• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Chapter
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Introduction
 U.S. Overview
 Major foliage producing states
 Producer characteristics in the...
 Consumption patterns
 Producer characteristics in the...
 Florida plants
 Marketing in Florida
 Nursery business analysis...
 Sources of propagation material...
 Imports and exports of plants
 Summary
 Reference
 Foliage crop estimates for 1981...














Group Title: Economic information report - University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences ; 156
Title: An Economic overview of the tropical foliage plant industry
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026469/00001
 Material Information
Title: An Economic overview of the tropical foliage plant industry
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: vii, 100 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Smith, Cecil Nuckols, 1920-
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, University of Florida in cooperation with Federal-State Market News Service
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1981
 Subjects
Subject: Potted plant industry   ( lcsh )
Foliage plant industry   ( lcsh )
Tropical plants   ( lcsh )
Foliage plants   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 97-98.
Statement of Responsibility: Cecil N. Smith ... et al..
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "December 1981."
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026469
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001598314
oclc - 20661825
notis - AHM2456

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page i
    Chapter
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    List of Figures
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    U.S. Overview
        Page 2
    Major foliage producing states
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Producer characteristics in the U.S. foliage industry
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Consumption patterns
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Producer characteristics in the Florida foliage industry
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Florida plants
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Marketing in Florida
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
    Nursery business analysis in Florida
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
    Sources of propagation material in Florida
        Page 78
    Imports and exports of plants
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Summary
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
    Reference
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Foliage crop estimates for 1981 and revised estimates for 1980
        Page 99
        Page 100
Full Text

ecil N. Smith

Marvin N. Miller


Economic Information
Report 156


Elmo F. Scarborough

j. Robert Strain



An Economic Overview of the
Tropical Foliage Plant Industry


and Resource Economics Department
cultural Experiment Stations
e of Agriculture
operative Extension Service
institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
-University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
in cooperation with
Federal-State Market News Service


December 1981














ABSTRACT


This report represents an effort to make available the pertinent data
relative to economic aspects of the tropical foliage industry. Statistical
data on the production of tropical foliage plants in Florida,other leading
states,and the United States are presented. Figures on consumption patterns
for foliage are also contained in the report. Information on the relative
importance of various foliage plants in Florida, the channels utilized in
marketing them, and the pattern of distribution are also presented. A
summary of the findings of the business analysis program, data on sources of
cuttings, and basic statistics on foliage imports are other major segments.

Key words: tropical foliage industry-statistics; Florida foliage;
foliage marketing.


FOREWORD


Presented here are the major sets of statistical data about economic
aspects of the tropical foliage industry in the United States, with special
emphasis on Florida. Information on foliage production and marketing has
been drawn from a variety of sources. Definitions of characteristics vary
and hence differing series of data may show what appear to be divergent
values.
The Crop Reporting.Board of the U.S. Department of Agriculture released
its 1981 estimates of the number of growers, area in production, and net
sales of foliage plants in major states after the manuscript for this re-
port had been prepared. Revisions were made in the 1980 data by the Crop
Reporting Board in most foliage states. Because of delays in processing
the manuscript for printing, the opportunity arose to include revised data
for 1980 in those tables in which series of U.S.D.A. data were presented.
Both the revised data for 1980 and the 1981 figures are included in Appendix
Table 1, which is a reproduction of Table 17 of the Crop Reporting Board
estimates for foliage included in Floriculture Crops-Production Area and
Sales, 1980 and 1981/Intentions for 1983.














ABSTRACT


This report represents an effort to make available the pertinent data
relative to economic aspects of the tropical foliage industry. Statistical
data on the production of tropical foliage plants in Florida,other leading
states,and the United States are presented. Figures on consumption patterns
for foliage are also contained in the report. Information on the relative
importance of various foliage plants in Florida, the channels utilized in
marketing them, and the pattern of distribution are also presented. A
summary of the findings of the business analysis program, data on sources of
cuttings, and basic statistics on foliage imports are other major segments.

Key words: tropical foliage industry-statistics; Florida foliage;
foliage marketing.


FOREWORD


Presented here are the major sets of statistical data about economic
aspects of the tropical foliage industry in the United States, with special
emphasis on Florida. Information on foliage production and marketing has
been drawn from a variety of sources. Definitions of characteristics vary
and hence differing series of data may show what appear to be divergent
values.
The Crop Reporting.Board of the U.S. Department of Agriculture released
its 1981 estimates of the number of growers, area in production, and net
sales of foliage plants in major states after the manuscript for this re-
port had been prepared. Revisions were made in the 1980 data by the Crop
Reporting Board in most foliage states. Because of delays in processing
the manuscript for printing, the opportunity arose to include revised data
for 1980 in those tables in which series of U.S.D.A. data were presented.
Both the revised data for 1980 and the 1981 figures are included in Appendix
Table 1, which is a reproduction of Table 17 of the Crop Reporting Board
estimates for foliage included in Floriculture Crops-Production Area and
Sales, 1980 and 1981/Intentions for 1983.









TABLE OF CONTENTS


ABSTRACT............ .

FOREWORD............ .

TABLE OF CONTENTS. . ..

LIST OF TABLES. . .

LIST OF FIGURES . .

INTRODUCTION . ... .

U.S. OVERVIEW . . .

MAJOR FOLIAGE PRODUCING STATES.

PRODUCER CHARACTERISTICS IN THE

CONSUMPTION PATTERNS .....

PRODUCER CHARACTERISTICS IN THE

FLORIDA PLANTS. ... ..

MARKETING IN FLORIDA ......

Market Outlets . .
Analysis of Sales Invoices
Shipment Patterns. .
Prices and Transportation.
Containers . .


U.S. FOLIAGE INDUSTRY .


FLORIDA


FOLIAGE


NURSERY BUSINESS ANALYSIS IN FLORIDA. .

SOURCES OF PROPAGATION MATERIAL IN FLORIDA.

IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PLANTS . .

European Imports . . .

SUMM ARY ................. .

REFERENCES .................


. . .


APPENDIX A-FOLIAGE CROP ESTIMATES FOR 1981 AND REVISED
ESTIMATES FOR 1980.... ... ........


Page

i

i

ii

iii

vii

1

2

2

6

15

35

38

46

46
58
58
63
63

68

78

78

91

93

97


99


INDUSTRY. ..


. . . . .





















LIST OF TABLES


Number Page

1 Change in value of foliage plants produced in selected
states, 1966 to 1977 and 1977 to 1980. . ..... 5

2 Value of sales and percentage of U.S. net sales of foliage
plants marketed in five major producing states, selected
years, 1949 to 1980 ................... 7

3 Value of net sales, at 1980 prices, of foliage plants pro-
duced in 10 major states, selected years, 1949-80. . 8

4 Value of net sales of tropical foliage plants in major
producing states, selected years, 1949 to 1980 .. 9

5 Value of sales of various types of finished potted foliage
plants in the five leading producing states and the U.S.,
1970 . . . . . 11

6 Number of commercial growers of foliage plants in selected
states, 1966 to 1980 .................. 12

7 Commercial acreage of foliage plants in selected states,
1966 to 1980 .............. ... . 13

8 Number of producers, production area, and average sales at
wholesale prices per producer and per unit of production
area of foliage plants sold in selected states, 1970, 1975,
and 1980 ................... ...... 14

9 Wholesale sales, valued in 1980 dollars, per producer and per
unit of production area of foliage plants sold in selected
states, 1970, 1975, and 1980 ............... 16

10 Number of operators growing foliage plants and value of
sales (at wholesale prices) in major producing states, 1949,
1959, and 1970 .................. ... 17

11 Unfinished foliage plants grown in the United States, 1959
and 1970 ................. ... 18

12 Estimated per capital consumption expenditures for floricul-
tural products and for foliage plants 1966 to 1980 20

13 Consumption expenditures for floricultural products in the
United States, 1966 to 1980. ................ 22

14 Estimated total and per capital expenditures at retail-for
foliage plants in the United States, 1966 to 1980. . 23








LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Number Page

15 Estimated proportion of consumer expenditures for floricul-
ture in the U.S. accounted for by foliage plants, 1976 to
1980 ......... ............... .... .. 24

16 Inventory and other characteristics of housing units in
the United States, 1970 to 1978. . . . ... 25

17 Indexes of selected factors relating to consumer disposable
income, value of private residential construction, consump-
tion of foliage plants, and new home mortgage rates, 1966
to 1980. . . . . . . 26

18 Selected economic characteristics of 58 plant shops in New
York State, 1977 ...................... 28

19 Annual expenditures for plants per household reported by
Florida consumers, five Florida markets, 1977 . . 29

20 Annual expenditures for plant care items per household re-
ported by Florida consumers, five Florida markets, 1977. 30

21 Living plants reported per household by Florida consumers,
six groupings, five Florida markets, 1977. . . 31

22 Type of store where most plants for the household were pur-
chased, five Florida markets, 1977 . . .... .32

23 Frequency of household plant purchases, five Florida markets,
1977 ... ............. .............. 33

24 Major purchasers per household of house and patio plants, five
Florida markets, 1977 ................... 34

25 Number of commercial producers, area in plants and value of
net sales of tropical foliage plants in the Apopka, South-
east, and other areas of Florida, 1971 to 1980. . 36

26 Percentage distributions of number of commercial producers,
area in plants, and value of net sales of foliage plants in
the Apopka, Southeast, and other areas of Florida, 1971 37

27 Number of commercial producers, area in plants, and value of
net sales of tropical foliage plants by Florida growers in
various size groups, 1971 to 1980. . .. . 39

28 Percentage distributions of number of commercial producers,
area in plants, and value of net sales of foliage plants
by various grower size groups in Florida, 1971 to 1980 40









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Number Page

29 Numbers of establishments reported as growing foliage plants
in 1979 by the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Depart-
ment of Agriculture and Consumer Services . . .. 41

30 Census of Agriculture data on foliage and flowering plants,
1978 ............................. 43

31 Relative importance of various foliage plants in Florida, 1956,
1961, 1967, and 1975.................... .... 45

32 Foliage plant product mix in central and south Florida, 1975 47

33 Estimated proportion of sales of Florida foliage plants mar-
keted through various outlets, 1956, 1961, 1967, and 1975 52

34 Market outlets for Florida foliage, 1975. . . ... 54

35 Market outlets purchasing, on direct and brokerage sales bases,
foliage plants marketed by medium-small and large growers in
Florida, 1975 ........................ 57

36 Market outlets purchasing, on direct and brokerage sales bases,
foliage plants marketed by growers in south and central
Florida, 1975 ........................ 59

37 Estimated number of plant items per invoice and average value
per invoice for sales made to various outlets by 10 growers in
the Apopka area, April 1970 ................. 60

38 Estimated truck load equivalents of Florida foliage plants
shipped, 1977 to 1981 .................... 61

39 Proportion of Florida foliage plants shipments made to various
regions to the United States and to Canada, by seasons,
December 1980 through November 1981 . . .. 62

40 Wholesale prices received by Florida growers for selected
sizes of Dracaena sanderiana and Dracaena marginata, August
1981. . . . . .... 65

41 Rates per carton for shipping a 30 pound (13.6 kg) carton of
foliage plants from the Apopka-Orlando, Florida area to
various destinations, January 1981. . . .. 66

42 Estimated number of all varieties of foliage plants shipped in
various types of containers from Florida, 1977 through 1980 67









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Number Page

43 Comparative business analysis data for the same five foliage
plant growers in central Florida from 1970 through 1979. 71

44 Comparative business analysis data, with value converted to
1980 prices, for the same five foliage plant growers in
central Florida from 1970 through 1979 . .... 72

45 Costs per square foot of total bed and bench space, foliage
plant and potted flowering plant nurseries in central
Florida, 1979........................ 74

46 Costs per dollar of sales adjusted for change in plant inven-
tory, 19 foliage and potted flowering plant nurseries in
central Florida, 1979.................... 75

47 Income summary, 19 wholesale foliage and potted flowering
plant nurseries in central Florida, 1979. . . 76

48 Costs per square foot of propagating and finishing bed and
bench space, 11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south
Florida, 1979.... . . . ... 77

49 Costs per dollar of sales adjusted for change in plant in-
ventory, 11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south Florida,
1979 ............ . ** ....* ..... 79

50 Income summary, 11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south
Florida, 1979......... .......... ... 80

51 Sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage growers in var-
ious areas, 1975 .. ... ........... .... .. 81

52 Sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage growers in var-
ious areas and size groups, 1975 ... .. 82

53 Number of tropical foliage plants imported into Florida,
1969-70 through 1980-81 fiscal years ....... .. 83

54 Imports of foliage plants for propagation through major U.S.
gateways, 1980 ........ ...... ......... 84

55 Imports of seeds for the propagation of foliage plants through
major U.S. gateways, 1980....... ........... 85

56 Annual exports to various countries of tropical foliage plants
from Florida certified by the Division of Plant Industry of
the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services,
1977 to 1981 fiscal years. .... .......... 87









LIST OF FIGURES


Number Page

1 Net sales of tropical foliage plants in major states of the
U.S., 1966 to 1980 . . . . . 3

2 Net sales of foliage plants in 1980 dollars and in actual
dollars, three major states, 1966 to 1980. . . 4

3 Product mix of foliage plants in Florida, 1956, 1961, 1967,
and 1975 . . . . . . 48

4 Product mix of foliage plants in central and south Florida,
1975 . . . . . . . 49

5 Product mix of Florida foliage plants by grower size and
area, 1975 . . . .. ....... 50

6 Market outlets for Florida foliage plants, 1956, 1961, 1967,
and 1975 . . . . . . 53

7 Market outlets for central and south Florida foliage plants,
1975 .. .. .. . . . .. 55

8 Market outlets for Florida foliage plants by grower size and
area, 1975 . . . . . . 56

9 Seasonal pattern of shipments of foliage plants from Florida
by months in 3-inch, 6-inch, and 10-inch pots, 1977 to 1980 64

10 Type of containers for Florida foliage plants by grower size
and area, 1975 . . .. .. . 69

11 Net value and relative importance of foliage plants sold in
various types of shipping containers by Florida growers, 1956 70

12 Main flows of European imports of live plants from non-
European countries, 1980 . . . .... 92


vii














AN ECONOMIC OVERVIEW OF THE TROPICAL FOLIAGE PLANT INDUSTRY


Cecil N. Smith, Marvin N. Miller, Elmo F. Scarborough, and J. Robert Strain


INTRODUCTION


The tropical foliage plant enterprise has sustained a rate of growth
in the past ten years which is probably unequaled by any other segment of
American agriculture. There have been vast changes in many facets of
the foliage industry-shifts in production areas, product mix, consump-
tion patterns, market outlets, and others.
This report brings together the basic statistical data on foliage sales,
production area, and growers which are periodically published by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Other data
from the Division of Plant Industry and the Division of Marketing of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services are presented.
Results of studies done in the Food and Resource Economics Department and
elsewhere are also given.
For the most part the data presented speak for themselves. In same
instances highlights of certain figures and tables are shown in the text.
Data are presented under the following headings:
(1) U.S. overview
(2) Major foliage producing states
(3) Producer characteristics in the U.S. foliage industry
(4) Consumption patterns
(5) Producer characteristics in the Florida foliage industry
(6) Florida plants
(7) Florida marketing


CECIL N. SMITH and J. ROBERT STRAIN are professors of food and resource
economics. MARVIN N. MILLER is graduate research assistant in food and re-
source economics. ELMO F. SCARBOROUGH is marketing specialist with the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.








(8) Nursery business analysis in Florida
(9) Sources of propagating material
(10) Imports and exports of plants

U.S. OVERVIEW


Net sales of tropical foliage plants in the United States rose from
a level of $24 million in 1966 to a high of $313 million in 1980 (Figure 1).
After experiencing only a slight upward movement in the latter part of the
1960s, industry sales surged in the early 1970s, but declined after 1977.
A comparison is made in Figure 1 of the movement of foliage sales in real
or constant dollars1 (1980 = 100), shown in the upper line, and that in
actual or current dollars, shown in the lower line. In terms of constant
1980 dollars (with the data for each year adjusted to reflect the value of
the price level for 1980), sales peaked in 1977 and then declined until
1979. Sales for 1980 exceeded those of 1979 in terms of 1980 dollars.
The movement of sales, both in terms of actual and 1980 values, from
1966 to 1980 in Florida, California, and Texas is shown in Figure 2.
Florida and California have had approximately the same types of growth
patterns. The foliage enterprise in Texas was later in maturing than in
Florida and California.
The percentage changes in value, in both actual values and 1980 dollars,
from 1966 to 1977 and from 1977 to 1980 in California, Florida, Ohio, Texas,
and the U.S. are contained in Table 1. In constant 1980 dollars, for ex-
ample, industry growth was 462 percent-an average 42 percent annual rate of
growth-from 1966 to 1977 while there was a decrease of 18 percent-an
average 6 percent per year-from 1977 to 1980.

MAJOR FOLIAGE PRODUCING STATES

The value of net sales and the percentage of foliage plants marketed in
five major states in 1949 and 1959 and annually from 1966 through 1980 is


iThe Index of Producer Prices (All Commodities) was the conversion fac-
tor used here and in other price conversions. Although it is realized there
are dissimilarities between the movement of the general price level (repre-
sented by the Index of Producer Prices) and the level of foliage prices, it
is believed that, due to the inflation in the 1970s, the adjusted set of data
is much more comparable from one year to another than are actual or unadjusted
data.








(8) Nursery business analysis in Florida
(9) Sources of propagating material
(10) Imports and exports of plants

U.S. OVERVIEW


Net sales of tropical foliage plants in the United States rose from
a level of $24 million in 1966 to a high of $313 million in 1980 (Figure 1).
After experiencing only a slight upward movement in the latter part of the
1960s, industry sales surged in the early 1970s, but declined after 1977.
A comparison is made in Figure 1 of the movement of foliage sales in real
or constant dollars1 (1980 = 100), shown in the upper line, and that in
actual or current dollars, shown in the lower line. In terms of constant
1980 dollars (with the data for each year adjusted to reflect the value of
the price level for 1980), sales peaked in 1977 and then declined until
1979. Sales for 1980 exceeded those of 1979 in terms of 1980 dollars.
The movement of sales, both in terms of actual and 1980 values, from
1966 to 1980 in Florida, California, and Texas is shown in Figure 2.
Florida and California have had approximately the same types of growth
patterns. The foliage enterprise in Texas was later in maturing than in
Florida and California.
The percentage changes in value, in both actual values and 1980 dollars,
from 1966 to 1977 and from 1977 to 1980 in California, Florida, Ohio, Texas,
and the U.S. are contained in Table 1. In constant 1980 dollars, for ex-
ample, industry growth was 462 percent-an average 42 percent annual rate of
growth-from 1966 to 1977 while there was a decrease of 18 percent-an
average 6 percent per year-from 1977 to 1980.

MAJOR FOLIAGE PRODUCING STATES

The value of net sales and the percentage of foliage plants marketed in
five major states in 1949 and 1959 and annually from 1966 through 1980 is


iThe Index of Producer Prices (All Commodities) was the conversion fac-
tor used here and in other price conversions. Although it is realized there
are dissimilarities between the movement of the general price level (repre-
sented by the Index of Producer Prices) and the level of foliage prices, it
is believed that, due to the inflation in the 1970s, the adjusted set of data
is much more comparable from one year to another than are actual or unadjusted
data.





















$ million



325

300

275 1980 dollars

250-

225 Actual dollars

200 -

175 -


150 -


125 -

100 -

75-

50 -

25

0 I I I I I II
1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978. 1980
1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979

Figure l.--Net sales of tropical foliage plants in major states
of the.U.S., 1966 to 1980

Source: [20, 23].














$ million

160

150

140

130

120

110 -

100 -

90 -

80

70

60

50

40

30

20

10


Florida











California










Texas


1966 1968 1970 1972 1974 1976 1978 1980
1967 1969 1971 1973 1975 1977 1979

Figure 2.--Net sales of foliage plants in 1980 dollars and in actual
dollars, three major states, 1966 to 1980

Source: [20, 23].





5



Table 1.--Change in value of foliage plants produced in selected states,
1966 to 1977 and 1977 to 1980


California
Florida
Ohio
Texas

U.S. total





California
Florida
Ohio
Texas

U.S. total


Current dollars

+ 2212 + 8
+ 927 + 24
+ 659 + 15
+ 1995 + 48

+ 1048 -+ 14


Constant dollars (1980 = 100)

+ 1088 22
+ 379 10
+ 290 17
+ 977 + 7


+ 462


- 18


Source: [22, 23].


------- Percent------








shown in Table 2. Florida in 1949 had less than 15 percent of the nation's
foliage marketing. The share that Florida's foliage output made of the U.S.
total sustained a rise to 61 percent in 1971, but dropped to 48 percent by
1980. Over the last 15 years California's proportion rose from same 12
percent to 25 percent. Likewise, Texas had an increased share. Substantial
variation over the period was noted for sales in Ohio and Massachusetts.
In recent years the five major states have accounted for nearly 90 percent
of the nation's foliage supply.
The value of net sales, with data converted to 1980 dollars to reflect
the gross effects of inflation, in 10 major states for the years 1949 and
1959 and annually from 1966 to 1980 is shown in Table 3. The value of
net sales in producing states for which data were reported by the U.S.
Department of Agriculture is shown in Table 4.
The value of sales of leading types of finished potted foliage plants
as reported by the 1970 Special Census is given in Table 5. Philodendron
cordatum was first in importance in the U.S.--and also in Florida and Ohio.


PRODUCER CHARACTERISTICS IN THE U.S. FOLIAGE INDUSTRY


The number of commercial foliage growers in the states for which the
U.S. Department of Agriculture makes crop estimates2 is shown in Table 6.
Grower numbers in the U.S. rose from 1,039 in 1966 to 2,053 in 1980.
Currently Florida, followed by California, New York, and Texas, has more
growers than any other state.
Acreage devoted to foliage plants over the period from 1966 to 1980 is
shown in Table 7. Of the nation's nearly 3,350 acres in foliage plants
in 1980, over 70 percent were in Florida.
The number of producers, the area in production, and average sales (at
wholesale prices) per producer and per unit of production area in 1970,
1975, and 1980 in the states included in the 1980 crop report are indicated
in Table 8. Sales per producer ranged from $31,000 in New York to $317,000 in


2or crops sold in 1966 through 1973 the Crop Reporting Service included
those growers who had gross sales of foliage, cut flowers, and other related
items of $2,000 or more. Beginning in 1974 the gross sales value of these
crops was raised to $10,000.















Table 2.-Value of sales and percentage of U.S. net sales of foliage plants marketed in five major producing states, selected years, 1949 to 1980


$1,000 Percent $1,000 Percent $1,000 Percent $1,000 Percent $1,000 Percent $1,000 Percent
1949 1,844 14.6 2,529 20.0 670 5.3 1,246 9.9 396 3.1 12,648 52.9
1959 12,622 40.9 4,391 14.2 1,338 4.3 1,595 5.2 911 3.0 30,863 67.6
1966 11,678 48.7 3,167 13.2 851 3.5 1,511 6.3 680 2,8 23,988 74.5
1967 13,265 50.9 3,087 11.8 808 3.1 1,982 7.6 809 3.1 26,079 76.5
1968 14,357 54.4 3,028 11.5 869 3.3 1,597 6.0 1,071 4.1 26,412 79.3
1969 15,497 53.1 3,675 12.6 1,478 5.1 1,853 6.4 949 3.3 29,158 80.5
1970 15,938 57.6 3,657 13.2 1,156 4.2 1,431 5.2 529 1.9 27,692 82.1
1971 23,077 61.4 4,634 12.3 1,804 4.8 1,455 3.9 643 1.7 37,586 84.1
1972 25,693 53.1 6,530 13.5 2,059 4.3 2,521 5.2 865 1.8 48,428 77.9
1973 33,410 50.5 12,884 19.5 3,112 4.7 2,326 3.5 584 0.9 66,119 79.1
1974 48,482 42.7 30,552 26.9 4,413 3.9 3,920 3.5 3,203 2.8 113,503 79.8
1975 87,312 46.6 45,732 24.4 6,144 3.3 6,989 3.7 4,392 2.3 187,183 80.3
1976 110,656 45.4 61,359 25.2 17,625 7.2 13,818 5.7 4,743 1.9 243,759 85.4
1977 119,956 43.6 73,231 26.6 17,830 6.5 11,476 4.2 5,555 2.0 275,300 81.1
1978 124,135 44.0 72,000 25.5 20,284 7.4 12,969 4.6 4,970 1.8 281,919 83.3
1979 139,867 49.3 78,239 27.6 18,125 6.4 11,245 4.0 4,513 1.6 283,928 88.9
1980 148,909 47.6 79,043 25.2 26,302 8.4 13,178 4.2 4,370 1.4 312,968 86.8

a23 states, 1949, 1959, and 1966-75; 16 states,1976-80.
Source: [20, 23].
















Table 3 .-value of net sales, at 1980 prices, of foliage plants produced in 10 major states," selected years, 1949-80

State

Yearlor- Cali- Massa- New Ha- Mich- Colo- Other U.S.
ida fornia Texas ho York s waii igan rado states total
iksetts se

--------------- $1,OOO--------------000
1949 6,294 8,625 2,287 4,253 1,352 4,898 2,990 c 1,317 174 11,080 43,270
1959 35,756 12,439 3,790 4,518 2,581 4,334 4,023 c 2,731 598 17,009 87,779
1966 34,652 8,536 2,294 4,073 1,833 3,237 3,121 c 1,844 221 8,021 67,832
1967 35,659 8,298 2,172 5,328 2,175 3,274 2,987 c 1,309 336 8,567 70,105
1968 36,108 7,948 2,281 4,192 2,811 3,538 1,058 c 1,388 d 9,999 69,323
1969 39,134 9,280 3,732 4,679 2,396 3,129 1,336 c 1,588 d 8,357 73,631
1970 38,779 8,898 2,813 3,482 1,287 1,740 934 c 1,662 d 7,782 67,377
1971 54,427 10,929 4,255 3,432 1,517 2,335 1,991 c 1,637 d 8,123 88,646
1972 57,998 14,740 4,648 5,251 1,953 3,368 3,300 c 2,210 d 15,850 109,318
1973 67,479 25,717 6,212 4,643 1,166 3,104 3,954 c 5,778 537 13,384 131,974
1974 81,346 51,261 7,404 6,577 5,374 5,794 3,555 c 5,126 1,435 22,569 190,441
1975 134,120 70,249 9,438 10,736 7,174 7,551 5,485 c 6,810 5,521 26,938 284,022
1976 162,490 90,101 25,881 20,291 6,965 7,758 4,624 c 6,470 5,686 27,677 357,943
1977 166,144 101,428 24,695 15,895 7,694 6,435 7,359 3,133 9,864 8,000 30,655 381,302
1978 159,352 92,426 26,039 16,648 6,380 8,435 7,458 4,127 8,597 5,307 27,130 361,899
1979 159,666 89,314 20,691 12,837 5,152 4,824 3,963 4,525 5,402 2,927 14,818 324,119
1980 148,909 79,043 26,302 13,178 4,370 6,326 5,304 5,012 4,581 3,947 15,996 312,968


aStates arranged in accordance with net sales in 1980.

bAll 48 coterminous states in 1949 and 1959, 23 states from 1966 through 1975, and 16 states from 1976 through 1980.

CNo data published prior to 1977.

allocated to avoid disclosing individual operations.

Source: [20, 22, 23].















Table 4.-Value of net sales of tropical foliage plants in major producing states, selected years,1949 to 1980


1949 2,529 51
1959 4,391 211
1966 3,167 82
1967 3,087 125
1968 3,028 c
1969 3,675 c
1970 3,657 c
1971 4,634 c
1972 6,530 c
1973 12,884 269
1974 30,552 855
1975 45,732 2,644
1976 61,359 3,872
1977 73,231 5,126
1978 72,000 4,134
1979 78,239 2,564
1980 79,043 3,947


$1,000 ---
80 3 1,844 30 e 747 119
142 a 12,622 123 e 1,557 351
173 d 11,678 e e 356 226
157 13,265 e e 295 346
145 13,747 e e 335 c
151 d 15,497 e e 294 c
100 d 15,938 e e 412 c
172 d 23,077 e e 287 c
362 d 25,693 e e 396 c
424 d 33,410 e e 1,342 210
485 d 48,482 e e 2,213 851
693 d 87,312 e e 3,796 836
e e 110,656 e e 4,343 e
e e 119,956 1,355 2,262 6,145 e
e e 124,135 1,584 3,215 3,747 e
e e 139,867 436 3,964 3,091 e
e e 148,909 2,056 5,012 3,350 e


70 268 396
77 201 911
49 349 680
48 357d 809
53 357d 1,071
35 418d 949
42 38 529
63 c 643
95 498d 865
316 932 584
848 1,684, 3,203
1,516 2,412 4,392
e 3,663 4,743
e 2,396 5,555
e 2,469 4,970
e 1,519 4,513
e 2,547 4,370


386
964
684
487
529
629
683
694
979
1,621
3,055
4,433
4,406
7,122
6,697
4,732
4,581

Continued










Table 4 .-Value of net sales of tropical foliage plants in major producing states, selected years, 1949 to 1980--Continued

State
New North Penn- Wash- Wis-
Year Minr- Mis- New Ore- U.S.
Year i is- Jer- New Caro- Ohio syl- Ten- Texas ing- con- US
sota sour y York lina gon vania nessee ton sin

$1,000----
1949 90 234 876 1,435 21 1,246 80 1,153 58 670 163 129 12,678
1959 235 190 1,420 1,530 74 1,595 181 2,036 127 1,338 387 323 30,986
1966 237 115 1,158 1,201 34 1,511 91 919 39 851 334 54 25,166
1967 181 156 1,111 1,218 25 1,982 105 1,061 35 808 238 183 26,079
1968 236 68 403 .1,348 39 1,597 31 1,020 29 869 187 125 26,412
1969 175 105 529 1,239 40 1,853 152 899 52 1,478 348 135 29,158
1970 179 42 384 715 38 1,431 98 1,121 125 1,156 163 68 27,692
1971 191 60 844 990 e 1,455 158 865 111 1,804 223 187 37,586
1972 213 468 1,462 1,492 e 2,326 161 2,873 168 2,059 406 86 48,428
1973 579 215 1,981 1,555 e 2,326 358 2,473 213 3,112 848 601 67,982
1974 745 171 2,119 3,453 e 3,920 500 3,153 e 4,413 1,170 1,385 113,503
1975 2,253 313 3,571 4,916 e 6,989 2,980 4,986 e 6,144 1,731 1,907 184,898
1976 1,722 e 3,149 5,283 e 13,818 3,722 5,066 e 17,625 e e 243,759
1977 2,087 e 5,313 4,646 e 11,476 3,042 7,758 e 17,830 e e 275,300
1978 1,923 e 5,810 6,571 e 12,969 3,981 7,420 e 20,284 e e 281,919
1979 1,910 e 3,472 4,226 e 11,245 1,915 4,110 e 18,125 e e 283,928
1980 2,097 e 5,304 6,326 e 13,178 2,007 3,939 e 26,302 e e 312,968

aess than $1,000.

bndiana cernined with Colorado to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

CUnallocated to avoid disclosing individual operations.

dbelaware ccabined with Maryland to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

eData not collected or published.

48 states incoterminous U.S. The value of sales in the 23 states initially covered in the crop reports was $12,648,000
1949 and $30,863,000 in 1959. The value of such sales amounted to 96 and 95 percent respectively, of total sales in the 48
coterminous states.


major revision of data done in 1976 estimate with changes also made in many state estimates for 1975. The 1975 value
figures here exclude in $1,000s, CT, 693; IN, 836; IA, 1,516; M3, 313; WA, 1,731; and WI, 1,907, for a total of $6,996,000.
These states were not included in the estimates for 1976 and succeeding crop years.


Source: [20, 23].









Table 5 .--Value of sales of various types of finished potted foliage plants
in the five leading producing states and the U.S., 1970

State
Plant
Florida California Texas Ohio Pennsylvania U.S.

---$1,000--
Caladium 44 131 328 46 72 1;292
Dieffenbachia 462 360 65 61 172 1,597
Dracaena 471 336 53 77 65 1,732
Ferns 558 915 117 33 106 2,418
Palms 582 434 103 54 56 1,888

Pandanus 14 118 27 26 30 518
Peperomia 108 417 34 59 61 1,104
Philodendron,
cordatum 1,659 425 65 211 149 3,910
Philodendron,
other 932 826 75 147 197 3,140
Schefflera 360 283 55 45 136 1,388
All other 11,595 1,407 923 1,630 930 19,388

Total 16,785 5,652 1,845 2,389 1,974 38,375


Source: [20].








Table 6 .-NuMter of connrcial growers of foliage plants in selected states, 1966 to 1980

Year

State 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980

Number
California 55 50 52 58 63 69 69 78 113 139 192 265 260 248 225
Colorado 9 9 32 c c c c 14 19 60 71 57 59 39 29
Connecticut 33 27 23 24 16 22 22 27 23 -
Delaware b b b b b b b c -
Florida 142 141 153 140 134 117 117 123 163 262 354 377 359 368 470

Georgia 97 54 41 41
Hawaii 23 41 53 59
Illinois 27 26 26 18 32 25 46 68 49 77 86 50 80 65 80
Indiana 30 31 a c c c c 29 39 -
Iowa 25 19- 23 19 25 18 24 33 29 -

Maryland 21b 18b 13 19b 1 I 1P 13b 17 18 35 48 37 40 18 30
Massachusetts 37 42 28 29 22 32 46 35 76 135 131 112 127 104 84
Michigan 33 32 35 26 33 22 30 45 54 120 105 134 140 134 140
Minnesota 43 38 35 34 52 39 34 39' 32 49 54 72 67 67 72
Missouri 43 41 30 34 26 17 20 29 19 -

New Jersey 47 43 42 35 40 41 51 64 67 81 75 76 77 62 115
New York 124 111 82 87 97 117 84 103 127 200 208 204 238 170 202
North Carolina 10 10 14 10 23 c c c c c -
Ohio 89 91 78 68 90 71 87 86 91 154 173 157 155 125 145
Oregon 20 18 17 12 7 10 8 11 12 51 51 48 44 30 38

Pennsylvania 69 79 81 62 57 43 61 77 71 82 95 77 89 58 123
Tennessee 10 9 6 10 15 11 17 13 c c -
texas 103 106 109 106 78 61 64 87 37 44 93 93 114 128 200
Washington 30 28 25 33 29 31 33 31 26 -
Wisconsin 39 45 35 34 34 31 27 46 46 -
Unallocated 32 32 38 40 46 10 17 -
Total 1,039 1,014 939 890 927 835 899 1,065 1,128 1,489d 1,736 1,879 1,944 1,710 2,053

aIndiana combined with Colorado to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

bDelware combined with Maryland to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

CUnallocated to avoid disclosing individual operations.
dMajor revision of data done in 1976, with changes also made in many state estimates for 1975. The 1975 data on numbers
of growers presented here exclude producers in the following states: CT-21, IN-48, IA-44, MO--24, A--33, WI-56, and
t*allocated-28, for a total of 254. These states were not included in the estimates for 1976 and succeeding crop years.

Source: [23].









Table 7 .-Commercial acreage of foliage plants in selected states, 1966 to 1980

Year

1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980
_-_ -_------I------------Acres-- -- --


California
Colorado
Conecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Illinois
Indiana
Iowa
Maryland
Massachusetts
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
New Jersey
New York
iorth Carolina
Ohio
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Tennessee
Texas
Washington
Wisconsin
Unallocated
Total


50.1 39.0 32.2 42.1 43.4 48.4 54.8 91.0 213.9 249.0 326.1 480.5 413.2 400.0 425.3
0.6 0.6 b b b b b 1.1 4.3 13.4 21.7 17.4 16.5 10.3 12.1
1.8 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.7 1.5 2.8 3.0 2.5 c -
a a a -a a a b b -
591.4 599.0 575.0 594.0 621.8 696.7 710.7 844.9 1044.8 1492.9 2028.9 1828.4 1814.3 1991.2 2391.9
S 8.5 11.7 3.8 13.7
40.0 62.4 73.4 77.2
2.2 1.6 1.6 1.3 1.1 2.3 5.4 7.4 10.0 15.1 20.2 16.6 16.2 14.1 18.9
1.6 1.7 b b b b b 0.8 2.8 c -- -
0.4 0.4 0.9 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.7 1.4 1.8 c -
3.5 2.2 2.0 2.0 1.5 2.1 2.1 2.5 4.9 10.6 23.9 14.2 21.7 5.6 9.9
3.9 4.6 5.6 4.8 2.8 4.0 5.6 4.0 13.3 23.9 22.2 21.3 21.3 16.4 14.0
6.2 4.3 3.4 3.6 3.9 3.5 5.1 13.2 14.9 23.0 20.9 27.2 30.0 23.7 29.8
1.7 1.2 1.6 1.3 0.9 1.0 1.9 3.8 4.2 5.7 6.3 8.5 10.0 6.7 10.2
2.2 2.1 1.0 1.9 0.8 1.3 4.8 4.7 1.1 c -
7.0 7.4 4.5 4.5 3.4 5.8 10.6 12.1 11.6 22.7 19.9 18.7 18.8 20.4 30.7
14.3 14.0 12.6 11.5 8.2 9.2 12.1 9.1 14.6 24.5 25.2 26.8 35.0 27.0 34.1
0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.3 b b b b b -
8.3 10.1 7.0 6.6 9.8 11.0 10.4 13.2 13.5 26.6 33.6 39.8 45.0 34.4 38.6
1.1 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.8 2.1 1.7 2.4 2.7 16.5 18.3 18.4 16.3 8.7 10.4
7.5 8.3 7.2 7.0 7.1 4.9 12.1 14.2 14.2 21.4 24.4 28.7 28.7 16.7 23.8
0.5 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.6 1.0 1.1 b b -
33.2 20.2 25.0 32.6 33.8 36.1 38.3 37.8 40.7 -53.6 152.7 152.5 150.0 133.4 204.9
4.2 4.4 2.6 3.5 3.0 2.5 3.9 6.8 9.0 c -
1.2 1.7 1.1 1.1 0.7 1.5 1.0 2.5 3.6 c -
2.2 2.2 1.8 2.3 3.4 0.4 2.2 c -
743.2 725.9 688.8 723.8 748.7 837.4 888.4 1058.0 1430.6 2001.9 2744.3 2747.4 2710.7 2785.8 3345.6


aDelaware combined with Maryland to avoid disclosure of individual operations.

bUnallocated to avoid disclosing data on individual operations.

Major revision of data done in 1976 estimate with chances also made in many state estimates for 1975. The 1975 acreage figures
here exclude CT, 4.4; IN, 5.4 IA, 417; ID, 3.4; WA, 10.9; WI, 7.6, and unallocated, 7.1, for a total of 435 acres. These states were
not included in the estimates for 1976 and succeeding crop years.

Source: [23].



















Table 8.-Number of producers, production area, and average sales at wholesale prices per producer and per unit of production area of
foliage plants sold in selected states, 1970, 1975, and 1980


-. ---------cres---


1,493
249
54
27
22


Florida
California
Texas
Ohio
Massachusetts
New York
New Jersey
Hawaii
Michigan
Colorado
Illinois
Pennsylvania
Maryland
Oregon
Minnesota
Georgia


2,392
425
205
39
14


--------Dollars-----


.59
1.93
.78
3.36
4.37
2.00
2.56

3.97

8.58
3.64
6.49
1.24
4.37


1.34
4.22
2.63
6.03
4.49
4.61
3.61

4.42
5.00
5.78
5.34
7.66
4.11
4.42


1.43
4.27
2.95
7.84
7.15
4.26
3.97
1.49
3.53
7.52
4.07
3.79
5.90
4.42
4.71
3.44


927 1,565 2,053


749 2,014 3,346


30 120


152 .85 2.13 2.15


a23 states in 1970 and 1975 and 16 states in 1980.


Source: [201.









Florida and $351,000 in California. Sales per square foot ranged from
$1.43 in Florida, with much of its production outdoors or under plastic, to
$4.27 in California and $7.84 in Ohio.
When the figures on wholesale sales per producer and per square foot
of production area were transformed into terms of 1980 equivalent dollars,
the sales per producer in every state except Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Mary-
land fell from 1975 to 1980 (Table 9). This may have been due to more opera-
tors entering the industry, with many of the newer ones being small operators
(e.g., data in Table 6 show that numbers of commercial growers reported
by the Crop Reporting Service in the U.S. rose from 890 in 1970 to 1,489
in 1975 and to 1,921 in 1980) or to a fall in prices for foliage over the
past several years. Most likely, the causes were related to a combination
of these two factors. The fall in real prices of the value of production per
square foot is indicative of the lower prices received for foliage.
Data on the number of growers in major states in 1949 and 1959 and the
value of sales in those years and also in 1970 for both unpotted and potted
plants are shown in Table 10. These data are from the Special Census of
Horticultural Specialties and in instances vary somewhat from those re-
leased by the Crop Reporting Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.
Unfortunately, scme of the data from one census period to the next have
different definitions.
Figures on the number of establishments growing unfinished foliage
plants and the value of sales in 1959 and 1970 are presented in Table 11.
Figures are also presented, by areas and major states, on the number of
establishments with sales of $10,000 or more and the value of their sales.


CONSUMPTION PATTERNS


Sales of foliage plants have risen perhaps faster during the 1970s than
marketing of any other major agricultural product sold in the United States.
Other floricultural items have also undergone substantial increases in con-
sumption.
The actual and adjusted expenditures for floricultural products and
for foliage plants are illustrated in Table 12. The floriculture estimate,









Table 9.--Wholesale sales, valued in 1980 dollars, per producer and per
unit of production area of foliage plants sold in selected
states, 1970, 1975, and 1980

Per sq. ft. of
State Per production area

1970 1975 1980 1970 1975 1980

$1,000---- -----Dollars----

Florida 290 511 317 1.44 2.06 1.43
California 141 505 351 4.70 6.48 4.27
Texas 36 340 132 1.90 4.04 2.95
Ohio 39 69 91 8.18 9.26 7.84
Massachusetts 71 80 52 10.63 6.90 7.15
New York 17 41 31 4.87 7.08 4.26
New Jersey 22 68 46 6.23 5.55 3.97
Hawaii- 85 -- -- 1.49
Michigan 51 57 33 9.66 6.79 3.53
Colorado -- 140 136 -- 7.68 7.52
Illinois 32 75 42 20.87 8.88 4.07
Pennsylvania 51 32 32 8.86 3.20 3.79
Maryland 17 15 85 15.79 11.77 5.90
Oregon 56 100 53 3.02 6.31 4.42
Minnesota 7 71 29 10.63 6.79 4.71
Georgia 50 3.44

U.S. 73 184 152 2.07 3.27 2.15


Source: [20].












Table l0o-Nmter of operators growing foliage plants and value of sales (at wholesale prices) in major producing states, 1949,
1959,and 1970

Potted plants Potted plants All foliage plants

State Growers reporting Value of sales Growers reporting Value of sales Value of sales

1949 1 1959 1949 1959 1970 1949 1959 1949 1959 1970 1949 1959 1970

--No.- --$---- ~-No.-- 0---- -$1,000--
Florida 53 111 1,453 5,389 2,919 13 151 391 7,233 16,786 1,844 12,622 19,705
California 41 17 688 298 192 79 106 1,804 4,093 5,652 2,529 4,390 5,844
Pennsylvania 39 11 141 32 12 165 155 1,012 2,004 1,973 1,153 2,036 1,985
Ohio 52 17 110 53 5 212 127 1,136 1,542 2,381 1,246 1,595 2,394
Illinois 34 14 24 374 .- 159 110 723 1,183 810 747 1,557 810
New York 60 15 89 111 69 252 153 1,346 1,419 1,438 1,435 1,530 1,507
New Jersey 27 7 169 12 5 84 83 706 1,408 1,106 876 1,420 1,111
Texas 20 15 366 349 79 85 98 303 989 1,845 670 1,338 1,924
Michigan 41 4 59 42 6 150 89 327 922 1,072 386 964 1,078
Massachusetts 22 8 16 3 85 58 380 908 860 396 911 860
Washington 14 2 5 a 61 38 158 387 317 163 387b 317
Imuisiana 7 3 28 2 14 27 37 386 180 65 387 180
Indiana 20 13 15 10 107 63 104 340 412 119 351 412
Wisconsin 11 5 3 23 95 70 125 300 127 129 323 127
Cklahman 10 5 11 1 41 30 54 235 172 64 236 172
Othersc 161 60 139 183 328 905 563 1,236 2,258 3,237 1,336 2,442 3,565

Coterminous
United States 612 307 3,316 6,882 3,615 2,507 1,921 9,842 25,607 38,376 13,158 32,489 41,991

Withheld to avoid disclosure of confidential data.
bxcudes data for a segment of the foliage plant industry.

CIncludes data for District of Columbia and for states for which data were not reported to avoid disclosure of confidential
information.

dSu by states of sales of unpotted plants and of potted plants in 1970.

Source: [23].















Table 11.-Unfinished foliage plants grown in the United States, 1959 and 1970

Establishments Sales

With sales of Establishments
State or area Total $10,000 or over Total with sales of
$10,000 or over

1959 1970 1959 1970 1959 1970 1959 1970

-No.------- --- --$1,000---
United States 307 102 186 86 6,882 3,615 6,668 3,601
Northeast 51 17 26 16 160 331 146 330
North Central 78 14 47 11 552 32 526 29
South 151 59 90 48 5,803 3,042 5,631 3,032
West 27 12 23 11 367 210 365 210

Geographic Division
New England 18 5 9 5 6 246 5 246
Middle Atlantic 33 12 17 11 154 86 141 85
East North Central 53 9 33 4 502 25 478 23
West North Central 25 5 14 7 50 6 49 6
South Atlantic 119 44 75 40 5,402 2,937 5,241 2,933

East South Central 7 4 4 3 49 21 48 21
West South Central .25 11 11 5 352 84 342 78
Mountain 6 3 6 3 7 8 7 8
Pacific 21 9 17 8 360 202 358 202

New England
Connecticut 5 5 4 5 2 246 2 246

Middle Atlantic
New York 15 6 8 6 111 69 10$ 69
New Jersey 7 3 3 3 12 5 8 5
Pennsylvania 11 3 6 2 32 12 28 11
Continued











Table 11.-Unfinished foliage plants grown in the United States, 1959 and 1970-Continued

Establishments Sales

With sales of Establishments
with sales of
State or area Total $10,000 or over Total $i0,000 ove
$10,000 or over
1959 .1970 1959 1970 1959 1970 1959 1970

-~~------------ It; -----------~"~ ~--"---.----1,0-----
East North Central
Ohio 17 3 10 3 53 5 37 5
Michigan 4 4 3 3 42 6 42 3

West South Central
Texas 15 7 7 5 349 79 340 78

Pacific
California 17 6 14 6 298 192 296 192
Hawaii NA 3 NA 2 NA 10 NA 9

South Atlantic
Florida 111 38 71 34 5,389 2,919 5,231 2,916

Source: [20].








Table 12.-EstimaFed per capital consumption expenditures for floricultural products and for foliage
plants 1966 to 1980

Actual expenditures Adjusted expenditures
Year (1980= 100)
Year
Floriculture ri Floriculture
Floriculture Foliage minusFloriculture Foliage minus foliage
minus foliage minus foliage

------ -----Dollars----------------------
1966 7.63 .37 7.26 17.18 .83 16.35
1967 8.05 .40 7.65 17.69 .87 16.82
1968 8.72 .38 8.34 19.81 .84 18.97
1969 9.37 .43 8.94 18.97 .89 18.08
1970 9.76 .41 9.35 18.88 .79 18.09
1971 10.62 .55 10.07 19.70 1.01 18.69
1972 11.97 .70 11.27 21.41 1.25 20.16
1973 13.07 .95 12.12 22.11 1.60 20.51
1974 14.16 1.61 10.76 21.78 2.48 19.30
1975 15.45 2.64 12.81 22.07 3.77 18.30
1976 16.96 3.41 13.55 23.04 4.63 18.41
1977 18.44 3.82 14.62 26.38 4.85 21.53
1978 20.58 3.88 16.70 24.71 4.66 20.05
1979 22.66 3.87 18.79 24.98 4.27 20.71
1980 24.69 4.22 20.47 24.69 4.22 20.47


times the


retail price level for foliage plants
level of net sales at wholesale.


for purposes of this analysis is assumed to be three


bAdjusted by personal consumption expenditures price deflator, with 1980= 100.


Source: [8, 25, 26].








which contains foliage plants, has been adjusted in the table to show the
estimated per capital expenditures for floricultural items less foliage.
In terms of both actual and adjusted prices, foliage has become an increas-
ingly important segment of floriculture in the past few years.
In actual dollars, total consumption expenditures for floricultural
products rose from $1.5 billion in 1966 to $5.5 billion in 1980 (Table 13).
This represented a rise on a per capital basis from $7.63 in the earlier
year to $24.69 in the latter. When values of the dollar were adjusted to
take into consideration changes in the price level, the per capital increases
were only from $17.18 to $24.69. A peak of $26.38--in terms of adjusted
value--was reached in 1978.
Actual and adjusted sales, on both a total and a per capital basis, for
foliage plants in the United States from 1966 to 1980 are shown in Table
14. The rise in adjusted terms from 83 cents per capital in 1966 to $4.88 in
1977 represented a 489 percent increase in the real value of foliage plants
purchased in the two years. The data presented are based on grower market-
ings, primarily at wholesale prices. An adjustment has been made to convert
grower sales figures into estimated sales at retail.
The estimated proportion of consumer expenditures for floriculture in
the U.S. accounted for by foliage plants is shown in Table 15. With the
rapid rise in foliage consumption in the 1970s, the proportion of the total
rose from 5 to 17 percent.
Many factors play important parts in the determination of foliage plant
demand. To date very few plant sellers and market researchers have been
so fortunate as to quantify these factors. One set of factors affecting
demand is the characteristics of housing. Data on the housing inventory
characteristics of housing units in the U.S. from 1970 to 1978 are shown
in Table 16.
Indexes of selected factors which are believed to influence the demand
for foliage plants are given in Table 17. Data for the indexes of per
capital disposable income, the value of private residential construction,
and per capital foliage plant sales are presented. The data in terms of the
1980 price level and the series on private residential contracts and per
capital foliage plant sales have been adjusted by the index of per capital
disposable income. New home mortgage rates are in terms of actual average
percentages reported. The most interesting relationship noted in the table








Table 13.--Consunption expenditures for
United States, 1966 to 1980


floricultural products in the


Actual Adjusteda (1980= 100)
Year
Total Per capital Total Per capital

$ Million $ $ Million $
1966 1,500 7.63 3,378 17.18
1967 1,600 8.05 3,516 17.69
1968 1,750 8.72 3,700 19.81
1969 1,900 9.37 3,846 18.97
1970 2,000 9.76 3,868 18.88
1971 2,200 10.62 4,082 19.70
1972 2,500 11.97 4,472 21.41
1973 2,750 13.07 4,653 22.11
1974 3,000 14.16 4,615 21.78
1975 3,300 15.45 4,714 22.07
1976 3,650 16.96 4,959 23.04
1977 4,000 18.44 5,128 26.38
1978 4,500 20.58 5,402 24.71
1979 5,000 22.66 5,513 24.98
1980 5,500 24.69 5,500 24.69


Adjusted by personal consumption
1980= 100.


expenditures price deflator, with


Source: [8].








Table 14.--Estimated total and per capital expenditures at retail for foliage
plants in the United States, 1966 to 1980


Year


$
7

7

7

8

8

11

14

19

34'

56

73:

82

84.

85:

931


ahe value of retail sales is estimated at three times that of net
sales at wholesale.

Adjusted by personal consumption expenditures price deflator, with
1980= 100.

Source: [25, 26].


1966

1967

1968

1969

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980


Actual
Total Per capital

1,000 $
1,964 .37

8,237 .40

9,236 .38

7,474 .43

3,076 .41

2,758 .55

5,284 .70

8,357 .95

0,509 1.61

1,549 2.64

1,277 3.41

5,900 3.82

5,757 3.88

1,784 3.87

8,904 4.22


Adjusted (1980= 100)b
Total Per capital

$1,000 $
162,081 .83

171,949 .87

167,518 .84

177,073 .89

160,689 .79

209,199 1.01

259,900 1.25

335,628 1.60

523,860 2.48

802,213 3.77

993,583 4.63

1,058,846 4.85

1,015,314 4.65

939,122 4.27

938,904 4.24









Table 15.--Estimated proportion of consumer expenditures for floriculture
in the U.S. accounted for by foliage plants, 1976 to 1980

Year Percent

1966 4.8
1967 5.0
1968 4.4
1969 4.6
1970 4.2
1971 5.2
1972 5.8
1973 7.3
1974 11.4
1975 17.1
1976 20.0
1977 20.7
1978 18.9
1979 17.1
1980 17.1


Source: [8, 26].














Table 16.--Inventory and other characteristics of housing units in the United States,
1970 to 1978

I. Estimates of the housing inventory and change, 1970 to 1978
New units
Tenure, race, and Avg. annual change, constructed
vacancy states Total units, 1970 Total units, 1978 1970-1978 1970-1978


All housing units
All year-round
units
Occupied units
Owner occupied
White
Black
Renter occupied
White
Black


1,000 Percent 1,000 Percent
68,672 100.0 84,618 100.0


67,699
63,445
39,886
37,005
2,568
23,560
19,601
3,607


Vacant year-round 4,254
Vacant or seasonal 973


98.6 82,833 97.9
92.4 77,167 91.2


58.1
53.9
3.7
34.3
28.5
5.3


50,283
46,076
3,583
26,884
21,588
4,597


59.4
54.5
4.2
31.8
25.5
5.4


6.2 5,667 6.7
1.4 1,785 2.1


Percent
2.6

2.6
2.5
2.9
2.8
4.3
1.7
1.2
3.1
3.7
7.9


1,000
16,532 100.0


16,357
15,192
10,576
9,870
518
4,616
3,980
534


98.9
61.9
64.0
59.7
3.1
27.9
24.1
3.2


1,165 7.0
174 1.1


II. Summary of characteristics of housing units, 1970 to 1978

1970 1978
Characteristic Inside SMSAs Inside SMSAs Outside
Total Toa Central Outside Total T l Central SMSAs
cities S isAs cities

1,000 units-

All housing units 68,672 46,289 22,608 22,383 84,618 56,384 25,213 28,235
All year-round
units 67,699 46,083 22,584 21,616 82,833 56,049 25,182 26,785
Occupied units 63,445 43,859 21,395 19,586 77,167 52,722 23,436 .24,445
Owner occupied 39,886 26,090 10,300 13,796 50,283 32,390 11,630 17,892
Renter occupied 23,560 17,769 11,095 5,790 26,884 20,332 11,806 6,552
Urban 50,145 b b b b b b b
Rural 18,527 b b b h b b b
Cooperatives and
condominiums: 95
Owner occupied b b b b 1,213 1,118 465 95
Cooperatives b b b b 348 318 219 31
Condominiums b b b b 865 800 245 65
Vacant for sale only b b b b 51 41 17 10

aAll nutners may not add to totals due to rounding.

bNot available.


Source: [22, 23, 24].








Table 17.--Indexes of selected factors relating to consumer disposable
income, value of private residential construction, consumption
of foliage plants, and new home mortgage rates, 1966 to 1980

Per capital Value of private Per capital New home
disposable residential foliage plant mortgage
income construction sales rates
---------------- Index (1980= 100)--------- Percent

1966 76.3 79.4 12.8 6.14
1967 84.8 78.8 11.6 6.33
1968 87.2 91.9 11.2 6.83
1969 88.1 96.1 11.9 7.66
1970 88.8 88.8 11.8 8.27
1971 91.3 116.9 14.8 7.59
1972 94.6 140.4 18.3 7.45
1973 100.0 136.6 23.3 7.78
1974 97.5 96.9 41.6 8.71
1975 97.1 81.8 67.4 8.75
1976 99.1 101.4 85.8 8.76
1977 101.2 128.5 94.3 8.80
1978 103.7 137.4 90.6 9.30
1979 103.4 129.6 93.8 10.48
1980 100.0 100.0 100.0 12.25


Source: [22, 23].








was the rapid rise in per capital foliage sales in the early 1970s, with a
tendency for sales to follow other trends nore closely in the latter part
of the decade.
Major results of a study of plant shops done in New York State in 1977
showed that the average shop had annual sales of $45,000 (Table 18). Nearly
three-fourth of all sales consisted of foliage, with local growers being
the major source of supply. The nost popular price range for plants sold
was $5.00 or less.
A study done through telephone interviews by the University of Florida
Cooperative Extension Service on characteristics of plant consumers in
five Florida markets is reported in the remainder of this section. In
these markets more than 40 percent of the persons contacted reported no
expenditures (Table 19). Forty-three percent made purchases of $10 or
more, with major concentrations in the $10 to $24 and $25 to $49 groups.
Annual expenditures for plant care items varied on a different basis
from the data on plant expenditures. Approximately the same percentage
made no purchases, but purchases were concentrated in the under $5 to the
$10-$24 classes (Table 20).
Only 22 percent of the respondents reported owning no plants. The
proportion with no plants ranged from 13 percent in Gainesville to 26 percent
in the Tampa Bay area (Table 21). No other market area had a higher pro-
portion of people than did Gainesville, with its young population, owning
31 or more plants (16 Percent).
Retail nurseries and discount stores were the main types of stores at
which respondents bought plants (Table 22). These were followed by grocery
stores and department stores.
Frequency of purchase by consumers varied substantially, with quarterly,
semi-annual, and sporatic purchases each accounting for about 15 percent of
the total (Table 23).
The major purchaser of plants for each of the five areas and the
total, as well, was the wife, who bought 47 percent of the plants in the five
market areas (Table 24). The husband, with 8 percent, and "all equal",
with 5 percent, were the two next most important categories.










Table 18 .--Selected economic characteristics of 58 plant shops in New
York State, 1977

Characteristic Numbers



Mix of sales, all shops:
Foliage 72
Supplies 16
Cut flowers and flowering plants 8
Other 4

Identity of immediate sources of plants:
Grower 73
Own production 17
Merchant 10

Location of immediate suppliers of foliage plants:
Local 72
Northeast 12
Florida 10
Other 6

Plants sold at various retail price ranges:
$ 5.00 or less 50
$ 5.01 $ 10.00 24
$10.01 $ 25.00 18
$25.01 $100.00 7
Over $100.00 1
-- ------------------------------------
Average gross sales of various sizes of plant stores: $
Small ($20,000 $39,999 gross sales 24,000
Medium ($40,000 $59,999 gross sales) 45,000
Large ($60,000 and more gross sales) 111,000
All sizes 45,000


Source: [9].





Table 19 .--Annual expenditures for plants per household reported by Florida consumers, five Florida markets,
1977

Expenditure Market area
grouping
group Gainesville Gold Coast Jacksonville Orlando Tampa Bay Total

-No. No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
None 74 33.5 87 40.8 89 43.4 86 44.6 103 51.2 439 42.5
Under $5 16 7.2 8 3.8 4 2.0 21 10.9 8 4.0 57 5.5
$5-9 21 9.5 20 9.4 17 8.3 19 9.8 12 6.0 89 8.6
$10-24 57 25.8 47 22.1 54 26.3 28 14.5 50 24.8 236 22.9
$25-49 30 13.6 25 11.7 21 10.3 21 10.9 18 9.0 115 11.1
$50-99 16 7.2 18 8.4 14 6.8 11 5.7 6 3.0 65 6.3
$100+ 7 3.2 8 3.8 6 2.9 7 3.6 4 2.0 32 3.1

Total 221 100.0 213 100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0 1033 100.0


Source: [19].







Table 20.--Annual expenditures for plant care itens per household reported
Florida markets, 1977


by Florida consumers, five


Expenditure Market area
grouping Gainesville Gold Coast Jacksonville Orlando Tampa Bay Total

No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
None 82 37.1 93 43.6 86 42.0 92 47.7 89 44.3 442 42.8
Under $5 48 21.7 49 23.0 40 19.5 44 22.8 45 22.4 226 21.9
$5-9 39 17.6 30 14.1 36 17.5 19 9.8 28 13.9 152 14.7
$10-24 41 18.6 27 12.7 33 16.1 30 15.6 27 13.4 158 15.3
$25-49 4 1.8 10 4.7 8 3.9 6 3.1 7 3.5 35 3.4
$50-99 6 2.7 4 1.9 2 1.0 2 1.0 5 2.5 19 1.8
$100+ 1 0.5 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.1

Total 221 100.0 213 100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0 1033 100.0


Source: [19].





Table 21.--Living plants reported per household by Florida consumers, six groupings, five Florida markets,
1977


Market area


Gainesville


Gold Coast


No.
55
56
32
37
14
19


%
25.8
26.3
15.0
17.4
6.6
8.9


Jacksonville


No.
45
57
32
40
14
17


%
22.1
28.1
15.8
19.7
6.9
8.4


Orlando


No.
44
42
42
29
18
18


%
22.8
21.8
21.8
15.0
9.3
9.3


Tampa Bay


No.
53
53
31
44
11
9


%
26.4
26.4
15.4
21.8
5.5
4.5


Total


No.
222
263
181
188
78
98


%
21.6
25.5
17.6
18.2
7.6
9.5


221 100.0 213


100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0


1033 100.0


Source: [19].


Grouping
(NO. of
plants


None
1-5
6-10
11-20
21-30
31+


%
12.7
24.9
19.9
17.2
9.5
15.8


Total


I


--


%








Table 22 .--Type of store where most plants for the household were purchased, five Florida markets, 1977

Type of Market area
store Gainesville Gold Coast Jacksonville Orlando Tampa Bay Total


None
Retail
nursery
Retail
florist
Plant
parties

Mass merchan-
disers
Grocery
Variety
Department
Discount
All other


No. %
64 29.0

106 48.0

4 1.8

1 0.4


No.
76

58

4

0


5.9
4.0
2.3
3.6
5.0


%
35.7

27.2

1.9

0.0



7.5
0.9
4.7
18.8
3.3


% No.
38.0 66

28.8 57

1.5 5

0.0 2



4.9 18
2.4 3
4.4 6
15.1 28
4.9 8


211 100.0 213


100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0 1033


Source: [19].


% No.
.2 85

).5 55

.6 4

..0 0


34

29

2

1


%
42.3

27.3

2.0

0.0


No.
369

335

20

3


67
20
36
141
42


Total


%
35.7

32.4

1.9

0.3


6.5
1.9
3.5
13.7
4.1


9.3
1.6
3.1
14.5
4.2


5.0
0.5
3.0
16.9
3.0


100.0




Table 23.-Frequency of household plant purchases, five Florida markets, 1977

Market area
Frequency
Gainesville Gold Coast Jacksonville Orlando Tampa Bay Total

No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Never 65 29.4 84 39.4 81 39.5 85 44.0 98 48.7 413 40.0
Sporatically 28 12.7 38 17.8 38 18.6 33 17.1 13 6.5 150 14.5
Weekly 3 1.4 1 0.5 1 0.5 1 0.5 0 0.0 6 0.6
Monthly 12 5.4 13 6.1 13 6.3 12 6.2 7 3.5 57 5.5
Quarterly 34 15.4 31 14.6 33 16.1 29 15.0 30 14.9 157 15.2
Semi-annually 54 24.4 26 12.2 16 7.8 20 10.4 38 18.9 154 14.9
Annually 25 11.3 20 9.4 23 11.2 13 6.8 15 7.5 96 9.3

Total 221 100.0 213 100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0 1033 100.0


Source: [19].








Table 24.--Major purchasers per household of house and patio plants, five Florida markets, 1977

Market area
Person
Gainesville Gold Coast Jacksonville Orlando Tanpa Bay Total

No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
No one 84 38.0 61 28.6 55 26.8 72 37.3 89 44.2 361 35.0
All equal 14 6.3 6 2.8 7 3.4 15 7.8 14 7.0 56 5.4
Wife 88 39.8 119 55.9 113 55.1 89 46.2 75 37.3 484 46.9
Husband 22 10.0 14 6.6 18 8.8 12 6.2 14 7.0 80 7.7
Daughter 2 0.9 4 1.9 6 2.9 2 1.0 3 1.5 17 1.6
Son 3 1.4 2 0.9 3 1.5 1 0.5 4 2.0 13 1.3
Friends 8 3.6 7 3.3 3 1.5 2 1.0 2 1.0 22 2.1

Total 221 100.0 213 100.0 205 100.0 193 100.0 201 100.0 1033 100.0


Source: [19].








PRODUCER CHARACTERISTICS IN THE FLORIDA FOLIAGE INDUSTRY


Data on the number of producers, the area in plants, and the value of
sales (both actual and constant 1980 value) of tropical foliage plants in
the Apopka, Southeast, and "other" areas of Florida are presented in Table
25. Numbers of growers and the value of sales in each year from 1971 to
1980 were highest in the Apopka area. However, the Southeast, which lagged
behind Apopka in the area in foliage prior to 1976, assumed the acreage
lead in that year and has since maintained it.
Throughout the 10 years for which data are presented the Apopka area
was ahead of the other two in total net sales. Although there was a larger
area devoted to foliage plants in the Southeast than in Apopka, the value
of production per unit of area was higher in the Apopka area than in the
Southeast. This is largely due to industry characteristics, with nost
foliage production in the Apopka area concentrated in greenhouses; the
bulk of that in the Southeast area is grown outside with the use of a
less intensive system of culture.
The annual percentage distributions from 1971 to 1980 in the numbers
of producers, the area in production, and the net value of sales in the
three area groupings are shown in Table 26. Apopka has had between half
and nearly three-fourths of the number of producers, with the proportion
declining. The percentage of the area in production in the Southeast rose
from some 35 to approximately 55 percent over the 10-year period, with
"other" areas of Florida sustaining a rise from less than 1 percent in
1971 to more than 18 percent in 1980. Apopka had more than 60 percent of
the area in production in the first three years of the period; its pro-
portion had fallen to less than 30 percent in 1980.
Only in 1979 and 1980 did the proportion of total sales accounted for
by the Apopka area decline to less than 50 percent. Sales in the Southeast
area made up an increasing percentage of the total; it had a share of 41
percent in 1980. In that year marketing by operators in the area of
Florida other than Apopka and the Southeast had risen to 12 percent, having
been at a level of 1 percent in 1971.
Data on the number of producers, the area in plants, and the value
of foliage plant sales in Florida, classified by value of net sales per









Table 5 .--Number of commercial producers, area in plants and value of net salesof tropical foliage plants in the Apopka, Southeast,
and other areas of Florida, 1971 to 1980

Area 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980a
Producers

--- -------No.-----
Apopka 85 83 79 102 174 184 218 207 209 200
Southeast 26 27 27 50 60 102 97 93 100 119
Other 6 7 7 11 28 68 63 59 59 67

Total 117 117 113 163 262 354 378 359 368 386
Area in production

-Acres----
Apopka 453.2 451.2 516.6 651.3 680.8 739.7 731.9 647.6 622.4 596.3
Southeast 271.5 251.9 294.1 409.7 623.1 933.5 850.1 908.8 1,091.7 1,172.2
Other 4.5 7.6 8.1 29.7 189.0 355.6 246.4 257.9 276.7 397.4

Total 729.2 710.7 818.8 1,090.7 1,492.9 2,028.8 1,828.4 1,814.3 1,990.8 2,165.9

Net value of sales (current dollars)

~~~----~-- ------- ---- 1,00_0----___
Apopka 14,561 18,163 23,301 31,071 54,581 58,974 65,882 65,344 69,372 62,922
Southeast 8,228 7,053 9,698 16,159 27,260 38,287 40,312 44,100 55,043 55,011
Other 288 477 411 1,252 5,471 13,395 13,762 14,691 15,452 15,817

Total 23,077 25,693 33,410 48,482 87,312 110,656 119,956 124,135 '139,867 133,750

Net value of sales (constant dollars; 1980=100)

---$1,000- -------
Apopka 34,342 41,000 46,509 52,133 83,842 86,599 91,123 83,882 79,101 62,922
Southeast 19,406 15,921 19,358 27,112 41,874 56,222 55,756 56,611 62,763 55,011
Other 679 1,077 820 2,101 8,404 19,669 19,035 18,859 17,619 15,817

Total 54,427 57,998 66,687 81,346 134,120 ', 162,490 165,914 159,357 159,483 133,750


aRevised data for production areas not released by Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service. Revised figures showed estimated
net sales of $148,899,000 in 1980 rather than the initial estimate of $133,750,000 shown here. The total number of growers was 470 and
area in production was 2,392 acres.

Source: [5, 25].









Table 26.-Percentage distributions of number of commercial producers, area in plants, and value of
net sales of foliage plants in the Apopka, Southeast, and other areas of Florida, 1971
to 1980

Area 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980

Producers

---......-----Percent------------
Apopka 72.7 70.9 69.9 62.6 66.4 52.0 57.7 57.7 56.8 51.8
Southeast 22.2 23.1 23.9 30.7 22.9 28.8 25.6 25.9 27.2 30.8
Other 5.1 6.0 6.2 6.7 10.7 19.2 16.7 16.4 16.0 17.4

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Area in production

------------------Percent----------------------
Apopka 62.2 63.5 63.1 59.7 45.6 36.5 40.0 35.7 31.3 27.5
Southeast 37.2 35.4 35.9 37.6 41.7 46.0 46.5 50.1 54.8 54.1
Other 0.6 1.1 1.0 2.7 12.7 17.5 13.5 14.2 13.9 18.4

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Net value of sales

----------- Percent----- ----- --------------
Apopka 63.1 70.7 69.8 64.1 62.5 53.3 54.9 52.7 49.6 47.1
Southeast 35.7 27.4 29.0 33.3 31.2 34.6 33.6 35.5 39.4 41.1
Other 1.2 1.9 1.2 2.6 6.3 12.1 11.5 11.8 11.0 11.8

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

aEevised data, as noted in Table 25, not available. However, the distribution of producers in
1981 was Apopka--53.2 percent, Southeast--29.5 percent, and other-17.3 percent. That for area in pro-
duction was as follows: Apopka--26.7 percent, Southeast--62.0 percent, and other--11.3 percent. Net
value of 1981 sales were estimated as follows: Apopka-45.3 percent, Southeast--43.3 percent, and other--
11.4 percent.
Source: [5, 25].








producer, are given in Tables 27 and 28. For example, growers with sales
of a half million dollars or more in 1980 made up 89 of the 469 commercial
foliage operators. They had 1,466 of the total of 2,166 acres3 in foliage
plants and accounted for $105 million of the $149 million total sales. In
percentage terms, growers in this classification made up 19 percent of the
number of producers, had 68 percent of the area in production,3 and
accounted for 70 percent of the net value of sales. On the other hand,
those growers with sales under $100,000 made up 39 percent of the producers,
3
cultivated 7 percent of the area in foliage plants, and accounted for
5 percent of the value of net sales.
The number of establishments reported as growing foliage plants in
1979 by the Division of Plant Industry (DPI) of the Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer Services is noted in Table 29. The data in this
table relate to those firms or persons whose operations were inspected by
the DPI in order to make them eligible to sell rooted foliage plants. Un-
like the Crop Reporting Service data, where information is reported only
for growers with sales of foliage plants and other floricultural items of
$10,000 or more, those in Table 29 relate to all growers certified to sell
plants. Many of the individuals certified by the DPI had minimal plant
sales. Of the 6,529 foliage growers on the list, 793 were in Dade County
and 764 were in Orange County.
Figures from the 1978 regular Census of Agriculture on the number of
farms producing foliage and flowering plants, plus the acreage cultivated
and the value of sales by counties, are noted in Table 30. (No separate
data on foliage alone were reported in the census enumeration.)

FLORIDA PLANTS


Information on the relative importance of major foliage plants in
Florida during four separate years from 1956 to 1975 is shown in Table 31.
These data were generated in studies done by faculty members and graduate
students in the Food and Resource Economics Department at the University of
Florida.


3Revised data for the 1980 area in production by producing regions and
size of grower were not released by the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service. The 1980 revised total acreage for Florida was 2,392 acres.






Table 27.--Nuntor of commrical producers, area in plants, and value of net sales of tropical foliage plants by Florida growers in
various size groups, 1971 to 1980

value of not sales 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 '976 1977 1978 1979 1980
per producer Producers

Dollars o
10,000 24,999 20 23 12 13 52 31 37 44 24 35
25,000- 49,999 21 19 22 22 29 48 56 46 49 66
50,000 99,999 13 16 27 46 69 72 76 65 83
100,000 249,999 62 29 24 41 54 96 98 87 98 139
250,000 499,999 14 19 31 32 40 46 48 50 57
500,000 and over 3 17 29 49 70 69. 58 81 89
Total 103 101b 110 163 262 354 378 359 367 469d
Area in production
-Acres-- -
10,000 24,999 29.6 11.5 5.6 6.7 22.9 9.8 20.1 20.3 9.5 6.4
25,000 49,999 25.2 24.4 17.3 25.1 19.1 36.2 39.7 28.5 28.4 37.8
50,000 99,999 35.7 37.3 46.2 63.1 115.1 120.3 104.9 81.7 104.8
100,000- 249,999 4 114.1 72.6 132.1 157.2 286.6 274.1 206.1 174.4 265.7
250,000 499,999 0 134.8 180.0 153.2 193.4 214.0 224.2 218.3 264.8 285.1
500,000 and over 388.1 504.0 727.4 1,037.2 1,367.1 1,150.0 1,173.2 1,211.9 1,466.1
Total 725.2 708.6b 817.6c 1,090.7 1,492.9 2,028.8 1,828.4 1,814.3 1,770.7 2,165.9
Net value of sales (current dollars)
S1.000
10,000 24,999 463 323 201 197 769 479 789 745 367 533
25,000 49,999 615 575 645 772 1,058 1,503 1,913 1,662 1,687 2,078
50,000 99,999 743 1,024 1,713 3,039 4,139 5,003 5,205 4,288 5,187
100,000 249,999 21932 3,902 3,531 5,553 12,442 12,405 15,059 13,210 13,927 18,619
250,000- 499,999 4,538 5.906 8,125 8,666 10,517 17,867 17,398 15,740 17,863
500,000 and over 15,572 22,082 32,122 61,338 81,613 79,325 85,915 103,850 104,619

Total 23,010 25,653b 33,3900 48,482 87,312 110,656 119,956 124,135 139,859 148,899d
Nat value of sales (constant dollars; 1980=100)
$1,000--

10,000 24,999 1,902 729 401 331 1,1a2 703 1,091 956 418 533
25,000 59,999 1,451 1,298 1,287 1,295 1,625 2,207 2,646 2,133 1,924 2,078
50,000 99,999 1677 2,046 2,874 4,668 6,078 6,920 6,682 4,889 5,187
100,000 249,999 51,726 8,808 7,048 9,317 19,112 18,216 20,829 16,958 15,880 18,619
250,000- 499,999 51726 10,244 11,78 13,633 13,312 15,443 24,712 22,334 17,948 17,863
500,000 and over j 35,151 54,076 53,896 94,221 119,843 109,716 110,289 118,415 104,619
Total 55,079 57,907 66,646 81,346 134,120 162,490 165,914 159,352 159,483 148,R99

aExcludes, for growers with sales under $10,000, 4 producers with 4.0 acres in foliage plants and $67,000 in net sales.
bxcludes, for growers with sales under $10,000, 6 producers with 2.0 acres in foliage plants and $40,000 in net sales.
CExcludes, for growers with sales under $10,000,3 producers having 1.2 acres in foliage plants and $20,000 in net sales.

Excludes, for growers with sales under $10,000, 1 producer with less than $10,000 in net sales.
revised area in production (total of 2,391.9 A.) not available by value of net sales per producer.

Source: [5, 25].












Table 28.-Percentage distributions of number of commercial producers, area in plants,
various grower size groups in Florida, 1971 to 1980


and value of net sales of foliage plants by


Value of net sales 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980s
per producer
Produercent----


Producers


Dollars
10,000 24,999
25,000 49,999
50,000 99,999
100,000 249,999
250,000 499,999
500,000 and over

Total



10,000 24,999
25,000 49,999
50,000 99,999
100,000 249,999
250,000 499,999
500,000 and over

Total



10,000 24,999
25,000 49,999
50,000 99,999
100,000 249,999
250,000 499,999
500,000 and over

Total


19.4 22.8 10.9 8.0 19.8 8.8 9.8 12.2 6.5 7.5
20.4 18.8 20.0 13.5 11.1 13.5 14.8 12.8 13.4 14.1
12.9 14.5 16.6 17.6 19.5 19.0 21.2 17.7 17.7
28.7 21.8 25.1 20.6 27.1 25.9 24.2 26.7 29.6
60.2 13.8 17.3 19.0 12.2 11.3 12.2 13.4 13.6 12.1
3.0 15.5 17.8 18.7 19.8 18.3 16.2 22.1 19.0

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Area in production

4.1 1.6 0.7 0.6 1.5 0.5 1.1 0.5 0.5 0.3
3.5 3.5 2.1 2.3 1.3 1.8 2.2 1.6 1.6 1.7
5.0 4.6 4.2 4.2 5.7 6.6 4.6 4.6 4.8
92.4 16.1 8.9 12.1 10.5 14.1 15.0 10.8 9.9 12.3
19.0 22.0 14.1 13.0 10.5 12.2 14.8 15.0 13.2
54.8 61.7 66.7 69.5 67.4 62.9 67.7 68.4 67.7

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

Net value of sales

2.0 1.3 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.3
2.7 2.2 1.9 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.3 1.2 1.4
2.9 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.7 4.2 4.2 3.1 3.5
15.2 10.6 11.5 14.2 11.2 12.5 10.7 10.0 12.5
95.3 17.7 17.7 16.8 9.9 9.5 14.1 14.0 11.2 12.0
S 60.7 66.1 66.2 70.3 73.8 66.1 69.2 74.2 70.3

100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


aArea in production data not revised.
Source: (5].









Table 29.-Numbers of establishments reported as growing foliage plants
in 1979 by the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Area/county Establishments Plants inspected

No. 1,000
Apopka
Orange 764 100,576
Lake 238 11,547
Seminole 123 6,951

Subtotal 1,125 119,074
Southeast
Palm Beach 372 17,501
Dade 793 10,291
Broward 376 3,682

Subtotal 1,541 31,474
Other
Lee 183 12,453
Hillsborough 461 6,625
Volusia 316 3,450
Manatee 121 2,825
Martin 77 2,769
Polk 245 2,186
Osceola 46 1,292
Brevard 270 1,083
Pinellas 300 961
Jefferson 17 741
Marion 113 507
St. Johns 35 411
Duval 276 338
Collier 67 308
Baker 27 267
Gadsden 12 249
Hardee 17 216
Sarasota 93 215
Pasco 144 211
Alachua 133 209
:--ighlands 64 183
DeSoto 26 151
Charlotte 27 145
Clay 47 123
St. Lucie 58 112

Continued








Table 29.-Numbers of establishments reported as growing foliage plants
in 1979 by the Division of Plant Industry, Florida Department
of Agriculture and Consumer Services-Continued

Area/county Establishments Plants inspected
No. 1,000
Escambia 79 112
Indian River 54 110
Washington 21 100
Leon 46 82
Bay 38 79
Putnam 55 79
Columbia 34 74
Citrus 55 69
Hernando 49 65
Walton 14 64
Monroe 49 61
Suwanee 24 60
Levy 14 37
Sumter 25 35
Okeechobee 19 35
Jackson 29 28
Santa Rosa 21 28
Nassau 22 27
Taylor 9 19
Okaloosa 22 18
Hendry 18 17
Madison 10 15
Lafayette 6. 11
Union 6 11
Holmes 13 10
Glades 6 9
Bradford 12 9
Franklin 4 7
Gilcrist 6 7
Calhoun 5 6
Hamilton 4 3
Flagler 8 3
Dixie 4 2
Gulf 4 2
Liberty 1 1
Wakulla 2 a

Subtotal 3,863 39,328

Total 6,529 189,876


Source: [7].









Table 30.-Census of Agriculture
1978


dataa on foliage and flowering plantsb,


County Farms Acres cultivated Sales


Alachua
Baker
Bay
Brevard
Broward
Charlotte
Citrus
Clay
Collier
Columbia
Dade
DeSoto
Duval
Escambia
Gadsden
Hardee
Hendry
Hemando
Highlands
Hillsborough
Holmes
Indian River
Jackson
Jefferson
Lake
Lee
Leon
Levy
Manatee
Marion
Martin
Monroe
Nassau
Okaloosa
Orange


Continued


No.
41
5
8
38
96


281
6
44
21
5
15
5
9
17
123
4
12
5
7
122
37
9
5
35
33
21
6
3
5
437


No.
2.5
0.1
0.7
15.1
18.4
d
0.9
0.8
10.2
0.3
244.8
1.2
9.5
1.8
d
0.9
1.1
0.3
2.0
26.9
d
0.4
0.2
3.1
106.9
45.7
0.4
0.2
47.3
4.0
2.5
d
d
0.2
568.6


,UU00U
352
9
47
1,060
4,758
147
145
105
621
29
34,978
e
1,526
354
b
606
105
38
298
4,030
e
44
23
e
5,444
6,032
82
15
4,098
619
3,222
86
10
50
74,974









Table 30.--Census of Agriculture
1978-Continued


dataa on foliage and flowering plantsb,


County Farms Acres cultivated Sales

No. No. $1,000
Osceola 14 8.1 552
Palm Beach 161 155.9 29,966
Pasco 34 2.2 327
Pinellas 44 11.8 2,820
Polk 63 14.6 1,755
Putnam 48 1.5 753
St. Johns 12 1.8 145
St. Lucie 23 2.5 316
Santa Rosa 7 0.3 64
Sarasota 21 3.9 376
Seminole 49 33.8 4,368
Sumter 9 d 173
Suwannee 8 0.2 61
Taylor 4 d 45
Union 3 d 5
Volusia 196 35.1 6,407
Walton 4 0.1 9
Washington 6 0.2 14
All other counties 18 0.7 93
Farms not on
mail list 175 25.4 1,681
State total 2,414 1,425.6 195,733

aData noted, with exception of acreage, are as shown in the Census report.
The acreage data, shown in square feet in the Census, were converted into
acres by the authors.
bIncludes chrysanthemums and other potted flowering plants as well as
foliage plants.

Con a state total basis, only 0.1 acre of the total was in the open.
The remainder was under glass or other protection.
ess than 0.1 acre.

eData withheld to avoid disclosing information for individual farms.


Source: [21].








Table 31.-Relative importance of various foliage plants in Florida, 1956,
1961, 1967, and 1975

Plant type 1956 1961 1967 1975

-----Percent-------
Philodendron oxycardium
(cordatum) 34 26 20 14
Dracaena spp. 2 3 4 11
Philodendron spp. (other) 16 18 16 6
Ficus spp. 2 9 6 6
Dieffenbachia spp. 2 5 7 5
Combinations (dish gardens) 3 11 2
Scindapsus spp. (pothos) 10 11 6 3
Sansevieria spp. 16 8 6 3
Syngonium spp. nephthytiss) 4 2 3 2
Chamaedorea elegans
(neanthabella) 2 2 2 2
Peperomia spp. 2 2 2 3
Hoya a 1 2
Alaonema spp. 2 1 1 2
Spathiphyllum spp. 1 1 3
Maranta a 1 1 3
Pilea spp. 2 a a a
Others 6 8 13 34

Total 100 100 100 100

aLess than 0.5 percent.


Source: [12, 13, 16].








In each of the four years in which such studies were made the plant
which ranked in first place was Philodendron scandens oxycardium (cordatum).
However, the relative importance of this plant had dropped from 34 percent
in 1956 to 14 percent in 1975.
Dracaena spp., with only 2 percent of the value of output in 1956, had
risen to 11 percent in 1975, the last year for which such data are available.
The foliage industry has had an increasing number of types of plants appear
on the scene in the past 25 years. For example, the plants listed in the
table as "others" accounted for only 6 percent of the value of plants in
1956, but the proportion had risen to 34 percent in 1975.
The estimated composition of the product mix of foliage plants in
central and south Florida in 1975 is denoted in Table 32. The only item
accounting for more than 10 percent of the central Florida output was
Philodendron scandens oxycardium (cordatum), while two products--Dracaena
spp. and Ficus spp.--each had more than 10 percent of the south Florida
output. P. scandens oxycardium made up 21 percent of the central Florida
plant composition; Dracaena spp. and Ficus spp. accounted for 20 percent
and 12 percent, respectively, of the south Florida sales total.
Graphic comparisons of most of the data shown in Tables 31 and 32 are
presented in Figures 3, 4, and 5. In Figure 3 plants are classif ed
as having a decreasing or increasing share of the market or else is having
no discernible trend in market share. Those with increasing market shares
were Dracaena spp., Hoya, Maranta, Peperomia spp., and Spathiphy'lum spp.
Plants with declining market shares--but probable increased production--
were P. scandens oxycardium (cordatum), other philodendrons, poahos, and
Sanseveria spp.


MARKETING IN FLORIDA


Market Outlets


Data on the proportion of the value of foliage pla;'cs marketed by Florida
producers through various outlets were generated for 1156, 1961, 1967,and
1975 in a series of studies done by the Food and Rescirce Economics Depart-
ment at the University of Florida. Except where sales through brokers were









Table 32.-Foliage plant product mix in Central and South Florida, 1975

Product Area
Central South Florida

Percent-----
Philodendron oxycardium
(cordatum) 21 2 14
Dracaena spp. 6 20 11
Philodendron spp. (other) 7 5 6
Ficus sp. 2 12 6
Dieffenachia spp. 6 3 5
Palms 2 9 5
Brassaia actinophylla
(schefflera) 2 8 5
Maranta spp. 5 1 3
Scindapsus spp. (pothos) 4 1 3
Totem pole plants 3 2 3
Ferns 2 4 3
Peperomia spp. 4 1 3
Sansevieria spp. 3 1 3
Syngonium spp. (nepthtytis) 4 1 2
Cormbinations 4 a 2
Hanging baskets 2 2 2
Aphelandra spp. 3 1 2
Agaonema spp. 2 1 2
Chamaedorea elegans
(neanthebella) 2 2 2
Aralias 1 3 2
Hoya spp. 3 a 2
Terrarium plants 2 a 1
Crotons 1 2 1
Cacti 1 2 1
Ardisia spp. 1 a 1
Spathiphyllum spp. 1 1 1
Other 6 14 9

Total 100 100 100

less than 0.5 percent.


Source: [12, 13, 16].















































0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
PERCENT .O TOTAL SALES


Figure 3.--Product mix of foliage plants in Florida, 1956, 1961,
1967, and 1975

Source: [12, 13, 16].







OXYCARDIUM C.NTT L
DRACAENA
OTHER PHILO
FICUS
DIEFFENBACHIA
PALMS
SCHEFFLERA
MARANTA 1
POTHOS
TOTEM POLES
FERN
PEPEROMIA
SANSEVIERIA
NEPTHTYTIS
COMBINATIONS
HANGING BASKETS
APHELANDRA
AGLAONEMA
NEANTHEBELLA
ARALIA
HOYA
CROTONS S
CACTI
ARDISIA
SPATHIPHYLLUM

ALL OTHER
0 5 10 i 20
PERCEN1'OF TOTAL SALES


Figure 4.--Product rmix of foliage plants in
central and south Florida, 1975


Source: [12, 13, 16].










MEDIUM-SMALL


S 0*
S





A
S
n -|
A


:R JRS: 7-79
25 20 15 10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
PERCENT OF SALES


Figure 5.-Product mix of Florida foliage plants by grower size and
area, 1975

Source: [12, 13, 16].


LARGE









classified by type of buyer, sales information presented here refers to
first buyers rather than to other buyers in the channels of trade. A
summary of the results of these studies is contained in Table 33.. A
graphic presentation of the relationships involved is made in Figure 6.
By 1975 distributors had become the major sales outlet for foliage
nurserymen. They accounted for 21 percent of the plants sold by Florida
operators. Prior to the 1970s a small number of firms carried out the
functions of a distributor, i.e., a firm that receives foliage plants at
onr market location and utilizes trucks to make deliveries to buyers
located on routes run from the distribution point. However, this type
of business developed rapidly during the 1970s. Similar functions were
handled by jobbers and were classified as such in the studies done prior
to 1975. Distributor data were combined here with figures for sales
through brokers.
Sales by foliage operators to out-of-state greenhouse operators ranged
from 28 to 31 percent of the total in 1956, 1961,and 1967, but dropped to
20 percent in 1975. Variety stores and retail florists were reported as
buyers for a much smaller proportion of the total in 1975 than in earlier
years. It is likely that the physical quantities going from foliage op-
erators to these types of buyers had not decreased, but that such purchasers
were acquiring additional supplies from distributors and wholesale florists.
The proportion of 1975 sales which went to various market outlets,
delineated by area and size of grower, is noted in Table 34. Central
Florida growers utilized distributors at double the relative extent of their
south Florida counterparts. The reverse was true with respect to out-of-
state greenhouse operators. Medium and small growers marketed relatively
more of their output through out-of-state greenhouse operators and whole-
sale florists than was the case with large growers. Figures 7 and 8 show
the relationships discussed here in graphic format.
The relative importance of market outlets through direct and brokerage
sales for medium to small and for large growers is shown in Table 35.
Brokerage sales went primarily to out-of-state greenhouse operators and to
wholesale florists. Medium to small growers were involved more heavily,
both on direct and brokerage bases, than large growers in sales to wholesale








Table 33.--Estimated proportion of sales of Florida foliage plants marketed
through various outlets, 1956, 1961, 1967,and 1975

Year
Outlet
1956 1961 1967 1975

------ --------Percent----------

Greenhouse operators
(out-of-state) 28 31 29 20
Variety stores 23 25 24 8
Retail florists 7 15 15 7
Grocery stores 8 4 7 8
Local growers 10 7 5 9

Brokers and jobbers
(distributors) 22 16 14 21
Retail (place of business) 2 1 -- -
Other -- 1 5 27a

Total 100 100 100 100

aIncludes 12 percent to wholesale florists, 6 percent to department
stores, and 4 percent to garden centers. The 8 percent of all sales made
through brokers are classified as going to the type buyers listed under
"outlet."


Source: [12, 13, 16].





KEY 00I 19671

DISTRIBUTORS

OUT-STATE GROWERS

LOCAL GROWERS

W'SALE FLORISTS

RETAIL FLORISTS

VARIETY STORES

GROCERY STORES..
DEPT STORES

GARDEN CENTERS

PLANT STORES
OWN RETAIL

OTHER


Si 15s 20 25 30 35
PERCENT OF TOTAL
NO data for earlier years. bLess than 0.5 percent.

Figure 6.-Market outlets for Florida foliage plants, 1956, 1961,
1967, and 1975

Source: [12, 13, 16].









Table 34.-Market outlets for Florida foliage,1975

1. By area grown

Outlet Central South State

--------Percent-------

Distributors 27 13 21
Greenhouse operators
(out-of-state) 14 30 20
Wholesale florist 12 12 12
Local growers 11 7 9
Grocery stores 8 7 8
Variety stores 10 3 8

Retail florists 8 6 7
Department stores 4 8 6
Garden centers 2 6 4
Plant stores 2 3 2
"Plantscaping" operators 2 3 2


2. By size of grower

Outlet Large growersa Med.-s State
growers

-----ercent-----
Distributors (jobbers) 21 20 21
Out-of-state greenhouse
operators 18 26 20
Wholesale florists 19 23 12
Local growers 7 20 9
Grocery stores 10 c 8
Variety stores 10 c 8

Retail florists 8 2 7
Department stores 7 c 6
Garden centers 4 3 4
Plant stores 2 2 2
"Plantscaping" operators 2 2 2


aGrowers with sales of $500,000 or more.

bGrowers with sales under $500,000.

cLess than 0.5 percent.


Source: [12, 13, 16].









DISTRIBUTORS ...............

OUT-STATE GROWERS
LOCAL GROWERS

W'SALE FLORISTS .....
RETAIL FLORISTS I ." I

VARIETY STORES ...
GROCERY STORES'; .
DEPT STORES

GARDEN CENTERS -
PLANT STORES

PLANTSCAPERS S

BUILDERS L

OTHER

5 10 15 20 25 30 35
PERCENT OF TOTAL SALES
Figure 7.--Market outlets for central and south Florida foliage
plants, 1975

Source: [12, 13, 16].









LARGE GROWERS MEDIUM SMALL GROWERS


DISTRIBUTORS St i'

OUT*STATE GROWERS i
LOCAL GROWERS

W'SALE FLORISTS .
RETAIL FLORISTS

VARIETY STORES
GROCERY STORES
DEPT STORES
U'
GARDEN CENTERS -
PLANT STORES

PLANTSCAPER S

BUILDER'S

OTHER


30 25 20 15 10 5 S d 15I 20 25 2
PERtCENT OF TOTAL SALES PERCENT OF TOTAL SALES
Figure 8.--Market outlets for Florida foliage plants by grower
size and area, 1975


Source: [12, 13, 16].









Table 35.-Market outlets purchasing, on direct and brokerage sales bases,
foliage plants marketed by medium-small and large growers in
Florida, 1975

Type sale and size of grower
Outlet Direct Through broker

Med.-small Large Med.-small Large

---------Percent-----------

Distributors 19 23 37 a
Out- of-state green-
house operators 27 17 20 37
Wholesale florists 22 9 28 6
Local growers 22 7 1 a
Grocery stores a 10 a 10
Variety stores a 10 a 8
Retail florists 2 8 6 14
Department stores a 8 a 4
Garden centers 3 2 5 19
Plant stores 2 2 1 2
Plantscaping operators 2 2 1 a
Developers and builders 1 a a a
Other a 2 1 a

Total 100 100 100 100

aLess than 0.5 percent.


Source: [12, 13, 16].








florists. The relative importance of sales to various outlets, on both
direct and brokerage bases, for growers in central and south Florida is
shown in Table 36.


Analysis of Sales Invoices


Results of an analysis of a sample of Apopka area growers' sales in-
voices, done by the University of Florida and the Division of Marketing
of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, showed that
the average invoice in 1970 reported sales of 4.5 items with a value of
$270 (Table 37). The largest average number of items was on invoices for
sales made to distributors and the smallest was on these made through
brokers to grocery stores. The largest average values of sales, in excess
of $600, were on invoices for sales to grocery stores through brokers and
directly to distributors.

Shipment Patterns


Data developed by the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer
Services indicated that the equivalent of nearly 16,000 semi-trailer truck
loads of Florida foliage plants was shipped by Florida growers in 1981
(Table 38). These figures,based on data collected from a large number of
growing organizations, were expanded into industry estimates by a statistical
formula.
The information in Table 38 shows the upward trend in overall shipments,
with greatest increases in the larger foliage material, especially that
in 10-inch and 14- to 16-inch pots. The shipments of rooted cuttings de-
creased over the 1977 to 1981 period.
A computer analysis of data on foliage plant shipments leaving Florida
by truck for a 12 month period from December 1980 to November 1981 showed
that 31 percent went to the Southeast, 20 percent to the East North Central
region, 16 percent to the Northeast, and 15 percent to the South Central
region. Exports to Canada constituted 5 percent of the total (Table 39).
Spring was the season of heaviest shipments, with 29 percent of the
total made in those three months. Approximately 26 percent was sent in
the summer and about the same proportion in the fall. The remaining 18
percent of the plants was shipped in the winter.









Table 36.-Market outlets
foliage plants
1975


purchasing, on direct and brokerage sales bases,
marketed by growers in south and central Florida,


Type sale and area where grown

Outlet Direct Through broker

Central South Central South

~--- -Percent ..
Distributors 27 14 20 a
Out-of-state green-
house operators 11 31 47 19
Wholesale florists 12 12 9 13
Local growers 11 8 1 a
Grocery stores 9 6 a 13
Variety stores 11 3 2 9
Retail florists 8 5 10 14
Department stores 4 9 a 5
Garden centers 2 4 8 23
Plant stores 2 3 2 2
Plantscaping operators 2 3 1 a
Developers and builders a 1 a a
Other 1 1 1 2

Total 100 100 100 100

aLess than 0.5 percent.


Source: [12, 13, 16].








Table 37.--Estimated number of plant
invoice for sales made to
Apopka area, April 1970


items per invoice and
various outlets by 10


average value per
growers in the


Type outlet Items Value

No. Dollars
Brokers 2.1 82
Distributors (jobbers) 7.3 627
Greenhouse operators (direct) 4.4 312
Greenhouse operators (broker) 4.4 166
Grocery stores (direct) 3.1 100

Grocery stores (brokers) 1.9 661
Local growers 2.8 125
At retail (place of business) 3.0 97
Retail florist (direct) 4.2 125
Retail florists (broker) 3.4 91

Variety stores 2.8 128
Wholesale florists 4.7 299
Garden centers 4.2 145
Department stores 4.7 99
Other 3.6 96

All sales 4.5 270


Source: [14].









Table 38.--Estimated truck load equivalents of Florida foliage plants
shipped, 1977 to 1981


No. --- ctis4No-- -.7-
Rooted cuttings 410,000 92 79 90 75 63


Pots
2 1/2" and smaller
3"
3 1/2"-4"
5"
6"

8"
10"
12"
14"-16"
17" and larger

Hanging baskets
6" and smaller
8" and larger

Total


45,000
34,000
16,000
12,000
4,500

4,000
1,200
750
300
125


225
1,852
739
153
2,498


231
1,708
674
246
2,526


239
1,768
800
217
2,727


487 461 515
2,671 3,468 3,860
533 337 265
1,158 1,372 1,175
-- -- 617


3,300 NA
2,000 NA

-- 10,408


NA
NA

11,212


NA
NA

12,273


322
1,355
803
162
2,444

467
4,199
157
1,783
915


314
1,708
861
177
2,647

499
5,738
179
1,653
519


433 1,074
363 432

13,478 15,874


aConsideration was given to both boxing and bulk loading in the
development of a factor for each pot size.

NA Not available.
Source: [3, 4].








Table 39.-Proportion of Florida foliage plant shipments made to various
regions of the United States and to Canada, by seasons,
December 1980 through November 1981

Region Winter Spring Summer Fall Year

I. Seasonal proportions to each region

--- -----------Percent----------------

Northeast 12.2 15.9 17.4 18.2 16.3
Southeast 29.0 34.6 31.2 28.0 30.9
East North Central 21.1 19.4 20.1 18.8 19.7
West North Central 8.4 7.3 8.2 8.3 8.0
South Central 17.1 14.8 12.7 16.2 15.0
North Pacific 1.9 1.0 1.4 1.0 1.3
South Pacific 4.7 2.3 3.3 3.9 3.4
Canada 5.2 4.2 5.5 5.2 5.0
Other or not
classified 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.4

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

II. Regional proportions by season

S-- ----- -Percent------------

Northeast 13.5 28.8 28.3 29.4 100.0
Southeast 16.8 32.9 26.6 23.7 100.0
East North Central 19.2 28.9 27.0 24.9 100.0
West North Central 18.9 26.7 27.2 27.2 100.0
South Central 20.4 28.9 22.4 28.3 100.0
North Pacific 26.2 23.8 28.8 21.2 100.0
South Pacific 24.8 19.9 25.5 29.8 100.0
Canada 18.8 24.9 28.9 27.4 100.0
Other or not
classified l 19.2 37.0 17.8 26.0 100.0

Total 17.9 29.4 26.5 26.2 100.0


and .:'
August;


Source: [1].


aSeasons classified as follows: winter-December, January,
February; spring-March, April, and May; summer-June, July, and
and fall-September, October, and November.








The monthly shipment pattern from Florida over the 4-year period
from 1977 through 1980 for plants in 3-inch, 6-inch, and 10-inch pots is
contained in Figure 9. In 1977 peak shipments of plants in 3-inch pots
were in March, but for 1978 through 1980 the peak was in May. The
volume in 1980 was at a much lower level than in three previous years.
There was a tendency for September shipments to be higher than those in the
other months of the last half of the year. Shipment of plants in 6-inch
pots generally peaked in April. A second peak in the shipment pattern
was usually reached in September or October.
Another type of shipping pattern ensued for plants in 10-inch pots.
Here there was a tendency for September to be the month with the largest
supplies sent to market. The second peak was in March or April.
The month with lowest shipments for all three pot sizes was December.


Prices and Transportation


Ranges of wholesale prices received by Florida growers for selected
sizes of Dracaena sanderiana and Dracaena marginata in August 1981 are
presented in Table 40. Unfortunately, similar data do not exist for the
wide range of plants produced and sold by Florida growers. This price
information was developed in a pilot project by the Market News Service of
the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.
Transportation rates per 30-pound carton of foliage plants from the
Orlando-Apopka area to various destinations by air, bus, and truck in
January 1981 are shown in Table 41.


Containers


A summary for the 4-year 1977 to 1980 period of the number of containers
of various sizes in which foliage plants were shipped from Florida is
illustrated in Table 42. While there were declines in the trend of shipping
in 6-inch and smaller pots, an upward tendency was apparent in the volume
of 14-inch and larger containers. Although the trend has not been smooth,
there was also a tendency for the number of rooted cuttings shipped to
decline.




















I I '


.,000 .000
.110) 4000


JMMJSMJMMJ$NJMM
J S M J M M J S N


1978


1979


1980


3-inch pots-All varieties


1,000 pots
. 1 1.30


1977 1978 1979 1980
6-inch pots--All varieties


1,000 pots


100 -So00


40 -400



too 200
0 0
?oo t I I I I I I"- I" I I i I I I I I I l I I I I I I I I I I I' I I I y I I t I I i o


'1978 1979
10-inch pots--All varieties


Figure 9.--Seasonal pattern of shipments of foliage plants frcm
Florida by nmnths in 3-inch, 6-inch, and 10-inch pots,;
1977 to 1980


Source: [3, 4].


1,000 pots


B.00O


AJLLU I L


1977


1,000 pots


1977


1980


SaM J J m m a 5 "


~


. . I I'' ~ '' I~ ` ... .. A -


"'I


m


I I I I I I I


II I (
II I


gg l i j j j i l i j


I I I I 1 I I I I ii I I I I I I I I I I ii IL1LLLLI1 I I I I I


1,000 pots


J








Table 40.--Wholesale prices received by Florida growers for selected sizes
of Dracaena sanderiana and Dracaena marginata, August 1981

Type and size plant Price
a
Dracaena sanderiana Dollars
3" ( 7.7 cm) pots (1 ppp)C $.28-.36, mostly .32-.36,scme .38-.40
4" (10.3 cm) pots (2 ppp) .72-.80, few best .88,few .68
5" (12.8 cm) pots (3 ppp) .95-1.25, mostly .95-1.15


Dracaena marginatab
6" (15.4 cm) pots (18-24", 1 ppp)
6" (15.4 cm) pots (18-24", 2 ppp)

8" (20.5 cm) pots (24-30", 2-3 ppp)

10" (25.7 cm) pots (36-48", 3 ppp)


$1.50-2.10, best 2.25-2.60
2.00-2.50, best 2.70-3.50, mostly
3.00-3.50
3.25-4.25, mostly 3.25-4.00, best
4.50-5.00
4.75-6.00, best 6.50-7.65,specinen
8.50-9.50


aIncluding packaging charges.

bExcluding packaging charges.
c
ppp = plants per pot.

Source: [4].









Table 41.-Rates per cartonafor shipping a 30 pound (13.6 kg) carton of
foliage plants from the Apopka-Orlando, Florida area to various
destinations, January 1981

Type transportation
City Air Bus Trucke
----------- Dollars------------

Atlanta 5.60 5.13 3.15-3.45
Chicago 5.60 9.47. 3.15-3.58
Cleveland 5.60 8.99 3.15-3.58
Cincinnati 5.60 8.99 3.15-3.58
Dallas 5.83 10.43 3.25-3.58
Denver 14.71 (13.60c) 14.09 4.78-4.82
Los Angeles 6.27 17.94 4.63-5.33
New York City 5.38 10.43 3.60-3.85
San Franciso 6.27 17.94 4.63-5.33
Seattle 6.27 20.60 5.33
St. Louis 8.80 (5.90c) 9.45 3.45-3.58
Washington, DC 4.83 8.28 3.45-3.58
Montreal 6.65 NA 4.78-5.33

aRates converted to the equivalent of a carton containing 56 three
inch (7.7 cm) pots with cubic measurement of 2.53 cubic feet (.07m ).

bRates are from the Orlando airport to the destination airport. They
do not include pick up or delivery. The (first) quotation is for a 100
pound (48.9 kg) minimum.

CSpecial commodity rate.

dRate shown is for a maximum shipment of three pieces.

eRate is for less than truckload lots (l.t.l.) which constitute the
bulk of truck movement from the state. Loads with one pick-up at origin
and one drop at destination are increasing.


Source: [4].









Table 42.--Estimated number of all varieties of foliage plants shipped in
various types of containers from Florida, 1977 through 1980


1,000-


Rooted
cuttings


24" and smaller
3"
3A" 4"
5"
6"


- 16"
and larger


8"
10"
12"
14"
17"


Hanging
baskets


Totem
poles


37,766

10,131
62,956
11,825
1,837
11,243

1,947
3,205
400
289


32,392

10,416
58,081
12,551
2,950
11,366

1,843
4,161
253
343


6" and smaller
8" and larger


24"


36,946

10,736
60,122
12,810
2,605
12,270

2,059
4,633
199
353
77


883


28,242

12,898
40,841
11,388
1,722
9,782

1,660
4,513
104
482
106


1,254
652


517


Source: [3, 4].


Pots









One phase of the 1975 study concerned with market outlets and product
mix for foliage also related to types of containers utilized in marketing
plants. A summary of the results, giving the percentages of total sales
(i.e., not number of containers) marketed in various types of containers
by large and medium-small growers in the central and southern areas and
the entire state of Florida, is presented in Figure 10. Apopka or central
area growers placed much higher proportions of their output in smaller
containers than in larger ones. Medium-small growers in the South followed
the tendency of large growers in selling most of their output in 6-inch
and larger containers.
For the historical record, the relative importance of foliage plants
sold in various types of containers in 1956 is shown in Figure 11. As the
percentages indicate, many changes have occurred in the past 25 years.
In the mid' 1950s plastic pots has just recently showed up on the scene;
more than 37 percent of the value of foliage sales in 1956 was in plastic
pots. Nevertheless, major quantities were marketed in waxpaper and
cellophane, paper pots, newspapers, and clay pots, as well as in bareroot
form.


NURSERY BUSINESS ANALYSIS IN FLORIDA


A business analysis program has been carried out in the Food and Re-
source Economics Department at the University of Florida since the late
1960s in which supply, production, and cost data of cooperating foliage
growers have been acquired and analyzed on a confidential basis. Group
averages are published in Economic Information and related reports of the
Food and Resource Economics Department. Cooperators are furnished sets of
their own data, analyzed for comparison with group averages.
Comparative data for 10 years (1970 through 1979) for the same five
growers in central Florida are contained in Tables 43 and 44. Actual
average data are shown in Table 43. Data converted into equivalent 1980
prices are in Table 44.
Average net income per nursery, in terms of dollars converted to 1980
values for these five operations,varied from $43,000 to $238,000. The annual









LARGE GROWERS MEDIUM-SMALL GROWERS


POTS:


2 1/4 "
2. 1/2
3"

3 1/2
4"


5"

6"
8 "
9" OR LARGER


Il1, ELi 11 11


1 1 1


BAREROOT

TOTEM POLES

OTHER


IJ..i.LLUJNJ:IAL"' U ~1 II


1 ~ ~~~ ~ ~ -. 4-- ~- ~ ...


44.1J.4lll I II


i I


*T TTIS l
t iI::


35 3O9 5 20 15
PERCENT OF TOTAL SALI


10 5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30
ES PERCENT OF TOTAL SALES


Figure 10.--Type of containers for Florida foliage plants by grower size
and area, 1975


Source: [12, 13, 16].


"'''''"'


;;; .:::;::::r.r:.-


--


1 1 1 1 1 1 1


m


. . . .. .


I


il I


7 I 1


I I


"


L


-


I I '


tT








Type container,
pot or wrap

Plastic pots ., ---- ,i~-, .. -..... ..... ... ... .(37.2%)

Wax paper and -- (2.3%)
cellophane (25.3%)


Paper pots .-- (13.2%)


Newspapers (10.h%)


Clay pots (9.1%)

Sold locally
bare-root (3 6%)

Cans, tubs and
totem poles (.7%)

Aluminum pots
and foil wrap (.3%)

Plant bands (.2%)
300 -900 1,UU 2,00 2, 3 3,900
600 1,200 1,800 2,400 3,000 3,600

Net value in $1,000

Eigure 11.-Net value and relative importance of foliage plants sold in various types
of shipping containers by Florida growers, 1956.


Source: [11].








Table 43.-Comparative business analysis data for the same five foliage plant growers in central Florida from 1970 through 1979

Factor Unit Average for the same five nurseries in
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979


Profit
Net nursery income
Percent return to capital

Size of business
Value of own plants sold

Level of costs
Costs per $ sales plus
plant inventory value
change

Intensity in use of space
Plant inventory value
turnover annually

Production rate
Value of own plants sold
per sq. ft. total bed &
bench space

Labor efficiency
Own plants sold per employee
Efficiency in use of capital
Owned capital turnover
annually

Growth in sales and inventory
Increase in sales & plant
inventory value from
previous year
Efficiency in use of space
Bed & bench space in use
Bed & bench space vacant

Source: [17].


39,777
13.0


225,284


70,259
24.8


261,484


89,118
29.7


325,463


136,001
35.9


420,712


131,448 38,831
23.2 0.3


596,527 733,470


95.9 87.2 86.4 87.9 94.5 100.7


140,866
21.4


807,597


125,623
18.6


864,522


38,161
2.6


759,674


93.6 93.7 105.8


109,877
11.1


826,022



102.0


% 176 178 191 221 280 350 407 398 328 307


1.16


8,904


1.20


9,942


1.47


11,661


1.90


13,917


% 125.5 122.3 138.6 143.1


2.58 3.88


16,474 17,352


3.57


20,471


147.0 163.4 163.4


3.78

18,741


3.47

17,071


159.0 139.1


$ 17,412 66,382 60,681 107,162 169,482 91,811 100,178 94,761 -67,283


sq.ft. 193,885
% 3.4


3.72


19,909


116.9




213,345


218,300 221,958 221,621 231,302 188,894 226,465 228,510 219,041 222,106
2.8 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.5 3.4 2.5 3.3 4.1


- -













Table 44.--Corparative business analysis datawith values converted
Florida from 1970 through 1979


to 1980 prices, for the same five foliage plant growers in central


Factor Unit Average for the sane five nurseries in
1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979


Profit
Net nursery income
Percent return to capital
Size of business
Value of own plants sold

Level of costs
Costs per $ sales plus
plant inventory value
change

Intensity in use of space
Plant inventory value
turnover annually

Production rate
Value of own plants sold
per sq. ft. total bed &
bench space

Labor efficiency
Own plants sold per employee

Efficiency in use of capital
Owned capital turnover
annually

Growth in sales and inventory
Increase in sales & plant
inventory value from
previous year

Efficiency in use of space
Bed & bench space in use
Bed & bench space vacant


84,812
13.0

480,350


145,163
24.8

540,256


176,123
29.7

643,208


237,764
35.9

735,510


229,804
23.2

1,042,879


52,333
0.3

988,504


181,295
21.4

1,039,378


152,455
18.6

1,049,177


42,974
2.6

855,489


109,877
11.1

826,022


95.9 87.2 87.4 87.9 94.5 100.7 93.6 93.7 105.8 102.0


% 176



sa 2.47


$a 18,985


178




2.48

20,541


191 221


2.91

23,045


3.32

24,330


280 350 407 398


4.51

28,800


5.23


23,385


4.59

26,346


4.59

22,744


328




3.91

19,224


307



3.72

19,909


%a .125.5 122.3 138.6 143.1 147.0 163.4 163.4 159.0 139.1 116.9


Sa

sq.ft.


37,126


193,885


% 3.4


137,153


218,300
2.8


119,923


221,958
2.7


187,346


221,621
2.7


296,297


231,302
2.7


123,734


188,894
3.5


128,929


226,465
3.4


115,001

228,510
2.5


-75,769


219,041
3.3


213,345


222,106
4.1


adjusted by Producer Price Index (All Ccnodities), with 1980 = 100.
Source: [17, 25].









return to capital ranged from 0.3 to 35.9 percent. The value of own plants
sold shifted from a low of $480,000 to a high of nearly $1,050,000. The
cost per dollar of sales, plus the value of plant inventory change, varied
from $0.87 to $1.06.
The analysis depicted a rising annual rate of plant inventory turn-
over value and an increased value of own plants sold in the earlier years,
with both items declining in the last several years, as shown in Tables
43 and 44. Other factors analyzed-intensity in the use of space, the
value of own plants sold per unit of production area, own plants sold per
employee, annual turnover of owned capital, the increase in sales and
plant inventory value from the preceding year, and efficiency in the use of
space--are contained in Tables 43 and 44 as well.
The costs per square foot and per dollar of sales in 1979 for larger
and smaller central Florida foliage plant and potted flowering plants
nurseries, plus the average for the 19 nurseries participating in the
study, are shown in Tables 45 and 46. Cash costs per dollar of sales
ranged from an average of 88< for the four larger nurseries to 914 for the
four smaller operations, but averaged 85 for all of the 19 nurseries re-
ported. This would indicate that both the largest and smallest firms had
higher cash costs per dollar of sales than was the case with nurseries in
the medium size range. Non-cash costs for smaller growers were more than
double those of larger operators.
The income summary for 19 wholesale foliage and potted flowering plant
nurseries in central Florida in 1979 showed an average rate of return to
capital for all growers of 11.3 percent (Table 47). This compared with one
of 11.6 percent for-the four larger operators, and a figure of -2.7 percent
for the smaller nurserymen.
The business analysis study for south Florida foliage nurseries showed
average cash costs per square foot of sales of $1.78 in 1979 for the 11
nurseries cooperating in the program (Table 48). Similar costs for four
larger and four smaller nurseries were $2.07 and $0.98, respectively.
Total costs per square foot ranged from $1.22 for the smaller growers to
$2.31 for the larger operators.









Table 45.--Costs per square foot of total bed and bench space, foliage plant
and potted flowering plant nurseries in central Florida, 1979

Item Average 19 4 larger 4 smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

--------------Cents-------

Cash costs
Operator's salary 20.91 10.81 84.37
Other wages and salaries 130.77 143.36 88.62
Plants and seeds to grow on 53.77 56.00 51.79
Pots, growing containers 24.76 26.33 42.16
Fuel oil for production heat 14.74 10.61 11.46

Peat, soil, shavings, etc. 11.22 13.82 7.21
Fertilizer and lime 2.83 2.53 2.84
Pesticides and other chemicals 5.17 6.24 5.65
Packing boxes and supplies 16.08 18.54 10.42
Other production supplies 11.87 8.88 8.36

Repairs and maintenance 6.96 6.16 15.54
Equipment operating costs 4.86 2.81 7.68
Travel and entertainment 1.49 0.76 2.26
Insurance 5.48 3.93 8.46
Telephone 3.26 2.46 5.54

Electricity 5.31 4.61 8.89
Taxes, licenses, bonds 2.74 2.03 1.00
Advertising 1.84 1.80 1.33
Rent-land and/or buildings 5.08 3.18 0.00
Other cash expenses 10.87 8.79 22.95
Total cash costs .340.02 334.67 386.54

Non-cash costs
Depreciation-machinery
and equipment 8.27 8.34 18.64
Depreciation-buildings, etc. 14.54 7.79 36.72
Inventory decrease in supplies 0.00 0.00 0.00
Interest on capital @ 12% 46.00 35.64 71.21
Total non-cash costs 68.82 51.77 126,56

Total all costs 408.83 386.44 513.10


Source: [17].









Table 46.--Costs Per dollar of sales adjusted for change in plant inventory,
19 foliage and potted flowering plant nurseries in central
Florida, 1979

m Average 19 4 larger 4 smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

-------Cents-

Cash costs
Operator's salary 5.20 2.84 19.85
Other wages and salaries 32.55 37.71 20.85
Plants and seeds to grow on 13.38 14.73 12.19
Pots, growing containers 6.16 6.93 9.92
Fuel oil for production heat 3.67 2.79 2.70

Peat, soil shavings, etc. 2.79 3.64 1.70
Fertilizer and lime 0.70 0.67 0.67
Pesticides and other chemicals 1.29 1.64 1.33
Packing boxes and supplies 4.00 4.88 2.45
Other production supplies 2.96 2.34 1.97

Repairs and maintenance 1.73 1.88 3.66
Equipment operating costs 1.21 0.74 1.81
Travel and entertainment 0.37 0.20 0.53
Insurance 1.36 1.03 1.99
Telephone 0.81 0.65 1.30

Electricity 1.32 1.21 2.09
Taxes, licenses, bonds 0.68 0.53 0.24
Advertising 0.46 0.47 0.31
Rent--land and/or buildings 1.26 0.84 0.00
Other cash expenses 2.71 2.31 5.40
Total cash costs 84.64 88.03 90.95

Non-cash costs
Depreciation--machinery
and equipment 2.06 2.19 4.38
Depreciation--buildings, etc. 3.62 2.05 8.64
Inventory decreases, supplies 0 0 0
Interest on capital @ 12% 11.45 9.37 16.75
Total non-cash costs 17.13 13.62 29.78

Total all costs 101.77 101.65 120.72


Source: [17].









Table 47.--Income summary, 19 wholesale foliage
nurseries in central Florida, 1979


and potted flowering plant


Average Average Average
Item Unit all 19 4 large 4 smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

Value of own plants sold $ 355,475 922,696 55,756
Plant inventory change $ 24,494 91,698 1,575
Supply inventory change $ 2,071 10,668 125
Miscellaneous cash income $ 2,114 2,352 0

Total gain $ 384,152 1,007,413 57,456

Cash costs less operator's
salary $ 301,818 847,129 40,760
Non-cash costs less
interest cost @ 12% $ 21,565 42,191 7,467
Total deductions $ 323,394 889,320 48,336

Net nursery income $ 60,758 118,093 9,230

Value of operator's
salary $ 19,777 28,273 11,380

Return to capital $. 40,981 89,819 2,151

Rate of return to capital % 11.3 11.6 2.7


Source: [17].











Table 48.--Costs per square foot of propagating and finishing bed and bench
space, 11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south Florida, 1979

Average Average 4 Average 4
Item 11 larger smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

-------------Cents--------
Cash costs
Operator's salary 17.57 20.16 10.29
Other wages and salaries 53.32 61.02 31.66
Plants and seeds to grow on 36.57 43.70 16.51
Pots, growing containers 9.47 8.80 11.36
Fuel for production heat 0.62 0.57 0.74

Peat, soil, shaving, etc. 4.52 4.95 3.31
Fertilizer and lime 3.19 3.46 2.44
Pesticides and other chemicals 4.32 5.49 1.03
Packing boxes and supplies 7.58 10.03 0.68
Other production supplies 3.32 3.23 3.59

Repairs and maintenance 4.90 5.47 3.30
Equipment operating costs 4.31 4.86 2.74
Travel and entertainment 1.71 1.72 1.67
Insurance 1.64 1.48 2.10
Telephone 1.51 1.68 1.06

Electricity 1.07 0.99 1.28
Taxes, licenses, bonds 6.75 8.85 0.83
Advertising 1.41 1.76 0.44
Rent-land and/or buildings 0.91 0.99 0.68
Other cash expenses 13.39 17.37 2.22
Total cash costs 178.08 206.59 97.94

Non-cash costs
Depreciation--machinery and
equipment 3.90 4.25 2.91
Depreciation-buildings, etc. 4.68 5.31 2.92
Inventory decreases, supplies 0.00 0.00 0.00
Interest on capital @ 12% 15.86 15.14 17.87
Total non-cash costs 24.44 24.70 23.69

Total all costs 202.52 231.29 121.63


Source: [17].









The average costs per dollar of sales, adjusted for plant inventory,
for 11 south Florida foliage growers in 1979 were $0.90 in cash disburse-
ments and $1.03 for all costs (Table 49). In the case of larger and smaller
nurseries cash costs were $0.89 and $0.95, respectively, with total costs
for these two classifications amounting to $1.00 and $1.18. Non-cash
costs for smaller growers per dollar of sales were double those of larger
operations.
The income summary for south Florida noted that the return to capital
in 1979 varied from 2.3 percent in the smaller nurseries to 12.4 percent
in the larger firms, with an average of 9.4 percent for all operations
cooperating in the study (Table 50).


SOURCES OF PROPAGATION MATERIAL IN FLORIDA


In the study of market outlets and product mix done by the University
of Florida Food and Resource Economics Department in 1975 data were also
acquired and analyzed on the sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage
producers in their growing operations. Results of this analysis are pre-
sented in Tables 51 and 52.
During 1975 it was estimated that Florida foliage operators produced
65 percent of their cuttings and acquired the remaining 35 percent from
other sources. Florida foliage growers obtained 28 percent (half by growing
their own and half by purchase) from Latin America and the remaining 7
percent through purchase from other growers and additional sources. South
Florida producers got relatively more of their cuttings from sources outside
of Florida than central Florida operators (Table 51). In both central and
south Florida large growers acquired a higher proportion of their cuttings
from Latin America than was the case with small to medium producers (Table
52). In fact, none of the small to medium operators interviewed in the
study grew any of their plants in Latin America.


IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PLANTS


The number of tropical foliage plants imported into Florida rose from
2.8 million plants in 1969-70 to 65.5 million in 1974-75 and 136.7 million









The average costs per dollar of sales, adjusted for plant inventory,
for 11 south Florida foliage growers in 1979 were $0.90 in cash disburse-
ments and $1.03 for all costs (Table 49). In the case of larger and smaller
nurseries cash costs were $0.89 and $0.95, respectively, with total costs
for these two classifications amounting to $1.00 and $1.18. Non-cash
costs for smaller growers per dollar of sales were double those of larger
operations.
The income summary for south Florida noted that the return to capital
in 1979 varied from 2.3 percent in the smaller nurseries to 12.4 percent
in the larger firms, with an average of 9.4 percent for all operations
cooperating in the study (Table 50).


SOURCES OF PROPAGATION MATERIAL IN FLORIDA


In the study of market outlets and product mix done by the University
of Florida Food and Resource Economics Department in 1975 data were also
acquired and analyzed on the sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage
producers in their growing operations. Results of this analysis are pre-
sented in Tables 51 and 52.
During 1975 it was estimated that Florida foliage operators produced
65 percent of their cuttings and acquired the remaining 35 percent from
other sources. Florida foliage growers obtained 28 percent (half by growing
their own and half by purchase) from Latin America and the remaining 7
percent through purchase from other growers and additional sources. South
Florida producers got relatively more of their cuttings from sources outside
of Florida than central Florida operators (Table 51). In both central and
south Florida large growers acquired a higher proportion of their cuttings
from Latin America than was the case with small to medium producers (Table
52). In fact, none of the small to medium operators interviewed in the
study grew any of their plants in Latin America.


IMPORTS AND EXPORTS OF PLANTS


The number of tropical foliage plants imported into Florida rose from
2.8 million plants in 1969-70 to 65.5 million in 1974-75 and 136.7 million










Table 49.--Costs per dollar of sales adjusted for change in plant inventory,
11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south Florida, 1979

Average Average Average
Item 11 4 larger 7 smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

-------------Cents----------

Cash costs
Operator's salary 8.90 8.73 9.96
Other wages and salaries 26.99 26.41 30.64
Plants and seeds to grow on 18.51 18.92 15.98
Pots, growing containers 4.80 3.81 10.99
Fuel for production heat 0.31 0.25 0.72

Peat, soil shaving, etc. 2.29 2.14 3.20
Fertilizer and lime 1.62 1.50 2.36
Pesticides and other chemicals 2.19 2.38 0.99
Packing boxes and supplies 3.83 4.34 0.66
Other production supplies 1.68 1.40 3.47

Repairs and maintenance 2.48 2.37 3.20
Equipment operating costs 2.18 2.10 2.66
Travel and entertainment 0.87 0.75 1.62
Insurance 0.83 0.64 2.03
Telephone 0.77 0.73 1.02

Electricity 0.54 0.43 1.24
Taxes, licenses, bonds 3.42 3.83 0.81
Advertising 0.72 0.76 0.43
Rent--land and/or buildings 0.46 0.43 0.66
Other cash expenses 6.78 7.52 2.15
Total cash costs 90.15 89.41 94.80

Non-cash costs
Depreciation--machinery and
equipment 1.97 1.84 2.82
Depreciation--buildings, etc. 2.37 2.30 2.82
Inventory decreases, supplies 0.00 0.00 0.00
Interest on capital @ 12% 8.03 6.55 17.29
Total non-cash costs 12.37 10.69 22.93

Total all costs 102.52 100.10 117.73


Source: [18].









Table 50.--Income summary,
Florida, 1979


11 wholesale foliage plant nurseries in south


Average Average Average
Item Unit all 11 4 larger 7 smaller
nurseries nurseries nurseries

Value of own plants sold $ 709,109 1,673,636 157,950
Plant inventory change $ 8,538 29,090 -3,205
Supply inventory change $ 2,652 0 4,167
Miscellaneous cash income $ 2,849 5,047 1,593
Total gain $ 723,148 1,707,773 160,505

Cash costs less operator's
salary $ 583,126 1,373,860 131,279
Non-cash costs less 12% $ 31,161 70,421 8,726
Total deductions $ 614,287 1,444,281 140,005

Net nursery income $ 108,861 263,493 20,500

Operator's salary or time
value $ 63,836 148,567 15,419

Return to capital $ 45,025 114,926 5,082

Rate of return to capital % 9.4 12.4 2.3


Source: [18].










Table 51.--Sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage growers in various
areas, 1975

Area
SourceArea
Central South State

-------Percent--

Grow own in Florida 74 52 65
Grow own in Latin America 11 20 14
Purchase from Latin America 11 16 14
Purchase locally from other growers 4 7 6
Other -- 5 1

Total 100 100 100

Source: [15, 16].


in 1979-80 (Table 53). Jamaica, Honduras, and Guatemala have been the
leading suppliers in recent years of Florida's imported foliage cuttings.
Currently Costa Rica, Colanbia, Belize, the Dominican Republic, and the
Netherlands are other important suppliers.
Miami is the main gateway through which foliage plants for propagation
are imported into the United States (Table 54). In 1980 nearly 90 percent
of all imports made through the major ports of entry came into Miami.
Placing second and third were San Francisco and Brownsville, TX, with about
4 and 2 percent, respectively, of total imports through the gateways
enumerated in Table 54. North America (Central America, Mexico, and the
Caribbean) supplied 87 percent of the propagating stock entering the United
States. Exporters from South America and Europe shipped about 8 and 3 per-
cent of the total, respectively.
Countries of North America, primarily Mexico, supplied 110,000 of the
nearly quarter of a million pounds of seed imported for foliage plant
propagation through major U.S. gateways (Table 55). Mexico exported 42
percent of the U.S. total, while Japan sent 28 percent of the overall
quantity of U.S. foliage seed imports. The leading import centers for seed
were Brownsville, TX and Los Angeles.
Data on the numbers of foliage plants exported from Florida for the
fiscal years from 1977 through 1981 are contained in Table 56. Although








Table 52.-Sources of cuttings used by Florida foliage growers invarious areas and size groups, 1975


Area and size group
Central South State

Med.- Med.- Med.-
Large Large sall Large s

--- ----- ------- Percent------------------ ---------
Grow own in Florida 67 96 49 64 59 86
Grow own in Latin America 14 24 -- 19 --
Purchase from Latin America 14 1 18 24 16 8
Purchase locally from other growers 5 3 8 6 6 4
Other -- 1 6 a 2

Total 100 100 100 100 100 100

aLess than 0.5%.


Source: [15, 16].





Table53.-Nurber of tropical foliage plants imported into Florida, 1969-70 through 1980-81 fiscal years


Fiscal year
Country or F ear
of origin-7 1 -7 1 -7 1 -7 1 -7 1 -7 1 -
1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 19E0-81


-1,000 plants-


Australia
Bahamas
Belgiun
Belize
Brazil

Colombia
Costa Rica
Denmark
Dcminica
Daninican Republic

Ecuador
El Salvador
England
West Germany
Guatemala

Honduras
Israel
Italy
Ivory Coast
Jamaica


27
20








1,310

1,465


Japan
Mexico
Netherlands
New Zealand
Nicaragua

Panama
Peru
Philippines
Singapore
Surinam

Thailand
West Africa
Uruguay
Other


Total


b



30
6 *








2,450

6,949







1

2


110


26
24








5,315

16,730






4
3

2


2
48


29
76
78
1






5,861

20,354







10


8
357
28

37
1,425
103
30
126

1



17,177

18,266



1



47

23


32
873
3

95
4,260
166
72
869

1


5
28,366

18,688



11,972



38

34


40
827


485
11,780
311
1
1,360

11


12
32,341

27,963



31,473

111
43
436

51




8



26

72


29
4,023
b

722
11,970
133

1,299

b

59
360
37,292

23,870



37,119

367
13
754

61

25
247
7
45


63
b

24


6
4,320
15

2,537
12,823
122

1,279

3
67
25

44,167

25,693



24,711

210
14
793
70
18

51
326
20
96
70

78
b

23


232
b
2
4,671
b

4,670
13,121
118

1,426

3
59
23
b
34,754

31,377
11

74
33,258

1
12
552
1
93

17
40
b
63
b

353


20


432
109
13
3,017
71

11,569
20,983
38

1,434

2
166
b

22,127

22,224
10
27

34,961


12
19,087
6
165

b
51
1
30
b

48

34
16


126
81
26
2,637
2

11,927
28,302
58

2,093

1
456


19,020

22,965
b
5

39,261


9
648
1
65

1
2
b
11


1


19


2,822 9,441 22,215 26,460 37,652 65,475 107,351 118,482 117,537 124,951 136,683 127,717


aCountries listed have shipped at least 10,000 foliage plants to Florida in some year.

bless than 500.


Source: [6.].


-- ~--------'-'







Table 54.--Irports of foliage plants for propagation through major U.S. gateways, 1980


Continent/major ex-
porting country


Gateway


Browns- Laredo, Los
ville, TX TX Angeles


i New New San
Orleans York Francisco


Total from each
continent/country


S -- -1,000 plants--------- -%


Africa
Total Africa
Asia
Israel
Japan
Total Asia


Denmark
Germany
Netherlands
Total Europe
North America
Belize
Costa Rica
Dominican Republic
Guatemala
Honduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Total North America
Oceania
Australia
Total Oceania
South America
Brazil
Colkrbia
Total South America


- 10


9 123
277 1,127
289 1,272


214
215
1,287
1,746


3,094
3,095


2,575
25,914
2,082
22,869
21,845
35,801
b
111,685


40
40


330
10,976
11,367


3,745


5
3,750


97 0.1


132
1,716
1,913


1,149
278
2,285
3,924


2,577
26,262
2,082
27,357
21,848
35,801
3,335
119,861


- 17
- 15 125


569
10,991
11,655


World total 3,095 221 2,453 124,106 647 2,296 5,542 138,360 100.0
----------------------------------------------------------------""
% 2.2 0.2 1.8 89.7 0.5 1.7 4.0 100.0 -

a0ountries listed only if 100,000 or more plants were imported through at least one gateway.

Tewer than 500 plants.
Source: 12].


1.9
19.0
1.5
19.8
15.8
25.9
2.4
86.6


0.5
0.7


0.4
7.9
8.4




Table 55.--Imports of seeds for t


Continent/major ex-
porting country


Gateway


Browns-
ville, TX


Laredo, Los
TX Angeles


S New New San
Orleans York Francisco


Total from each b
continent/country


Africa
Republic of South
Africa
Total Africa
Asia
India
Israel
Japan
Total Asia
Europe
Belgium
Denmark
England
Germany
Italy
Netherlands
Total Europe
North America
Belize
Costa Rica
Domnican Republic
Guatemala
Bonduras
Jamaica
Mexico
Panama


-- 193
- 1,388


--- --
-- 68,272
68,272



-- 6,161

-- 282
-- 250

-- 6,800


424
424


165
222
408
2,305


-- 88
- -- 53
2,727
- 5,792
- 4,221
- 240
- 16,089


- 1,022
92 164
-- 276
- 2,452
- 39
-- 425

- 56
92 4,899


104,257


Total North America 104,257


260 0.1
1,455 0.6


4,761

4,888









7,939



539




26


- 1,097


165
4,983
69,104
75,889


88
6,214
2,727
6,074
4,471
240
30,828


1,064
1,859
276
2,496
39
425
104,306
56
110,454


0.1
2.0
28.0
30.8


a
2.5
1.1
2.5
1.8
0.1
12.5


0.4
0.8
0.1
1.0
a
0.2
42.3
a
44.8


Continued


the


-------- ---Pounds--- ---------%


propagation of foliage plants through major U.S. gateways, 1980












Table 55.-Imports of seeds for the propagation of foliage plants through major U.S. gateways, 1980--Continued


Continent/major ex- Gateway Total frcm each
porting country Browns- Laredo, Los New New San continent/country
ville, TX TX Angeles Orleans York Francisco

P------------ounds------- %
Oceania
Australia 1,890 1,890 0.8
Total Oceania 299 2,096 2,395 1.0
South America
Brazil 5,299 5,299 2.2
Ecuador 41 41 a
Peru .14 14 a
Venezuela 1,012 1,012 0.4
Total South America 6,618 6,618 2.7

World total 104,257 23 87,809 15,722 86 22,267 16,559 246,723 100.0
---- ------- - --- ---- ----------------- -------- --
% 42.3 a 35.6 6.4 a 9.0 6.7 100.0 -

aLess than 0.05 percent.

bCountry totals and percentages may not add to that for the continent due to minor shipments, data for which were hot specified
by country but only by continent.

Source: [2].







87


Table 56.--Annual exports to various countries of tropical foliage plants
from Florida certified by the Division of Plant Industry of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1977
to 1981 fiscal years

Fiscal year
Continent/country
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

---- ----1,000 plants- ..
North America


Caribbean/Atlantic Islands


Antigua
Bahamas
Barbados
Bermuda
Cayman Islands

Curacao
Dominican Republic
Haiti
Jamaica
Martinique

Netherlands Antilles
St. Lucia
St. Maarten
Trinidad & Tobago
West Indies
Subtotal


Central America,
and Panama

Belize
Costa Rica
El Salvador
Guatemala
Honduras
Panama
Subtotal

Other

Canada
Mexico
Subtotal


Belize


86 56 171 93 79




a 81 8 2 28
187 116 379 46 26
-1 3 a -
38 141 200 195 11
26 20 24 10 18
5 15 28 11 22
256 374 642 264 105



9,336c 10,499c 7,209 8,209 9,498
-- -- 1 10


9,336c 10,499c


Total North Anerica 9,678c 10,929c


7,209

8,022


8,210


9,508


8,567 9,692


Continued






88


Table 56.--Annual exports to various countries of tropical f iliage plants
from Florida certified by the Eivision of Plant I dustry of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Se vices, 1977
to 1981 fiscal years--Continued

Fiscal year
Continent/country
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

------ ------1,000 plants------

South America

Argentina -- 2 44 70
Bolivia -- -- 4
Brazil b 2 -- a 30
Chile -- 2 -- 26 87
Colambia 6 7 56 1 5

Ecuador a -- 1 2
Peru 4
Venezuela -- 9 83 25 70
Total South America9 6 20 142 96 272

Europe

Belgium 21 22d 116 54 31
Denmark -- 9 8 27
Finland -- -- 1
France 3 a 5 a 2
Great Britain 78 16 36 53 26

Italy 8 a 6 31e 4
Netherlands 73 160 1,650 2,427 284
Norway 1 -
Sweden -- a 3 21
Switzerland af 5d 10 1 6
West Germany 43 24 550 27 30
Total Europe 226f 227d 2,383 2,605e 431

Africa

Ivory Coast 4 -- -
South Africa 3 a 6 25 b
Total Africa9 7 a 6 25 b

Oceania

Australia a 1 23 40 97
New Zealand -- a 1 20 1
Total Oceania9 a 1 24 60 98

Continued










Table 56.-Annual exports to various countries of tropical foliage plants
from Florida certified by the Division of Plant Industry of the
Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, 1977
to 1981 fiscal years-Continued

Fiscal year
Continent/country
1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

----- 1, 000 plants-----

Asia

China-Taiwan 1 -- a 9
Guam -- 1 -
Japan 7 b 347 12 138
Kuwait -- -- -- 1
Philippines 1 a b 2 -

Saudi Arabia -- 1 38 2 20
Thailand b b b b 17
United Arab Emirates a 1
Yemen -- -- 1 --
Total Asiag 9 2 386 16 186

World totals 9,929cfll1,181cdl10,964 11,378e 10,679

aewer than 100 plants.

b100 to 499 plants.

CExclusive of 9,124 cartons for Canada in 1977 and 5,247 cartons in
1978.

dExclusive of 1 carton for Belgium and 30 cartons for West Germany.

eExclusive of 67 cartons in 1980 for Italy.

fExclusive of 60 cartons in 1977 for West Germany.

9Continent totals do not include data for those years in which the
countries listed had imports from Florida of fewer than 500 plants. They
also exclude data for those countries which had imports of fewer than 500
plants during all years from 1977 to 1981. The world total figures, however,
do include the data on very small shipments not presented for regions and
continents.

Continued




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