• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Main
 Appendix A
 Farm prices
 Bibliography














Group Title: Transportation of Florida perishables : Problems and research needs
Title: Transportation of Florida perishables
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026470/00001
 Material Information
Title: Transportation of Florida perishables problems and research needs
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: iv, 47 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dow, J. Kamal
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: [1979]
 Subjects
Subject: Farm produce -- Transportation   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 47.
Statement of Responsibility: J. Kamal Dow.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "February 1979."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026470
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000307880
oclc - 06580891
notis - ABT4528
lccn - 79626127

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    List of Figures
        Page iv
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Appendix A
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    Farm prices
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
    Bibliography
        Page 47
Full Text















ABSTRACT


Transportation plays a vital role in the marketing process. This is
particularly true in the case of perishable products. The volume and sea-
sonality in the production of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables exert
continuous pressure on the available transportation facilities. Among
the developments that have taken place in transportation and which affect
Florida, one of the most important is the almost total shift from rail to
truck. Some of these developments have implications with respect to
Florida's competitive position, transportation efficiency and the overall
national policy on energy conservation and clear air. Several research
areas that would contribute to solve some of the problems related to the
transportation of Florida perishable products are identified.

Keywords: Fruits, vegetables, perishables, Florida, transportation,
energy, trucks, railroads, marketing.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT . . . .

LIST OF TABLES . .......

LIST OF FIGURES . . .

INTRODUCTION . . ..

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA PERISHABLE

Volume and Seasonal Distribution .

Destination . . .

Modal Distribution . . .

IMPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH NEEDS . .

APPENDIX A--SHIPMENTS STATISTICS .

APPENDIX B--THE INFRASTRUCTURE . .

Highways . . . .

Railroads . . .

Water Transportation . .


Page

. . .


SHIPMENTS. .


. .. .

.. . .

. .. .. o.

. .. o .

. .. .

. . .

. ... .

. . .

. . .


iii

iv

1

3

3

S8

.10

.13

.18

.24

.25

.36

.40


. . .46


BIBLIOGRAPHY,













LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

1 Ratios between peak-month and average monthly shipments,
selected Florida commodities. . . . . 7

2 Percent distribution of Florida fresh fruit and vege-
table shipments by region of destination. . . 8

3 Florida's share of fresh fruit and vegetable unloads
by region . . . . ... . . 10

A-1 Shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables, 1958-
59 to 1977-78 . . . . ... . .19

A-2 Florida's shipments of fresh citrus fruit by mode . .. 20

A-3 Florida's shipments of non-citrus fruits and vegetables
by mode . . . . . . 21

A-4 Florida's shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables by
mode . . . . . . . 22

A-5 Modal market share--Florida fresh fruit and vegetable
shipments . . . . .. 23

B-1 Florida highway mileage by county as of December 31, 1976 .26

B-2 Florida paved and unpaved highway mileage by district as
of December 31, 1976. . . . .... 31

B-3 Florida highway mileage by surface type and system as of
December 31, 1976 . . . .... ... .. 32

B-4 Florida railroad track mileage. . . . ... 34

B-5 Florida location of railroad owned intermodal (TOFC) facil-
ties . . . . . . . 38

B-6 Florida airports with Federal Aviation Administration-oper-
ated traffic control towers . . . .... 44












LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables,
1958-59 to 1977-78. . . . . ... 4

2 Monthly shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables,
1976-77 season. . . . . ... 6

3 Destination of Florida fresh fruit and vegetable shipments,
1975-77 . . . . ... . . 9

4 Trends in modal share, Florida fresh fruit and vegetable
shipments . . . . .. ... .12

B-1 Department of Transportation districts. . . ... 30

B-2 Track location,Class I railroads. . . . ... 35

B-3 Track location,Class II railroads . . . 36

B-4 Location of railroad owned intermodal ramp facilities .. 39

B-5 Florida main maritime ports . . . .... 40

B-6 Florida waterways . . . .. .. .42

B-7 Florida airport system. . . . . ... 45










TRANSPORTATION OF FLORIDA PERISHABLES--PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH NEEDS

J. Kamal Dow


INTRODUCTION


Because of its geographic location and climate Florida has enjoyed

a comparative advantage in the production of winter vegetables and fruits.

The position of Florida as a supplier of these products in the U.S. mar-

ket and in particular to the most populated Northeastern industrial region

remained unchallenged for a long time; however, with all the technological

breakthroughs that have taken place in production, handling and distribu-

tion over the last two decades, the marketing systems have increased in

complexity and day by day comparative advantage is becoming less a func-

tion of location and natural resource endowment and more a function of

technology or man-made factors. It is very important, if Florida agricul-

ture is to maintain its competitive position vis-a-vis other suppliers, to

understand these factors and to assess their relative importance within

the marketing process.

Of the so-called man-made factors that influence comparative advan-

tage, transportation is by far the most important. Depending on product

characteristics and value and on distance hauled, transportation costs

can be a significant part of the final price paid by consumers. Because

it links production and consumption, transportation plays a vital role



J. KAMAL DOW is associate professor of food and resource economics.







in the marketing process. As technology progresses, this role becomes

more important and complex: new methods are continuously being developed

for improving handling of perishable products during transportation such

as in the areas of containerization and multimodal transport, and new

varieties are being tested that will be able to withstand better the

shock from the transportation and handling process. Finally, Government

agencies are always looking for regulations and policies that will secure

a firm balance between the interests of producers, shippers, carriers and

consumers.

The importance of transportation in the economy cannot be overstated.

In 1976 the nation's transportation bill amounted to $358.7 billion or

20.48 percent of the gross national product; approximately 40 percent of

the total bill corresponded to freight transportation and 60 percent to

passenger transportation.

Transportation related industries employed 10.2 million persons or

11.3 percent of the total employed civilian labor force during 1977; dur-

ing the same year 14.8 percent of all federal taxes and 25.2 percent of

all state taxes were generated by transportation related industries.

Finally, in 1976, the last year for which such information is available,

the transportation demand for petroleum products made up 53.4 percent of

the total domestic demand.

Because of transportation's role in marketing and distribution, as

well as being the biggest user of fossil fuels, improvements in trans-

portation methods and efficiency are of crucial importance to the wel-

fare of the nation; such improvements will result in savings in energy

consumption, in lower costs of production and distribution and in lower

prices to the consumer. Any steps taken in Florida towards the rational-








ization of its transportation infrastructure and systems will be an im-

portant factor in maintaining or improving the state's competitive

position.

The main objective of this report is to put together some of the

most relevant data available that are related to transportation needs

for Florida fresh fruits and vegetables, as well as to discuss some of

the trends regarding volumes, market shares and seasonal and modal dis-

tribution. This discussion hypothesises some of the possible implica-

tions of the above trends with respect to issues such as transportation

efficiency, Florida's competitive position and the overall national

policy of energy conservation and clear air. An attempt is also made

to identify some of the areas in which economic research can play a role

in solving some of the transportation related problems facing producers,

shippers and carriers of fresh fruits and vegetables in the state.

Two appendices are included. Appendix I contains some of the data

in which the discussion is based; Appendix II contains a description of

the present status of the transportation infrastructure in the state.

MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF FLORIDA PERISHABLE SHIPMENTS


Volume and Seasonal Distribution


The volume of Florida shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables gener-

ates a sizable demand for dependable transportation services. Over the

last 20 years, annual shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables

have fluctuated from a low of 151,130 carlot equivalents to a high of

200,939 carlot equivalents. Both Figure 1 and Table A-1 seem to suggest

a very slight increasing tendency for the entire period and a more easily

identifiable increasing tendency for the '70s with a significant drop in










































1958-59 to 1977-78


18-59 60-61 62-63 64-65 66-67 68-69 70-77 72-73
Shipping season
Figure 1.--Shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables,








the 1976-77 season due to adverse weather conditions. Detailed studies

would be needed in order to project the long run tendency of Florida per-

ishable shipments; nevertheless, recent increases in local production

along with improved incomes in consuming areas would suggest that ship-

ments in the near future could reasonably be expected to be in the neigh-

borhood of 200,000 carlots during years of normal weather.

The production of fresh fruits and vegetables in Florida is highly

seasonal; this seasonality, which is a very important factor to consider

in estimating the demand for transportation services, is illustrated in

Figure 2. During the 1976-77 season, shipments of fresh fruits and vege-

tables from Florida fluctuated between 1,373 million pounds in May and

less than 15 million pounds in August. In a typical year over 40 per-

cent of the annual shipments take place during the peak three months

while only about 3 percent of the total is shipped during the three slack

months. Table 1 shows the ratios between peak-month and average monthly

shipments for some selected Florida commodities and years. With the ex-

ception of cabbage and celery these ratios have not shown a tendency to

decrease, and in some cases there is a marked increase in seasonality.

Production seasonality, resulting shipping patterns and increases in

the relative size of the peak exert continuous pressure on the available

transportation facilities. On the other hand, a set of regulations pre-

vents the exempt carriers engaged in the produce traffic from directly

seeking regulated traffic for their backhauls. All these factors com-

bined tend to result in both a scarcity of adequate equipment during the

peak of the season and an inefficient utilization of the existing fleet.

If a transportation crisis is defined as a situation in which a signifi-

cant part of the state's production cannot be marketed because of a lack














1,400


1,200-
i\



1,000



o4


E i

400





200- \
S F M A M A













season

------ Vegetables and noncitrus fruits
/ \

I / \ /
400 / \
I / /






Figure 2.--Monthly shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables, 1976-77
season

-.-.-.- Vegetables and noncitrus fruits
------ All fruits and vegetables
S Citrus











Table l.--Ratios between peak-month and average monthly shipments, selected
Florida commodities


Annual Season
Product --- a
1947 1957 1962 1967/68 1972/73 1975/76 1976/77
- - -Ratio- - - - -

Oranges 1.83 1.51 1.75 2.09 2.07 2.42 3.65

Grapefruit 1.63 1.69 1.83 1.88 1.83 1.93 1.90

Watermelon 6.57 7.21 6.79 7.07 6.93 6.78 6.53

Cabbage 3.69 3.39 3.21 2.61 2.78 3.12 3.21

Celery 2.69 2.58 2.20 2.22 2.09 2.21 2.20

Corn, green 8.03 2.91 3.64 3.42 3.28 3.56 3.87

Potatoes 3.84 3.88 5.74 6.10 5.82 6.14 7.77

Tomatoes 2.91 2.35 2.44 2.81 2.83 3.19 4.06

Citrus 1.68 1.74 1.73 2.00 1.84 1.92 2.61

Noncitrus 2.30 3.36 2.63 2.70 2.62 2.95 3.66

All products 1.97 1.95 1.96 2.07 2.03 2.15 2.45


a1976/1977 was an abnormal year weather wise.

Source: Calculated from [1].








of available equipment, then it can be said that Florida shippers have

not yet faced a crisis. Nothing precludes, however, the possibility of

this type of situation happening in the future.


Destination


The most comprehensive source of data for fresh fruit and vegetable

shipments nationwide is the Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Unload Report pub-

lished by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Although it does

not cover all shipments (in 1975-76 it included about 50 percent of

Florida shipments), its coverage is wide enough to give a fair idea of

trends and market shares. For the purposes of their reporting the U.S.

is divided in four main regions as shown in Figure 3. Five Canadian

cities are included within the northern regions. Figure 3 shows the

relative importance of the four regions as markets for Florida's fresh

fruits and vegetables: The Eastern region accounts for 53.6 percent

of Florida's shipments followed by the Midwest with 23.5 percent where-

as the South takes 19.1 percent and the West 3.8 percent. These shares

reflect facts such as higher population density and therefore consump-

tion in the Northeastern and Midwestern cities, distance and competition

from other important producing areas both in the Western and Southern

regions. Table 2 below shows that these percentages have remained re-

markably stable over the last decade.











































Figure 3.--Destination of Florida fresh fruit and vegetable shipments, 1975-77








Table 2.--Percent distribution of Florida fresh fruit and vegetable ship-
ments by region of destination


Region 1965-67 1975-77

- Percent- -

Eastern 54.2 53.6

Southern 18.0 19.1

Midwest 24.2 23.5

Western 3.6 3.8

Source: Calculated from [9].


The above figures are based on unloads for 41 U.S. and five Cana-

dian cities, and therefore the inferences with respect to each region's

share of Florida shipments are based on the assumption that the ship-

ments not reported follow the same distributional pattern as those re-

ported. Although this might be a reasonable assumption on a region-

wide basis, in the case of the Southern region the share might be under-

estimated since Miami is the only Florida city considered in the USDA

figures, and it would be reasonable to assume that the great majority

of the unloads in Florida originate within the state.

Florida's share of the market in the four different regions is

shown in Table 3. The relative shares seem to reflect the same factors

mentioned in the above paragraph. It should be observed that, with the

exception of the Eastern region where a slight gain seems to have taken

place, the shares have remained relatively stable over the last decade.








Table 3.--Florida's share of fresh fruit and vegetable unloads by region


Region 1965-67 1975-77
- Percent - -

Eastern 17.9 20.2

Southern 16.5 16.4

Midwestern 13.8 13.9

Western 2.2 2.2

Source: Calculated from [9].


Modal Distribution


The most striking characteristic in the modal distribution of fresh

fruit and vegetable shipments is the marked shift that has occurred from

rail to truck. On a nationwide basis, in 1950, rail movements accounted

for 73 percent of all U.S. shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables. By

1970 this share had declined to 39 percent; instead of leveling off,

this decline has tended to accelerate in the last decade. In 1973 the

rail share in this traffic was 24 percent and in 1977 it was only 11 per-

cent. For 1978 it has been estimated that this share would be reduced to

8 percent. If the trend continues, by the mid-'80s the participation of

the railroads in the transportation of fresh fruits and vegetables will

all but disappear.

In Florida this shift has been even more dramatic, as Figure 4 and

Tables A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5 illustrate. Twenty years ago two-thirds of

the traffic was handled by the trucking industry and one third by the

railroads. The railroad's share of the traffic has been continuously

declining; the introduction of the "piggy-back" system in the early '60s


























Truck
80-




60-









a0 Piggy-back

-- =Boat

.-- ...........
40-





1958-59 60-61 62-63 64-65 66-67 68-69 70-71 72-73 74-75 76-77 77-78

Season

Figure 4.--Trends in modal share, Florida fresh fruit and vegetable shipments








somewhat compensated for the decline in the use of rail cars and as re-

cently as the 1966-67 season over 31 percent of all shipments were using

either rail or rail-truck combination. Since then, however, the ten-

dency has been one of continuous increase in the use of trucks at the

expense of rail related means of transportation.

During the 1977-78 season, a total of only 1 percent of Florida's

fresh fruits and vegetables moved by rail or piggy-back, while trucks

captured almost 95 percent of the traffic. The use of rail or piggy-

back is practically limited to some citrus to the Northeast, radishes

to one shipper-receiver in Ohio and some potatoes. More so than in the

case of the U.S. as a whole, unless some dramatic event takes place, the

railroads will practically disappear from the Florida picture in the

very near future.

The surge of water traffic during the '70s is due to the increase

in exports to Europe and Japan and, although there has been some talk

of shipping produce by boat to the Northeast, so far this has not mater-

ialized. Air shipments are not important yet, although some high value

products such as strawberries have been shipped by air on a continuous

basis, and future technological or price developments may give this mode

a better share of the market.

Different reasons have been mentioned as accounting for the dramatic

shift in traffic from rail to truck. According to some Government spokes-

men and shippers, the railroads have failed to maintain a fleet of refri-

gerated cars that could adequately accommodate the movement required by

the fresh fruit and vegetable industry; this view is supported by Depart-

ment of Transportation figures which show that the number of available

refrigerated cars has declined by almost one half from 46,157 in 1973 to









24,776 in 1978 [2]. Also mentioned

quality of service. The railroads,

iregularity of the demand for their

tions limited to peak periods, does

in refrigerated cars. In addition

rail rates during the '70s appear t

truck rates. Also, the regulated n

possible to deal with shippers on tl

can.


is deterioration in reliability and

on the other hand, claim that the

services, now with very few excep-

not justify the sizable investment

to this vicious circle situation,

o have increased more rapidly than

nature of the railroads makes it im-

ne same basis that exempt truck firms


IMPLICATIONS AND RESEARCH NEEDS


The agricultural economy of the State of Florida is highly depen-

dent on the production and distribution of perishable products, of which

fresh fruits and vegetables are the most important. This production, as

has been shown, is highly seasonal in nature. On the other hand, tech-

nological progress in the field of production has not been matched by

similar progress in the logistics of distribution, particularly in the

area of transportation. These three factors put together could become

a source of grave problems for the industry. As previously mentioned,

Florida producers and shippers have not yet faced real critical situa-

tions; recent trends and developments, however, suggest that the trans-

portation situation may aggravate in the future. It is important for the

competitive position of the State that concerned groups and business

firms increase their knowledge of the facts that have caused these devel-

opments, in order to seek appropriate solutions.

One of the most important developments in transportation over the

last decade seems to have been the shift from rail to trucks to the point









that, as it has been shown, the railroads have practically disappeared

from the picture. This shift has severe implications for Florida pro-

ducers, carriers and shippers as well as for national planners and

policy makers. It should be pointed out that:

1) Florida's fresh fruit and vegetable industry is in the process

of becoming totally dependent on trucks for marketing its products in

the U.S. market. This is not a healthy situation as it makes the indus-

try more susceptible to losses due to problems facing that particular

mode of transportation. A truck strike or a similar event could have

very undesirable repercussions on the state's agricultural economy.

2) From the point of view of the trucking industry, a greater num-

ber of firms than would be desirable would be susceptible to losses due

to the natural disasters such as freezes, etc. that affect agriculture.

An inquiry into the long run benefits to the industry of spreading this

risk among two or more modes would be an important addition to knowledge.

3) It would not seem to be in the best interest of the nation's

policies on energy conservation and clean air that a total switch from

rails to trucks occur due to the fact that the latter consume several

times more fuel than the former. From the point of view of the above cri-

teria it would appear to be desirable to reverse the trends as soon as

possible. More so in view of the fact that this shift generates more

empty backhauls for both railcars and trucks, thus adding to the ineffi-

ciency in fuel use, which contributes to higher transportation costs.

The mere fact that a shift from rail to truck is taking place would

seem to suggest, in the light of the above arguments, that there are con-

flicts between short-term and long-term objectives as well as between

private (firm level) and public (State and National level) interests.







The fact that both shippers and receivers presently favor trucks,

when making their decisions regarding transportation of fresh fruits and

vegetables, suggests that they are getting better service (measured in

terms of scheduling, flexibility, reliability, losses, transit time, etc.)

from them, or lower rates or maybe both. On the other hand, if the rail-

roads are not making any efforts to modernize their equipment and to com-

pete for the fresh fruit and vegetable traffic, it may be that they do not

consider it profitable under present conditions. Conversations with ship-

pers and railroad executives confirm these statements.

In order to help restore a balanced transportation system that would

consist of a variety of competing modes as well as carriers, and that

would best serve both private and public interests in the long run, re-

search is needed in the following areas:

1) Demand for the supply of transportation services in Florida.

a) The future demand for transportation services needs to be fore-

casted. This includes both total numbers based on Florida potential

production and potential U.S. and foreign demand, as well as break-

downs in terms of regions, distance, etc. Changes in population

growth and location of high demand centers are important since the

demand for transportation is a derived demand.

b) The main characteristics of the transportation industry serving

Florida agriculture need to be determined. Number of firms, size,

profit margins, turnover rate, availability of equipment, etc. are

important variables that affect the performance of the transportation

industry and thus need to be studied.

2) Government regulation of the transportation sector.

a) Possible alternatives to the present situation where trucks are

exempt of regulation while railroads are regulated need to be ex-








plored. The impact of this economic regulation on empty backhaul

mileage and thus on efficiency and cost of service should be studied.

b) Possible alternatives to the present situation where rail tar-

iffs need to be published while truck rates are negotiated also need

to be studied. The impact of this regulation on the railroad's abil-

ity to exert price competition needs to be determined.

c) The impact on total fuel consumption of regulations preventing

exempt carriers from backhauling non-exempt goods needs to be ex-

plored.

3) Relationships between shippers and carriers.

a) Alternatives to the present system where the railroads play only

a standby role for the peak periods should be explored. Advance book-

ing and a minimum guaranteed annual volume on the part of shippers are

distinct possibilities that are worthy of consideration.

4) Equipment ownership and operation.

a) Under present circumstances, equipment ownership by the railroads

does not seem to be profitable. It might be possible that ownership

by individual shippers or receivers or by associations of them might

encourage more use of the equipment and therefore be economically at-

tractive. These possibilities as well as third-party ownership should

be studied.

b) The feasibility of establishing unit trains between certain points

in Florida and certain terminal points in the Northeast deserves con-

sideration. Whether there is enough volume to justify an operation of

this type for a good part of the year, or whether some type of pool

with other producer states would be necessary is something that needs

to be explored.





























APPENDIX A












Table A-l.--Shipments of Florida fresh fruits and vegetables, 1958-
59 to 1977-78


Season Shipments
--- - -Carlot equivalent- - -


1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78


159,010
175,487
178,784
184,420
176,116
171,728
179,768
179,206
183,855
178,464
177,892
151,130
160,272
163,787
177,481
171,613
190,239
200,939
171,960
181,970


Source: Calculated from [1].









Table A-2.--Florida shipments of fresh citrus fruits by mode


Rail freight
and express


Piggy-back


- -Carlot equivalent-


1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78


24,050
22,797
19,853
17,288
7,561
8,377
9,675
9,160
7,417
4,742
3,641
3,407
1,715
1,492
1 ,719
2,297
1,427
1 379
340
480


Source: Calculated from [1].


Year


Truck


Boat


Total


1,930
6,519
4,675
3,757
7,741
9,964
15,957
13,961
10,226
8,974
9,757
9,578
6,494
4,423
3,970
1,475
380
350


36,718
42,295
36,939
45,735
32,591
35,243
38,776
39,106
47,213
41,662
50,803
44,649
48,523
48,230
52,796
50,624
59,057
64,271
49,220
57,970


328
326
370
824
494
622
877
119
1,097
170
424
277
209
2,046
5,065
8,854
8,887
9,995
8,840
6,950


61,096
65,418
59,092
70,366
45,321
47,999
57,069
58,349
71,684
60,535
65,094
57,307
70,204
61,346
66,074
66,198
73,341
77,120
58,780
65,450










Table A-3.--Florida shipments of non-citrus fruits and vegetables by mode



Year Rail freight Piggy-back Truck Boat Totala
and express


- - - -Carlot equivalent-

29,740 --- 68,174
31,697 --- 78,313
35,392 42 84,189
35,790 722 77,475
37,524 2,352 90,848
27,277 2,768 93,608
28,557 4,009 90,081
28,771 8,391 83,632
23,356 10,539 80,753
19,402 11,961 86,566
16,714 11,628 84,290
9,987 8,568 75,179
7,484 9,967 82,617
5,267 10,003 87,171
4,504 7,767 99,136
2,937 5,469 96,902
929 4,231 111,712
420 3,955 118,930
220 3,450 109,130
40 1,460 114,660


Source: Calculated from [1].


1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1070-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78


aTotal includes air shipments not listed separately.


- - -


-- 97,914
---- 110,069
--- 119,692
-- 114,054
--- 130,795
-- 123,729
---- 122,699
-- 120,858
174 114,860
204 118,164
149 112,790
85 93,822
-- 100,068
-- 102,441
-- 111,407
--- 105,325
-- 116,989
400 123,819
380 113,180
360 116,520









Table A-4.--Florida shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables by mode


Rail freight
and express


Piggy-back


- - -Carlot


1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78


53,790
54,494
55,245
53,078
45,085
35,654
38,232
37,931
30,773
24,144
20,355
13,394
9,199
6,759
6,223
5,234
2,356
1,799
560
520


equivalent- - - -


104,892
120,608
121,128
123,210
123,439
128,851
128,857
122,738
125,669
128,228
135,093
119,828
131,140
135,401
151,932
147,526
170,769
183,201
158,350
172,630


328
326
370
824
494
622
877
119
1,271
374
573
362
209
2,046
5,065
8,854
8,887
10,395
9,220
7,310


159,010
175,487
178,784
184,420
176,116
171,728
179,768
179,206
183,855
178,464
177,892
151,130
160,272
163,787
177,481
171,613
190,239
200,939
171,960
181,970


Source: Calculated from [1].


Year


Truck


Boat


Total


1 ,972
7,241
7,028
6,525
11,750
18,355
26,496
25,922
21,854
17,542
19,724
19,581
14,261
9,892
8,201
5,430
3,830
1,510


aTotal includes air shipments not listed separately.










Table A-5.--Modal market share--Florida fresh fruit and vegetable ship-
ments


Rail


Piggy-back


Truck


Boat


- - - -Percent- - - -


33.8
31.1
30.9
28.8
25.6
20.8
21.3
21.2
16.7
13.5
11.4
8.9
5.7
4.1
3.5
3.0
1.2
0.9
1.0
0.3


1.1
3.9
4.0
3.8
6.5
10.2
14.4
14.5
12.3
11 .6
12.3
12.0
8.0
5.8
4.3
2.7
2.6
0.8


66.0
68.7
67.8
66.8
70.1
75.0
71.7
68.5
68.4
71.8
75.9
79.3
81.8
82.6
85.6
86.0
89.8
91.2
90.6
94.9


0.2
0.2
0.2
0.4
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.1
0.5
0.2
0.3
0.2
0.1
1.2
2.9
5.2
4.7
5.2
5.8
4.0


Source: Calculated from Table A-4 in Appendix.


Year


1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78







APPENDIX B
FARM PRICES


In Tables 10-41 the prices received by Florida producers for individual
commodities are given. For most products the price received is for the
fifteenth of the month. Prices of wholesale milk, commercial broilers,
vegetable crops, and citrus are weighted monthly averages. The annual or
season price shown usually is an unweighted average of the monthly prices.
For individual vegetable crops and citrus a weighted season-average price
is shown. The weighted average price more nearly represents that upon
which the income of growers is based than does the unweighted average,
since the quantity sold multiplied by this price gives the cash income
from sales of the crop.
All prices are the official figures from the United States Department
of Agriculture and were obtained from the Orlando office of the Statistical
Reporting Service or from publications printed in Washington, D. C. Monthly
prices shown are subject tc revision for about a year after being first
reported.









THE INFRASTRUCTURE


Florida has developed over the years an extensive system of trans-

portation for both people and freight. One of the basic reasons for this

is its geographical location which makes it an important supplier of win-

ter agricultural products, particularly fruits and vegetables, to the rest

of the Continental United States, as well as a convenient point of origin

for exports to Latin America and Europe.

Transportation facilities available to Florida agriculture include

surface means such as the highways and railroads, water (including both in-

land waterways and seaports) and air transportation. A brief inventory

and description of the different facilities follows.


Highways


According to the Florida Department of Transportation, as of December

31, 1976 there were 96,910 miles of all types of highways and roads in the

State. Of this total, 1,699 miles or almost 2 percent are turnpike or inter-

state type. Other state primary roads comprised 10,820 miles which brings

the total of state-maintained primary roads to 12,519 miles or 13 percent of

the total mileage. The largest percentage corresponds to the county-main-

tained roads which by the end of 1976 totaled 57,206 miles; 2,153 miles of

presently state-maintained roads must be added to this figure, as they are

scheduled to be turned over to the county system in the near future; thus

59,359 miles of road could be classified as county-maintained and this cor-

responds to 61 percent of the total mileage. The remaining 26 percent cor-

responds to 25,298 miles or roads and streets maintained by the cities.

Table B-1 shows the distribution of highway mileage among the different








Table B-l.--Florida highway mileage by county as of December 31, 1976

State
District Inter- Turn- Other Total main- County City
and ste state state tained main- main- Total
county state pike primary primary second- tained tainted
ary
- - - - -Miles- - - - - -
Charlotte 22.0 --- 82.3 82.3 41.2 2,994.8 127.7 3,245.8
DeSoto --- --- 79.9 79.9 53.3 283.4 71.3 487.9
Glades --- --- 95.1 95.1 --- 153.9 11.5 260.5
Hardee -- --- 102.1 102.1 --- 577.4 65.2 744.7
Hendry --- --- 70.2 70.2 --- 300.8 59.9 431.0
Hernando 11.5 --- 121.9 133.4 --- 471.7 44.4 649.5
Highlands --- --- 142.1 142.1 --- 697.9 108.6 948.6
Hillsborough 88.4 --- 305.8 355.3 171.7 1,775.5 1,412.1 3,714.6
Lee 33.8 --- 117.0 119.0 --- 2,106.1 1,796.4 4,021.5
Manatee 25.0 --- 181.6 185.0 14.4 735.0 218.7 1,153.1
Pasco 21.7 --- 154.4 174.8 142.0 585.3 170.2 1,072.3
Pinellas 28.5 --- 206.2 229.4 --- 851.6 2,035.2 3,116.2
Polk 32.0 --- 406.2 438.2 --- 2,509.2 758.0 3,705.4
Sarasota 45.3 --- 132.4 132.4 14.6 953.8 678.4 1,779.2
Total
District 1 308.2 --- 2,119.2 2,339.2 437.2 14,996.5 7,557.4 25,330.3
Alachua 35.2 --- 279.1 314.3 --- 992.1 446.3 1,752.7
Baker 25.2 --- 79.6 105.1 --- 347.4 23.7 476.2
Bradford --- --- 102.4 102.4 85.8 243.7 55.8 487.7
Clay --- --- 136.1 136.1 --- 529.6 86.3 752.0
Columbia 53.8 --- 153.0 206.8 --- 906.5 83.9 1,197.2


Continued







Table B-l.--Florida highway mileage by county as of December 31, 1976 (Continued)

State
District r- Turn- Other Total main- County City
and ner- state state tained main- main- Total
county state pike primary primary second- tained tainted
ary


- - - Miles-


Dixie
Duval
Gilchrist
Hamilton
Lafayette
Levy
Madison
Nassau
Suwannee
Taylor
Union
Total
District 2
Bay
Calhoun
Escambia
Franklin
Gadsden
Gulf
Holmes
Jackson
Jefferson
Leon


96.1

28.7


33.0
13.2
29.7


82.5
305.9
73.9
63.4
71.3
208.1
118.3
105.8
99.4
116.5
55.0

2,050.3
207.8
114.0
225.9
109.7
126.7
93.2
133.4
270.4
124.1
184.6


315.2


20.4

21.7

15.4
33.8
19.5
33.6


82.5
399.1
73.9
92.1
71.3
208.1
151.3
119.0
129.1
116.5
55.0

2,362.6
207.8
114.0
246.3
109.7
148.4
93.4
148.8
270.4
143.6
206.8


---



285.0
143.2


420.2
1,841.5
537.2
710.7
483.7
775.0
681.7
194.4
1,251.6
366.5
225.6


514.0 10,508.2
--- 669.5
85.5 332.1
--- 1,260.9
81.4 234.1
--- 725.3
--- 240.6
522.0
--- 1,338.9
80.5 297.5


116.8


735.4


28.0
2,906.4
39.8
43.4
17.7
67.8
38.1
89.4
84.0
86.9
18.9

4,116.4
437.8
24.2
303.2
45.6
76.8
22.2
37.7
117.1
34.6
331.0


530.7
5,147.0
650.9
846.2
572.7
1,336.7
1,014.3
402.8
1,464.7
569.9
299.5

17,501.2
1,315.1
555.8
1,810.4
470.8
950.5
356.0
708.5
1,726.4
556.2
1,390.0


Continued








Table B-l.--Florida highway mileage by county as of December 31, 1976 (Continued)

State
District Inter- Turn Other Total main- County City
and state state tained main- main- Total
county state pike primary primary second- tained tainted
ary
- - - - Miles- - - - - -
Liberty --- --- 115.5 115.5 126.0 337.9 --- 579.4
Okaloosa 25.2 --- 180.2 205.4 --- 877.0 276.2 1,358.6
Santa Rosa 25.9 --- 215.7 241.6 153.2 941.0 76.2 1,412.0
Wakulla --- --- 127.1 127.1 --- 643.0 5.7 775.8
Walton 27.5 --- 201.2 228.7 --- 908.0 55.3 1,192.0
Washington 16.9 --- 106.4 123.3 125.2 684.4 49.1 982.0
Total
District 3 239.9 --- 2,535.0 2,730.6 768.6 10,747.6 1,892.7 16,139.5
Broward 72.6 33.2 233.5 319.9 25.9 581.4 2,377.8 3,305.0
Collier 13.5 --- 208.7 208.7 182.8 696.7 114.4 1,202.6
Dade 36.9 44.2 301.8 377.1 --- 3,182.6 2,283.8 5,843.5
Indian R. 19.7 9.4 104.1 133.2 78.4 517.2 323.4 1,052.2
Martin --- 20.3 140.2 160.5 --- 682.7 91.4 934.6
Monroe --- --- 116.2 116.2 --- 387.5 64.0 567.7
Okeechobee --- 7.5 104.3 111.8 --- 159.4 78.2 349.4
Palm Beach 47.2 44.7 336.1 417.5 --- 2,305.2 1,308.6 5,031.3
St. Lucia --- 35.5 117.5 153.0 --- 621.8 628.1 1,402.9
Total
District 4 189.9 194.8 1,662.4 1,997.9 287.1 10,134.5 7,269.7 19,689.2
Brevard 72.8 --- 248.1 320.9 --- 918.2 1,126.5 2,367.6
Citrus --- --- 136.6 136.6 --- 1,171.0 110.6 1,418.2
Flagler 18.7 --- 83.7 102.4 --- 139.6 36.7 278.7
Lake --- 24.7 309.7 334.4 -- 821.8 449.6 1,605.8
Marion 38.2 --- 359.0 397.2 --- 1,930.6 398.1 2,725.9


Continued






Table B-l.--Florida highway mileage by county as of December 31, 1976

State
District Inter- Turn- Other Total main- County City
and state state tained main- main- Total
county primary primary second- tained tainted
ary

- - - - -Miles- - - - - -
Orange 25.0 36.6 314.4 376.0 --- 2,293.5 640.4 3,309.9
Osceola 7.9 60.3 137.5 205.7 --- 450.6 152.0 808.3
Putnam --- --- 143.0 143.0 --- 792.5 92.5 1,028.0
St. Johns 34.9 --- 148.8 183.7 --- 353.2 85.4 622.3
Seminole 14.1 --- 94.7 108.8 --- 544.5 496.6 1,149.9
Sumter 29.0 10.8 139.0 178.8 87.7 240.3 70.3 577.1
Volusia 77.8 --- 257.4 335.2 58.5 1,163.9 800.8 2,358.4
Total
District 5 318.4 132.4 2,371.9 2,822.7 146.2 10,819.7 4,461.5 18,250.1

State
total 1,371.6 327.2 10,819.7 12,253.0 2,153.1 57,206.5 25,297.7 96,910.0


Source: Calculated from [4].








counties. The five sub-totals correspond to the division by transporta-

tion districts made by the Florida Department of Transportation. The

geographic boundaries of the different districts are shown in Figure B-1.

Slightly less than two-thirds (62.5 percent) of all highway mileage

in Florida was paved in 1976. Table B-2 shows the distribution of paved

and unpaved mileage by system and district. A narrower classification

by surface type is made by the Department of Transportation which dis-

tinguishes seven types according to the following specifications:



Surface type
number Surface type

1 Primitive (No maintenance)
2 Unimproved (Minimum maintenance to
remain passable)
3 Graded and drained
4 Soil surfaced (Mixed soil or admix-
ture wearing surface)
Gravel and stone (Wearing surface
is coarser than sand)
5 Bituminous surface treated or low
type
Bituminous (Surface less than 1
inch)
6 High type bituminuous (Surface
greater than 1 inch)
7 Concrete


Table B-3 shows the distribution of highway mileage by surface type

and system. As can be observed, nearly 40 percent of all mileage corres-

pondes to types 6 and 7 while only 5 percent corresponds to primitive and

unimproved roadways of types 1 and 2.























































eit2n~S~~'


Figure B-1.--Florida Department of Transportation districts



















Table B-3.--Florida highway mileage by surface type and system as of
December 13, 1976


Surface type
District Paved Unpaved
State County City Total County City Total

- - - -Mils- - - - -

1 2,776.4 8,821.3 6,034.3 17,637.2 6,170.0 1,523.1 7,693.1

2 2,876.6 3,494.9 3,110.7 9,482.2 7,013.3 1,005.7 8,019.0

3 3,499.2 2,151.6 1,355.0 7,005.8 8,596.0 537.7 9,133.7

4 2,285.0 5,449.0 6,566.4 14,300.4 4,685.5 703.3 5,388.8

5 2,968.9 5,606.1 3,552.9 12,127.9 5,213.6 908.6 6,122.2


TOTAL 14,406.1 25,528.1 20,619.3 60,553.5 31,678.4 4,678.4 36,356.8


Source: Calculated from [4].


















Table B-3.--Florida highway mileage by surface type and system as of
December 13, 1976

System
Type
State County City Total

- - -Miles- - - -

1 ---- 3,554.6 409.3 3,963.9

2 ---- 1,018.4 136.9 1,155.3

3 57.5 24,816.8 3,850.4 28,724.7

4 ---- 1,851.6 284.6 2,136.2

5 2,533.2 14,145.8 6,074.7 22,753.7

6 11,240.5 11,697.0 13,678.4 36,615.9

7 574.6 122.3 863.4 1,560.3


Total 14,405.8 57,206.5 25,297.7 96,910.0


Source: Calculated from [4].







Railroads

According to the Florida Department of Transportation there are 6,818

miles of railroad track in the State. Of this total, 6,321 miles or 92.7

percent correspond to Class I railroads; 379 miles or 5.5 percent corres-

pond to Class II railroads, and the rest to terminal companies (Table B-4).

The Seaboard Coastline Railroad, owned by the Family Lines System,

is by far the most important railroad in the State, owning, together with

the Louisville and Nashville Railroad, 5,169 miles or over three-fourths of

the State's track mileage. This railroad covers the entire state, north-

south from Jacksonville to Naples, Sunniland and Homestead and east-west

from Jacksonville to the Alabama border. It has terminals in several im-

portant ports on the Gulf of Mexico coast (Ft. Myers, Boca Grande, Tampa,

St. Petersburg, Pensacola) as well as in Miami, Port Everglades, Palm Beach,

Jacksonville and Fernandina on the east coast. Through its own tracks, the

Family Lines System connects Florida with all the Southeastern states as

well as with the Midwest. It goes as far west as New Orleans, Memphis and

St. Louis, and as far north as Richmond along the east coast. In the Mid-

west it goes as far as Chicago.

The other important Class I railroad is the Florida East Coast Railway

which, as its name indicates, runs along Florida's east coast from Homestead

to Jacksonville with some short branches going west to Belle Glade, Aurantia

and East Palatka. Other Class I railroads are Georgia Southern and Florida

Railway which has most of its Florida track in a segment that goes from

Palatka northwest into Georgia, and St. Louis and San Francisco which owns

85 miles of track in the westernmost part of the State. Figures B-2 and

B-3 show the location of Class I and II railroad track in the State. Track

owned by Class II railroads is limited to some fairly short segments in the









Table B-4.--Florida railroad track mileage


Lines Track Miles

Class I Railroad (1976)
Seaboard Coast Line 4,853
Florida East Coast 910
Louisville and Nashville 316
Georgia Southern and Florida 157
St. Louis and San Francisco 85

Total Class I 6,321

Class II Railroad (1975)
Live Oak, Perry and South Georgia 141
Apalachicola Northern 125
Atlanta and St. Andrews Bay 113

Total Class II 379

Terminal Companies (1975)
St. Johns River Terminal 52
Jacksonville Terminal 48
Municipal Docks 18

Total terminal 118

Grand total 6,818


Source: Calculated from [2].
























































Figure B-2.--Track location, Class I railroads





















































Figure B-3.--Track location, Class II railroads








northern central and northwest part of the state. All three of them,

however, connect with Class I railroads.

Intermodal transportation is being increasingly used and in the

future it might be a good alternative for long distance hauling of agri-

culture products. As it can be observed from Table B-5 and Figure B-4,

trailer or flat car (TOFC) ramp facilities are scattered throughout the

peninsular section of the State, where most .of the agricultural produc-

tion takes place.

Water Transportation

Ports

Because of Florida's geographical location a significant portion of

the United States trade with Latin American, the Caribbean and Europe

takes place through Florida's maritime ports. The state is well served

with port facilities, having 16 deep water and six shallow water ports

(as illustrated in Figure B-5).

Waterways

There are six existing waterways suitable for intrastate transpor-

tation in Florida, three of them connecting with out of state waterways.

Total length of the existing facilities is 1,375.6 miles.

Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. It goes from the Florida-Georgia

line at Fernandina to Key West with a total length of 532 miles. Con-

troling depths are 12 feet from Fernandina to Fort Pierce, 10 feet from

Fort Pierce to Miami and 7 feet from Miami to Key West.

St. Johns River. It goes from the Florida East Coast Railway bridge

in Jacksonville south to Lake Harney in Seminole County, and it has a

length of approximately 185 miles. Controlling depths are 13 feet from

Bridge to Palatka, 12 feet from Palatka to Sanford and 5 feet from San-

ford to Lake Harney.










Table B-5.--Location of railroad-owned intermodal (TOFC) facilities in
Florida


Location County Railroad


Arcadia
Belle Glade
Boca Raton
Boynton Beach
Bradenton

Cantonment
Cocoa-Rockledge
Daytona Beach
Fort Lauderdale
Fort Myers

Fort Pierce
Groveland
Hollywood
Homestead
Immokalee

Jacksonville
Jupiter
Leesburg
Miami
Ocala

Orlando
Palatka
Pensacola
Plymouth
Pompano Beach

Sanford
Stuart
Tamp a
Trenton
Vero Beach

West Palm Beach
Winter Garden


DeSoto
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Palm Beach
Manatee

Escambia
Brevard
Volusia
Broward
Lee

St. Lucie
Lake
Broward
Dade
Collier

Duval
Palm Beach
Lake
Dade
Marion

Orange
Putnam
Escambia
Orange
Broward

Seminole
Martin
Hillsborough
Gilchrist
Indian River

Palm Beach
Orange


Source: Calculated from [5],


SCL
FEC
FEC
FEC
SCL

LN
FEC
FEC
FEC, SCL
SCL

FEC
SCL
FEC
FEC
SCL

FEC, SCL
FEC
SCL
FEC, SCL
SCL

SCL
SCL
LN
SCL
FEC

SCL
FEC
SCL
SCL
FEC

FEC, SCL
SCL


[7].






























































_Iln
11~ 1
~raacam C~

r,-i I;dSt~. ~P'


Figure B-4.--Location of railroad owned intermodal ramp facilities in
Florida



































-0

-g


b Cedar
-. j t 0 r Key


0 0r
(i -
cI


Fernandina

Jacksonvllle

L St.


Port
Canaveral


Tampa V
St. Petersburg -
Manatee Pierc
Pierce


'-~-- Palm
Punta Gorda
Boca Grande Beach

Ft. Myers P
.Port
Ever-
* Main deep water ports glades
f-, tMiami
0 Other deep water ports

0 Shallow water ports



Key West r. I '


Figure B-5.--Main maritime ports in Florida








Okeechobee Waterway. It goes from St. Lucie Inlet at Stuart west of

Mexico at Estero Island (Ft. Myers) with a total length of 154.6 miles.

Controlling depth varies from 6 to 12 feet.

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway. When completed this waterway will go

from the end of the Okeechobee Waterway (Caloosahatchee River), southwest

of Ft. Myers, along the Gulf of Mexico coastline all the way to Mobile

Bay at the Florida-Alabama line. Two sections at both ends are operational

at the present time; one is from the Calooshatchee River to Anclote River

north of Tampa at the Pasco-Hillsborough county line with a total length

of 150 miles and a controlling depth of 9 feet except for a section in Boca

Ciega Bay which is 6 feet. The other existing sections runs from St. Marks

in Apalachee Bay to the Florida-Alabama line with a total length of 250

miles and a controlling depth of 12 feet.

Apalachicola River. It goes from the intersection of the River with

Gulf Intracoastal Waterway northward to the confluence of Chattahootchee

and Flint Rivers with a total length of 104 miles and a controlling depth

of 9 feet.

Cross-State Barge Canal. This waterway was intended to connect with

St. Johns River Waterway south of Palatka with the Gulf Intracoastal Water-

way at a point south of Yankeetown where the Withlacoochee River flows into

the Gulf. Construction of the waterway has caused many conflicts among

environmentalists and other groups and the prospective of it being finish-

ed do not look bright at the present time.

Figure B-6 illustrates the Florida intrastate waterway system as de-

scribed above.

























) Atlantic Intracoastal
() St. Johns River to Lake Harney
() Okeechobee Waterway
() Gulf Intracoastal (Caloosahatchee
River to Anclote River)
() Gulf Intracoastal (St. Marks to Mobile
Bay)
() Apalachicola River
SGulf Intracoastal (Anclote River to
St. Marks)
() Cross-State Barge Canal
-Existing waterways
--,, Approved waterways
-**- Partially constructed


Figure B-6.--Florida waterways








Airports


According to a 1973 report [3], Florida ranked eighth among the

50 states with a total of 330 airports. There are presently 26 air-

ports with Federal Aviation Administration-operated traffic control

towers in Florida. Table B-6 lists these airports and the number of

operations (arrivals and departures) that took place during fiscal

year 1975. Figure B-7 shows the primary urban area served by those

airports, as well as the location of other general aviation airports.








Table B-6.--Florida airports with Federal Aviation Administration
operated traffic control towers







Daytona Beach 195,505
Ft. Lauderdale 331,156
Ft. Lauderdale Executive 178,500
Ft. Myers Page Field 95,288
Gainesville 101,209
Hollywood 225,391
Jacksonville 104,648
Jacksonville Craig Field 38,689
Key West 68,313
Melbourne 186,063
Miami 315,395
Miami-Dade-Collier 35,242
Opa Locka 429,136
Orlando Herndon 188,920
Orlando Jetport 75,753
Panama City-Bay County 100,612
Pensacola 106,942
Pompano Beach Airport 157,430
Sarasota-Bradenton 140,095
St. Petersburg, Clearwater 205,149
St. Petersburg Whitt 87,932
Tallahassee 109,194
Tamiami 276,277
Tampa 196,143
Vero Beach 161,492
West Palm Beach 214,429


Source: Calculated from [11].












































* FAA-operated control tower

* Other general aviation airports


rb *t3 N'.


Figure B-7.--Florida airport system









BIBLIOGRAPHY


[1] Federal-State Market News Service. Florida Fresh Fruit and Vege-
table Shipments. Orlando, FL: Florida Department of Agri-
culture and Consumer Services,1958-59 to 1977-78.

[2] Florida Department of Transportation. Division of Planning and
Programs. Tallahassee, FL: Interview, 1978.

[3] Florida Department of Transportation. Florida's State-wide Trans-
portation Plan and Program. Memphis, TN: Wm. S. Pollard
Consultants, Inc., March 1973.

[4] Florida Department of Transportation. Office of Networks Engineer.
Tallahassee, FL: Interview, 1978.

[5] Florida East Coast Railway. St. Augustine, FL: Interview, 1978.

[6] Schlei, Barbara L. "Transportation Outlook 1979 and Beyond".
Washington, DC: National Food and Agricultural Outlook Con-
ference, November 14, 1978.

[7] Seaboard Coastline Railway. Jacksonville, FL: Letter dated 1978.

[8] Transportation Association of America. Transportation Facts and
Trends (14th edition). Washington, DC: July 1978.

[9] U.S. Agricultural Marketing Service, Fruit and Vegetable Division,
Market News Branch. Fresh Fruit and Vegetable Unloads. Wash-
ington, DC: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1965-67, 1975-77.

[10] U.S. Department of Transportation and National Bureau of Standards.
A Long Term Study of Produce Transportation (Vol. 1, 2 and 3).
Springfield, VA: The National Technical Information Service,
December 1977.

[11] University of Florida. College of Business Administration, Bureau
of Economic and Business Research. Florida Statistical Ab-
stract 1976. Gainesville, FL: The University of Florida
Press, 1976.




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