Group Title: Economic information report
Title: Silage production costs
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026512/00001
 Material Information
Title: Silage production costs
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: ii, 19 p. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Westberry, George O ( George Omer ), 1942-
Halsey, Larry A
Hewitt, Tim
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: 1980
Copyright Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Silage -- Costs -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 19.
Statement of Responsibility: George O. Westberry, Lawrence A. Halsey, Timothy D. Hewitt.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026512
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - ACG0208
alephbibnum - 000413179
oclc - 10827668

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






George O. Westberry Economic Information

Lawrence A. Halsey Report 137

Timothy D. Hewitt






Silage Production Costs






















Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations and
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ugust1
University of Florida, Gainesville 32811 L -

























ABSTRACT


Production costs were developed for the production of silage in
North Florida. Costs were estimated for storage facilities, equipment,'
and potential field crops for silage production. Summary tables were
compiled to report the total cost of feeding corn and oat silage.

Key words: silage, North Florida, equipment fixed and variable
costs, cost per ton, silage value, and cost of fed silage.

















TABLE OF CONTENTS

-- Page

LIST OF TABLES . . . . . .... . . ... . . ii

INTRODUCTION ... . . . . .. .... ... 1

SILAGE REQUIREMENTS. . . . . . .. .... . 1

KINDS OF COSTS . . . . . . . . . . 2

Machinery and Equipment Costs . . . . . . 2

Crop Production Costs . . . .. . . ...... 3

Harvesting and Feeding Costs. . . . . .. .3

VALUE OF SILAGE. . . . . ....... . . 4

SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . 4

REFERENCES . . . . . . . .. ....19




























I





i











LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Partial equipment cost for corn silage, North
Florida, 1980 .. .. . ....... ..... 6

2 Farm equipment maintenance and repair costs per
$1,000 of initial list price. . .. . . . 7

.3 Fuel and lubricant cost estimates for farm
equipment . . . ....... . . 8

4 Investment and annual costs of bunker and trench
silos, by capacity, North Florida, 1980 .. . .. 9

5 Estimated production cost for one acre of corn,
North Florida, 1980 .. .. . . . . . .. 10

6 Estimated production cost for one acre of corn under
irrigation in North Florida, 1980 .. . . .. 11

7 Estimated production cost for one acre of oats for
silage, North Florida, 1980 . . . . . . 12

8 Fixed and variable cost to harvest, haul and store
one acre (15 tons) of corn silage, North Florida,
1980. . . . . . . . . . . . 13

9 Fixed and variable cost to harvest, haul and store
"one acre (8 tons) of oat silage, North Florida,
1980. . .. . . . . . . ..14

10 Fixed and variable cost to deliver feed to 500
cattle at 25 pounds/day, 120 day feeding season,
North Florida, 1980. .. . . . . . . 15

11 Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed
corn silage, North.Florida, 1980. . . .. . 16

12 Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed
irrigated corn silage, North Florida, 1980. .. ... 17

13 Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed
oat silage, North Florida, 1980 ....... .. . 18









-- ---- -ii















SILAGE PRODUCTION COSTS


George 0. Westberry, Lawrence A. Halsey and Timothy D. Hewitt


INTRODUCTION


Silage production is an important alternative -for producers inter-
ested in feeding almost any class of cattle. Since a large amount of
feed can be produced through an intensive silage program many producers
have expressed an interest in producing silage to feed their cattle.
Any feed production program should be based on its cost of production
as well as its nutrient value. This analysis considers the costs of
producing silage in a relatively small North Florida situation. Pro-
ducers will then be able to analyze their situation and determine if
silage production is a viable alternative in their cattle operation.


SILAGE REQUIREMENTS


Silage production has three basic requirements which are: (1) a
storage facility (2) machinery and equipment (3) crop production. A
storage facility may be as simple and inexpensive as a hole in the ground
(trench) or as advanced as an air-tight upright structure. This analysis
focuses on trench and bunker silos. Certain specialized equipment is
necessary for silage production such as choppers, wagons, loaders, and
feed wagons. Of course, the equipment complement depends upon the indi-
vidual program. Also, there must be some material to ensile:'thus, a
crop must be grown (or the material purchased). Finally, feeding costs
depend on the kind of system employed.


GEORGE O. WESTBERRY is an Extension Economist-Farm Management, Univer-
sity of Georgia Cooperative Extension Service, Tifton, Georgia. LAWRENCE
A. HALSEY is County Extension Director, Jefferson County, Monticello,
Florida. TIMOTHY D. HEWITT is an Area Economist, Food and Resource Econom-
ics Department, University of Florida, ARC, Marianna, Florida.

1 -









KINDS OF COSTS


Costs are divided into two general categories, variable and fixed.
Variable costs are those of a short-run nature that vary from year to
year as production changes. These costs are often referred to as cash
expenses or out-of-pocket costs. Simply, variable costs.are those that
can be eliminated by not producing.
Fixed costs are those costs which a producer may not change in the
short run. Included in this category are depreciation, interest, repairs
(major), taxes (property), and insurance. These costs occur regardless
of the level of production. Fixed costs per unit of production, however,
may change by producing more with a fixed set of equipment so that fixed
cost per unit is decreased.


Machinery and Equipment Costs


A complement of machinery and equipment used by a dairy for silage
production is shown in Table 1. The annual fixed costs are estimated by
multiplying purchase price times .17 (17%). Realizing that costs are
more easily used on an hourly basis; annual fixed cost was divided by the
number of hours the item is used each year to obtain the hourly charge.
Variable cost estimation requires the cost information shown in Tables
2 and 3. First obtain estimated maintenance and repair costs by using
Table 2. For example, a tractor that costs $21,000 new and has a useful
life of 5,000 hours would have a maintenance and repair cost of $1.26 per
hour (21 x $.06 = $1.26). Then move to Table 3 to obtain fuel and lube
costs. If the $21,000 tractor has 95 hp., the fuel and lube costs would
be calculated like this:
Fuel costs = 95 hp x .048 gph x $,95 = $4.33
Lube and filter costs = 4.33 x 15% = .65
Total fuel and lube costs per hour = $4.98


1//
This figure is derived by summing the following variables: depre-
ciation 10%, interest 5%, repairs 1%, taxes .5%, and insurance .5%.



-i ,*





3


Adding repair costs to fuel and lube costs results in $6.24 per hour as
the total variable costs ($4.98 + $1.26 = $6.24). Of course, the non-
motorized equipment used would require only repair costs.
The annual costs of owning bunker and trench silos are shown in
Table 4. These silos are examples of actual size silos used in North
Florida.


Crop Production Costs


Production costs for the silage crop can be estimated by using enter-
prise budgets such as those shown in Tables 5, 6, and 7. Note in these
tables that costs are broken down into variable and fixed costs as discussed
earlier. Best use of these tables (enterprise budgets) would be for the
producer to make changes using his numbers to reflect his actual costs.
Table 5 shows that an acre of corn costs approximately $167 to pro-
duce, while irrigation increases costs to $280 an acre as shown in Table
6. Production costs for oats are approximately $102 per acre, as shown
in Table 7.


Harvesting and Feeding Costs


The harvesting system described in Tables 8 and 9 uses a one-row
pull-type chopper. Harvesting costs would normally vary with yield; thus,
an assumption is made that costs per ton were constant in this analysis.
Feeding costs were calculated for a beef system where 500 brood cows
were wintered on silage. This system would be similar to feeding calves
or yearlings on pasture for about four or five months. In beef systems
where more silage is fed throughout the year, costs may be a little lower.
The cost of delivering the silage to the cattle is shown in Table 10.
Tables 11 and 12 show the total costs of corn silage fed. Oat silage
costs are summarized in Table 13.
The silage yield expected from oats is not definite. The data avail-
able are from research done on small plots. Producers should be careful
about overestimating yield. Corn silage yields used in the examples reflect
conservative thinking.



]





4


VALUE OF SILAGE


Silage can be valued by comparing it to other feeds such as corn
and soybean meal. The following method was used by Harris [7].

Constant Constant
DM for Corn for SBM

Good corn silage' 30 .185 .001

Fair corn silage 30 .170 .00i


Example: Corn valued at $110 per ton (slightly over
$3 per bushel) and soybean oil meal at $200
per ton.
Constant for corn x price of corn
plus
Constant for SBM x price of SBM
or
.185 x $110 = $20.35
.001 x $200 = .20
Equals $20.55

A ton of good corn silage at the above prices is worth $20.55. Poor
2
quality corn silage would be worth $18.90. Note in Table 11 that corn
silage costs more than $20.55 ($21.16) even at 18 tons per acre. Also,
note that this method does not reflect the roughage value of silage, which
is very important in a dairy ration.


SUMMARY


Silage is good feed and may offer a viable alternative to some cattle
operations. Producers should be aware that costs are very important in
evaluating feed alternatives as shown by the example above depicting silage



2This value assumes that poor quality corn would be valued at $100
per ton.






5


costing more than its comparative value. Producers should remember that
the numbers used in this analysis are estimates. Individual farms may
have much different costs which would yield a different answer to the
silage production question. The producer should carefully evaluate his
own situation before deciding on a feeding program.








Table l.--Partial equipment cost for corn silage, North Florida, 1980a


New Hours Annual Fixed Variable cost/hr. Total Total
cost use fixed cost d var. costs
Repairs Fuel &
cost per hr. e s ue costs
lube

95 hp diesel tractor $21,000 800 3,570 4,46 ; 1.26 4.98 6.24 10.70

70 hp diesel tractor 15,000 600 2,550 4.25 .90 3.67 4.57 8.82

50 hp diesel tractor 11,000 600 1,870 3.12 .66 2.62 3.28 6.40

Forage chopper (PTO) 8,500 150 1,445 9.63 2.80 2.80 12.43

Forage wagon 4,600 200 782 3.91 .74 .74 4.65

Front end loader 3,100 200 527 2.63 .77 .77 3.40

Feed wagon 6,000 150 1,020 6.80 2.20 2.20 9.00


aThe costs figures are an update of material presented at the 1977 Animal Science In-Service Training
in Gainesville, Florida in 1977. Source: [6].
bAnnual fixed costs calculated by multiplying new cost times 17%.

CFixed cost per hour is annual fixed costs divided by hours used per year.

Fuel cost is $0.95 per gallon.






7


Table 2.--Farm equipment maintenance and repair costs per $1,000 of
initial list price

One-half expected Total expected
Machine service life service life
Machine .....
cost/hr. cost/hr.
hours per $1,000 hours per $1,000


Tractor 5,000 $ .06 10,000 $ .09

Plow 1,000 .33 2,000 .40

Disks, chisel plow,
field cultivator 1,000 .19 2,000 .33

Fertilizer equipment 500 .70 1,000 .93

Planter, drill 500 .49 1,000 .75

Sprayer, mounted 500 .59 1,000 .78

Sprayer, self-propelled 1,000 .30 2,000 .40

Rake, conditioner 1,000 .28 2,000 .37

Mower 500 1.46 1,000 1.80

Combine, self-propelled 1,000 .10 2,000 .17

Corn head 1,000 .38 2,000 .50

--Cutter, rotary 1,000 .23 2,000 .30

Wagon and box 2,000 .14 4,000 .18

Source: [8].






8


Table 3.--Fuel and lubricant cost estimates for farm equipment


Type fuel
Item
Gasoline Diesel LGP

Estimated fuel use, gallons per hour per
horsepower

Fuel 0.067 0.048 0.080

Engine oil and filters Fifteen (15) percent of total fuel costs

The multiplier factors can be used to estimate hourly fuel cost.
Multiply engine horsepower (PTO hp for tractors) by the appropriate
factor to determine fuel usage. Multiply fuel usage by fuel price per
gallon to find cost. Lubricants and filters costs are fifteen (15)
percent of fuel costs. Example: What are the average hourly fuel and.
lubricant-costs for a 100 horsepower diesel powered tractor, if diesel
fuel costs $0.95 per gallon.

Fuel costs = 100 hp x .048 gph x $0.95 = $4.56

Lubricants and filters costs = $4.56 x 15 percent = .68

Total fuel and lubricants per hour = $5.24

Source: [2].








Table 4.--Investment and annual costs of bunker and trench silos, by capacity, North Florida, 1980


Annual
Tons Tons Annual cost/ton Cost/ton
Type capacity fed Dimensions Investment cost of capacity fed

Bunker
(20 year life) 550 500 8'x20'x70' $ 9,700 $1,115 $2.02 $2.23

825 750 8'x30'x170' 11,300 1,299 1.57 1.73

1100 1000 10'x30'x185' 14,100 1,622 1.47 1.62

1650 1500 10'x45'x185' 16,800 1,932 1.17 1.29

2200 2000 10'x45'x245' 22,200 2,553 1.16 1.28
%0

3300 3000 10'x60'x275' 28,900 3,324 1.01 1.11

Trench
(12 year life) 575 500 12'x20'x240' 5,800 986 1.71 1.97

1150 1000 15'x30'x255' 10,100 1,717 1.49 1.72

2300 2000 15'x40'x385' 20,300 3,451 1.50 1.73


aBunker costs at $0.97/square foot for floor, $2.35/square foot of upright surface.
Trench costs at $0.97/cubic yard for excavation, $0.78/square foot for flooring.

bDepreciation, interest on average investment at 10%, annual maintenance costs of 1.5% of original
cost for bunkers, 4% of original cost for trench.





10




Table 5.--Estimated production cost for one acre of corn, North
Florida, 1980a

Price Cost/A
Item Unit Quantity -----dollars---

I. Cash expenses

Seed l b. 12 .85 10.20

Fertilizer (5-10-15)b cwt. 5.5 5.60 30.80

Nitrogen lb. N 125 .24 30.00

Limeb ton 1/3 16.00 5.33

Insecticide lb. 15 .78 11.70.

Herbicide Ib. 4.0 3.35 13.40

Tractor, 95 hp hr. 1.24 6.24 7.74

Truck, pickup mi. 20 .09 1.80

Other machinery hr. 1.24 1.48 1.83

Labor hr. 1.43 3.50 5.00

Land rent acre 1.0 30.00 30.00

Interests $ 147.80 .055 8.13

Total cash expenses 155.93

II. Fixed costs

Tractor hr. 1.24 4.46 5.53

Truck, pickup mi. 20 .11 2.20

Other machinery hr. 1.24 2.67 3.31

Total fixed costs 11.04

III. Total growing cost 166.97


aAssumes a yield of 15 tons per acre.

Cost includes spreading.

CAssumes an annual rate of 11% with the money borrowed for 6 months;
Sthus, a rate of .055.





11




Table 6.--Estimated production cost for one acre of corn under
irrigation in North Florida, 1980a

Price Costs/A
Item Unit Quantity -----dollars--

I. Cash expenses
Seed lb. 18 .85 15.30
Fertilizer (5-10-15)b cwt. 8.0 5.60 44.80
Nitrogen lb. N 150 .24 36.00
Limeb ton 1/3 16.00 5.33
Insecticide lb. 15.0 .78 11.70
Herbicide lb. 4.0 3.35 13.40
Tractor, 95 hp hr. 1.24 6.24 7.74
Truck, pickup mi. 20 .09 1.80
Other machinery hr. 1.24 1.48 1.83
Labor hr. 1.43 3.50 5.00
Irrigation costs acre 1.0 29.62 29.62
Land rent acre 1.0 30.00 30.00
Interest $. 202.52 .055 11.14
Total cash expenses 213.66
II. Fixed costs
Tractor hr. 1.24 4.46 5.53
Truck, pickup mi. 20 ,11 2.20
Other machinery hr. 1.24 2,67 3.31
Irrigation acre 1.0 54.99 54.99
Total fixed costs 66.03
III. Total growing costs 279.69


aAssumes a yield of 15 tons per acre.

Cost includes spreading.

CAssumes an annual rate of 11% with the money borrowed for 6 months;
thus, a rate of .055.





12




Table 7.--Estimated production cost for one acre of oats for silage,
North Florida, 1980a

Price Cost/A
Item Unit Quantity ----dollars-----

I. Variable costs

Seed bu. 3.0 3.50 10.50

Limeb ton .33 16.00 5.28

Fertilizer cwt. 5.0 5.60 28.00

Nitrogen lb. N 75.00 .24 18.00

Tractor, 95 hp hr. 1.11 6.24 6.93

Equipment hr. '1.11 1.08 1.20

Labor hr. 1.28 3.50 4.48

Land rent acre 1.0 15.00 15.00

Interest $ 89.39 .055 4.92

Total variable costs 94.31

II. Fixed costs

Tractor hr. 1.11 4.46 4.95

Equipment hr. 1.11 2.27 2.52

Total fixed costs 7.47

III. Total growing costs 101.78


aAssumes a yield of 8 tons per acre.

Cost includes spreading.

cAssumes that the land rent is $30 for 12 months but only 6 months
is used for the production of oats, thus a charge of $15.

Assumes an annual rate of 11% with the money borrowed for 6 months;
thus, a rate of .055.






13




Table 8.-- Fixed and variable cost to harvest, haul and store one acre
(15 tons) of corn silage, North Florida, 1980

Operation Item Unit Quantity Price/unit Cost

Harvest (chop and load)

95 hp tractor hr. 1.45 $6.24 $ 9.05

1 row PTO forage chopper hr. 1.45 2.80 4.06

Labor hr. 1.45 3.50 5.07

Paul

70 hp tractor hr. .45 4.57 2.06

50 hp tractor hr. .45 3.28 1.48

Forage wagons (3) hr, .45 (x3) .74 1.00

Labor hr. .90 3.50 3.15

1. Pack

70 hp tractor hr. 1.00 4.57 4.57

Labor hr. 1.00 3.50 3.50

Total-variable cost $33.94

Fixed cost of equipment allocated to 15 ton silage harvest
(from Table 1 allocated by hours of equipment used) $33.27

Total cost (15 tons) $67.21

Fixed and variable costs to harvest, haul and store per ton stored $ 4.48






14




Table 9.--Fixed and variable cost to harvest, haul and store one acre
(8 tons) of oat silage, North Florida, 1980

Operation Item Unit Quantity Price/Unit Cost

Harvest (chop and load)

95 hp tractor hr. 1.00 $6.24 $ 6.24

1 row PTO forage chopper hr. 1.00 2.80 2.80

Labor hr. 1.00 3.50 3.50

Haul

70 hp tractor hr. .30 4.57 1.37

50 hp tractor hr. .30 3.28 .98

Forage wagons (3) hr. .30 (x3) .74 .67

Labor hr. .60 3.50 2.10

1 Pack '

70 hp tractor hr. .70 4.57 3.20

Labor hr. .70 3.50 2.45

Total variable cost $23.31

Fixed cost of equipment allocated to 8 ton silage harvest
(from Table 1, allocated by hours of equipment used) $22.81

Total cost (8 tons) $46.12

Fixed and variable costs to harvest, haul and store per ton stored $ 5.76








/







15


Table 10.--Fixed and variable cost to deliver feed to 500 cattle at 25
pounds/day, 120 day feeding season, North Florida, 1980

Operation Unit Quantity Price/Unit Cost

Unload silo @ 6.25 T/day

70 hp tractor hr. 120 $4.57 $ 548.40

Feed wagon hr. 120 2.20 264.00

50 hp tractor hr. 40 3.28 131.20

Front end loader hr. 40 .77 30.80

Labor hr. 160 3.50 560.00

Total variable cost $1,534.40

Fixed cost of equipment
allocated to feeding 1,556.00

Total cost to feed 750 net tons $3,090.40

Total cost to feed/ton fed '$ 4.12







16


Table 11.--Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed corn
"silage, North Florida, 1980


Item Yield of corn silage, tons/acre

10T 12T 15T 18T

Cost/ton produced $16.70 $13.91 $11.13 $ 9.28
b
Cost to harvest, haul, pack/ton 4.48 4.48 4.48 4.48

Cost to store (750T bunker) 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73

Sub total $22.91 $20.12 $17.34 $15.49

10% loss (750T bunker) -2.29 2.01 1.73 1.55

Total cost/ton $25.20 $22.13 $19.07 $17.04
d
Cost to feed (750T) 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12

Total cost of silage, fed $29.32 $26.25 $23.19 $21.16


aFrom Table 5.

From Table 8 (costs may be slightly different at various yield levels).
From Table 4.

dFror Table 10.







17


Table 12.--Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed irrigated
corn silage, North Florida, 1980

Yield of corn silage, tons/acre
Item
20T 22T 24T 28T

Cost/ton produced $13.98 $12.71 $11.65 $ 9.99

Cost to harvest, haul, pack/tonb 4.48 4.48 4.48 4.48

Cost to store (750T bunker)c 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73

Sub total $20.19 $18.92 $17.86 $16.20

10% loss (750T bunker) 2.02 1.89 1.79 1.62

Total cost/ton $22.21 $20.81 $19.65 $17.82

Cost to feed (750T)d 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12

Total cost of silage, fed $26.33 $24.93 $23.77 $21.94


aFrom Table 6.

From Table 8 (costs may be slightly different for irrigated corn and at
various yeild levels).
"CFrom Table 4.

dFrom Table 10.







18


Table 13.--Summary: Cost to produce, harvest, store and feed oat
silage, North Florida, 1980


Item Yield of oat silage, tons/acre
6T 8T 10T 12T

Cost/ton produced $16.96 $12.72 $10.18 $ 8.48

Cost to harvest, haul, pack/ton 5.76 5.76 5.76 5.76

Cost to store (750T bunker)c 1.73 1.73 1.73 1.73

Sub total $24.45 $20.21 $17.67 $15.97

10% loss (750T bunker) 2.45 2.02 1.77 1.60.

Total cost/ton $26.90 $22.23. $19.44 $17.57
Ad
Cost to feed (750T)d 4.12 4.12 4.12 4.12

-Total cost of silage, fed $31.02 $26.35 $23.56 $21.69

aFrom Table 7.

bFrom Table 9 (costs may be slightly different at various yield levels).

CFrom Table 4.

"From Table 10.







19


REFERENCES


[1] American Society of Agricultural Engineers.. Agricultural
Engineers Yearbook, "Agricultural Machinery Management
Data," St. Joseph, Michigan, 1976.

[2] Bowers, Wendell and Myron Paine. "Estimating Fuel Require-
ments for Farming Operations," Oklahoma Cooperative
Extension Service, Extension Facts N. 1704, Stillwater,
August 1976.

[3] Brown, R. Edward. "Silage Costs Harvesting and Storing."
Paper presented at the Executive Farmer's Seminar,
Macon, Georgia, November 1977.

[4] Brown, R. Edward. "Utilizing Silage in Beef Production."
Paper presented at the Executive Farmer's Seminar,
Macon, Georgia, November 1977.

[5] Givan, William. "Know Your Machinery Costs,"'Georgia
Cooperative Extension Service, Circular 703,
Athens, 1978.

[6] Halsey, Lawrence A. "A Silage Budget." Paper presented
at Animal Science In-Service Training, Gainesville, t
Florida, 1977.

[7] Harris, Barney. "Feeding Silage to Dairy Cattle," Univer-
sity of Florida, Dairy Science Department, Report
DY 75-36, Gainesville, June 1975.

18] John Deere Company. Machinery Management, Moline, Illinois,
1975.





University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs