of energy use in livestock production.

One is the energy embodied in buildings and other necessary facilities.

The figure is the sum of the energy embodied in all building materials

and in construction labor. Energy requirements vary greatly with varia-

tions in building size and materials, However, the paucity of technical

information encumber an energy analysis even when building sizes and ma-

terials are specified. Therefore, the Energy Use Module does not consider

the embodied energy in buildings and other facilities,

Another source of energy use in livestock production is the em-

bodied energy in feed. This figure is the energy necessary to produce all

feed material used in a budget unit. The total varies greatly with the

different rations that can be mixed by the producer. Variations also occur

in the energy requirements to produce a unit of particular feed in different

areas.

The energy analysis of livestock production is further complicated by

the possible double-counting of energy use when it is combined with an

analysis of crop production. A mixed farming example illustrates the

point. A farmer produces corn which he then feeds to cattle. A crop

energy analysis computes the energy requirements to produce a unit of corn,

A separate livestock energy analysis includes the embodied energy in corn

as part of the activity's requirements. A total farm energy use which

adds both activities together would in effect double count the energy

requirements for corn; once for producing the crop and again as an em-

bodied source in livestock production, To avoid these inherent inaccuram

cies in calculating the embodied energy in feed, the Energy Use Module

does not consider this source of energy use.






-21-



The third energy source of energy use in livestock production is

the use of machinery. To a large extent this component is made up of

the fuel requirement of the farm trucks) for hauling and transportation,

These activities include either the transport of materials to the live-

stock or the transport of livestock itself.

The Energy Use Module works in complement with the Livestock Budget

Generator as described by Tilley and Melton [10]. However, fuel energy

use for livestock enterprises is calculated in the same manner as in crop

production (see page 8), and will not be described again.Tables 10 and

11 illustrate the fuel and energy use summaries for a 20 cow dry lot bud-

get unit. The figures are interpreted in the same manner as in crop pro-

duction.




























able 10; FUEL USE SUMMARY FOR BUDGET NUMBER 11611183 171 1
Table 10;

TEST LIVESTOCK GENERATOR
20 COw DRY LOT
APRIL 1980


FUEL USED IN GALLONS PER HOUR

PICKUP 2.500
FUEL ALLOCATED TO OPERATIONS IN GALLONS PER ACRE COVERED


MACHINE GALLONS POWER UNIT
------- ------- ----------_N


FUEL ALLOCATED TO OPERATIONS FOR THE BUDGET UNIT
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TOTAL FUEL TYPE
PICKUD 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 45.000 1

TOTALS 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 3.750 45.000
GALLONS FUEL BY TYPE FUEL TYPES
45.00 GAS t=GAS
0.0 LP 2=L P.
0.0 DIESEL 3=DIESEL




















Table 11; ENERGY USE SUMMARY FOR BUDGET NUMBER 11611183 171 I


TEST LIVESTOCK GENERATOR
20 COW DRY LOT
APRIL 1980



MONTHLY ENERGY USE IN MEGACALORIES


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 TOTAL
MACHINERY
GASOLINE 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 1406.16
LP 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0*0 0.0
DIESEL 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0*0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
FUEL SUBTOTAL 117.18 117.18 117.18 117.18 117*18 117*18 1171.8 t17*18 117.18 11718 117*18 117.18 1406.16


FERTILIZER 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0*0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


INSECTICIDES 0.0 0*0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 000 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0


IFERBICIDES 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 000 0.0 000 0.0 0.0 000 0.0 0*0 0.0



TOTAL USE 117.18 11718 17 1718 117.18 117.18 117118 11718 1118 117.18 18 117.18 117.18 117.18 1406.16





SPECIFICATIONS OF FERTILIZERS USED













REFERENCES


[1] Bowers, Wendell. Modern Concepts of Farm Machinery. Champaign:
Stipes Publishing Company, 1970.

[2] Bullard, Clark., et al. Energy Analysis Handbook. Center for
Advanced Computation No. 214. Urbana: University of Illinois,
1976.

[3] College of Business. Patterns of Energy Consuption in Florida: 1976
Florida State University, STAR Project 77-2024, p. 65.

[4] Dvoskin, Dan and Earl O. Heady. U.S. Agricultural Production under
Limited Energy Supplies, High Energy Prices, and Expanding Agri-
cultural Exports, CARD Report 69. Ames:Iowa State University,
1978.

[5] Economic, Statistical and Cooperative Service. Agricultural Prices.
Washington: U.S. Department of Agriculture, March 31, 1980.

[6] Fluck, Richard C. and C. Direlle Baird. Agricultural Energetics.
AVI Publishing, 1980.

[7] Harrison, Dalton S. and Rush E. Choate. "Selection of Pumps and
Power Units for Irrigation Systems in Florida." Agricultural
Extension Service Service Circular 330, Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, 1969.

[8] Melton, Bryan E. "A User's Manual for the FARM Systems Lab Crop
Budget Generator." Economic Information Report 126. Food
and Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida, 1980.

[9] Steinhart, John S. and Carol E. Steinhart. "Energy Use in the U.S.
Food System," Science 184 (April 1974).

[10] Tilley, Marcia L. and Bryan E. Melton. "A User's Manual for the
FARM Systems Lab Livestock Budget Generator". Economic Infor-
mation Report 139. Food and Resource Economics Department,
University of Florida, September 1980.

[11] U.S. Department of Agriculture. Agricultural Statistics. Washington:
Government Printing Office, 1962, 1970.

[12] Walker, Rodney L. and Darrel D. Kletke. User's Manual Oklahoma
State University Crop Budget Generator, Progress Report P-656.
Stillwater: Oklahoma State University, October, 1972.







-24-









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APPENDIX I



ENERGY USE MODULE INPUT DATA FORM


To utilize the Energy Use Module, the procedure for entering budget

information is the same as described by Melton in "A User's Manual for the

FARM Systems Lab Crop Budget Generator" [8], but with one exception. An

additional section, the Energy Use Module Input Data Form (page 25) must

be completed and attached to the regular budget preparation form following

Part 10 (Output Selection). This additional form is designed for entering

needed supplementary information on fertilizer use.

The user's choice of fertilizer is entered in the first column. The

user finds his choice in the list of generic fertilizer names appearing

in Melton [8, p.32] and finds the number corresponding to it. For example,

the user wants the fertilizer named as "COMPLETE FERT." The number 552

corresponds to "COMPLETE FERT." This number is entered under the Item

code, namely, the second column. The third column is for entering a 1

through 5 digit corresponding to the type of fertilizer being used, in

accordance with the "Fertilizer Type Key" at the botton of the Energy Use

Module Input Data Form. All mixed formula or complete fertilizers have

a "1" classification. This number is entered in the third part. Finally,

the last three columns are for including the chemical analysis of the

fertilizer being used. The analysis must be entered for all fertilizers

except ammonium nitrate, ammonia, urea, and ammonium selfate. In this

example the analysis of the complete fertilizer used is 13-13-13.

The user also has the option of including a fertilizer name not in-

cluded in the list. For example, the user wants to indicate he also used

urea. In this case the user must choose a number corresponding to a blank






-26-



space in the list on page 32 of Melton 18], for example, number 559. The

number and name must then be entered in "Name Changes" of the budget pre-

paration form. Thus, in this case "559 UREA" must be entered. The infor-

mation then is added to the optional section on fertilizer use as already

described. "UREA" is entered in the first column. The number 559 is

entered in the second column. The number 4 is entered in the third column

(The number four corresponds to urea in the Fertilizer Type Key.) Notice

that the analysis need not be filled out for urea. Therefore, the number

two spot in the last three columns is left blank.

Up to ten different fertilizers can be entered in this fashion. Once

the additional information of fertilizer use has been entered as described,

the budget generator will supply the Energy Use Summary when the ENGR

output form is requested in Part 10 (Output Selection) of the budget pre-

paration form.








ENERGY USE MODULE INPUT DATA FORM




ANALYSIS
FERTILIZER ITEM CODE FERTILIZER TYPE N P K


1. COMPLETE FERT. 552 1 13 13 13

2. UREA 559 4

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.


Fertilizer Type Key: 1 = N-P-K (complete) 3 = Ammonia 5 = Ammonium Sulfate

2 = Ammonium 4 = UREA








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