Group Title: Economic information report
Title: The Inter-American citrus network
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026490/00001
 Material Information
Title: The Inter-American citrus network a compilation of citrus data from the Americas
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: ii, 28 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: York, Alison
Muraro, R. P
Spreen, Thomas H
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1994
Copyright Date: 1994
 Subjects
Subject: Citrus fruit industry -- Statistics -- North America   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Statistics -- South America   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Statistics   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references (p. 20).
Statement of Responsibility: Alison York, Ronald P. Muraro, Thomas H. Spreen.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "December 1994."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026490
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: notis - AKG6121
alephbibnum - 001989113
oclc - 32207441

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HISTORIC NOTE



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not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
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record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Alison York Economic Information
Ronald P. Muraro Report El 94-5
Thomas H. Spreen




The Inter-American Citrus Network
A Compilation of Citrus Data
from the Americas



















Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Cooperative Extension Service December 1994
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
















ABSTRACT

Economic trade data was collected from ten western hemisphere citrus producing countries. The data
was collected during 1993/94 using surveys sent to the participating countries. The economic trade data survey
was conducted under the auspices of the Inter-American Citrus Network of the Food and Agricultural
Organization (FAO). Annual surveys will be conducted to develop a citrus economic data based for the citrus
producing countries of the America's.

Key words: Inter-American Citrus Network, economic trade data, citrus



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The citrus economic trade data presented in this report was from research conducted by the University
of Florida-IFAS on behalf of the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. The
purpose of this project was to collect and publish economic trade data from the citrus producing countries of
the America's.

The individuals who provided the economic trade data used in this report are listed below:

Argentina Luis Larocca, Economist, INTA Experimental Station Concordia, Entre Rios Province.
Brazil Sergio Teixeria Mendes, ABECitrus, Sao Paulo.
Colombia Jose Serna Vasquez, Federacion Nacional de Cafeteros, Santa Fe.
Cuba Arnaldo Correa, Corporacion Nacional de Citrus, Havana.
Guatemala Juan Carlos Granados Friely, Ministerio de Agricultura Guatemala City.
Mexico Rita Rindermann and Manuel Gomez, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo and Alfonso
Hernandez Guzman, Direccion General de Politica Agricola (SARAH), Mexico City.
Uruguay Marta Bentancur and Juan Pablo Furest, Ministerio de Ganaderia Agricola Y
Pesca/Comision Honoraria Nacinal, del Plan Citricola, Montevideo.
United States Joseph Somers, Foreign Agricultural Service, U.S.D.A., Washington, D.C.


CONVERSION FACTORS FOR SPECIFIC VALUES SHOWN IN REPORT

Hectare = 2.47 Acres

Box = Oranges -- 40.8 kg or 90 lbs
Tangerines -- 43.1 kg or 95 lbs
Grapefruit -- 38.6 kg or 85 lbs
Limes -- 39.9 kg or 88 lbs
Lemons -- 40.8 kg or 90 lbs

Metric Ton = Oranges -- 245 boxes
Tangerines -- 23.2 boxes
Grapefruit -- 25.9 boxes
Limes -- 25.0 boxes
Lemons -- 245 boxes


i
















Table of Contents


Page

Abstract ................................................................... i

Acknowledgements ........................................ .................. i

Introduction ........................................ ....................... 1

The Orange Industry .......................................................... 3

The Tangerine Industry ....................................................... 7

The Grapefruit Industry ....................................................... 10

The Lime Industry ................................... ....................... 14

The Lemon Industry .......................................................... 17

References ........................................ ........................ 20

Appendix .................................................................. 21

Figure 1: Processed Orange Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 2: Fresh Orange Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 3: Fresh Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 4: Processed Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 5: Fresh Tangerine Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 6: Fresh Lime Exports, 1992/1993

Figure 7: Fresh Lemon Exports, 1992/1993











ii









THE INTER-AMERICAN CITRUS NETWORK:
A COMPILATION OF CITRUS DATA
FROM THE AMERICAS


Alison York, Ronald P. Muraro and Thomas H. Spreen



Introduction

The Inter-American Citrus Network is a database that documents current citrus data from ten western

hemisphere citrus producing countries. The citrus products included in the database are fresh and processed

oranges, tangerines, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. The current participating countries include Argentina,

Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Uruguay, and the United States. These

countries are responsible for producing the majority of citrus products produced in the western hemisphere

and accounted for over half of the world production of citrus (Table 1).

In 1993, comprehensive surveys were constructed to collect data for nearly every aspect of the citrus

industry in each respective country. Briefly, these surveys attempt to document information concerning

acreage, production, yields, exports, imports, value of exports and imports, domestic consumption, and prices

at different marketing levels for the 1992/1993 marketing year along with forecasts for the 1993/1994 marketing

year. The Inter-American Citrus Network will provide a dependable source of data for a worldwide industry

that is increasingly dependent on the western hemisphere for providing citrus products. Once compiled, the

database will be redistributed to the participating countries, and annual reports are expected to continue so

that the database may expand.

Contacts varied in each country and included government agricultural agencies and exporting firms. The

following is a list of contacts that were used to compile the data. With the exception of Brazil, Mexico, and

Argentina, all of the data in this report came directly from these contacts unless otherwise stated:



ALISON YORK is Graduate Research Assistant and THOMAS H. SPREEN is Professor, Food and
Resource Economics Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida. RONALD P. MURARO is
Extension Economist, Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida.






1









Argentina EEA INTA Concordia
Belize Belize Citrus Growers Association
Brazil ABECitrus
Colombia Federacion Nacional de Cafeteros de Colombia
Cuba Corporacion Nacional De Citricos
Guatemala Profruta/Ministerio de Agricultura, Ganaderia, y Alimentaci6n
Honduras Private Sources
Mexico Universidad Aut6noma Chapingo
Uruguay Ministerio de Ganaderia Agricola Y Pesca/Comision Honoraria Nacional del Plan
Citricola
United States Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA


In the case of Argentina, Brazil, and Mexico, the data provided by these contacts were supplemented

by data reported in the FAS/USDA annual citrus reports for each country.


Table 1. Total Citrus Production, 1992/1993.

Country Production % of World
1992/1993 Production
1000 MT
Brazil" 16,407.0 24.0
United States 13,851.0 20.3
Mexico" 3,222.0 4.7
Argentina' 1,783.6 2.6
Cuba 635.1 0.9
Colombia 407.6 0.6
Honduras 301.5 0.4
Uruguay 229.1 0.3
Belize 111.4 0.2
Guatemala 11.0 -b
Total 36,959.3 54.2'
World 68,237.2 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
"FAS data
"b Less than 0.1%
Numbers may not add due to rounding
d FAO 1992/1993 estimate







2









The Orange Industry

The Inter-American citrus producing countries are responsible for producing over half of the world

orange production, and nearly 86% of this production is in the United States and Brazil. Brazil produced

approximately 15 million metric tons (MT) or 30% of world production and the United States produced about

10 million MT or 20% of world orange production for the 1992/1993 marketing year (Table 2).



Table 2. Orange Production Among Inter-American Countries.

Country Production Yields Production Yields % of World
1992/93 1992/93 1993/94' 1993/94' Production
1000 MT MT/Ha 1000 MT MT/Ha 1992/93
Brazil' 14,974.0 22.4 14,117.0 21.2 30.0
U.S. 10,071.0 36.3 9,449.0 34.0 20.1
Mexico" 2,230.0 10.9 2,647.3 12.9 4.4
Argentina" 659.0 15.8 680.0 16.0 1.3
Cuba 379.0 7.1 350.0 6.7 0.8
Colombia 283.0 20.8 294.0 21.6 0.6
Honduras 275.0 34.4 NA NA 0.5
Uruguay 121.2 18.4 165.0 25.0 0.2
Belize 73.2 NA NA NA 0.1
Guatemala 9.7 10.7 NA NA -b
Total 29,076.8 NA NA NA 58.0c
World 50,171.0 NA NA NA 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
a FAS data
b Less than 0.1%
Numbers may not add due to rounding
d FAO 1992/1993 estimate
Forecast












3









Table 3. Total and Producing Area and Trees for Orange Production, 1992/1993 and 1993/1994.

Country Total Production Total Trees Production Total Total
Area Area Trees Area Trees
1000
1000 Ha 1000 Ha 1000 1000 1000
1993/94b 1993/94"

Brazil 927.0 667.0 229,000.0 166,000.0 908.0 226,000.0
U.S. 353.8 277.7 77,422.5 54,953.9- 366.0 81,614.4-
Mexico 257.3 205.1 49,500.0 41,000.0 284.6 50,000.0
Argentina 55.9 41.5 15,092.0 11,964.0 56.7 15,400.0
Cuba 59.5 53.4 16,660.0 14,952.0 56.4 15,792.0
Colombia 17.7 13.6 4,167.0 3,196.0 18.0 4,230.0
Honduras 8.0 6.2 1,600.0 1,283.2 8.0 NA
Uruguay 8.7 6.6 2,547.0 1,914.0 8.7 2,547.0
Belize NA NA NA NA NA NA
Guatemala 2.0 1.7 530.9 448.4 NA NA

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
SFlorida only
b Forecast


For Brazil, the world's leading orange producer, the 1992/1993 marketing season was a record year.

Favorable weather conditions during the mid-1992 season increased fruit size and total output (FAS).

Although the largest orange producing area is found in Brazil (Table 3), yields are lower compared to the

United States (Table 2). However, despite an increase in the number of bearing trees for 1993/1994,

production is expected to decrease due to lower tree yields in Sao Paulo and dry weather conditions in other

citrus producing areas (FAS).

Brazil processes 77% of its orange output, most of which is exported (Figure 1). Nearly all other fruit

(22%) is consumed domestically as fresh fruit with the exception of less than 1% that is used for fresh export

(Table 4). Most of Brazil's revenue from the orange industry comes from processed exports. During the

1992/1993 marketing year, Brazil exported 1,000,000 MT (650 brix) of processed oranges valued at $887 per

MT and brought revenues of over 887 million dollars. These exports were shipped to the Netherlands (200,000

MT), the United States (192,000 MT), Belgium (62,000 MT), and Japan (16,300 MT), Canada (49,600 MT),



4









and other destinations. Brazil also exports fresh oranges, but volumes are relatively small compared to

processed exports. During the 1992/1993 marketing year, Brazil exported 67,700 MT of fresh oranges valued

at 14.8 million dollars ($218.61/MT F.O.B.). The primary importer of Brazilian fresh oranges is the

Netherlands.


Table 4. Utilization of Orange Production, 1992/1993.

Country % Fresh % Processed Total
1000 MT
Domestic Domestic
Consumption Export Consumption Export

Brazil" 22.1 0.5 1.3 76.1 14,974.0
U.S. 16.2 5.5 72.4 5.9 10,071.0

Mexico" 94.3 0.1 0.7 4.9 2,230.0
Argentina' 60.8 9.2 20.9 9.1 659.6
Cuba 70.2 12.0 1.0 20.0 379.0

Colombia 95.0 0.0 2.5 2.5 283.6

Honduras 97.2 1.4 1.4 0.0 275.9
Uruguay 23.0 62.0 7.3 7.7 121.2

Belize NA NA NA NA 73.2
Guatemala 99.9 0.1 NA NA NA

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
a FAS data



The United States, the second largest orange producer in the world, had approximately 10 million MT

of oranges available during the 1992/1993 marketing year. Product is expected to decrease in the 1993/1994

marketing year to approximately 9.5 million MT. Increases in 1992/1993 production compared to the

1991/1992 can be attributed to higher Florida orange production (NASS). Florida produced its third largest

crop in history; much of that is a result of the large acreage of young trees coming into production (NASS).

Based on the Florida Agricultural Statistical Service's Citrus Summary, producers received $ 154.50/MT for the

fresh orange market and $53.79/MT for the processed orange market. During the 1992/1993 marketing year,





5









about 78% of the oranges produced in the United States were processed, 16% were consumed fresh

domestically, and the remainder were used for fresh export (Figure 2).

In 1992/1993, 556,000 MT of fresh oranges were exported. The majority (91%) of U.S. fresh exports

were shipped to Canada, Japan, and Hong Kong. The F.O.B. price for fresh oranges in 1992/1993 was

$503/MT and brought a total revenue of nearly 280 million dollars for fresh exports. Fresh exports for

1993/1994 are expected to decrease slightly to 555,000 MT. Price data is shown in Table 5. The United States

also exported processed oranges during the 1992/1993 marketing year. Exports totaled 81,000 MT (650 brix)

at an F.O.B. price of $2,569.00/MT (65 brix) and brought revenues of 208 million dollars. Exports were

shipped primarily to Canada and France.



Table 5. Farm, Central/Wholesale, and F.O.B. Prices for Fresh and Processed Oranges, $/MT,
1992/1993 Marketing Year.

Country Farm Farm Central Central F.O.B. F.O.B.
Fresh Processed Market Market Fresh Processed*
Fresh Processed

U.S. 154.50 53.79 NA NA 503.00 2,569.00
Mexico NA NA 233.00 NA NA NA
Argentina 110.00 53.00 329.00 NA 350.00 1,051.00
Brazil NA NA NA NA 218.61 887.00
Colombia 65.00 56.00 108.00 NA NA 1,449.00
Cuba NA NA NA NA 426.00 NA
Guatemala 120.00 NA 240.00 NA 359.00 NA
Uruguay NA NA 243.00 NA 320.00 NA
Belize NA NA 206.74 NA NA NA

SProcessed prices in $/MT (650 brix).



Unlike Brazil, the United States imports both fresh and processed oranges. In 1992/1993, 10,000 MT

of fresh oranges were imported from Australia, the Dominican Republic, and other locations. The value of

imports totaled 8.3 million dollars. Imports of fresh oranges are expected to increase to 15,000 MT for the

1993/1994 marketing year.


6










Mexican orange production is the third largest among the Inter-American citrus producing countries.

Production available for the 1992/1993 marketing year was 2.2 million MT. An increase in production of

approximately 417,000 MT is expected for 1993/1994. Most of Mexico's orange production is consumed

domestically with 55% being processed and less than 1% used for fresh export. The central market price for

oranges in the fresh market was $233/MT in 1992/1993.

For 1992/1993, Mexico exported almost 3,000 MT of fresh oranges; most of which was sent to the

United States. Mexico also imported small amounts of fresh oranges from the U.S. (240 MT) during the

1992/1993 marketing year. Processed exports totaled 13,000 MT (650 brix). The U.S. imported 92% of

Mexico's processed exports with the remainder exported to Japan and other locations.

Argentina, Cuba, Colombia, Honduras, Uruguay, Belize, and Guatemala are the remaining orange

producing countries. Together, they are responsible for 6.2% of world orange production. During the

1992/1993 marketing year, these countries exported 173,536 MT of fresh oranges and 10,761 MT (650brix) of

processed oranges.


The Tangerine Industry

World production of tangerines in 1992 was 75 million MT, 18% of which was exported as fresh fruit

(FAO). The Inter-American citrus countries were responsible for 20% of this production (15 million MT)

during the 1992/1993 marketing year (Table 6). The major producers are Brazil, the United States, and

Argentina with crops of 605, 352, and 338 thousand MT respectively for the 1992/1993 marketing year.

Brazil consumes most of its tangerines domestically (80%). Nearly, 20% of its production is processed

with the small remainder being exported as fresh fruit (Table 7). The industry in Brazil tends to combine

processed tangerines with processed oranges with approximately 120,000 MT included in the orange crush

(FAS). During 1992/1993, Brazil exported 6,000 MT of fresh tangerines valued at 1.7 million dollars. Fresh

exports are expected to rise to 8,000 MT during the 1993/1994 marketing year. In 1992/1993, Brazil exported

approximately 1,500 MT of processed tangerines, shipped primarily to the Netherlands, valued at 1.3 million

dollars.






7









Table 6. Tangerine Production and Yields Among Inter-American Countries.

Country Production Yields Production Yields % of World
1992/93 1992/93 1993/94' 1993/94' Production
1000 MT MT/Ha 1000 MT MT/Ha
Brazilb 605.0 24.0 553.0 21.9 8.1
U.S. 352.0 32.9 409.0 38.2 4.7
Argentinab 338.0 13.0 350.0 13.6 45
Mexicob 90.0 8.18 NA NA 1.2

Colombia 64.0 40.0 68.0 42.5 0.8

Uruguay 53.0 95 65.0 11.6 0.7
Cuba 6.3 3.9 6.0 3.9 -c
Guatemala 0.8 8.9 NA NA NA
Total 1,509.1 NA NA NA 20.1
World 7,500.0 NA NA NA 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
a Forecast
"b FAS data
c Less than 0.1%




Table 7. Utilization of Tangerine Production, 1992/1993.

Country % Fresh % Processed Total
1000 MT
Domestic Domestic
Consumption Export Consumption Export

Brazil" 78.8 0.1 NA NA 605.0
U.S. 59.7 4.3 36.2 0.0 352.0

Argentina' 82.8 10.6 NA NA 377.7

Mexico' 85.4 1.0 NA NA 90.0
Colombia 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 64.0
Uruguay 50.0 32.0 10.9 7.1 53.3
Cuba 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.3

Guatemala 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
SFAS data


8











The United States produced 352,000 MT of tangerines for the 1992/1993 marketing year and is expected

to increase production to 409,000 MT for the next year. The United States has less than half of the producing

area for tangerines compared to Argentina (Table 8) but because of higher yields (Table 6), the U.S. is able

to produce at approximately the same level. As shown in Table 7, about 60% of tangerine production is

consumed fresh domestically while 36% is processed and 4% is used for fresh export.



Table 8. Total and Producing Area and Trees for Tangerine Production, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Total Production Total Production Total Total
Area Area Trees Trees Area Trees
1993/94'
1000 Ha 1000 Ha 1000 1000 1000 Ha
1993/94'

Brazil 28.3 25.2 1,070.0 6,300.0 25.6 6395.0
U.S. 12.8 8.7 3,139.9- 1,781.0' 13.7 3,507.1a
Argentina 33.3 25.9 10,082.0 7,512.0 34.3 10,600.0
Mexico 11.0 20.0 4,540.0 3,370.0 19.5 4,460.0
Colombia 2.3 1.6 540.0 376.0 2.4 564.0
Uruguay 7.8 5.6 2,297.0 1,622.0 7.8 2,297.0
Cuba 1.8 1.6 504.0 448.0 17.0 476.0

Guatemala -b b 18.2 16.9 NA NA

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
"Florida Only
b Less than 100 hectares
c Forecast


In 1992/1993, the United States exported 15,000 MT of fresh tangerines, primarily to Canada, valued

at nearly 10 million dollars. The F.O.B. price of fresh tangerines was $822/MT in 1992/1993 totaling 12.3

million dollars for fresh exports. The United States, however, is a net importer of fresh tangerines, two thirds

of which originate from Mexico and Spain (12,000 MT). Processed tangerines were also imported from

Colombia and Ecuador in 1992/1993 (780 and 630 MT in 650 brix). The total value of fresh and processed

tangerine imports is approximately 35 million dollars.




9









Argentina is the third largest tangerine producer, and also consumes most of its production

domestically (83%). However, it exports a larger percentage (10.6%) of its product as fresh fruit than Brazil

(Table 7 and Figure 3). The primary importer of Argentine tangerine products is the Netherlands. Argentina

exported over six times the amount of fresh tangerines as Brazil totaling 40,200 MT in 1992/1993. Exports are

expected to drop to 27,700 MT for the 1993/1994 marketing year.

For the 1992/1993 marketing year, tangerine producers in Argentina received $130/MT for tangerines

utilized fresh and only $45/MT 650 brix for tangerines utilized for processing. Central market prices were

$320/MT for fresh market tangerines and F.O.B. prices were approximately $475/MT for fresh and $1,100/MT

(650 brix) for processed tangerines. Further price data is shown in Table 9.


Table 9. Farm, Central/Wholesale, and Prices for Fresh and Processed Tangerine, $/MT, 1992/1993
Marketing Year.

Country Farm Farm Central Central F.O.B. F.O.B.
Fresh Processed Fresh Processed Fresh Processedb
Uruguay NA NA 240.00 NA 540.00 NA
U.S. 432.50 -48.20a NA NA 822.00 NA
Guatemala 305.00 NA 610.00 NA NA NA
Colombia 200.00 NA 330.00 NA NA NA
Argentina 130.00 45.00 320.00 NA 475.00 1,100.00
Brazil NA NA NA NA 295.93 942.36
Mexico NA NA 182.00 NA NA NA
langermes usec tor processing are rom tres market eliminations which result ia negative return
to the producer.
bProcessed prices in $/MT (650 brix).

The Grapefruit Industry

The United States is the world's leading grapefruit producer with an approximate production for the

1992/1993 marketing year of 2.5 million MT of fruit, representing over half (56%) of the world grapefruit

production (Table 10). Florida, the major grapefruit producing area in the U.S., reached record production

levels for the 1992/1993 year (FASS). Both colored and white grapefruit experienced increases that resulted

in substantially lower prices, especially for processed fruit (FASS). In 1992/1993, producers received

$127.80/MT for grapefruit sold in the fresh market and $16.30/MT (580 brix) for fruit processed. The

wholesale price or central market price was $171.30/MT for the fresh market. Prices are shown in Table 11.

10










Table 10. Grapefruit Production and Yields Among Inter-American Countries, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Production Yields Production Yields % of World
1993/94 1992/93 1994/94d 1993/94d Production
1000 MT MT/Ha 1000 MT MT/HA
United States 2,541.0 43.1 2,329.0 39.5 56.4
Cuba 232.0 9.7 250.0 10.4 5.2
Argentina' 181.0 18.6 180.0 18.6 4.0
Mexico' 120.0 20.0 NA NA 2.6
Belize 39.1 NA NA NA 0.9
Brazil" 25.0 35.7 25.0 35.7 0.6
Honduras 19.6 17.8 25.0 22.7 0.4
Colombia 12.0 20.0 8.0 13.3 0.3
Uruguay 9.1 17.6 105 20.3 0.2
Total 3,178.8 NA NA NA 70.6b
World" 4,500.0 NA NA NA 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
FAS data
b Numbers may not add due to rounding
FAO 1992/1993 estimate
d Forecast


Table 11. Farm, Central/Wholesale, and F.O.B. Prices for Fresh and Processed Grapefruit, $/MT,
1992/1993 Marketing Year.

Country Farm Farm Central Central F.O.B. F.O.B.
Fresh Processed Fresh Processed Fresh Processed"
U.S. 127.80 16.30 171.30 NA 499.00 3,313.00
Belize NA NA 296.00 NA NA NA
Honduras NA NA NA NA 740.00 1,416.00
Cuba NA NA NA NA 440.99 NA
Colombia 225.00 NA 375.00 NA NA NA
Brazil NA NA NA NA 264.88 1,039.41
Argentina 91.00 70.00 299.00 NA 337.00 1,644.00
Mexico NA NA 395.00 NA NA NA

SProcessed prices in $/MT (580 brix)




11









The United States processed 54% of its grapefruit production, 29% was sent to fresh domestic market

and 17% exported as fresh fruit during the 1992/1993 marketing year (Table 12). The U.S. imports and

exports fresh and processed grapefruit, but is a net exporter of both. Over half of the fresh exports were

destined for Japan, or about 223,000 MT. Approximately, 117,000 MT were delivered to the European

Community and the remainder to various locations. Total fresh grapefruit exports were approximately 441,000

MT in the 1992/1993 marketing year. The F.O.B. price per MT of fresh grapefruit was $499 and yielded a

total revenue of 220 million dollars. Volumes of fresh exports are expected to rise to 470,000 MT in the

following year.


Table 12. Utilization of Grapefruit Production, 1992/1993.

Country % Fresh % Processed Total
1000 MT
Domestic Domestic
___ Consumption Export Consumption Export

U.S. 28.6 17.3 45.3 8.8 2,541.0
Cuba 32.0 23.0 2.6 42.4 232.0
Argentina* 35.3 25.3 NA NA 181.0
Mexico' 71.2 0.9 NA NA 120.0
Belize NA NA NA NA 39.1
Brazil" 4.0 8.0 0.0 88.0 25.0
Honduras 0.0 94.0 0.0 6.0 19.6
Colombia 98.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 12.0
Uruguay 8.0 61.0 18.7 12.3 9.1

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
FAS data


In the 1992/1993 marketing year, 12,000 MT of fresh grapefruit were imported into the U.S., 11,000

of which came from the Bahamas. The total value of fresh imports was 1.3 million dollars. The amount of

imports is expected to remain unchanged.

In the 1992/1993 marketing year, the United States exported 16,700 MT of processed grapefruit (580

brix) that had an average value of $3,313.35/MT (Figure 5). Japan received 6,300 MT and Canada, the second




12









largest importer of U.S. processed grapefruit, purchased 3,100 MT worth about 12.2 million dollars. The total

value of exported processed grapefruit was 55.3 million dollars in 1992/1993.

Cuba, the second largest producer of grapefruit in the western hemisphere, produced 232,000 MT of

fruit for the 1992/1993 marketing year. Cuba has more than twice the amount of producing grapefruit area

(Table 13) than Argentina, the next largest producer. However, grapefruit yields in Cuba are the lowest among

the countries surveyed (Table 10).


Table 13. Total and Producing Area and Trees for Grapefruit Production, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Total Production Total Production Total Total
Area Area Trees Trees Area Trees

10001000 a 000 Ha 1000 1000 1000 Ha 1000
1993/94b 1993/93b

U.S. 74.7 58.9 16,729.3' 11,920.58 77.4 17,542.9'
Cuba 29.9 24.0 5,382.0 4,320.0 292.0 5,256.0
Argentina 12.2 9.7 2,594.0 2,020.0 12.2 2,600.0
Mexico 6.0 5.0 1,150.0 850.0 7.0 1,305.0
Belize NA NA NA NA NA NA
Brazil 0.7 0.7 150.0 150.0 0.7 150.0
Honduras 1.3 1.1 NA NA 1.5 1.5
Colombia 1.2 0.6 282.0 141.0 1.2 282.0
Uruguay 0.8 0.5 240.0 150.0 0.8 240.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
Florida and Texas only
b Forecast


Nearly half of Cuba's grapefruit production is processed, most of which is exported. Approximately,

23% of production is exported fresh and 32% is consumed internally as fresh fruit. Primary destinations for

grapefruit exports for 1992/1993 were Europe including Russia for fresh exports; for processed grapefruit,

Europe was the only importer. Cuba's production of processed grapefruit is expected to increase from 6,010

MT (58 brix) to 13,300 MT (580 brix) for the 1993/1994 marketing year. Increases in fresh and processed

exports are expected to increase by 35% and 119% respectively. Argentina, the third largest grapefruit

producer among the Inter-American countries, produced 181,000 MT of fruit for the 1992/1993 marketing year.

13










Production rose 6% compared to the previous year as weather conditions were favorable in all grapefruit

producing areas. If these climatic conditions prevail, production for the 1993/1994 marketing year is forecast

at 180,000 MT (FAO). In 1992/1993, producers in Argentina received $91/MT of grapefruit destined for the

fresh market and $70/MT for fruit processed. The central market price for the fresh market was $299/MT.

The F.O.B. price for fresh fruit was $337/MT and $1,644/MT (580 brix).

Argentina processes half of its grapefruit production, 35% is consumed fresh domestically, and the

remaining 25% is used for fresh export. Exports of fresh grapefruit in 1992 were up 12% compared with the

previous year. Exports to the Netherlands jumped from 12,400 MT in 1991/1992 to over 19,000 MT in the

1992/1993 marketing year. All of Argentina's fresh exports are shipped to Europe. In the 1992/1993 marketing

year, Argentina exported 46,000 MT of fresh grapefruit, 70% of which was shipped to France and the

Netherlands. Exports are expected to decrease substantially in the 1993/1994 marketing year to about 30,000

MT.

The Lime Industry

For the 1992/1993 marketing year, 1.6 million MT of limes were produced in the Inter-American citrus

producing countries. The two major producers were Mexico and Brazil followed by the United States,

Colombia, Honduras, and Cuba all of which produce significantly smaller shares of the total output (Table 14).


Table 14. Lime Production Among Inter-American Countries, 1992/1993 Marketing Year.

Country Production Yields Production Yields % of Total
1000 MT MT/Ha 1000 MT MT/Ha Production
1992/83 1992/93 1993/94b 1993/94b 1992/93

Mexico' 777.0 9.8 913.0 11.0 47.3
Brazil' 750.7 NA 688.0 NA 45.7
U.S. 40.0 16.0 40.0 16.0 2.4
Colombia 20.0 40.0 20.0 40.0 1.2
Honduras 6.0 NA NA NA 0.4
Cuba 4.2 21.0 4.0 20.0 0.3
Total 1,642.9 NA NA NA 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
FAS data
b Forecast


14










Table 15. Total and Producing Area and Trees for Lime Production, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Total Production Total Production Total Total
Area Area Trees Trees Area Trees

1000 Ha 1000 Ha 1000 1000 1000 Ha 1000
1993/94' 1993/94'

Mexico 83.0 79.0 NA NA NA NA
Brazil NA NA 7,840 6,580 NA 7,360
U.S. NA 2.6 NA 983 NA NA

Colombia 1.4 05 329 117 1.4 329

* Forecast


Mexico had the largest volume of limes for the 1992/1993 marketing year. Production reached 777,000

MT and is expected to decline to 688,000 MT for the 1993/1994 marketing year. Mexico has 83,000 hectares

devoted to lime production compared to only 2500 hectares utilized by the U.S. (Table 15). Over 13% or

102,000 MT of limes were exported fresh, 99,000 MT of which were shipped to the U.S. (Figure 6). The

remainder was imported by Europe and Japan. Mexico also imported 120 MT of fresh limes from the U.S.

during the 1992/1993 marketing year.

Brazil is the second largest producer of limes among the Inter-American citrus producing countries.

Approximately 750,700 MT of limes were produced in Brazil in the 1992/1993 marketing year. The volume

of production is expected drop to 688,000 MT for the 1993/1994 marketing year. Over 93% of lime production

in Brazil is consumed fresh domestically, about 6% is processed, and less than .5% is exported as fresh fruit

(Table 16). The fresh exports were all shipped to Germany and Portugal (10 MT) in 1992/1993 and was valued

at $4,000. Brazil also exports processed limes; approximately 300 MT valued at $236,000. The United States

imports approximately 80% of Brazil's processed lime exports with the remainder going to Europe, primarily

Belgium.











15










Table 16. Utilization of Lime Production, 1992/1993.

Country % Fresh % Processed Total
1000 MT
Domestic Domestic
Consumption Export Consumption Export

Mexico' NA 13.1 NA NA 777.0
Brazil" 94.3 0.1 NA NA 750.7
U.S. 88.1 3.2 NA NA 40.0
Colombia 99.0 0.0 NA NA 20.0
Honduras 75.0 25.0 0.0 0.0 6.0
Cuba 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
FAS data



The United States is the next largest producer of limes, producing 40,000 MT in the 1992/1993

marketing year. However, production is on a much smaller scale compared to Mexico and Brazil.

Approximately 88% of the limes produced were consumed fresh domestically, 9% were processed and the

remainder were exported as fresh fruit. Although, the third largest producer of limes, the U.S. is a net

importer of fresh and processed limes. Nearly 95% of fresh lime and 77% of processed lime imports during

the 1992/1993 marketing year came from Mexico. Price data for limes is shown in Table 17.





Table 17. Farm, Central/Wholesale, F.O.B. Prices for Fresh and Processed Lime, $/MT, 1992/1993
Marketing Year.

Country Farm Farm Central Central F.O.B. F.O.B.
Fresh Processed Fresh Processed Fresh Processedb
Brazil NA NA NA NA 100.00 786.66
Colombia 130.00 250.00 215.00 NA NA NA
U.S. 27050 -54.60' 377.00 62.87 851.00 NA
Mexico NA NA 522.00 NA NA NA

"Limes used for processing are from fresh market eliminations which result in negative returns to the
producer.
bProcessed prices in $/MT (bulk concentrate juice based on percent acid content).


16










The Lemon Industry

Lemons are not as widely produced as other citrus products, and many countries report lemon and

lime production together. The two dominant producers among the Inter-American countries are the United

States and Argentina. Argentina is the only Latin American country who produces any significant volumes.

However, Brazil, Uruguay, Colombia, Cuba, Mexico, and Guatemala also produce small amounts of lemons,

most of which are processed (Table 18).


Table 18. Lemon Production and Yields Among Inter-American Countries, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Production Yields Production Yields % of Total
1992/93 1992/93 1993/94' 1993/94' Production
1000 MT MT/Ha 1000 MT MT/Ha 1992/93

U.S. 844.0 33.3 837.0 33.1 52.9
Argentinab 605.3 26.2 610.0 25.9 38.0
Brazilb 53.0 31.2 53.0 31.2 3.3
Uruguay 45.5 18.7 50.0 20.6 2.8
Colombia 28.0 40.0 30.0 37.5 1.8

Cuba 13.6 1.8 10.0 1.3 0.9
Mexicob 5.0 55 5.0 5.5 0.3
Guatemala 0.5 19.1 NA NA --

Total 1,594.4 NA 1,595.0 NA 100.0

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
Forecast
b FAS data



For the 1992/1993 marketing year, the U.S. produced 844,000 MT of lemons. The U.S. has about

25,000 hectares devoted to lemon production which yield approximately 33 MT/Ha (Table 19). Nearly 49%

of the fruit was processed in 1992/1993, 15% was exported as fresh fruit, and 36% was utilized for fresh

domestic consumption (Table 20). For 1993/1994, fresh exports are expected to increase slightly resulting in

a decline in processing.







17










Table 19. Total and Producing Area and Trees for Lemon Production, 1992/93 and 1993/94.

Country Total Production Total Production Total Total
Area Area Trees Trees Area Trees

1000 Ha 1000 Ha 1000 1000 1000 Ha 1000
1993/94b 1993/94h

U.S. 26.0" 25.8' NA NA 26.1" NA

Argentina 29.0 23.1 7,095.0 5,567 295 7,200
Brazil 1.7 1.7 400.0 400 1.7 400
Uruguay 25 2.4 731.0 705 25 731
Colombia 1.0 0.7 336.0 164 1.0 235
Cuba 9.0 7.4 2,520.0 2,520 8.7 2,436

Mexico NA 1.1 NA NA NA NA

Guatemala 0.4 0.2 79.8 36.9 NA NA

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
a Arizona and California only
b Forecast




Table 20. Utilization of Lemon Production, 1992/1993.

Country % Fresh Utilization % Processed Utilization Total
1000 MT
Domestic Domestic
Consumption Export Consumption Export

U.S. 35.8 15.4 NA NA 844.0

Argentina' 15.7 11.8 62.6 9.9 605.3
Brazil" 0.0 5.6 NA NA 53.0
Uruguay 0.8 35.0 64.2 0.0 45.5

Colombia 99.0 0.0 NA NA 28.0
Cuba 0.0 88.0 NA NA 13.6

Mexico* 16.7 0.0 NA NA 5.0

Guatemala 25.5 745 NA NA 0.5

Source: Inter-American Citrus Network
FAS data




18










U.S. fresh lemon exports in 1992/1993 totaled 130,000 MT at a value of 94 million dollars (Figure 7).

Japan imported 86,000 MT of fresh lemons and Canada imported 21,000 MT. The remainder was shipped

to various destinations. The U.S. also imports fresh lemons. In 1992/1993, about 7,000 MT were imported

valued at 2.1 million dollars. About 4,000 MT of fresh lemons were imported from Spain. Price data is shown

in Table 21.



Table 21. Farm, Central/Wholesale, and F.O.B. Prices for Fresh and Processed Lemons, $/MT,
1992/1993 Marketing Year.

Country Farm Farm Central Central F.O.B. F.O.B.
Fresh Processed Fresh Processed Fresh Processedb
U.S. 282.1 -39.73' 467.10 56.18 733.00 2,531.98
Colombia 125.0 250.00 208.00 NA NA NA
Brazil NA NA NA NA 490.91 NA
Argentina 95.0 50.00 329.00 NA 358.00 800.00

Uruguay NA 49.00 290.00 NA 370.00 NA

"Lemons used for processing are from fresh market eliminations which result in negative returns to
producers.
bProcessed prices in $/MT (bulk concentrate juice based on percent acid content).


For the 1992/1993 marketing year, Argentina had substantial volumes of lemons available;

approximately 605300 MT. This is expected to increase to 610,000 MT for the 1993/1994 marketing year.

Argentina processes 72% of its lemon production, consumes 22% fresh fruit, and utilizes only 6% for fresh

export. In 1992/1993, Argentina exported 71,300 MT of fresh lemons, 81% of which were shipped to Europe.

The remainder was shipped to Canada and other destinations.
















19










References



1 Florida Agricultural Statistics Service (FASS), "Citrus Summary 1992-1993." January 1994.



2 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). "Citrus Fruit Fresh and Processed,

Annual Statistics, 1993."



3 National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)/USDA. "Agricultural Prices." September 1993.



4 National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS)/USDA. "Citrus Fruits, 1993 Summary." September

1993.



5 USDA/FAS "Annual Citrus Report, Argentina." May 1993.



6 USDA/FAS "Annual Citrus Report, Brazil." April 1994.



7 USDA/FAS "Annual Citrus Report, Mexico." December 1993.























20









Appendix



Page

Figure 1: Processd Orange Exports, 1992/1993 ....................................... 22

Figure 2: Fresh Orange Exports, 1992/1993 ......................................... 23

Figure 3: Fresh Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993 ....................................... 24

Figure 4: Processed Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993 .................................... 25

Figure 5: Fresh Tangerine Exports, 1992/1993 ....................................... 26

Figure 6: Fresh Lime Exports, 1992/1993 ........................................... 27

Figure 7: Fresh Lemon Exports, 1992/1993 .......................................... 28






































21






Figure 1. Processed Orange Exports, 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons (65 degree brix)


2 0 0 .. ... .. - :... .. . .. . .. ... . . . -... . .
1,000
800
600
400 ...
81
200 /296 / .478 / 5709 13.19 0 .578






Country






Figure 2. Fresh Orange Exports, 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons

610 0 i ; : j .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..: :;:: :: :i ::::j' ^i l : : :; ':
600
500
400
300
200 67 60.6 75.6
100 -- \A 2-9 / 70 33.
100




Country
Country






Figure 3. Fresh Tangerine Exports 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons


50 40::. ,

40 -- -------f ,^ -::- t | -1 ----*": -





/' /
30oun
17.3


0
P5.9








Country






Figure 4. Fresh Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons


500~~~ ~ : - -- - - -- -----;I- -:-:---
5 0 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

3 0 0 . . .. . . . . ... . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . .

0 0 . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . ...
300.

200
53.3 45.9
100Co



e))



Country






Figure 5. Processed Grapefruit Exports, 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons (58 degree brix)


20 1m 6:::.7





3.3 3.3
.157
5




( u


Country





Figure 6. Fresh Lime Exports, 1992/1993

Thousand Metric Tons

120 iCi.- .... ..:. .. .... ..-- iii
100
80
"60
4 0 I,:^. . :...... . .. ... ... . . -. :, ....... : ... .... ..
40

2 0, ,,
20


Country






Figure 7. Fresh Lemons Exports, 1992/1993


Thousand Metric Tons

140.
120
100 71.3
8 o / . .. .. ... .... .. .. . .. .. ... .. .. ...
80
60
40 15.8




4"0


Country





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