• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Map: principal vegetable producing...
 Definitions
 Introduction
 Tables
 Appendix
 Reference














Group Title: Production costs for selected vegetables
Title: Estimated production costs for selected Florida vegetables, 1985-86
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026459/00001
 Material Information
Title: Estimated production costs for selected Florida vegetables, 1985-86
Series Title: Economic Information report (Gainesville, Fla.)
Physical Description: x, 33 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Taylor, Timothy G
Publisher: Food & Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: [1986]
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetable trade -- Costs -- Statistics -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: Timothy G. Taylor.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026459
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002198779
oclc - 19836323
notis - ALD8658
lccn - 88623108 //r89

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Map: principal vegetable producing areas in Florida
        Page viii
    Definitions
        Page ix
        Page x
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Tables
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Appendix
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Reference
        Page 33
Full Text










ABSTRACT


SEstimated costs of production are reported for six vegetable crops produced in one or

more of four production areas in Florida for the 1985-86 season. In all, ten crop-area

combinations are included.. Net return range analyses and labor and machinery cost

breakdowns by operation are also presented.









Keywords: budgets, cost of production, vegetables.








FOREWORD

For over 24 years, cost and returns data on vegetable production in Florida have been

collected and published by the Food and Resource Economics Department at the University of

Florida. Over these years the methods used to estimate costs of production and net returns

have remained virtually unchanged. While this has led to the creation of a consistent and

perhaps unique historical data series, the cost of collecting such data on a wide variety of

crops has become prohibitive. It has thus become necessary to use an alternative means of

estimating cost of production. Fortunately, through the use of microcomputers, an economical

alternative to the current method of estimating production costs exists that will enable a large

number of vegetable crops to be analyzed at a reasonable cost per budget.

This publication is the first evidence of this change. In contrast to the more traditional

cost and returns data, estimated production costs based on representative practice production

budgets are presented along with additional information on labor and machinery costs and net

return range analyses. The number of crop-area combinations included in this report is

considerably smaller than that contained in previous cost and returns reports. This is a

temporary result of the transition to using production budgets. Additional crops will be

reinstated as quickly as possible. It is hoped that by reducing the cost per budget new crops

may be added beyond those traditionally covered under the previous format.

As is the case in reporting any historical data, transitions to new methods of collecting

and reporting data place somewhat of a hardship on users of the data. Not only is the

reporting format different, but also, data on some crop-areas may not be reported for several

years. Every effort will be made to ensure the new production cost estimates are as

compatible with prior estimates based on cost and returns data as possible. It is hoped that

eventually the hardships of adjust g to this new method of estimating production costs for

vegetables will pay significant dividends by permitting production costs to be reported for an

increased number of crop-area combinations and in a more timely fashion than has been

previously possible.











ACKNO\\ LEDGNIENTS


The author would like to express appreciation to numerous individuals, without whose

help this publication would not be possible. Foremost in this group is Emil Belibasis, who

through great time and effort assembled the technical coefficients used in the budgets. Credit

also goes to Rob Johnson and Scott Smith for technical assistance in processing the

information used in the cost estimates. Lastly, and certainly not least, appreciation is

expressed to those growers and county agents who assisted in collecting the necessary

information needed to formulate the budgets.











TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pane

Abstract i

Foreword ii

Acknowledgements iii

Table of Contents iv

List of Tables iv

Map of Florida Vegetable Producing Areas viii

Definitions ix

Introduction 1

Appendix A Cultural Labor Costs by Activity and Machinery Costs by Operation 13

References 33





List of Tables

Table Page



1. Bush Beans: Estimated production costs in the Dade County area, 1985-86. 3

2. Bush Beans: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Dade County area, 1985-86. 3

3. Bush Beans: Estimated production costs in the Palm Beach County area, 1986-86. 4

4. Bush Beans: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86. 4

5. Cucumbers: Estimated production costs in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86. 5










Table

6. Cucumbers: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.

7. Eggplant: Estimated production costs in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.

8. Eggplant: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.

9. Summer Squash: Estimated production costs in the Dade county area, 1985-86.

10. Summer Squash: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Dade County area, 1985-86.

11. Green Peppers: Estimated production costs in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.

12. Green Peppers: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.

13. Green Peppers: Estimated production costs in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.

14. Green Peppers: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.

15. Ground Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Dade County area, 1985-86.

16. Ground Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Dade County area, 1985-86.

17. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Ruskin/Palmetto area, 1985-86.

18. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Ruskin-Palmetto area. 1985-86.

19. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86

20. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations

in the Southwest Florida area. 1985-86.

A-I. Bush Beans: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Dade County area, 1985-86.

A-2. Bush Beans: Summarv of machine use and costs in the Dade County area, 1985-86.


Page



5

6



6

7



7

8



8

9



9

10



10

11



11

S12



12

14

14










Table Pane

A-3. Bush Beans: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985-86. 15

A-4. Bush Beans: Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985-86. 16

A-5. Cucumbers: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985-86. 17

A-6. Cucumbers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985-86. 18

A-7. Eggplant: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985-86. 19

A-8. Eggplant: Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985-86. 20

A-9. Green Peppers: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985- 86. 21

A-10. Green Peppers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm Beach County area,

1985- 86. 22

A- 1. Green Peppers: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985- 86. 23

A-12. Green Peppers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985- 86. 24

A-13. Summer Squash: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Dade County area,

1985-86. 25

A-14. Summer Squash: Summary of machine use and costs in the Dade County Area,

1985-86. 26









Table Page

A-15. Ground Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor costs ii the Dade County area,

1985-86. 27

A-16. Ground Tomatoes: Summary of machine use and costs in the Dade County area,

1985-86. 28

A-17. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Ruskin/Palmetto area,

1985- 86. 29

A-18. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of machine use and costs in the Ruskin/Palmetto area,

1985- 86. 30

A-19. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985-86. 31

A-20. Staked Tomatoes: Summniar of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida area,

1985-86. 32











PRINCIPAL VEGETABLE PRODUCING AREAS IN FLORIDA
AND MAJOR VEGETABLES PRODUCED


1. West--tomatoes, watermelons

2. North

A. Gainesville/Alachua--bush beans.
sweet corn, watermelons

B. Hastings--potatoes, cabbage

3. North Central--celery, sweet corn,
lettuce, carrots, watermelons

4. West Central

C. Plant City--strawberrie'

D. Manatee/Ruskin- -tomatoes

5. East Central--tomatoes, watermelons

6. Southwest--cucumbers, peppers, squash,
tomatoes, watermelons

7. Everglades--celery, sweet corn, lettuce,
radishes, escarole

8. Southeast

E. Palm Beach--beans, cucumbers, sweet
corn, eggplant, squash

F. Dade County--beans, potatoes,
tomatoes, Cuban vegetables


viii


/ ^










DEFINITIONS

Bactericide includes only the cost of bactericides applied.

Containers include the cost of cartons, crates or baskets in which the product is transported

to market.

Custom work is an estimate of the total cost of all custom work performed during crop

production.

Fertilizer includes only the cost of fertilizer (and lime) applied.

Fungicide includes only the cost of fungicides applied.

Harvesting (picking) represents the cost of harvesting the crop and preparing it for movement

to the packinghouse on a per packed unit basis.

Hauling is the cost of moving the product from the field to the packinghouse.

Herbicide includes only the cost of herbicide materials applied.

Insecticide includes only the cost of insecticides applied.

Interest cost represents the interest charged on production capital only. An interest rate of

12.0% was used in estimating this cost.

Labor includes the cost of field labor, tractor labor and supervisory labor used to produce the

crop. Labor used in harvesting the crop is not included.

Land rent is an estimate of the prevailing rate for land in each production area and for each

specific crop.

Machinery cost represents the cost of using farm machinery and implements exclusive of labor.

These costs include expenditures on fuel and oil, repair and maintenance and insurance.

Depreciation is also included in this cost.

Miscellaneous included licenses and insurance and overhead expenses such as office supplies,

administrative expenses other than supervision and incidental expenses.

Mobile shed represents all machinery cost associated with field packing a commodity.










Packing represents the cost of preparing the product for shipment either in the field or at

the packinghouse.

Plastic mulch represents only the cost of materials. Labor and machinery costs are not

included.

Seed/transplants represent only material costs. If seed is used, the cost of plug mix is also

included.

Selling is the packinghouse, market, sales organization or dealer's charge for performing the

service of selling the croo.

Soil fumigants include only the cost of fumigants applied.

Transportation represents the cost of moving the product to a local market for sale.

Yield is the number of marketable units produced per acre. It is not based on data surveyed

during a given season. Rather it is an estimate for the current season based on

historical data and other relevant information as available.







1

INTRODUCTION



This report presents estimated costs of production for six vegetable crops produced in

one or more of four producing areas in Florida for the 1985-86 season. In all, ten crop-area

combinations are included. The budgets were constructed using the VEG-BUD fresh vegetable

budget generator. Technical coefficients used in constructing the budgets are based on those

in Buckley et al. (1986) which were obtained by surveying individual growers and county

agents. The input prices used in conjunction with the technical coefficients were obtained by

telephone survey of farm suppliers.

The budgets presented in this report are intended to reflect the cost of production

incurred when production practices that are considered typical for any given crop in a given

area are followed. What constitutes a typical production practice for each crop was defined

by a consensus of opinion between IFAS personnel and various producers in each production

area. It should be emphasized that cost estimates resulting from this process should not be

considered as representing the average cost of production in a statistical sense nor should

they be considered as necessarily relating to recommended production practices. Rather, the

cost of production estimates presented are representative of what costs would be realized if

production practices typically used were followed.

For each crop there are four tables that include various types of information. In

addition to reporting estimated cost of production per acre and per unit, a table of estimated

net returns for various price and yield combinations is presented in the text for each crop.

An appendix contains two additional tables for each crop that summarize preharvest labor

costs by production activity and a breakdown of fixed and variable machinery and implement

costs by operation.

The net return range analyses provide information on how sensitive the estimated net

return for any crop is to variations in either yield per acre or price per unit. For each crop

net returns are estimated for a combination of 25 price and yield combinations. The ranges








2

for both price and yield are intended to be broad enough to include the actual season average

prices and yields obtained by growers in any given area.

The appendix contains cost breakdowns for both labor input and machinery use by

operation. For labor, the estimated hours per acre required to perform an operation and the

cost per acre are delineated. Also included is the estimated cost per acre for supervision.

Machinery costs are reported for tractors, implements and a miscellaneous category. For each

machine or implement, the total hours used per acre and estimated fixed and variable costs

per acre are reported.

Fixed machinery costs include interest cost, taxes, insurance and depreciation. Variable

machinery costs include the cost of fuel and oil, and repair and maintenance. Both fixed and

variable machinery costs are calculated on the basis of hours of use per acre for each

machine or implement. It should be noted that labor costs associated with machinery use are

not included in the variable cost of machinery, but reported as "tractor labor" in the labor

cost breakdown.

The use of budgeting differs considerably from the use of cost and returns survey data.

In place of statistical estimates of the average cost of production for each crop are estimates

of the cost of production when production practices considered typical for a given crop and

area are followed. However, the cost estimates obtained from the use of budgets provide

estimates of production cost that are equally valid and considerably less expensive to obtain.

It is hoped that this fact enables the estimation of cost of production for a larger set of

crops than has previously been possible.












Table 1. Bush Beans: Estimated production costs in the Dade County area, 1985-86.

Average per
Category Acre 30 Ibs.

Yield (30 lbs.) 140.00

- Dollars -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer 140.77
Insecticide 49.75
Fungicide 38.80
Seed/Transplants 85.00
Land rent 130.00
Labor cost 62.37
Machinery cost 105.88
Interest cost 27.66
Miscellaneous 51.02
Total preharvest cost 691.25 4.94

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Picking and packing 431.20 3.08
Container 163.80 1.17
Selling 70.00 0.50
Transportation 14.00 0.10
Total harvest and marketing cost 679.00 4.85

TOTAL COST 1,370.25 9.79










Table 2. Bush Beans: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations
in the Dade County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (30 lbs.) 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00


80 -650.25 -610.25 -570.25 -530.25 -490.25
110 -380.25 -325.25 -270.25 -215.25 -160.25
140 -110.25 -40.25 29.75 99.75 169.75
170 159.75 244.75 329.75 414.75 499.75
200 429.75 529.75 629.75 729.75 829.75











Table 3. Bush Beans: Estimated production costs
1985-86.


in the Palm Beach County area,


Average per
Category Acre 30 lbs.

Yield (30 Ibs.) 130.00

- Dollars -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 100.65
Insecticide 10.26
Fungicide 9.02
Soil fumigant 104.00
Seed/Transplants 60.00
Land rent 150.00
Labor cost 99.83
Machinery cost 141.05
Interest cost 30.72
Miscellaneous 77.39
Total preharvest cost 782.92 6.52

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Pick and haul 150.00 1.25
Packing 166.80 1.39
Container 133.20 1.11
Selling 48.00 0.40
Transportation 12.00 0.10
Total harvest and marketing cost 510.00 4.25

TOTAL COST 1,292.92 10.77









Table 4. Bush Beans: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations
in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (30 lbs.) 9.75 10.25 10.75 11.25 11.75


-659.17
-366.67
-74.17
218.33
510.83


-626.67
-319.17
-11.67
295.83
603.33


-594.17
-271.67
50.83
373.33
695.83


-561.67
-224.17
113.33
450.83
788.33


-529.17
-176.67
175.83
528.33
880.83












Table 5. Cucumbers: Estimated production
1985-86.


costs in the Southwest Florida area,


Average per
Category Acre 55 lbs.

Yield (55 lbs.) 500.00

- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 343.75
Herbicide 32.65
Insecticide 237.25
Fungicide 45.54
Soil fumigant 150.00
Plastic mulch (3.0 rolls/acre) 195.00
Seed/Transplants 95.00
Land rent 240.00
Labor cost 463.28
Machinery cost 347.90
Interest cost 94.46
Miscellaneous 117.67
Total preharvest cost 2,362.50 4.73

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvesting 590.00 1.18
Hauling 120.00 0.24
Packing 845.00 1.69
Container 380.00 0.76
Selling 125.00 0.25
Total harvest and marketing cost 2,060.00 4.12

TOTAL COST 4,422.50 8.85








Table 6. Cucumbers: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations
in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (55 lbs.) 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00

375 -1422.50 -1235.00 -1047.50 -860.00 -672.50
450 -822.50 -597.50 -372.50 -147.50 77.50
525 -222.50 40.00 302.50 565.00 827.50
600 377.50 677.50 977.50 1277.50 1577.50
675 977.50 1315.00 1652.50 1990.00 2327.50












Table 7. Eggplant: Estimated production costs in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.
Average per
Category Acre 33 lbs.

Yield (33 Ibs.) 2500.00

- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 635.00
Herbicide 32.70
Insecticide 171.00
Fungicide 138.00
Soil fumigant 169.20
Plastic mulch (3.0 rolls/acre) 342.00
Seed/Transplants 150.00
Land rent 375.00
Labor cost 572.33
Machinery cost 676.28
Interest cost 144.05
Miscellaneous 319.19
Total preharvest cost 3,724.75 1.49

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvesting 1,275.00 0.51
Mobile shed 175.00 0.07
Wrapping paper 375.00 0.15
Container 1,875.00 0.75
Selling 875.00 0.35
Transportation 500.00 0.20
Total harvest and marketing cost 5,075.00 2.03

TOTAL COST 8,799.75 3.52







Table 8. Eggplant: Estimated net returns for various price and yield combinations
in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (33 lbs.) 2.75 3.25 3.75 4.25 4.75

2000 -3299.75 -2299.75 -1299.75 -299.75 700.25
2250 -2612.25 -1487.25 -362.25 762.75 1887.75
2500 -1924.75 -674.75 575.25 1825.25 3075.25
2750 -1237.25 137.75 1512.75 2887.75 4262.75
3000 -549.75 950.25 2450.25 3950.25 5450.25












Table 9. Summer Squash: Estimated production costs in the Dade County area,
1985-86.
Average per
Category Acre 42 lbs.

Yield (42 lbs.) 200.00

- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer 133.20
Insecticide 33.88
Fungicide 41.24
Seed/Transplants 106.00
Land rent 130.00
Labor cost 59.74
Machinery cost 93.93
Interest cost 26.77
Miscellaneous 46.14
Total preharvest cost 670.90 3.35

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvesting 350.00 1.75
Picking baskets 8.00 0.04
Hauling 30.00 0.15
Packing 150.00 0.75
Container 216.00 1.08
Selling 100.00 0.50
Movable shed 6.00 0.03
Transportation 30.00 0.15
Total harvest and marketing cost 890.00 4.45

TOTAL COST 1,560.90 7.80








Table 10. Summer Squash: Estimated net returns for various price and yield
combinations in the Dade County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (42 lbs.) 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00


75 -1035.90 -998.40 -960.90 -923.40 -885.90
150 -510.90 -435.90 -360.90 -285.90 -210.90
225 14.10 126.60 239.10 351.60 464.10
300 539.10 689.10 839.10 989.10 1139.10
375 1064.10 1251.60 1439.10 1626.60 1814.10











Table 11. Green Peppers: Estimated production costs in the Palm
Beach County area, 1985-86.

Average per
Category Acre 25 Ibs.

Yield (25 lbs.) 875.00

- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 282.00
Herbicide 32.70
Insecticide 137.50
Fungicide 89.75
Soil fumigant 113.60
Plastic mulch (2.5 rolls/acre) 312.00
Seed/Transplants 206.25
Land rent 375.00
Labor cost 658.44
Machinery cost 536.64
Interest cost 103.62
Miscellaneous 305.96
Total preharvest cost 3,153.46 3.60

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Pick and pack labor 1,006.25 1.15
Mobile shed 131.25 0.15
Container 638.75 0.73
Selling 350.00 0.40
Transportation 175.00 0.20
Total harvest and marketing cost 2,301.25 2.63

TOTAL COST 5,454.71 6.23


Table 12. Green Peppers: Estimated net returns for various price and
yield combinations in the Palm Beach County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (25 lbs.) 5.75 6.25 6.75 7.25 7.75

750 -1142.21 -767.21 -392.21 -17.21 357.79
825 -710.96 -298.46 114.04 526.54 939.04
900 -279.71 170.29 620.29 1070.29 1520.29
975 151.54 639.04 1126.54 1614.04 2101.54
1050 582.79 1107.79 1632.79 2157.79 2682.79











Table 13. Green Peppers: Estimated production costs in the Southwest Florida
area, 1985-86.
Average per
Category Acre 25 lbs.

Yield (25 lbs.) 900.00

- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 360.80
Herbicide 25.03
Insecticide 147.13
Fungicide 138.60
Soil fumigant 150.00
Pia ,ic mulch (3.0 rolls/acre) 195.00
Seeu/Transplants 400.00
Land rent 240.00
Labor cost 413.72
Machinery cost 419.34
Interest cost 95.27
Miscellaneous 253.11
Total preharvest cost 2,838.00 3.15

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvesting 729.00 0.81
Hauling 198.00 0.22
Packing 1,260.00 1.40
Container 657.00 0.73
Selling 270.00 0.30
Total harvest and marketing cost 3,114.00 3.46

TOTAL COST 5,952.00 6.61







Table 14. Green Peppers: Estimated net returns for various price and yield
combinations in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (25 lbs.) 5.75 6.25 6.75 7.25 7.75


775 -1495.75 -1108.25 -720.75 -333.25 54.25
850 -1064.50 -639.50 -214.50 210.50 635.50
925 -633.25 -170.75 291.75 754.25 1216.75
1000 -202.00 298.00 798.00 1298.00 1798.00
1075 229.25 766.75 1304.25 1841.75 2379.25











Table 15. Ground Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Dade
County area, 1985-86.

Average per
Category Acre 25 lbs.

Yield (25 lbs.) 1,000.00
- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer 323.00
Herbicide 33.40
Insecticide 228.60
Fungicide 130.89
Bactericide 3.10
Soil fumigant 200.00
Plastic mulch (2.5 rolls/acre) 162.50
Seed/Transplants 160.00
Land rent 180.00
Custom work 169.03
Labor cost 481.37
Machinery cost 284.84
Interest cost 87.97
Miscellaneous 135.31
Total preharvest cost 2,580.01 2.58

HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvesting .630.00 0.63
Hauling 70.00 0.07
Packing 1,740.00 1.74
Container 580.00 0.58
Selling 150.00 0.15
Total harvest and marketing cost 3,170.00 3.17

TOTAL COST 5,750.01 5.75







Table 16. Ground Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price
and yield combinations in the Dade County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (25 lbs.) 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00

900 -1250.01 -800.01 -350.01 99.99 549.99
975 -875.01 -387.51 99.99 587.49 1074.99
1050 -500.01 24.99 549.99 1074.99 1599.99
1125 -125.01 437.49 999.99 1562.49 2124.99
1200 249.99 849.99 1449.99 2049.99 2649.99










Table 17. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Ruskin/Palmetto
area, 1985-86.

Average per
Category Acre 25 lbs.

Yield (25 lbs.) 1,200.00


PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime
Herbicide
Insecticide
Fungicide
Seed/Transplants
Soil fumigant
Plastic mulch (2.0 rolls/acre)
Land rent
Labor cost
Machinery cost
Interest cost
Miscellaneous
Total preharvest cost


301.00
30.70
221.06
83.16
150.00
115.00
130.00
5'.00
565.06
465.00
80.95
236.45
2,461.38'- "


2.05 2- 14 S


HARVEST AND MARKETING COSTS
Harvest and haul
Packing
Container
Selling
Total harvest and marketing cost

TOTAL COST


996.00 ,
1,704.00
636.00
180.00
3,516.00

5,977.38


Table 18. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price and
yield combinations in the Ruskin/Palmetto area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (25 lbs.) 4.25 4.75 5.25 5.75 6.25


1100 -1302.38 -752.38 -202.38 47.62 897.62
1175 -983.63 -396.13 191.37 778.87 1366.37
1250 -664.88 -39.88 585.12 1210.12 1835.12
1325 -346.13 316.37 978.87 1641.37 2303.87
1400 -27.38 672.62 1372.62 2072.62 2772.62


0.83
1.42
0.53
0.15
2.93

4.98


;,1 L) 3


I










Table 19. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated production costs in the Southwest
Florida area, 1985-86.
Average per
Category Acre 25 lbs.

Yield (25 lbs.) 1,100.00
- Dollars - -
PREHARVEST COSTS
Fertilizer and lime 501.90
Herbicide 46.90
Insecticide 58.75
Fungicide 142.53
Bactericide 7.44
Soil fumigant 165.00
Plastic mulch (3.3 rolls/acre) 273.90
Seed/Transplants 150.00
Land rent 240.00
Labor cost 640.11
Machinery cost 380.15
Interest cost 106.11
Miscellaneous 398.33
Total preharvest cost 3,111.12 2.83

HARVEST AND MARKETING
Harvest and haul 880.00 0.80
Packing 1,650.00 1.50
Container 660.00 0.60
Selling 165.00 0.15
Total harvest and marketing cost 3,355.00 3.05

TOTAL COST 6,466.12 5.88









Table 20. Staked Tomatoes: Estimated net returns for various price and yield
combinations in the Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.
Dollars per carton
Yield (25 lbs.) 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00

925 -1841.12 -1378.62 -916.12 -453.62 8.88
1000 -1466.12 -966.12 -466.12 33.88 533.88
1075 -1091.12 -553.62 -16.12 521.38 1058.88
1150 -716.12 -141.12 433.88 1008.88 1583.88
1225 -341.12 271.38 883.88 1496.38 2108.88















APPENDIX A.


















Cultural Labor Costs by Activity and


Machinery Costs by Operation










Table A-1. Bush Beans: Summary of
County area, 1985-86.


preharvest labor costs in the Dade


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR
Other 1.25 5.45

Total cultural labor 1.25 5.45
Total tractor labor 2.96 15.38
Supervision 41.54

TOTAL LABOR COST -62.37


Table A-2. Bush Beans:
1985-86.


Summary of machine use and costs in the Dade County area,


Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp 0.70 1.48 2.23 3.71
70 hp 0.87 3.37 4.97 8.34
160 hp 0.80 7.74 10.89 18.63


IMPLEMENTS

13-ft Heavy disk 0.80 9.86 3.36 13.22
4-Row fert. applicator 0.27 0.83 0.51 1.34
4-Row planter 0.27 2.40 1.44 3.84
4-Row cultivator 0.60 1.37 0.78 2.15
Sprayer 0.70 8.69 4.57 13.26


MISCELLANEOUS

117-hp Pump (truck mounted) 3.75 13.20 28.20 41.40


TOTAL MACHINERY COST --- 48.93 56.95 105.88











Table A-3. Bush Beans: Summary of preharvest labor costs
Beach County area, 1985-86.


in the Palm


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR
Cultivate 4.00 17.44
Irrigate 1.00 4.36

Total cultural labor 5.00 21.80
Total tractor labor 5.96 30.94
Supervision 47.09

TOTAL LABOR COST 99.83











Table A-4. Bush Beans:
1985-86.


Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm Beach County area,


Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp
70 hp
100 hp


IMPLEMENTS

6-ft Weed chopper
12-ft Disk
1-Row middle buster
1-Row bedder
1-Row fumigator
1-Row fert. distributor
1-Row fert. distributor
1-Row cross ditcher
2-Row bean planter
2-Row cultivator
Sprayer


MISCELLANEOUS

30-hp Electric pump
100-hp Diesel engine pump


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


1.07
1.87
1.83


2.26
7.24
12.23


0.36
1.07
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.40
0.27
0.40
0.40
1.07
0.40


5.88
3.57


1.08
9.41
0.63
0.48
1.06
3.16
2.46
0.90
2.22
1.41
4.97


6.90
13.10


69.51


3.42
10.67
16.35


0.62
3.21
0.14
0.27
0.80
2.68
2.08
0.41
1.33
0.80
2.61


1.57
24.57


5.68
17.91
28.58


1.70
12.62
0.77
0.75
1.86
5.84
4.54
1.31
3.55
2.21
7.58


8.47
37.67


71.54 141.05











Table A-5. Cucumbers: Summary of
Florida area, 1985-86.


preharvest labor costs in the Southwest


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Remove plastic mulch
Mark off ditches
Mark off rows
Bed and fumigate
Apply top fertilizer
Lay plastic
Make cross-ditches
Set plants
Thin plants
Water control
Other

Total cultural labor
Total tractor labor
Supervision

TOTAL LABOR COST


20.00
1.33
1.33
0.67
0.67
2.00
7.50
14.40
7.20
1.50
4.00

60.60
11.00


87.20
5.80
5.80
2.92
2.92
8.72
32.70
62.78
31.39
6.54
17.44

264.22
57.07
141.99

463.27









Table A-6. Cucumbers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida area,
1985-86.

Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

100 hp 6.14 41.05 54.88 95.93
125 hp 0.53 3.91 5.56 9.47
180 hp 2.13 24.36 33.39 57.75


IMPLEMENTS

12-ft disk 0.80 7.04 2.40 9.44
16-ft disk 1.20 12.67 4.32 16.99
14-ft leveler 0.40 1.47 0.45 1.92
Row marker 0.27 0.35 0.01 0.36
V-ditcher 0.53 1.50 0.63 2.13
3-Row bedder 0.53 1.41 1.06 2.47
3-Row fumigator 0.53 3.17 2.38 5.55
3-Row fert. distributor 0.53 6.56 5.56 12.12
3-Row plastic layer 0.53 4.28 3.22 7.50
1-Row hole puncher 0.70 0.42 0.16 0.58
3-Row herbicide sprayer 0.27 0.96 0.50 1.46
Sprayer 2.77 34.39 18.10 52.49
1-Row plastic lifter 0.27 1.05 0.36 1.41


MISCELLANEOUS

20-hp Diesel engine pump 8.33 6.11 11.50 17.61
100-hp Diesel engine pump 5.00 18.33 34.40 52.73


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


169.02


178.88 347.90









Table A-7. Eggplant: Summary of
County area, 1985-86.


preharvest labor costs in the Palm Beach


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Place plastic in rows
Bed and fumigate
Apply fertilizer and pres
Make cross ditches
Lay plastic
Set plants
Replant
Water control
Other

Total cultural labor
Total tractor labor
Supervision

TOTAL LABOR COST


5.33
0.40
0.67
13.33
1.34
20.00
1.00
3.00
12.00

57.07
19.14


23.24
1.74
2.92
58.12
5.84
87.20
4.36
13.08
52.32

248.83
99.34
224.16

572.33









Table A-8. Eggplant: Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm Beach
County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp 0.40 0.84 1.28 2.12
70 hp 10.53 40.77 60.08 100.85
100 hp 4.38 29.32 39.19 68.51


IMPLEMENTS

1-Row mower 0.40 1.05 0.60 1.65
12-ft Disk 2.24 19.68 6.71 26.39
1-Row middle buster 0.40 0.63 0.14 0.77
1-Row bedder 0.53 0.63 0.36 0.99
1-Row bed presser 0.53 0.21 0.16 0.37
1-Row fumigator 0.53 1.41 1.06 2.47
1-Row fert. distributor 0.53 4.18 3.54 7.72
1-Row fert. distributor 0.53 4.81 4.07 8.88
1-Row cross ditcher 0.53 1.20 0.54 1.74
1-Row plastic layer 0.53 2.10 1.32 3.42
1-Row hole puncher 0.40 0.24 0.09 0.33
2-Row herbicide sprayer 0.80 2.13 1.12 3.25
Sprayer 8.00 99.31 52.27 151.58
1-Row plastic lifter 0.27 1.05 0.36 1.41
Baler 0.16 2.52 0.77 3.29


MISCELLANEOUS

100-hp Diesel engine pump 8.33 30.56 57.33 87.89
Eggplant mule train 2.75 120.18 61.92 182.10
30-hp Electric pump 14.29 16.76 3.81 20.57


TOTAL MACHINERY COST 379.56 296.72 676.28


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


379.56


296.72 676.28









Table A-9. Green Peppers: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Palm
Beach County area, 1985-86.


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Place plastic in rows 5.33 23.24
Bed and fumigate 0.40 1.74
Fertilize 1.00 4.36
Lay plastic 1.00 4.36
Prepare plug mix 3.00 13.08
Plant 30.00 130.80
Thin plants 20.00 87.20
Water control 2.50 10.90
Other 25.00 109.00

Total cultural labor 88.23 384.68
Total tractor labor 15.96 82.83
Supervision 190.93


TOTAL LABOR COST


658.44









Table A-10. Green Peppers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Palm
Beach County area, 1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp 1.60 3.38 5.11 8.49
70 hp 8.93 34.57 50.95 85.52
100 hp 2.24 14.97 20.01 34.98


IMPLEMENTS

1-Row mower 0.40 1.05 0.60 1.65
12-ft Disk 1.28 11.25 3.83 15.08
1-Row middle buster 0.40 0.63 0.14 0.77
1-Row bedder 0.80 0.96 0.54 1.50
1-Row fumigator 0.80 2.13 1.60 3.73
1-Row fert. distributor 0.80 7.27 6.16 13.43
1-Row cross-ditcher 0.80 1.81 0.82 2.63
1-Row plastic layer 0.80 3.18 2.00 5.18
1-Row hole puncher 0.80 0.48 0.18 0.66
2-Row herbicide sprayer 0.80 2.13 1.12 3.25
Sprayer 5.20 64.55 33.97 98.52
1-Row plastic lifter 0.53 2.05 0.70 2.75
Baler 0.16 2.52 0.77 3.29


MISCELLANEOUS

100-hp Diesel engine pump 7.27 26.67 50.04 76.71
Mixer 1.00 4.96 25.25 30.21
Pepper mule train 4.00 87.33 43.00 130.33
30-hp Electric pump 12.50 14.67 3.33 18.00


TOTAL MACHINERY COST 286.52 250.12 536.64


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


286.52 250.12 536.64









Table A-11. Green Peppers: Summary of preharvest labor
Florida area, 1985-86.


costs in the Southwest


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Remove plastic
Bed, fumig. and top fert.
Make cross ditches
Lay plastic
Set plants
Replant
Water control
Other

Total cultural labor
Total tractor labor
Supervision

TOTAL LABOR COST


9.00
0.40
3.50
1.20
12.00
2.00
2.50
10.00

40.60
12.52


39.24
1.74
15.26
5.23
52.32
8.72
10.90
43.60

177.02
65.00
171.70

413.72









Table A-12. Green Peppers: Summary of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida
area, 1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Desciption Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total

TRACTORS

100 hp 7.30 48.83 65.27 114.10
125 hp 0.80 5.91 8.41 14.32
180 hp 1.92 21.95 30.09 52.04


IMPLEMENTS

l-Row mower 0.40 1.00 0.60 1.65
16-ft Disk 0.96 10.14 3.46 13.60
V-Ditcher 0.32 0.90 0.38 1.28
14-ft Reverse plow 0.32 0.67 0.23 0.90
3-Row bed fertilizer 0.32 1.85 1.39 3.24
3-Row fumigator 0.32 1.91 1.44 3.35
3-Row fert. distributor 0.32 3.96 3.35 7.31
3-Row cross-ditcher 0.32 1.61 0.73 2.34
3-Row plastic layer 0.32 2.58 1.94 4.52
3-Row plant setter 0.80 2.11 0.60 2.71
2-Row herbicide sprayer 0.64 1.70 0.89 2.59
Sprayer 4.80 59.63 31.38 91.01
1-Row plastic lifter 0.50 1.94 0.66 2.60


MISCELLANEOUS

20-hp Diesel engine pump 12.50 9.17 17.25 26.42
100-hp Diesel engine pump 7.14 26.19 49.14 75.33


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


202.11


217.23 419.34







25

Table A-13. Summer Squash: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the Dade
County area, 1985-86.


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Seed and fertilize 0.22 0.96
Cultivate 0.99 4.32

Total cultural labor 1.21 5.28
Total tractor labor 2.72 14.14
Supervision 40.32

TOTAL LABOR COST 59.74









Table A-14. Summer Squash: Summary of machine use and costs in the Dade County area,
1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp
70 hp
160 hp


IMPLEMENTS


1.38
0.00
0.80


2.91
0.00
7.74


4.40
0.00
10.89


7.31
0.00
18.63


13-ft Heavy disk
4-Row fert. applicator
4-Row planter
Sprayer
4-Row cultivator


MISCELLANEOUS

117-hp Pump (truck mounted)
25-ft Movable shed


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


0.80
0.18
0.18
1.20
0.80


1.88
2.00


9.86
0.55
1.59
14.90
1.83


6.61
3.22


49.22


3.36
0.34
0.96
7.84
1.04


14.12
1.76


13.22
0.89
2.55
22.74
2.87


20.73
4.98


44.71 93.93









Table A-15 Ground Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the
Dade County area, 1985-86.


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Frost protection 1.50 6.54
Fumigate and lay plastic 2.50 10.90
Haul plastic 1.00 4.36
Lay plastic by side 6.25 27.25
Other cultural 15.00 65.40
Plant 2.00 8.72
Prepare plug mix 0.50 2.18
Prune plants 25.00 109.00
Supplemental fertilizer 0.33 1.44
Thin plants 6.25 27.25

Total cultural labor 60.33 263.04
Total tractor labor 12.02 62.32
Supervision 156.01


TOTAL LABOR COST 481.37


TOTAL LABOR COST


481.37









Table A-16. Ground Tomatoes: Summary of machine use and costs in the Dade County area,
1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

40 hp 6.26 13.22 19.98 33.20
70 hp 2.03 7.86 11.58 19.44
160 hp 1.33 12.84 18.05 30.89


IMPLEMENTS

13 ft. Heavy disk 1.07 13.14 4.48 17.62
1-Row mower 0.20 0.52 0.30 0.82
1-Row plastic cutter 0.20 0.08 0.01 0.09
2-Row herbicide sprayer 1.20 3.19 1.68 4.87
3-Row bedder 0.13 0.35 0.26 0.61
3-Row fert. distributor 0.40 4.96 4.20 9.16
3-Row fumigator 0.20 1.20 0.90 2.10
3-Row middle buster 0.13 0.31 0.12 0.43
3-Row scrapper 0.20 0.26 0.15 0.41
3-Row shanks 0.10 0.26 0.06 0.32
3-Row tomato planter 0.80 12.41 7.47 19.88
Baler 0.13 2.04 0.62 2.66
Fertilizer tender 0.40 3.54 3.00 6.54
Side hole puncher 0.20 0.40 0.15 0.55
Sprayer 4.26 52.86 27.82 80.68


MISCELLANEOUS

117-hp Pump (truck mounted) 4.22 14.86 31.75 46.61
2-Ton truck 0.20 1.35 2.68 4.03
Mixer 0.13 0.64 3.28 3.92


TOTAL MACHINERY COST 146.30 138.54 284.84


138.54 284.84


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


146.30









Table A-17. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor costs in the
Ruskin/Palmetto area, 1985-86.


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Apply cricket bait 1.00 4.36
Drive stakes 4.00 17.44
Irrigate 2.50 10.90
Prune plants 3.50 15.26
Remove plastic 10.00 43.60
Replant 1.00 4.36
Set plants 3.00 13.08
Set stakes 8.80 38.37
Tie plants 18.00 78.48
Other 25.00 109.00

Total cultural labor 76.80 334.85
Total tractor labor 15.64 81.19
Supervision 149.02


TOTAL LABOR COST


565.06









Table A-18. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of machine use and costs in the
Ruskin/Palmetto area, 1985-86.
Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total

TRACTORS

70 hp 0.32 1.24 1.82 3.06
100 hp 10.20 68.19 91.15 159.34
150 hp 2.00 17.60 25.14 42.74


IMPLEMENTS

13-ft Heavy disk 1.60 19.71 6.72 26.43
14-ft Leveler 0.40 1.47 0.45 1.92
1-Row bedder 0.32 0.38 0.22 0.60
1-Row fert. distributor 0.32 2.90 2.46 5.36
1-Row fumigator 0.32 0.85 0.64 1.49
1-Row plastic layer 0.32 1.27 0.80 2.07
1-Row plant setter 0.80 0.98 0.28 1.26
2-Row gas burner 0.80 4.00 2.83 6.83
2-Row herbicide sprayer 0.72 1.91 1.01 2.92
2-Row hiller 0.32 0.84 0.19 1.03
4-Row stake drivers 0.80 6.80 3.42 10.22
Ditch plow 0.32 0.31 0.11 0.42
Row marker 0.32 0.42 0.02 0.44
Sprayer 3.84 47.67 25.09 72.76
V-Board 0.32 0.42 0.10 0.52
V-Ditcher 1.00 2.83 1.20 4.03


MISCELLANEOUS

100-hp Diesel engine pump 10.00 36.67 68.80 105.47
2-Ton truck 0.80 5.40 10.72 16.12


TOTAL MACHINERY COST 221.85 243.15 465.00


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


221.85


243.15 465.00









Table A-19. Staked Tomatoes: Summary of preharvest labor
Southwest Florida area, 1985-86.


Operation Hours per acre Dollars per acre


CULTURAL LABOR

Apply bottom fertilizer
Bed fumigation and top fert.
Lay plastic
Make cross-ditches
Prune plants
Remove plastic
Remove stakes
Set plants
Tie plants
Water control
Other

Total cultural labor
Total tractor labor
Supervision


0.20
0.50
1.20
5.00
13.00
8.00
3.00
4.80
26.00
2.50
25.00

89.20
12.15


TOTAL LABOR COST


costs in the


0.87
2.18
5.23
21.80
56.68
34.88
13.08
20.93
113.36
10.90
109.00

388.91
63.08
188.12

640.11










Table A-20. Staked Tomatoes:
area, 1985-86.


Summary of machine use and costs in the Southwest Florida


Dollars per acre
Description Hours per acre Fixed Variable Total


TRACTORS

100 hp
125 hp
180 hp


IMPLEMENTS


4.30
4.01
1.41


28.76
29.67
16.11


38.44
42.21
22.09


67.20
71.88
38.20


12-ft Disk
3-Row bedder
3-Row fert. distributor
3-Row fumigator
3-Row gas burner
3-Row middle buster
3-Row plant setter
3-Row plastic layer
3-Row stake puller
6-Row herbicide sprayer
Sprayer
V-Ditcher


MISCELLANEOUS

20-hp Diesel engine pump
100-hp Diesel engine pump
1-Ton truck


TOTAL MACHINERY COST


1.41
0.16
0.40
0.40
0.32
0.20
0.80
0.40
0.80
2.15
0.27
3.61


12.50
7.14
0.40


12.39
0.43
4.96
2.39
1.81
0.48
2.11
3.24
10.64
11.44
3.35
10.24


9.17
26.19
1.91


175.29


4.23
0.32
4.20
1.80
1.28
0.18
0.60
2.43
6.40
6.02
1.77
4.34


17.25
49.14
2.16


16.62
0.75
9.16
4.19
3.09
0.66
2.71
5.67
17.04
17.46
5.12
14.58


26.42
75.33
4.07


204.86 380.15





33

REFERENCES

Buckley, K.C., J.J. Van Sickle, M.E. Bredahl, E. Belibasis and N. Gutierree. Florida and Mexico
Competition for the Winter Fresh Vegetable Market. USDA, ERS Agricultural Economic
Report No. 556, 1986.




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