Group Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Title: A survey of food preferences of Florida men
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026455/00001
 Material Information
Title: A survey of food preferences of Florida men
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 26 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Abbott, O. D ( Ouida Davis ), b. 1892
Townsend, Ruth O
French, R. B ( Rowland Barnes )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
Copyright Date: 1952
 Subjects
Subject: Food preferences -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: O.D. Abbott, Ruth O. Townsend and R.B. French.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026455
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: ltuf - AEN6433
oclc - 18267168
alephbibnum - 000925777

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE



The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





4--



Bulletin 500 August 1952



UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS- ,
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA













A Survey of Food Preferences of

Florida Men


O. D. ABBOTT, RUTH O. TOWNSEND and R. B. FRENCH



















Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










BOARD OF CONTROL P. T. D'ix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.2
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville EDITORIAL
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale Clyde Beale, A.B.., Associate Editor3
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editor
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor 3
ENTOMOLOGY
EXECUTIVE STAFF A. N. Tissot, Ph.D, Entomologist'
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President3 L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3 H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Ass'. Entomologist
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3 HOME ECONOMICS
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticullurist 3 4
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economists' R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3 R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 8 R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate R. D. D'ckey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3 C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
H. W. Little, M.S., Assistant Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
Tallmadge Bergen, B.S., Assistant S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist Buford Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. L. Tennant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
LIBRARY
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA) Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural PLANT PATHOLOGY
Statistician 2 W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist 1 a
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2 Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer' 3 Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.3 C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng. POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hush.1
AGRONOMY J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist12
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist SOILS
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist '
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D, Soils Chemist
Fred A. ark, M.S., Assistantss Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyors
Myron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant a biologist 4
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant s H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
H. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Ass stant R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist34
"E. C. Nuter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION S. N. Edson, M. S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.1 William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist 0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S.. Asst. An. Husb. W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem. J. G A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3 H. I. Ross, B.S., Soils Microbiologist
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri. L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist S
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. 3 H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
E. F. Johnston, M.S.. Asst. An. Husbandman VETERINARY SCIENCE
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb. D.A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian I
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian s
D XIRY SCIENCE C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.' 3 L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.5 Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Hush.3 Pathologist
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.3 W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist










BRANCH STATIONS SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY D. 0. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist in Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
Charge John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush. M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Mobile Un, Mo o WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
Mobile Unit, Monticello RO VIL
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist B KVLL
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
Mobile Unit, Marianna man in Charge 2
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smit M .St W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge J. W. Wilson, S.D., Entomologist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
. F. Suit, Ph.., Plant Pathologist Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path. H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist SUW E V Y TAT
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist LIVE OAK
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path. E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort. W. G. Cowperthwaite, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem. Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. Entomologist FIELD LABORATORIES
R. B. Johnson, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem. Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leeshurg
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist Acting in Strawberry-Plant City
Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr. Vegetables--Hastings
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb. A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist Pecans-Monticello
W. N. Stoner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
W. G. Genung, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path. Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist2
H. L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A.. Asst. An. Hush.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort. 1 Head of Department
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Asst. Chem. 2 In cooperation with U. S.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer 2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils 3Cooperative, other divisions, U, of F.
Chem. 4 On leave


















CONTENTS

PAGE

INTRODUCTION .. .................. ........ ....... ...... ..... 5


METHODS ............-..-.......---..-...---....-- .. ... ...... .................. 6

Subjects ............. --..... .................... ........... ... .. ........... .......... 6

Questionnaire -........... .......... .................... ............... 6

Collaborators ........... ...... .........- ........-. -----....--.. ... 6

Interview s ---............... .............. ......... ............................... 7

MAJOR RESULTS .. ..................... ........... .............- ...........--- ....... 7

Food Preferences ................................ .....- .........-..-- --..... 7

Preferred Methods of Preparation ..................---- ..... ............. ..... 14

Patterns of Preferred Menus ............--....... ..-..---- -----.... ............ 14

Menus Representative of Food Combinations Preferred by Florida
M en ... ..... ...................................... 17


D ISCU SSION ........................................ ......... ...... ...... ... ................. 22


SUM MARY ..................... .......... ........... ........... 25

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...................... .............--- ....--. ..-- ......---- .....--.. 26








A Survey of Food Preferences of
Florida Men'

0. D. ABBOTT, RUTH O. TOWNSEND and R. B. FRENCH

This is a report of a survey on food preferences of native-
born Florida males made in cooperation with the Committee
on Food Research, Quartermaster Food and Container Institute
for the Armed Forces.
In 1941 the Committee on Food Research called on nutrition-
ists and vitamin experts and chemists to assist in selecting
foods of high nutritive value which would remain edible under
war-time shipping and storage conditions. Apparently these
requisites were met but when the rations were prepared and
served, "it just so happened that the boys didn't always like
the various components of the ration."
Men liked the foods they were accustomed to eat but many
foods in the ration had not been tried or were disliked by the
soldiers. It was then recognized that there were regionally-
preferred foods and also preferred methods of preparation.
For these reasons, in 1945 the Committee on Food Research
asked an official investigator from the Massachusetts School of
Technology and from each of seven land-grant colleges located
in different sections of the United States to participate in a food
study. These investigators were to find out the preferred foods,
those that were disliked and those that had not been tried. Since
acceptability is affected by the way in which a food is prepared,
data were collected on methods of preparation.
The University of Florida was designated as one of the co-
operating institutions and the official investigator was chosen
from the Department of Home Economics of the Agricultural
Experiment Station.
According to the Committee on Food Research,2 an important
objective of these food studies "is to establish a method of
measuring nutritional attitude and changes in attitudes (by
regions) from a sampled population such as of draftees for
universal military training, on a representative set of key foods
and conditions. Such records should serve as the beginning of
a set of National Standards of Food Acceptance for use in mili-
tary feeding programs, ration and menu planning, for use in
1This survey was made possible by a grant from the Research and
Development Branch, Military Planning Division, Office of the Quarter-
master General, U. S. Army.
Office of the Quartermaster General, Military Planning Division, Re-
search and Development Branch.








6 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

procurement of food supplies, and to serve as guides to food
industries responsible during peace time for feeding the general
population and responsible during time of emergencies in feed-
ing the armed forces as well."

METHODS
Subjects.-The plan of this survey was to secure data from
Florida-born males and females, 17 to 20 and 45 to 58 years of
age. Approximately 50 percent of the respondents were to be
from several small cities and the remainder from villages and
surrounding country. Those from the city were to be born
and reared in a city where practically all their food was bought,
while those from the villages and country were to be born and
reared in the country where practically all their food was pro-
duced on the home farm or near by.
Because of the great influx of people into Florida from other
states during recent years and the relatively few native-born
Floridians, especially in the older age groups, no satisfactory
statistical design for the selection of the population sample could
be found. Therefore, respondents were selected as follows:
The 45-58 year old group from lists of Florida-born individuals
obtained from churches, civic and social organizations, older
residents and from tax records; the 17-20 year old groups from
high school and college directories. Interviews were then ar-
ranged to determine suitability and willingness to cooperate.
Questionnaire.-This survey was carried out according to pro-
cedures and methods outlined by the Research and Development
Branch of the office of the Quartermaster General. The ques-
tionnaire was designed to provide data (1) on the rate of accept-
ance and degree of preference of 473 food items, which included
not only the common foods but also confections, condiments,
tobaccos and alcohol and carbonated beverages; (2) on age, sex,
native stock, region of birth and rearing, height, weight, physi-
cal status, socio-economic status, occupation, and physiological
and psychological reactions, since both the rate of acceptance
and the degree of preference are modified somewhat by these
factors.
Collaborators.-Records were secured by trained observers
responsible to the Official Investigator. The qualifications of
the collaborators were as follows: a registered nurse, formerly
director of nursing service in Alachua General Hospital and
later an assistant in the Department of Home Economics; two








A Survey of Food Preferences of Florida Men 7

graduate assistants, one from the Department of Sociology, the
other from the Department of Psychology, and a graduate from
the Department of Home Economics, North Carolina State
University.
Interviews.-After the respondents were selected, interviews
were conducted by the collaborators for an hour or more on
six to seven consecutive days. At first only one individual was
questioned at a time, later groups of five or six were interro-
gated. For students the group method was satisfactory but it
could not be used for older men and women.
From June 1, 1946, to March 31, 1947, 402 questionnaires
were completed and sent to the Food Acceptance Branch of the
Quartermaster division for tabulation. These questionnaires
provided data on 202 males and females 17-20 years of age and
on 300 males and females 45 to 58 years of age. Approximately
one-half of each age group was city migrants and non-migrants,
while the other half was rural migrants and non-migrants.
According to the Chief of the Food and Research Division,8
a critical appraisal of the data from one state indicated "that
the most complete and satisfactory answers appear in sections
dealing with the degree of preference toward common food
items, preferred methods of preparation of certain foods and
preferred menus." Since the percentage of "no answers," mean-
ing not tried or disliked, was high for 224 foods, these items
were deleted and the tabulations sent to this department in-
cluded only 249 items. Upon further appraisal by the authors,
it was found that among these items there were still 89 items
where the percentage of "no answers" was high. These items
were deleted also. The tabulations included data on males only,
since the data on females were not analyzed by the Food and
Research Division. The data presented herein, therefore, are
based on 192 males and include preferences for 160 food items,
preferred methods of preparing common vegetables and menus
preferred on Wednesday and on Sunday.

MAJOR RESULTS
Food Preferences.-The preferences of 192 Florida-born rural
and urban men 17 to 20 and 45 to 58 years of age for 160 foods
are presented in Table 1. These foods are arranged in 10 groups
as follows: vegetables, fruits, meat, fish, beverages, confections,
condiments and flavorings and nuts. The degree of preference
is indicated by "acceptable," "not tried" and "disliked." It will
SPlan for Processing Food Habits Survey. QMDIL. Fr. 141.8.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

be noted that the low acceptance of many foods is due primarily
to "not tried" rather than to "disliked." Fifty vegetables are
listed and approximately 18, or approximately one-third of them,
had not been tried by from 53 to 100 percent of the respondents.
With the exception of the vegetable group there were only
slight differences in acceptability traceable to age or place of
residence. The acceptability of vegetables was lowest for rural
boys, slightly higher for urban boys and highest for urban men.
The data show that no vegetable was 100 percent acceptable
to all groups and only two were 100 percent acceptable to all
members of a single group-snap beans to rural men and to-
matoes to urban men. The nine vegetables of highest accept-
ability to all groups listed in the order of preference were let-
tuce, tomatoes, sweet potatoes, snap beans, white potatoes, corn,
shelled peas, cabbage and shelled beans. The principal vege-
tables not tried were artichoke, salisfy, kohlrabi, lentils and
the recently introduced salad greens and pot herbs.
The favorite fruits arranged in the order of preference were
oranges, peaches, bananas, strawberries, grapefruit, apples and
pineapples; while those of lowest acceptance were those not
grown in the state, such as gooseberries, raspberries and cur-
rants, and those of recent introduction and limited distribution,
as the avocado and persimmon.
The preferred meats were beef and veal, fresh and cured
pork, chicken and turkey, while those of low acceptability were
lamb, tongue and heart. The preference for fish was high in
all groups. However, some variation was noted in the accept-
ance of shell and canned fish. Oysters were more acceptable
to the older than to the younger groups, while'shrimp was more
acceptable to urban than to rural men and tuna was the least
acceptable of all. Eggs were highly acceptable to all groups.
Whole milk, butter, ice cream and American cheese were
the favorite dairy products, while buttermilk, cream and cottage
cheeses were the least favored.
Only slight differences were found in the rate of acceptability
of the four groups in reference to cereals. However, it is of
interest that the preference for grits is somewhat higher in the
older than in the younger men, while the reverse is true for
popcorn. Rice, a staple food of the South, was preferred by
more than 80 percent of the respondents. Biscuit was preferred
by approximately 97 percent of the entire group, with wheat
and corn breads in the order named. Other products of high
acceptability were sandwiches, cake and pie.










TABLE 1.-PREFERENCES OF 192 FLORIDA MALES FOR SELECTED FOODS, 1946-47.

Group I-17-20 years, rural native migrants and non-migrants
Group II-17-20 years, urban native migrants and non-migrants
Group III-45-58 years, rural native migrants and non-migrants
Group IV-45-58 years, urban native migrants and non-migrants

Group

Number of ii I III IV
Respondents 46 49 46 51
SAcceptable Not Tried Disliked Acceptable Not Tried I Disliked Acceptable Not Tried Disliked I1 Acceptable Not Tried i Disliked
Food Items | No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %I No. No. % No. % No. % No. %
Vegetables -------------
Artichoke ............. 45 98 1 2 3 6 46 94 -- 2 4 | 40 7 4 9 1 2 46 90 4 8
Asparagus 9 20 29 63 8 17 27 55 13 27 9 18 15 33 20 43 11 24 31 61 13 25 7 14
Beans, snap......... 44 96 2 4 48 98 1 2 46 100 0 0 48 94 0 3 6
SBeans, shelled ........ 44 96 2 4 47 96 2 4 44 96 0 2 4 48 94 1 2 2 4
Beet tops ................ 4 9 37 80 5 11 13 27 31 63 5 10 2 4 38 83 6 13 8 16 30 59 13 25
Beet root ............... 38 83 5 11 3 6 37 6 12 24 39 85 1 2 6 13 44 86 0 7 14
Broccoli .................... 9 20 34 74 3 6 17 35 24 49 8 16 9 20 35 76 2 4 25 49 18 35 8 16
Brussels sprouts .... 4 9 89 85 3 6 13 27 32 65 4 8 1 2 44 96 1 2 13 25 27 53 11 22
Cabbage .................... 42 91 1 4 9 45 92 4 8 1 41 89 0 5 11 47 92 2 4 2 4
Carrots ..................... 40 87 6 13 43 88 6 12 11 36 78 0 10 22 45 88 0 6 12
Cauliflower .............. 18 39 24 52 4 9 26 53 10 20 13 27 I! 20 43 17 37 9 20 39 76 5 10 7 14
Celery ..................... 32 70 3 6 11 24 38 78 5 10 6 12 i| 41 89 1 2 4 9 47 92 0 4 8
Chard .................. 4 9 40 87 2 4 3 6 45 92 1 2 |1 1 2 44 96 1 2 1 2 46 90 4 8
Chinese Cabbage .... 4 9 40 87 2 4 4 8 44 90 1 2 4 9 41 89 1 2 8 16 39 76 4 8
Chives ...................... 4 9 40 87 2 4 3 6 45 92 1 2 1 2 41 89 4 9 2 4 47 92 2 4
Collards ................... 33 71 4 9 9 20 36 73 2 4 11 22 | 38 83 1 2 7 15 42 82 1 2 8 16
Corn, field ................ 41 89 4 9 1 2 37 76 11. 22 1 2 45 98 1 2 44 86 4 8 3 6
Corn, sweet ........... 41 89 4 9 1 2 46 94 3 6 II 44 96 1 2 1 2 50 98 1 2
Cucumbers ................ 39 85 2 4 5 11 37 76 5 10 7 14 39 85 3 6 4 9 42 82 1 2 8 16
Dandelion greens .. 4 9 40 87 2 4 5 10 41 84 3 6 I 1 2 44 96 1 2 1 2 48 94 2 4
Eggplant ................. 29 63 9 20 8 17 26 53 7 14 16 33 39 85 2 4 5 11 39 76 2 4 10 20
Endive ..................... - 44 96 2 4 1 2 48 98 -- 1 2 45 98 2 4 48 94 1 2
Escarole .................... - 45 98 1 2 1 2 48 98 I 1 2 45 98 1 2 48 94 2 4
Garlic ........................ 4 9 33 71 9 20 12 24 19 39 18 37 14 30 17 37 15 33 21 41 18 35 12 24
Kale .......................... 4 9 39 85 3 6 8 16 41 84 9 4 9 41 89 1 2 9 18 39 76 3 6
____________________ ___________ ______._______________ -- ________lj____________ ___- I _____________________












TABLE 1.-Continued.
I Acceptable Not Tried Disliked li Acceptable I Not Tried Disliked I Acceptable Not Tried Disliked I1 Acceptable Not Tried Disliked
Food Items I No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % I No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %

Vegetables 16
Kohlrabi .--.--.. .... 45 98 1 2 2 4 47 96 4 9 42 91 0 13 25 32 63 6 12
Lentils ................. 1 2 44 96 1 2 0 49 103 46 100 0 1 2 48 94 2 4
Lettuce .............. 45 98 1 2 47 96 0 2 4 44 96 2 4 50 98 0 1 2
Mushrooms .......... 4 9 39 85 3 6 16 33 29 59 4 8 6 13 4 9 36 78 27 53 19 37 5 10
Mustard greens ...... 32 70 3 6 11 24 39 80 0 -- 10. 20 42 91 0 0 4 9 47 92 1 2 3 6
Okra ........ ......... 5 38 83 2 4 6 13 35 71 1 2 13 27 44 96 0 2 4 47 92 0 4 8
Onion ... 39 85 1 2 6 13 42 86 1 2 6 12 37 80 0 9 20 46 90 0 5 10
Parsley ................... 2 4 38 83 6 13 9 18 37 76 3 6 6 13 36 78 4 9 22 43 20 39 9 18
Parsnips .....-..... 5 11 37 80 4 9 3 6 44 90 2 4 .4 9 41 89 1 2 9 18 29 57 13 25
Peas in pod ........... 40 87 0 6 13 39 80 8 16 2 4 39 85 2 4 5 11 45 88 3 6 3 6
Peas, shell .......... 42 91 4 9 47 96 2 4 0 44 96 0 2 4 50 98 0 1 2
Peppers ........-....... 31 67 4 9 11 24 31 63 5 10 13 27 38 83 0 8 17 33 65 2 4 16 31
Pimentoes ..... .. 17 37 23 50 6 13 18 37 19 39 12 24 28 61 8 17 10 22 24 47 9 18 18 35
Potatoes, sweet ... 45 98 0 1 2 46 94 0 3 6 45 98 0 1 2 48 94 0 3 6
Potatoes, white 42 91 0 4 9 48 98 0 1 2 44 96 0 2 4 50 98 0 1 2
S'II I
Pumpkin .............. 30 65 7 15 9 20 31 63 14 29 4 8 34 74 4 9 8 17 31 61 6 12 14 27
Radishes ............. 18 39 13 28 15 33 23 47 17 35 9 18 1. 23 50 1 2 22 48 32 63 4 8 15 29
Rhubarb ............... - 35 76 11 24 9 18 37 76 3 61 2 4 39 85 5 11 13 25 29 57 9 18
Rutabagas ..-........... 17 37 20 43 9 20 21 43 9 18 19 39 40 87 2 4 4 9 33 69 3 6 13 25
Salsify ...................... 45 98 1 2 2 4 47 96 0 0 1 2 41 89 4 911 3 6 48 94 -
Sauerkraut ........ 12 26 19 41 15 33 24 49 13 27 12 24 23 50 6 13 17 37 33 65 4 8 14 27
Soybean ............... 6 13 36 78 4 9 13 27 35 71 1 2 1 2 40 87 5 11 7 14 40 78 4 8
Spinach ................... 16 35 14 30 16 35 40 82 1 2 8 16 17 37 8 17 21 46 27 53 24 47
Squash ..................... 35 76 4 9 7 15 37 76 4 8 8 16 39 85 0 0 7 15 47 92 4 8
Succotash ....-........-- 15 33 30 65 1 2 14 29 34 69 1 2 11 24 32 70 3 6 27 53 21 41 3 6
Tomatoes -..-........ 45 98 0 1 2 47 96 0 2 4 45 98 0 1 2 51 100 0 0
Turnip greens ........ 34 74 3 6 9 20 39 80 2 4 8 16 41 89 1 2 4 9 46 90 1 2 4 8
Turnip roots ............ 34 74 2 4 10 22 27 55 5 10 17 35 39 85 2 4 5 11 43 84 1 2 7 14
Watercress ......... 44 96 2 4 3 6 46 94 0 1 2 44 96 1 2 5 10 45 88 1 2
Yams ...................... 6 13 38 83 2 4 20 41 28 57 1 2 6 13 38 83 2 4 15 29 35 69 1 2
Vegetable beverages 42 91 4 9 37 76 9 18 3 6 34 74 4 9 8 17 41 80 5 10 5 10
Vegetables pickled.. 42 91 4 9 37 76 7 14 5 10 42 91 0 0 4 9 45 88 2 4 4 8
Vegetable salad ...... 42 91 4 9 43 88 5 10 1 2 44 96 2 4 49 96 0 2 4
Vegetable soup...... 45 98 1 2 44 90 1 2 4 8 44 96 1 2 1 2 47 92 1 2 3 6










TABLE 1.-Continued.
Acceptable Not Tried Disliked !1 Acceptable I Not Tried Disliked Acceptable | Not Tried Disliked I Acceptable Not Tried | Disliked
Food Items No. % N No. No. % INo. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %

Fruits I
Apples ....................... 44 96 2 4 47 96 1 2 1 2 44 96 2 4 45 88 6 12
Apricots .................. 17 37 20 43 9 20 33 67 13 27 3 6 23 50 14 30 9 20 39 76 5 10 7 14
Avocado .................... 15 33 25 54 6 13 26 53 17 35 6 12 13 28 23 50 10 22 30 59 13 25 8 16
Bananas .................... 46 100 49 100 45 98 1 2 47 92 14 8
Blackberries ............ 38 83 7 15 1 2 41 84 6 12 2 4 42 91 4 9 42 82 2 4 7 14
Blueberries ............. 29 63 15 33 2 4 36 73 13 27 39 85 6 13 1 2 41 80 5 10 5 10
Cherries ................. 24 52 13 28 9 20 32 65 14 29 3 6 22 48 12 26 12 26 28 55 14 27 9 18
Cranberries ........... 29 63 9 20 8 17 32 65 13 27 4 8 40 87 1 2 5 11 41 80 4 8 6 12
Currants ................. 9 20 35 76 2 4 9 18 39 80 1 2 4 9 41 89 1 2 14 27 30 59 7 14
Dates ..................... 20 43 21 46 5 11 17 35 26 53 6 12 27 59 16 35 3 6 34 67 13 25 4 8
Figs .......................... 32 70 3 6 11 24 37 76 4 8 8 16 I 41 89 4 9 1 2 45 88 2 4 4 8
Gooseberries ........... 2 4 40 87 4 9 5 10 44 90 4 9 42 91 2 4 45 88 4 8
Grapefruit .............. 44 96 2 4 48 98 1 2 41 89 1 2 4 9 48 94 1 2 2 4
Grapes .................... | 41 89 1 2 4 9 40 82 3 6 6 12 45 98 1 2 49 96 1 2 1 2
Huckleberries ........ 21 46 23 50 2 4 20 41 26 53 3 6 38 83 6 13 2 4 27 53 18 35 6 12
Lemons .................... 38 83 8 17 45 92 1 2 3 6 1 41 89 1 2 4 9 43 84 2 4 6 12
Limes ........................ 25 54 6 13 15 33 38 78 5 10 6 12 | 28 61 12 26 6 13 39 76 5 10 7 14
Cantaloupes ........... 36 78 6 13 4 9 41 84 6 12 2 4 1 39 85 1 2 6 13 48 94 1 2 2 4
Watermelons .... 44 96 2 4 44 90 2 4 3 6 42 91 4 9 42 82 3 6 6 12
Oranges .................... 46 100 48 98 1 2 -1 44 96 2 4 50 98 1 2
Peaches .................... 44 96 2 4 48 98 1 2 46 100 51 100 -
Pears ........................ 39 85 2 4 5 11 44 90 3 6 2 4 40 87 6 13 45 88 6 12
Persimmons ........... 11 24 30 65 5 11 13 27 26 53 10 20 8 17 21 46 17 37 10 20 18 35 23 45
Pineapple .........- 41 89 4 9 1 2 48 98 1 2 41 89 1 2 4 9 48 94 1 2 2 4
Plums ................... 22 48 18 39 6 13 39 80 8 16 2 4 40 87 4 9 2 4 29 57 9 18 13 25
Dairy Products
Butter .. .. 46 100 48 98 1 2 44 96 2 4 50 98 1 2
Buttermilk ...... 27 59 6 13 13 28 28 57 7 14 14 29 34 74 12 26 32 63 4 8 15 29
Whole milk .......... 44 96 2 4 46 94 3 6 42 91 4 9 48 94 3 6
Evaporated milk .... 16 35 24 52 6 13 20 41 18 37 11 22 24 52 12 26 10 22 24 47 4 8 23 45
ice cream .......---- 46 100 48 98 1 2 44 96 2 4 49 96 2 4
American cheese .... 38 8 8 17 44 93 2 4 3 6 46 100 49 96 2 4
Cottage cheese ........ 11 24 22 48 13 28 26 53 15 31 8 16 15 33 25 54 6 13 29 57 7 14 15 29
Cream cheese ......... 14 30 21 46 11 24 23 47 18 37 8 16 20 43 16 35 10 22 42 82 5 10 4 8
Cerealsand grits ....
Mush and grits .... 40 8 6 13 40 82 4 8 5 10 11 44 96 2 4 46 90 5 10
_____________ _______I ________ ________ I -_______ I 'I I I_______











TABLE 1.-Continued.
SAcceptable I Not Tried IDisliked 1 Acceptable Not Tried Disliked I Acceptable Not Tried Disliked I Acceptable I Not Tried Disliked
Food Items No.
Cereals
opcorn ......--- --- 41 89 1 2 4 9 39 80 4 8 6 12 33 71 4 9 9 20 32 63 6 12 13 25
Rolled oats .......... 25 54 12 26 9 20 32 65 4 8 13 27 34 74 2 4 10 22 39 76 12 24
Corn cereals .......... 34 74 8 17 4 9 41 84 1 2 7 14 34 74 4 9 8 17 40 78 2 4 9 18
Rice ........ 40 87 6 13 43 88 639 85 15 43 84 8 16
Wheat cereals ........ 6 78 5 11 5 11 46 94 3 6 39 85 1 2 6 13 43 84 2 4 6 12
Griddle cakes ........ 38 83 2 4 6 13 39 80 1 2 9 18 42 91 4 9 42 82 9 18
Biscuit ................ 46 100 45 92 4 8 46 00 50 98 1
Doughnuts ..-........-- 40 87 2 4 4 9 44 90 2 4 3 6 44 96 2 4 42 82 9 18
Rolls ......................... 32 70 3 6 11 24 45 92 4 8 36 78 6 13 4 9 46 90 5 10
Wheat bread .......... 44 96 2 4 46 94 3 6 42 91 4 9 49 96 2 4
Sandwiches ........ 46 100 49 100 44 96 2 4 45 88 6 12
Corn bread ... 41 89 5 11 44 90 2 4 3 6 1 4 2 46 90 5 10
Cakes ....................... 45 98 1 2 48 98 1 2 46 100 51 100
Pies ...--.........- .... 46 100 48 98 1 2 40 87 6 13 49 96 2 4
Macaroni products.. 41 89 5 11 48 98 1 2 40 87 6 13 39 76 12 24
Beverages
Soft drinks 46 100 49 100 46 100 51 100 -
Cocoa ............- 40 87 6 13 42 86 7 14 36 78 4 9 6 13 41 80 3 6 7 14
Coffee 42 91 -..- 4 9 46 94 3 6 42 91 4 9 47 92 4 8
Tea .................. 42 91 4 9 41 84 8 16 42 91 4 9 46 90 5 10

Fruits 2
Prunes -------------------31 67 9 20 6 13 38 78 4 8 7 14 1 38 83 3 6 5 11 49 96 2 4
Raisins .-- ........ -------- 34 74 6 13 6 13 39 80 6 12 4 8 42 91 -4 9 41 80 4 8 6 12
Raspberries ........ 6 13 36 78 4 9 10 20 37 76 2 4 6 13 36 78 4 9 22 43 23 45 6 12
Strawberries 42 91 4 9 49 100 46 100 50 98 1 2
Tangerines .. 41 89 4 9 1 2 43 88 6 12 44 96 2 4 47 92 2 4 2 4
Fruit cake .............. 44 96 2 4 45 92 4 8 45 98 1 2 43 84 8 16
Fruit juice.............. 41 89 1 2 4 9 46 94 3 61 46 100 46 90 2 4 3 6
Fruit salad ............ 1 42 91 4 9 42 86 2 4 5 10 44 96 2 4 51 100 -
Meat I
Beef and veal ........ 46 100 49 100 45 98 1 2 51 100 -
Fresh pork ......... 46 100 47 96 2 4 46 100 -- 49 96 2 4
Cured pork .............. 46 100 49 100 46 100 50 98 1 2
Lamb -------- 8 17 15 33 23 50 20 41 21 43 8 16 16 35 7 15 23 50 27 53 11 22 13 25
Chicken ..-------------- 46 100 48 98 1 211 46 100 -- 51 100
Eggs ------------- 44 96 2 4 47 96 2 4 42 91 4 9 50 98 1 2
Duck -------------- 15 33 25 54 6 13 20 41 21 43 8 16 [j 20 43 9 20 17 37 30 59 13 25 8 16











TABLE 1.-Continued.
Acceptable I Not Tried Disliked 11 Acceptable Not Tried Disliked I Acceptable I Not Tried I Disliked Acceptable Not Tried Disliked
Food Items No. % No. % No. % | INo. % No. % I No. % I No. % | No. % No. % \ No. % No. % I No. %

Turkey .................... 43 94 2 4 1 2 42 86 6 12 1 2 44 96 1 2 1 2 49 96 1 2 1 2
Liver ......................- 25 54 6 13 15 33 34 69 2 4 13 27 34 74 3 6 9 20 39 76 3 6 9 18
Heart ........................ 1 2 30 65 15 33 13 27 27 55 9 18 8 17 15 33 23 50 8 16 20 39 23 45
Tongue .................... 5 11 21 46 20 43 9 18 20 41 20 41 12 26 11 24 23 50 10 20 18 33 23 45
Fish II
Fish ......................... 45 98 1 2 42 86 4 8 3 6 44 96 2 4 47 92 4 8
Oysters .............. .... 38 83 8 17 40 82 6 12 3 6 42 91 4 9 46 90 2 4 3 6
Salmon ...... ....... 32 70 7 15 7 15 34 69 2 4 13 27 29 63 6 13 11 24 33 65 5 10 13 25
Sardines ................ 27 59 6 13 13 28 34 69 2 4 13 27 28 61 12 26 6 13 32 63 5 10 14 27
Shrimp ...................... 25 54 9 20 12 26 37 76 5 10 7 14 27 59 6 13 13 28 43 84 3 6 5 10
Tuna .......................... 14 30 9 20 23 50 21 43 28 47 5 10 12 26 22 48 12 26 23 45 12 24 16 31
Confections I
Candy bars .............. 44 96 2 4 46 94 3 6 40 87 6 13 41 80 2 4 8 16
Chocolate .................. 44 96 -- 2 4 45 92 4 8 42 91 4 9 46 90 0 5 10
Fudge ........................ 41 89 4 9 1 2 42 86 3 6 4 8 40 87 2 4 4 9 39 76 4 8 8 16
Hard candy ............ 27 59 19 41 42 86 7 14 34 74 12 26 28 55 4 8 19 37
Marshmallows ........ 38 83 8 17 40 82 2 4 7 14 34 74 12 26 28 55 1 2 22 43
Flavoring and
Condiments
Cinnamon ................ 35 76 4 9 7 15 38 78 9 18 2 4 38 83 8 17 45 88 1 2 5 10
Cloves ........................ 32 70 6 13 8 17 34 69 13 27 2 4 38 83 8 17 43 84 8 16
Ginger ................... 32 70 6 13 8 17 34 69 13 27 2 4 38 83 8 17 41 80 2 4 8 16
Pepper ...................... 41 89 1 2 4 9 41 84 4 8 4 8 42 91 4 9 49 96 2 4
Garlic salts ............ 0 0 6 13 40 87 7 14 37 76 5 10 8 17 27 59 11 24 15 29 24 47 12 24
Almond .................... 15 33 29 63 2 4 20 41 29 59 19 41 23 50 4 9 30 62 13 25 8 16
Vanilla ...................... 43 93 3 7 47 96 2 4 46 100 -- 50 98 1 2 -
Catsup ...................... 39 85 2 4 5 11 47 96 1 2 1 2 45 98 1 2 48 94 1 2 2 4
Chile Sauce ............ 15 33 25 54 6 13 27 55 19 39 3 6 24 52 18 39 4 9 34 67 13 25 4 8
Mustard .................... 35 76 6 13 5 11 33 67 3 6 13 27 40 87 1 2 5 11 45 88 2 4 4 8
Pickles .................... 43 93 3 7 43 88 3 6 3 6 42 91 4 9 49 98 1 2
Margarine ................ 29 63 8 17 9 20 34 69 13 27 2 4 20 43 9 20 17 37 33 65 18 35

Nuts
Almonds .................. 29 63 8 17 9 20 39 80 9 18 1 2 34 74 11 24 1 2 40 78 6 12 5 10
Peanuts .................... 40 87 1 2 5 11 44 90 1 2 4 8 45 98 1 2 48 94 3 6
Pecans ............. 45 98 1 2 45 92 2 4 2 4 45 98 1 2 50 98 1 2
Walnuts (Eng.) .... 11 24 28 61 7 15 21 43 28 57 24 52 18 39 4 8 41 80 8 16 2 4
Nut butter .............. | 32 70 8 17 6 13 40 82 4 8 5 10 34 74 1 2 11 24 39 76 3 6 9 18








14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

There were also only slight differences in preferences of the
four groups for beverages. Cocoa ranked lowest and soft
drinks highest, with coffee and tea intermediate.
Confections were more acceptable to the younger than to the
older groups and candy bars and chocolate were the favorites.
Under flavorings and condiments a number of items are in-
cluded. These foods differ widely in acceptability. There is
practically no difference in percentage of acceptability of the
three spices-cinnamon, cloves and ginger-within a group. It
will be noted, however, that the older groups show a slightly
higher percentage of preference for these spices than the
younger ones. Vanilla was the preferred flavoring and pepper,
mustard and pickles the preferred condiments.
It will be noted that foods ranking high in acceptability are
those best suited to environmental conditions found in Florida.
This is shown in preference for nuts. Peanuts and pecans are
well adapted to growing conditions found in the state, are
available over a relatively long period and as found in this study,
are highly acceptable. On the other hand, the rate of accept-
ance is not as high for almonds and English walnuts-nuts not
produced in Florida.
Preferred Methods of Preparation.-Food preferences alone
do not provide all the information needed for menu and ration
planning. An additional measure is given in Table 2. Here
are presented the preferred methods of preparation of 30 vege-
tables in common use. It is evident that the preferred methods
are few and simple-boiled with cured pork, steamed with bacon
drippings, buttered and raw. White potatoes are preferred
mashed or baked, sweet potatoes baked or candied. It will be
noted that only in the case of eggplant, okra and squash was
frying a preferred method.
Patterns of Preferred Menus.-Data in Table 3 give still fur-
ther information of value in menu planning. Menus for Wednes-
day and Sunday show only slight variations in patterns due to
either age or place or residence. The patterns for breakfast
were essentially the same for all groups and consisted of cereal,
meat, eggs, bread and beverage. Relatively low percentages
(15 to 24) of the rural respondents preferred fruit on either
Wednesday or Sunday, while 41 to 55 percent of the two city
groups wanted fruit on both days.
Likewise, the preferred menus for dinner show great simi-
larity. As shown in Table 1, soup, appetizers, fish and all sea









TABLE 2.-PREFERRED METHOD OF PREPARATION OF 30 COMMONLY USED VEGETABLES BY 192 FLORIDA-BORN MALES, 17-19
AND 45-58 YEARS OF AGE.

Food Items and Preferred Methods Number Percent Food Items and Preferred Methods Number Percent
of Preparation [ of Preparation I

Asparagus Celery
Not tried or disliked --.............. ..--- 110 57 Not tried or disliked .-------............... 34 18
Boiled, with butter or mayonnaise .... 82 43 Raw .---................-...........-..........--- .... 158 82
Beans, Snap Collards
Not tried or disliked ...........----................ 6 3 Not tried or disliked ......................... 43 22
Boiled with cured pork ......................... 179 93 Boiled with cured pork ........ ....... 149 i 78
Boiled and buttered .......................... 7 4 Corn
Beans, Shelled Not tried or disliked ....----.----.. --... 12 6
Not tried or disliked .............------................. 10 5 Boiled on cob --....................................... 80 42
Baked ..........................---- ............ ..... 11 6 Cream ed ................................. ......... 68 35
Boiled with cured pork ................---.... 171 89 Stewed with bacon seasoning ............ 32 17
Beet Roots Cucumbers
Not tried or disliked ............................ 36 19 Not tried or disliked ........................... 36 19
Buttered ....... ....... ......... ............... 71 37 Raw .................... ..... --.----- -- -- 101 53
Pickled ............. .. ........................ 85 44 Pickled ................... ......................... 54 28
Cabbage Egg Plant
Not tried or disliked ...........................--- 17 9 Not tried or disliked ............................ 64 33
Boiled with cured pork -......................-. 110 57 Fried ............................. .............. 103 54
Slaw .......................................- -.................. 65 34 Scalloped .....---....-........-- - .... .... 25 13
Carrots Lettuce Q
Not tried or disliked ..-..-- -------------.. 29 15 Not tried or disliked ---......--..................... 6 3
Boiled with meat .....-.......................---........ 40 21 Salad -------------..................-..--.......---------........----............. 186 97
Creamed or buttered ......---............-------... 79 41 Mustard Greens
Raw ............................ ..--................. 44 23 N ot tried or disliked .............................. 32 17
Cauliflower Boiled with cured pork .........--.---......... 160 83
Not tried or disliked ................... ..... 90 47 Boiled with butter ................................. 2 1
Creamed --------------.............--.........-...--------.................---- 79 41
R aw ...................................... 10 5
Pickled ..........---- ......-------- -- ...----------------............... 13 7
Pickled------------ --------------------13 7









TABLE 2.-PREFERRED METHOD OF PREPARATION OF 30 COMMONLY USED VEGETABLES BY 192 FLORIDA-BORN MALES, 17-19
AND 45-58 YEARS OF AGE.--(Concluded). o
I I
Food Items and Preferred Methods Number Percent Food Items and Preferred Methods Number Percent
of Preparation __of Preparation
Okra I Pumpkin
Not tried or disliked .................... 25 13 I Not tried or disliked ....---.. ---...-....- 65 34
Boiled and buttered ..................... 32 17 Baked or stewed --.....--.......-...---. ----. 12 6 3
Fried with cured bacon .............. 87 45 Pie ....................-.............. 115 60 0
Gumbo and soup --.........-- ...-..- ----- ... 48 25 Radishes .
Onion Not tried or disliked ......----...-- ... 96 50
Not tried or disliked ........ ........- | 29 15 Raw ....................... .......... .... 96 50
Creamed .................................. 20 10 Rutabagas
Seasoning .... ..................... 68 35 Not tried or disliked --.......-- 75 39
Raw .........................-- .... ....... 77 40 Boiled with cured pork ........-... ......... 100 52
Peas, in Pod Mashed ............... .--...-........ ....... 17 9
Not tried or disliked ..........-.......- 29 15 Sauerkraut
Boiled with cured pork ...--. ..... 163 85 Not tried or disliked ................ 102 53
Peas, Shelled Boiled with meat ..................... 90 47
Not tried or disliked .............. .. .. 0 0 Spinach
Creamed or buttered ........................ 117 61 Not tried or disliked ....... .... 90 47
Boiled with meat ............................. 75 39 Boiled with cured pork -.... ........- 92 48
Peppers Buttered -------- ............10 5
Not tried or disliked ....................--... 59 31 Squash '
Stuffed ................-...- .. ..............i- 39 20 Not tried or disliked ........................... 36 19
In salad ....................-..-- ..........- 75 39 Fried with bacon and onions .......... 81 42
Seasoning -----........................ 19 10 Buttered .................._...--........ 75 39
Potatoes (Sweet) Tomatoes I
Not tried or disliked ................... 10 5 Not tried or disliked ....................... 4 2 2
Baked ...............- -....-... ......-.......... 144 75 Raw .......................... ---- .. .... 177 92
Candied .................................- 39 20 Stewed ...........-................. ... 11 6
Potatoes (White) Turnip Greens
Not tried or dislked ...........-- ............... 7 4 Not tried or disliked .........--- ... .. 30 16
Mashed .....................-....-.........-..- 98 51 Boiled with cured pork .....................- 162 84
Fried -..-...-.................................... 39 20 Turnip Roots
Baked or boiled ..................-..--. ...-- I 48 25 Not tried or disliked ..............-.. .. 48 25
Boiled with pork .--....-....-...... ..-..... 140 73
_Creamed ..................-- .......-. .. 4 2







A Survey of Food Preferences of Florida Men 17

food except tuna were acceptable to more than 50 percent of the
respondents, yet these items seldom appeared in the menus.
Meat was preferred on Wednesday and chicken on Sunday. The
preference for potatoes was higher on Sunday than on Wednes-
day and the same was true for desserts.
In rural communities dinner is at noon and supper at evening;
in cities, except on Sunday, lunch is usually at noon and dinner
at evening. Therefore, in this tabulation, menus for supper and
for lunch are presented together. As would be expected, the
supper or lunch was a somewhat lighter meal than the dinner.
Menus Representative of Food Combinations Preferred by
Florida Men.-Table 4 gives menus representative of food com-
binations preferred by native-born Florida men. Since there
were no differences in breakfast patterns for Wednesday and
Sunday, they are presented under the heading of breakfast.
While the basic constituents of the meals for all groups were
essentially the same, some specific likenesses and differences
not mentioned previously were noted. In the breakfast menus
coffee is the preferred beverage of all groups except young city
men, who want milk. City men prefer jam or jelly; rural men
jelly or syrup. Orange or grapefruit juice is the fruit product
favored by city men, while fruit or fruit juice is not an item
in the breakfasts of rural men in either age group. All groups
except city boys wanted cereal, and grits was the preferred one.
Bacon was acceptable to all, but rural men had a wider selection,
which included ham and steak. Toast was likewise acceptable
to all, but rural men liked toast or biscuits or both.
The menus for dinner on both Wednesday and Sunday show
that neither appetizers nor soups were included in any menu.
While salad was not a food of high acceptability to rural men,
sliced tomatoes not classed as a salad by them were included in
the menus for both Wednesday and Sunday. Beef roast was the
preferred meat for Wednesday and chicken for Sunday. Corn
bread was the bread for Wednesday and biscuit or hot rolls for
Sunday. The favorite desserts were ice cream and cake, fruit
pie a la mode and lemon pie.
The menus for supper or lunch on Wednesday followed very
closely those for dinner. There were, however, a few exceptions.
Rice and gravy or grits and gravy replaced potatoes, and biscuit
replaced corn bread. In practically all menus the Sunday night
supper consisted mainly of food left from dinner and those
classed as accessory, such as peanut butter, scrambled or deviled
eggs, potato chips, celery, olives and pickles.











TABLE 3.-PATTERNS OF PREFERRED MENUS FLORIDA MALES, 1946-47.
Group I: 17-20 years, rural, native migrants and non-migrants
Group II: 17-20 years, city, native migrants and non-migrants
Group III: 45-58 years, rural, native migants and non-migrants
Group IV: 45-58 years, city, native migrants and non-migrants
Group
I II III IV
Number of Respondents 46 49 46 51
Wednesday Sunday Wednesday Sunday I Wednesday Sunday Wednesday Sunday
Food Classification No. % \ No. % 0 No. % I No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Breakfast
Fruit and fruit juice .. 11 24 7 15 27 55 23 47 9 20 9 20 21 41 22 43
Cereal ............------ 32 70 19 41 34 69 27 55 39 85 36 78 28 55 23 45
Eggs .......... 38 83 22 48 37 76 31 63 40 87 23 50 37 73 27 53
Meat, fish, poultry ........ 35 76 31 67 35 71 33 67 35 76 34 74 33 65 31 61
Beverage ....---.--....-- 44 96 37 80 44 90 44 90 41 89 43 93 46 90 47 92
Bread and pastry ........ 41 89 31 67 38 78 35 71 38 83 41 89 39 76 30 59
Waffles and pan cakes 5 11 9 20 4 8 4 8 1 2 3 6 3 6 13 25
Accessory foods .........-- 8 17 13 28 10 20 14 29 10 22 9 20 21 41 11 22
Menu Omitted ............... 0 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 1 2
Noon Meal
Soup and appetizers ...... 5 11 1 2 4 8 4 8 3 6 0 0 5 10 1 2
Salad .................... .. 15 33 20 43 20 41 28 57 18 39 25 54 26 51 31 61
Meat ..............---- ...-- ......-- ....-- .. 38 83 17 37 30 61 18 37 32 70 16 35 32 63 11 22
Fish and sea food .......... 2 4 0 0 2 4 4 8 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0
Poultry ... -........-....--- 3 6 30 65 0 0 29 59 3 6 31 67 1 2 36 71
Potatoes ...----. .............. 21 46 31 67 22 45 25 51 24 52 31 67 16 31 20 39
One vegetable ...-........... 16 35 16 35 22 45 16 33 9 20 20 43 19 37 25 49
Two vegetables ....---..- .. 20 43 21 46 12 24 20 41 30 65 19 41 14 27 17 33
Sandwich ..........-...-- 3 6 0 0 1 2 9 18 0 0 0 0 9 18 3 6








TABLE 3.-PATTERNS OF PREFERRED MENUS FLORIDA MALES, 1946-47 (Cont'd).

Group
I II III IV
Number of Respondents 46 49 46 51
t I
Food Classification Wednesday I Sunday Wednesday Sunday Wednesday Sunday Wednesday Sunday
No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. %
Noon Meal-Continued.
Beverage ...--..------......... .. 44 96 39 85 41 84 36 73 40 87 39 85 45 88 37 73
Bread and pastry ------.... 36 78 34 74 28 57 32 65 42 91 32 70 31 61 26 51
Dessert --------.... ....-- 26 57 36 78 31 63 36 73 40 87 42 91 32 63 41 80
Accessory foods .----....-. 13 28 11 24 10 20 24 49 13 28 27 59 16 31 22 43
Menu omitted -------..-.......- 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Evening Meal

Soup and appetizers ..... 3 6 3 6 4 8 4 8 2 4 0 0 2 4 2 4
Salad ....-----.........-............ 12 26 5 11 24 49 15 31 9 20 3 6 24 47 5 10
Meat ........ --....................... -29 63 14 30 35 71 17 35 26 57 7 15 33 65 4 8
Fish and sea food ........ 4 9 2 4 2 4 2 4 8 17 0 0 10 20 1 2
Poultry .-...................... 1 2 5 11 5 10 8 16 3 6 6 13 1 2 5 10
Potatoes ............-.....-....... 17 37 9 20 20 41 14 29 9 20 5 11 21 41 7 14
One vegetable ........-...... 9 20 4 9 20 41 9 18 11 24 2 4 20 39 6 12
Two vegetables .--........... 13 28 7 15 13 27 6 12 12 26 5 11 7 14 1 2
Sandwich ... ----..................... 4 9 5 11 4 8 11 22 0 0 6 13 0 0 15 29
Beverage ......-----...........--.. 44 96 32 70 42 86 35 71 40 87 34 74 43 84 33 65
Bread and pastry ......... 30 65 14 30 33 67 17 35 35 76 10 22 32 63 8 16
Dessert ..--......................-- 17 37 16 35 29 59 23 47 23 50 24 52 25 49 22 43
Accessory foods ............ 20 43 23 50 17 35 19 39 22 48 28 61 16 31 24 47
Menu omitted ...-............-- 1 2 3 6 0 0 1 2 0 0 0 0 1 2 1 2










TABLE 4.-MENUS REPRESENTATIVE OF FOOD COMBINATIONS PREFERRED BY FLORIDA MEN.
Group I: 17-20 years, rural, native migrants and non-migrants
Group II: 17-20 years, city, native migrants and non-migrants
Group III: 45-58 years, rural, native migrants and non-migrants
Group IV: 45-58 years, city, native migrants and non-migrants
Group
I II III IV
No. of
Respondents 46 49 46 51
Menu for Breakfast
Wednesday

Grits Orange juice Grits Orange juice
Eggs Eggs Eggs Grits or oatmeal
Bacon or ham Milk Bacon, ham or steak Eggs
Coffee I Toast Toast or biscuit Bacon
Toast or biscuit Butter Coffee Toast
Butter Jam or jelly Syrup or jelly Butter
Jelly or syrup Butter Jam or jelly
Coffee
Sunday
For all groups-breakfasts the same as for Wednesday
Menu for Dinner
Wednesday

Steak or roast I Vegetable salad Steak or roast Vegetable salad
Mashed potatoes or Steak and gravy Mashed potatoes Steak or roast
Potato salad Mashed potatoes Turnip or mustard greens Mashed potatoes or rice
String beans Green beans or Sliced tomatoes Sliced tomatoes
Sliced tomatoes English peas Corn bread or biscuit Corn bread
Bread i Corn bread Fruit pie Fruit pie
Fruit pie or Milk Iced tea or milk I ced tea or milk
Chocolate cake Fruit pie a la mode
Milk _








TABLE 4.-MENUS REPRESENTATIVE OF FOOD COMBINATIONS PREFERRED BY FLORIDA MEN--(Continued).

Group
I II IIII IV
No. of
Respondents 46 49 46 51
Sunday

IFried chicken [ Vegetable or fruit salad Chicken fried or Vegetable or fruit salad
Mashed potatoes Chicken fried or baked I Baked with dressing Fried chicken
String beans Mashed potatoes Mashed potatoes Mashed potatoes or
Peas String beans I String beans Rice and gravy
Sliced tomatoes Peas Peas Squash or carrots
SBread Rolls Sliced tomatoes Biscuit or hot rolls
Cake and ice cream Cake and ice cream or Biscuit Ice cream and cake or
Iced tea Fruit pie a la mode Cake and ice cream Lemon pie
Iced tea or milk Iced tea or milk

Menu for Lunch or Supper
Wednesday

Steak or fried ham Steak or pork chops Beef steak or ham Steak or roast
Left over vegetables Rice and gravy Sliced tomatoes Vegetable salad
I Grits and gravy Greens Turnip greens Rice and gravy
Sliced tomatoes Tomato and lettuce Rice and gravy Biscuit
Biscuit Biscuit Biscuit Okra
Milk Milk Fruit p'e Fruit pie or ice cream
Left-over dessert Ice cream or cake Milk Iced tea

Sunday
For all groups-Foods left from dinner, with sandwiches and dessert







22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

DISCUSSION
No claim is made that studies on appetite levels of food con-
sumption carried on in this and in seven other states will give
complete answers as to the best and most reliable methods of
obtaining information in the fields of food acceptance and food
habits. However, this cooperation is among the first, if not
the first to collect data of this type on an extensive scale. The
study made in Florida has furnished information on food prefer-
ences of native-born men which may be of value to the Commit-
tee on Food Research in establishing a set of national standards
of food acceptance. Moreover, this cooperation has made pos-
sible the collection of data on regionally preferred foods which
can be used in preparing rations for emergencies which may
arise in Florida and in promoting modification of food habits
both in the home and in the school lunch program which would
lead to better nutrition.
It was anticipated by the Quartermaster Corps that from the
473 items listed in the questionnaire from 150 to 200 foods
could be found that would be acceptable to all men, regardless
of age or place of residence. However, the Chief of Food Re-
search considered it advisable to reduce the list from 473 to
249 food items because of "No answer" and for the same reason
the authors deleted an additional 89 items, thus reducing; the
total number to 160.
The deletions made by the authors should have little or no
effect on acceptance rate of the different food groups, since they
were made primarily because of unfamiliarity with cuts of meat,
names of cereal and bakery products and a few other food items
rarely if ever found on Florida markets. For example, the ac-
ceptance of beef and pork was approximately 100 percent. On
the other hand, while a few cuts such as round and T-bone steaks
were highly acceptable, many other cuts were unfamiliar and
checked as "not tried." When the various cuts of meat were
deleted the items in the meat group were reduced from 55 to 11.
The acceptability of meat was then based primarily on prefer-
ence for beef and veal, fresh and cured pork, lamb, etc., as a
whole, rather than specific cuts from the different animals. For
the same reason unfamiliar items in the cereal group, such as
popovers, and breads not found on local markets were deleted
and the items reduced from 46 to 16.
Food preferences of males as presented herein show the extent
to which foods are known, and if known, whether acceptable or








A Survey of Food Preferences of Florida Men 23

disliked. A critical analysis of the data indicates that prefer-
ences for given foods are influenced by certain factors. It was
evident that respondents liked best the foods they were accus-
tomed to eat. Therefore, the preferred foods were those best
suited to environmental conditions found in Florida. As would
be expected, the preferred fruits and vegetables were those
which grow most abundantly in the state and are available
throughout the greater part of the year. With few exceptions,
fruits and vegetables not grown in the state, especially those
which are scarce and expensive, had not been tried or were dis-
liked by a high percentage of the respondents.
Preferences for meat followed the same pattern. Meats pro-
duced abundantly in Florida, such as beef and pork, were highly
acceptable, whereas lamb, seldom grown on Florida farms, had
not been tried or was disliked by more than 80 percent of the
men. While the acceptability of both pork and beef was high,
the preferred menus showed that beef and not pork was the
preferred meat. This suggests that the large consumption of
pork in the South was an expediency. Pork has been plentiful,
relatively cheap, easily cured and thus available throughout the
year. On the other hand, until recently, the production of beef
of good quality has been low and the facilities for storing beef
lacking. However, with the recognition of the cause and cure
of many nutritional diseases in cattle, with improved pastures
and better breeds of beef cattle, the production of beef of high
quality is assured. With the advent of the freezer locker and
the home freezer, which makes possible the keeping of fresh
beef throughout the year, the consumption of beef will, no doubt,
equal or surpass that of pork.
Corn and rice, the principal grains grown in the South, have
long been the favorite cereals, but data collected in this study
show that deviations in pattern are beginning to appear. Rice,
grits and cornmeal were still highly acceptable to all groups, but
in the preferred menus for breakfast, grits was really preferred
by only 40 to 50 percent of the two younger groups. Because
of the wide variation in the types and kinds of wheat, oats, rice
and combinations thereof, no one cereal except grits could be
listed as the preferred one. Grits was still the favorite with the
older men, however, even in this group from one-fourth to one-
third of the respondents preferred oatmeal or one of the dry
cereals. This suggests that food habits even of the older group
may be subject to change.








24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

According to Colonel Charles S. Lawrence,4 Commanding Of-
ficer, Quartermaster Corps, Food and Container Institute for the
Armed Forces, "The tactical problem is not 'how good is the
food?' but 'how good does it taste?' It just does no good to
furnish men with vitamins they won't eat."
When starting with a preferred food, how good it tastes de-
pends primarily on how it is prepared and served and how fre-
quently it has been served. Data presented in this study show
that methods of preparation of vegetables preferred by Florida
men were few and simple-boiled with cured pork, steamed with
drippings, buttered, and raw. However, when a vegetable of a
high rate of acceptability is cooked by a preferred method, other
factors such as appearance, texture, temperature and seasoning
have a strong influence on whether or not the food actually is
eaten. Overcooking, prolonged standing on a steam table and
seasoning or lack of seasoning are outstanding factors affecting
loss of flavor and undesirable texture. Furthermore, vegetables
served raw lose in appearance, nutritive value and flavor when
allowed to lose crispness. Thus many factors affect acceptability
of foods.
Upon analysis of the menus preferred by the four groups of
Florida men it was found that with the exception of grits, few
of the preferred menus contained foods or food combinations
typical of Florida or of the Southeast. For the most part the
menus were made up of foods in general use and would no doubt
please anyone, regardless of age or place of residence. In this
connection it should be mentioned that the menus listed foods
preferred and not necessarily those constituting the daily diet.
Among foods considered typical of Florida were grits, corn-
bread, rice, turnip and collard greens, okra, black-eyed peas
and several improved varieties of cowpeas known locally as
Southern peas. It was found that each of these foods was served
in combination, or with other foods, and only at certain meals.
Grits was served at breakfast with butter and with bacon or
ham and eggs and at supper with meat and gravy. Rice, a main
article of diet, was served in many ways. It often took the place
of potatoes in the main meal of the day: as a pilau, a combina-
tion of rice and meat; as red rice, a combination of rice with
bacon, onions and tomatoes; as gumbo, rice with chicken or sea
food, okra, tomatoes and onions. Turnip and collard greens
were boiled with cured pork and served with cornbread made in

"Information Section. War Dept. QMFCI.








A Survey of Food Preferences of Florida, Men 25

various ways. Hoecake, egg or pone bread was served with
vegetable dinners, hushpuppies with fish or fried chicken and
spoon bread as a supper dish with milk. Black-eyed peas cooked
with hog jowl were served on the New Year to bring "good
luck." Southern peas, available throughout the greater part
of the year, were cooked with cured pork and served with rice.
The results of these studies may be interpreted as showing
that rations made up of foods in common use and prepared in
simple ways would be acceptable to rural and urban native-born
Florida males 17-20 and 45-58 years of age. While there were
only slight differences in food acceptability of rural and urban
men and between the younger and older groups, there was a
trend which suggested that as men grow older food acceptance
becomes wider and more varied. These older men are heads of
families and to a great degree set the pattern for the family
diet, or as expressed by the Quartermaster General, "They rep-
resent the family tradition from which the young soldier comes
and serve as a reference for all subsequent records taken on
young men of draft age."
SUMMARY
Results of this investigation may be summarized as follows:
1. In cooperation with the Committee on Food Research,
Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed
Forces, a survey was made of food preferences, preferred methods
of preparing common vegetables and of menus preferred on
Wednesday and on Sunday by 192 Florida-born males 17 to 20
and 45 to 58 years of age.
2. The data show that the preferred foods were those which
grow most abundantly in the state and are available through-
out the greater part of the year.
3. With few exceptions, vegetables and fruits not produced
in the state, especially those which were scarce and expensive,
had not been tried by a high percentage of the respondents.
4. Methods of preparing vegetables were few and simple-
boiled with cured pork, steamed with bacon drippings, buttered,
or raw.
5. Menus preferred by the four groups of Florida men rarely
contained foods or food combinations considered uniquely typical
of Florida or of the Southeast. For the most part, the menus
were made up of foods in general use and would no doubt be
acceptable to anyone, regardless of age or place of residence.








26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations




















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance of Mrs. Edna Pike,
Robert Gilbert and Wilbur Edgerton in the collection and coding of records
used in this study.





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