Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 537
Title: Soil management practices on Red Bay fine sandy loam
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026431/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil management practices on Red Bay fine sandy loam
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 27 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Lipscomb, R. W ( Ralph W )
Robertson, W. K ( William Kendrick )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subject: Soil management -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Sandy loam soils -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 26-27.
Statement of Responsibility: R.W. Lipscomb and W.K. Robertson.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026431
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926381
oclc - 18272622
notis - AEN7052

Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 537


January 1954


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




Soil Management Practices on Red Bay

Fine Sandy Loam


R. W. LIPSCOMB and W. K. ROBERTSON


Fig. 1.-Peanuts are widely grown on these soils.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









BOARD OF CONTROL

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
J. B. Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.s
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 1
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist2
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associates
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist3
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statisticians
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
F. T. Calloway, M.S., Agr. Statistician
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer 1
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate 2
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
I. E. MeCloud, Ph.D., Assistant 8
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman '8
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionists
I. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Hush.8
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.8
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman
J. F. Hentses, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. ,
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Physiologist

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist's
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman 8
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.'
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.8
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy iIusb. 8
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.8
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor a

ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist

HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist 1
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hbort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin GriffLths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. MclFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford D. Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.

LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist"
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologist'
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. millerr, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Avr., Poultry Husb.1 8
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.3
SOILS
i'. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologis' 1 s
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 2
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist '
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist a
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., -Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist 3
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist$
H. 'L: Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist

VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian 3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)










BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
R. E. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. 1. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Hush.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist

Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
U. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. I. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D, Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiol.
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Hush.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
IT. S. Harrison, M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.


F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Husb.

SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist 2

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert 0. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist

FIELD LABORATORIES
Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. in Chg.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Pecans--Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren 0. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charge2
1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave

















CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION ........ .. .. .-------.-......--- -----. --------------.. --- --. 5

EXPERIMENTAL -....------ ----.----..----- ..---..------- ... ......-----..-- 5

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ...- ....-------- ------------- --.----------------------- ------ 9

Continuous Crop and Rotation Experiment .........-.--......-------- --.--.- 9

Corn ....................-.. -- ....-------- ---------------- 9

Peanuts ......-. .. ...... ------.... ....- .. -------. -- 10

Oats ---.........................--... --..... ....- 13

Cover Crops ....... ... .....-..--.---..... ------.. ---- ---- --- 13

Soil Analyses .........................- ------- 13

Fertility Experim ent -- ....------..----...... --- -----------. ... .. 18

Corn .-........ .......- ...... -----. --. --. --... 18

Peanuts -...........-...... .---- ... .---- ... ..---... .- 19

Soybeans ........--.-...-------.... ----- 20

Oats ...................... ...----.... -- .....- -... 22

Soil Analyses ....... --.---.. --. ---- ---.---- 23

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...-.......------- ..... ... ..-- ........ 25

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............---- ...--.--. ..- ----- -------- 26

LITERATURE CITED --..-..- --.-.--..- -..--- .- -- --------------- ------ 26








Soil Management Practices on Red Bay

Fine Sandy Loam

R. W. LIPSCOMB and W. K. ROBERTSON 1

INTRODUCTION
Relatively large acreages are devoted to corn and peanuts in
north, north-central and west Florida. The approximate annual
acreage of corn and peanuts grown in Florida for the last four
years was 660,000 and 250,000 acres, respectively. Unfortun-
ately, however, average yields of both crops are very low. The
average yield of corn in 1951 was only 16 bushels per acre.
Where peanuts are grown year after year on the same soil,
gradual decline in average yield usually results (1, 4)2 and no
significant responses to commercial fertilizers are generally ob-
tained. Good soil management practices will increase yields of
corn and peanuts and maintain a higher level of productivity.
This bulletin reports results obtained over a period of three
years on experiments designed to evaluate some soil manage-
ment practices on the yield of corn and peanuts and on the main-
tenance of soil fertility.

EXPERIMENTAL
The experiments were located on Mobile Unit Number 3
near Marianna, on soil which was predominantly Red Bay fine
sandy loam. Red Bay and related soil types comprise approxi-
mately one-third of the cultivated crop land in north and west
Florida. The experimental area had been cultivated for many
years prior to 1942 but it was idle from 1942 to 1948. Crop-
ping was resumed in 1948, when it was planted to peanuts,
which were fertilized with 300 pounds per acre of 2-10-5 fertil-
izer and dusted with three applications of sulfur at the rate of
20 pounds per acre at each application. Yields of peanuts were
approximately 2000 pounds per acre. Following the 1948 har-
vest the area was divided into two parts. One of these was sub-
divided into 18 x 161-foot plots for a continuous cropping vs.
rotation cropping experiment, and the other into 18 x 40-foot
R. W. Lipscomb, Associate Agronomist, North Florida Station, Quincy,
and W. K. Robertson, Assistant Chemist, Soils, Agricultural Experiment
Station, Gainesville.
2Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








TABLE 1.-CROPS AND FERTILIZER RATES FOR THE CONTINUOUS CROP AND ROTATION EXPERIMENT.


ength of
Rotation
n Years


Rate of Fertilization per Acre


Crops Grown *


L
Treatment
Number i


1
2
3

4
5

6
7

8

9

10

11


12



13


Crop
Fertilized


1 Corn (Native Cover) .....
1 Corn "Crotalaria"** ............
1 Corn .................-------... ...
S (Lupines) ------------.. ---
1 Corn (Lupines) -
1 Corn .
(Oats) -- ---
1 Peanuts (Native Cover) -...
1 Peanuts -------
(Lupines) ---.---
1 Peanuts .- ... --
(Oats) -.......
2 Peanuts (Native Cover) ...
Corn (Native Cover) .-.......
2 Peanuts (Lupines) ........-....
Corn "Velvet Beans"** ...
2 Peanuts ......................
(Lupines) -----
(Native Cover)
3 Peanuts ..... ----
(Lupines) ..---..
Corn "Crotalaria"** ........-....
Corn ..-..... -............ .--
(Lupines) .....- ....
3 Corn ........- ...... ---.... .
Oats harvested -....-...........-
(Crotalaria, Oats) .........
Peanuts .. ------
(Lupines) ..... ----........


Plan


Corn ........
Corn ...-....
Corn .
Lupines
Corn ........
Corn -......
Oats ........
Peanuts
Peanuts
Lupines .
Peanuts
Oats .....
Peanuts .
Corn ....
Lupines
Corn ........
Peanuts
Lupines

Peanuts
Lupines
Corn ......

Lupines .
Corn ........
Oats .....
Oats ........
Peanuts
Lupines .


Itir


* Crops in parentheses plowed down about three weeks before planting the cash crop.
** Crops interplanted in corn in summer and chopped with rotary cutter in fall.


Pounds

500
500
500
... 350
.... 500
500
... 400
300
300
350
300
400
... 300
500
----.. 350
.. 500
3 00
350

300
S 350
500
500
350
500
400
400
300
350


ig Time Side-Dressing
SAnalysis Pounds of N

4-10-7 40
4-10-7 40
4-10-7 60
0-14-10
4-10-7 40
4-10-7 40
4-10-7
2-12-6
2-12-6
0-14-10
2-12-6
4-10-7
2-12-6
4-10-7 40
0-14-10
4-10-7 40
2-12-6
0-14-10

2-12-6
0-14-10
4-10-7 40
4-10-7 40
0-14-10
4-10-7 40
4-10-7
4-10-7
2-12-6
0-14-10






Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 7

plots for a fertility experiment testing ra ios and levels of
fertilizer components.
The continuous crop and rotation experiment consisted of four
replications of 13 treatments. There were fiv continuous 3 corn
treatments, three continuous peanut treatme ts, three two-year
rotations and two three-year rotations. An outline of the ex-
periment showing the crops grown and the rates of fertilizer
applied appears in Table 1. Peanuts were usted three times
annually with 20 pound-per-acre application of sulfur-copper-
D.D.T. mixture (90-10-21/2). Corn was side- ressed with nitro-
gen when knee high. In the continuous crop treatments lupines
were fertilized in Treatment 3 but not in T eatment 4 to test
the value of fertilizing the cover crop. The peanuts were un-
fertilized in Treatment 10 to test the ability of the cash crop
to utilize residual fertilizer from the cover crop lupiness). So
that all crops used in the two- and three-year rotations would
appear every year in each of four replications two sets of quad-
ruplicate plots were used for the two-year rotations and three
sets of quadruplicate plots for the three-year rotations.
The fertility experiment was a complete factorial design of
four rates each of nitrogen (N), phosphoric acid (P205) and
potash (K20). Each treatment was replicated three times. The
rotation followed was lupines plowed down for corn the first
year, oats harvested followed by soybeans harvested the second
year and oats plowed down for peanuts the third year. Triplicate
sets of plots were used for each treatment in the three replica-
tions, so that each crop would appear every year. All crops
except lupines received fertilizer treatments. Rates of fertilizer
application at planting appear in Table 2. Additional nitrogen
applications of 0, 15, 30 and 60 pounds per acre, corresponding
to the levels 1, 2, 3 and 4, were made on the corn when knee high
and on the oats early in the spring.
The crop varieties used were as follows: Dixie 18 corn, Dixie
Runner peanuts, Bancroft oats (1949 and 1950), Southland oats
(1951), Ogden soybeans (1949 and 1950), Dortchsoy 31 soybeans
(1951), Crotalaria spectabilis Roth. and common blue lupines.
The sources of phosphorus and potassium were superphosphate
and muriate of potash, respectively. The nitrogen applied at
planting came from sodium nitrate in 1949 and ammonium nitrate
in 1950 and 1951. Ammonium nitrate was used for side-dress-
ing every year.
SThe common term for crops planted during consecutive years.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 2.-RATES OF FERTILIZER IN POUNDS PER ACRE APPLIED AT PLANTING
ON CROPS IN FERTILITY EXPERIMENT.

CROPS
Nutrient Corn and Oats Soybeans and Oats
Applied Harvested for Green Manure Peanuts
Fertilizer Levels Fertilizer Levels Fertilizer Levels
1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4

N ........ 0 10 20 40 0 8 16 32 0 4 8 16
PO .... 0 27 54 108 0 18 36 72 0 10 20 40
K20 .... 0 15 30 60 0 15 30 60 0 12 24 48


The area was plowed in the spring of 1949 and all subsequent
tillage for the duration of the experiment was done with a disk
harrow. Border effect was minimized by reversing the direction
of disking. Only the grain was removed from the corn plots and
the stalks and other residues were chopped with a rotary chopper
in the fall. Peanuts and vines were removed. Soybeans were
pulled and combined and the vines were returned to the plots.
Oats for grain were threshed and the straw was removed from
the plots. The summer cover crops, crotalaria and velvet beans,
were chopped with a rotary chopper in late fall. Lupines and
oats for green manure were disked in the spring at least two
weeks before planting the cash crop. The rainfall data for the
period indicated that the distribution was normal for all years.
Fourteen composite soil samples containing 26 plugs each were
taken to a depth of 6 inches from the plot area prior to fertil-
ization in 1949 and used for the initial chemical analyses. Simi-
lar analyses were made on samples taken in 1952 from two
replications of the continuous crop and rotation experiment and
three replications of the soil fertility experiment. These data
were used to determine the effects of treatment on the chemical
composition of the soil for the period under observation. The
pH values were obtained using the glass electrode pH meter (3).
Exchangeable potassium and calcium were determined by means
of the Perkin-Elmer flame photometer after extracting the soil
with ammonium acetate buffered at pH 4.7 (9). Available phos-
phorus was determined by the Bray method (2), using 10 parts
0.03 N ammonium fluoride in 0.1 N HCI to 1 part of soil, Total
phosphorus was determined by using the Parker and Fudge







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 9

method (8). Organic matter was determined by the modified
Walkley-Black method (11). Total potash was determined by
using the modified J. L. Smith method (5). A mechanical an-
alysis was made by the Kilmer-Alexander method (7).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
CONTINUOUS CROP AND ROTATION EXPERIMENT
Corn.-Corn yields are presented in Table 3. Crotalaria planted
as an intercrop (Treatments 2 and 12) or planted alone (Treat-
ment 13) had no consistent effect on corn yields, possibly because
the crotalaria did not grow well after the first year. The other
cover crops tested, lupines and oats, were little better than native
cover with respect to corn yields.
TABLE 3.-CORN YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM CONTINUOUS CROP
AND ROTATION EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Years

No. Crops 1949 1950 1951

1 Corn (Native Cover) .................. 65.2 63.2 65.8
2 Corn "Crotalaria" ...................... 60.2 62.4 62.6
3 Corn (Lupines)* ... ............... 62.4 62.6 71.1
4 Corn (Lupines)** ....................... 64.2 63.6 67.9
5 Corn (Oats) ................................ 68.7 64.0 68.0
9 Peanuts (Native Cover) ....... ... 66.4 68.8 69.9
Corn (Native Cover)
10 Peanuts (Lupines) ................... 65.6 73.6 70.0
Corn "Velvet Beans"
Corn "Crotalaria" (Lupines) .... 63.2 66.5 62.6
12 Peanuts (Lupines)
Corn "Crotalaria" ....................... 62.7 63.8 70.0
Peanuts (Lupines)
13 Corn, Oats ............................ 59.4 72.8 72.9
(Crotalaria, Oats)

L.S.D. (5% level) non sig. 6.0 5.6
L.S.D. (1% level) 8.0 non sig.
Corn received 500 pounds per acre 4-10-7 and 60 pounds N top dressing. Lupines
received 350 pounds 0-14-10.
** Lupines not fertilized. Corn received 500 pounds per acre 4-10-7 and 40 pounds N
top dressing.

The lack of response to these cover crops may have been due
to a combination of factors. On the one hand, low cover crop
yields in 1950 and no cover crop yields in 1951 (Tables 6 and 7)
tended to decrease the response to cover crop treatments. On







10 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

the other hand, the bumper weed growth following continuous
corn, due to the high native fertility of the area (Fig. 2), tended
to increase the native cover treatments. Fertilizing the cover
crop and adding 20 pounds more nitrogen to the corn (Treatment
3) did not give significantly more corn than when corn was regu-
larly fertilized and the cover crop was unfertilized (Treatment 4).
Corn grown in two-year rotation following native cover (Treat-
ment 9) did not yield significantly more corn than continuous
corn following native cover (Treatment 1). However, the differ-
ences approached significance in both 1950 and 1951. Corn
following lupines in a three-year rotation (Treatment 13) yielded
significantly more than continuous corn following lupines (Treat-
ment 3) in 1950 but the increase was negligible in 1951. It must
be remembered, however, that the corn in Treatment 3 received
20 pounds more nitrogen as a side-dressing than the corn in
Treatment 13. These data are of interest, but more data will
be required before definite conclusions can be drawn.
Peanuts.-Peanut yields are presented in Table 4. In all in-
stances yields from the continuous peanut treatments decreased

Fig. 2.-Typical weed growth consisted of coffeeweed, Cassia tora L.
(60%), Florida beggarweed (20%), Florida Pussley, Richardia scabra L.
(15%), and others (5%).










.3. .. -
- :f;/ ; -. :. .. --, .-. .. .. ^ .


: ... .-- .. .. .: ::







-,. 0







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 11

after the first year and remained at about the same level in
1951 as in 1950. Actually, the decrease took place after two
years of continuous peanuts, since peanuts were grown in the
experimental area in 1948 and, as already mentioned, the yield
was comparable to the 1949 yields.
The decrease in yield of continuous peanuts was affected by
winter cover. Where no cover crop was planted, weed growth
was poor and the land was almost bare (Fig. 3) and there was
a decrease in yield of 800 pounds per acre. When oats and lupines
were planted as cover crops the decrease in yield was approxi-
mately 300 and 600 pounds per acre, respectively. However,
neither lupines nor oats produced high yields of green plant
material (Tables 6 and 7). The poor growth of cover crops after
peanuts might have been the result of unfavorable microbiologi-
cal relationships or soil fertility level or related to the physical
conditions of the soil. After peanuts the top six inches of the

Fig. 3.-Winter cover when no cover crop was planted. Plot on left
shows corn and weed residues after corn. Plot on right shows bare, eroded
soil after peanuts.







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

soil was extremely loose. However, the volume weight of the
soil on the peanut plots was not significantly different from that
on the corn plots. Lupines were severely attacked by disease
such as rhizoctonia, brown spot and anthracnose, which became
progressively worse each year.

TABLE 4.-PEANUT YIELDS IN POUNDS PER ACRE FROM CONTINUOUS CROP
AND ROTATION EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Years

No. Crops 1949 1950 1951
6 Peanuts (Native Cover) ........ 2183 1275 1280
7 Peanuts (Lupines) .................-- 2063 1474 1528
8 Peanuts (Oats) ........................ 1935 1673 1613
9 Peanuts (Native Cover) .......... 2093 1823 2016
Corn (Native Cover)
10 Peanuts (Lupines)* .........-... 1871 1794 1939
Corn "Velvet Beans"
11 Peanuts (Lupines) ............... 1976 1965 2169
(Native Cover)
Peanuts (Lupines) ................ 2058 1928 2022
12 Corn "Crotalaria"
Corn "Crotalaria" (Lupines)
Corn, Oats
13 (Crotalaria, Oats)
Peanuts (Lupines) .....- 2010 2143 2115
__ I
L.S.D. 5% non sig. 322 378
L.S.D. 1% 439 504
Peanuts not fertilized; lupines received 350 pounds per acre of 0-14-10.

Yield of peanuts was maintained in the two- and three-year
rotations. In practically all instances the peanuts in rotations
yielded significantly more than any of the continuous peanut
treatments (Fig. 4).
There was no significant difference in yield between peanuts
grown in the two- and three-year rotations. However, observa-
tions made in the spring of 1952 indicted that cover crop growth
was better on the three-year rotation than on the two-year rota-
tion. In 1951 the best peanut yield was obtained from Treat-
ment 11. This may have been due to the year's rest, which
was beginning to affect the corn yields. No growth took place
the winter immediately following the corn crop but by late sum-
mer the plot was covered with a dense weed growth (Fig. 5).






Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 13

Oats.-Oat yields from Treatment 13 (Table 5) showed a de-
crease after the first year. The 1951 and 1952 yields were less
in this rotation than those obtained for corresponding years in
the soil fertility experiment (Table 12), but they were com-
parable to those that received similar nitrogen treatment. It is
suspected that the decrease in yield in Treatment 13 was caused
by a nitrogen deficiency and not by the association with the other
crops grown in the rotation.
Cover Crops.-Green weights of lupines and oats for green
manure are presented in Tables 6 and 7, respectively. The data
show that lupine yields were low both years, especially in 1952,
after peanuts. When lupines were grown with continuous pea-
nuts the lupine yield decreased over 80 percent. When lupines
were grown after peanuts in a two-year rotation the decrease
was approximately 40 percent (Fig. 6).
Green weight yields of oats (Table 7) also were very low.
Oats, like lupines, made poor growth following peanuts.
Soil Analyses.-The chemical analyses data are presented in
Table 8. The pH of soil cropped to continuous corn was main-
tained or increased slightly. This might be attributed to the

Fig. 4.-Stack on right is from peanuts in rotation. Stack on left is from
a continuous peanut treatment.







14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 5.-OAT YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM CONTINUOUS CROP AND
ROTATION EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Years

No. Crops 1950 1951 1952

13 Corn, Oats ---- ---68.8 51.4 50.3
(Crotalaria, Oats)
Peanuts (Lupines)


TABLE 6.-LUPINE YIELDS FROM CONTINUOUS CROP AND ROTATION
EXPERIMENT.

Green Weight in Pounds
Treatment per Acre

No. Crops 1950 1951 1952

3 Corn (Lupines) ......... ... 14,300 ........ 18,634
4 Corn (Lupines) ..... .....- .. 14,200 -..... 19,021
7 Peanuts (Lupines) .................. 17,300 .. 2,178
10 Peanuts (Lupines) .............. 18,100 ....... 10,164
ICorn "Velvet Beans"
11 Peanuts (Lupines) ........ ....... 15,200 ....... 9,196
(Native Cover)

(Lupines) Peanuts .............. ... 17,700 ........ 20,812
12 (Lupines) Corn ..... ... ......... 15,500 ...... 21,296
(Native Cover) Corn
13 Corn, Oats -- 20,200 ...... 17,666
(Crotalaria, Oats)
Peanuts (Lupines)

L.S.D. 5% 2,730 3,151
L.S.D. 1% 3,640 4,201

TABLE 7.-GREEN WEIGHT OF OATS FROM CONTINUOUS CROP AND ROTATION
EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Pounds per Acre

No. Crops 1950 1951 1952

5 Corn (Oats) ........ .. ..... 6,292 ...... 5,566
8 Peanuts (Oats) ................. 6,050 2,178
Peanuts (Lupines)
13 Corn, Oats
(Crotalaria, Oats) .... 7,260 ..... 3,485
SPeanuts (Lupines)II
L.S.D. 5% Non Sig. Non Sig.







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 15

calcium in the superphosphate and to the potash applications
(Table 1), which were in excess of the potash removed in the
corn plants (10). The pH of peanut plots decreased markedly,
partly because the crop received 80 pounds per acre of sulfur
annually and partly because the crop takes up approximately
100 pounds of calcium per acre (6), which was completely lost
when the nuts and vines were removed. The pH of the soil in
continuous peanuts was approximately one unit lower than that
of the soil in continuous corn. The increase in acidity of the
soil in rotations was related to the number of times peanuts
were grown. For the two-year rotation where peanuts were
grown once in two years the increase was larger than for the
three-year rotation where peanuts were grown only once in three
years. In order to maintain the reaction of this soil type when
peanut vines are removed, approximately 500 pounds per acre
of lime should be added for every peanut crop producing a ton
of nuts.
The level of exchangeable potash on the continuous corn plots
was maintained or increased. Maximum yields of 73.6 bushels
of corn per acre (Table 3) required approximately 85 pounds of

Fig. 5.-Dense growth of weeds following peanuts (90% jerusalem oak)
when soil was left uncropped for a year.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


K20 per acre (10). Sixty-seven pounds of this went into the
forage (10), which remained on the field, and the other 18 pounds
went into the corn grain, which was removed. Since corn re-
ceived 35 pounds of K20 per acre (Table 1), a build-up of 51
pounds per acre might be expected on the continuous corn plots


Fig. 6.-Left, third crop of lupines (grown every year with continuous
peanuts). Right, second crop of lupines (grown every other year in a
two-year rotation).

in the three-year period. However, the build-up in exchangeable
potash was not of this magnitude (Table 8), due possibly to the
low exchange capacity of the soil and to the poor cover crop
yields (Tables 6 and 7) which permitted leaching. Where pea-
nuts were grown continuously and in rotation with corn, the
exchangeable potash level generally decreased in the three-year
period. When the whole peanut plant was removed a crop of
peanuts yielding approximately a ton of nuts removed 50 pounds
of K20 per acre (10). Since only 18 pounds of K20 were applied
(Table 1), each crop of peanuts would decrease the soil potash
by 32 pounds per acre. The decreases were not this large, indi-
cating that the peanuts were either getting some of the required
potash below the top six inches or they were feeding on potash
not measured as exchangeable. The latter was possible, since:







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 17

total potash was relatively high, ranging from 1,600 to 1,900
pounds of K20 per acre.

TABLE 8.-EFFECT OF MANAGEMENT ON CHEMICAL STATUS OF RED BAY
FINE SANDY LOAM, 1949 1952.


Initial Levels (1949) ......................
After 3 Years Cropping (1952)

No. Crops

1 Corn (Weeds) ...-......
2 Corn "Crotalaria" ..........
3 Corn (Lupines)* .............
4 Corn (Lupines)** .......
5 Corn (Oats) ..............
6 Peanuts (Weeds) .........
7 Peanuts (Lupines) .........
8 Peanuts (Oats) .............
9 JPeanuts (Weeds) .......
tCorn (Weeds) ............
10 JPeanuts (Lupines)t ........
Corn "Velvet Beans" ....
11 JPeanuts (Lupines) ........
Rest (Weeds) ..............
fPeanuts (Lupines) ..........
12 Corn "Crotalaria" .........
Corn, "Crot." (Lupines)..
fCorn, Oats ....................
13 (Crotalaria, Oats) ........
SPeanuts (Lupines) .........

A average .....................


SPom
pH Exeh
Excha
K

5.8 100




6.0 130
6.0 140
6.0 100


5.66 )


* Corn received 500 pounds per acre 4-7-5 and


nds per
ngeable
Ca

452




380
380
420


Acre
S%
Bray O.M.
P

194 0.94


80 340 240 0.89
60 300 230 0.97
80 300 260 0.97
60 340 260 0.99
60 340 200 1.04
40 460 150 0.76

78 357 242 1.00

60 pounds N side-dressing; lupines,


350 pounds 0-14-10.
** Corn received regular fertilization; lupines not fertilized.
t Peanuts not fertilized; lupines received 350 pounds per acre 0-14-10.

Exchangeable calcium levels after three years were closely
correlated with the pH. Corn had little effect on the calcium
level but where peanuts were grown there was a decrease. This
could be expected, since the calcium removed in a crop of peanuts
yielding a ton per acre is approximately 100 pounds per acre (6).
Over the three-yead period there was an increase of approxi-
mately 48 pounds of available phosphorus per acre. There was







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


no consistent difference in available phosphorus levels in the
soil between treatments.
There was little change in the organic matter over the three-
year period. The soil had been cropped for many years prior to
setting up the experiment and the organic matter level had be-
come quite stable. Differences in the organic matter content
of the soil between treatments were small and inconsistent.

FERTILITY EXPERIMENT

Results from the fertility experiment are shown in Tables 9
to 15, inclusive.

TABLE 9.-CORN YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM FERTILITY
EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Years
N N I
(Total) (Side) PsOs K20 1949 1950 1951
0 0 0 0 45.0 53.1 50.8.
0 0 108 60 47.5 59.5 59.0
25 15 108 60 57.7 67.9 66.8
50 30 108 60 71.4 72.6 74.4
100 60 108 60 84.9 70.8 73.3
100 60 0 60 73.8 64.6 65.7
100 60 27 60 80.2 60.6 72.2
100 60 54 60 80.6 74.6 75.8
100 60 108 60 84.9 70.8 73.3
100 60 108 0 75.1 63.9 48.1
100 60 108 15 81.6 63.2 66.9
100 60 108 30 78.3 62.5 68.7
100 60 108 60 84.9 70.8 73.3

L.S.D. 5% 10.4 12.6 12.6
L.S.D. 1% 14.1 non sig. 16.8

Corn.-Corn yields are presented in Table 9. The yield data
indicate a significant response to all levels of nitrogen (25, 50
and 100 pounds per acre) in 1949 and for the 50-pound level in
1950 and 1951. It appears from these data that the corn ob-
tained some of its nitrogen in the latter two years from the
cover crop of lupines, despite the severe cold weather which
killed the lupines in Febduary 1951.
Corn showed no significant response to potash the first two
years but the last year there was a highly significant response
to the 15-pound level. It is probable that the corn was feeding







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 19

on native soil potash the first two years and after that time sup-
plementary potash was needed to maintain yields.
Significant yield response for the highest phosphorus level,
as compared to no phosphorus, was obtained the first year. Re-
sponses to phosphorus in 1950 and 1951 were not significant.
Peanuts.-Peanut yields are given in Table 10. There were
no significant differences for any of the elements tested. Vege-
tative responses to phosphorus and potash were observed in
1950 and 1951 but they were not reflected consistently in the
yield data. These results are in line with other published
data (4). The increase in average yields in 1950 and 1951 as
compared to 1949 could have been due to the beneficial effects
of the rotation followed. The 1949 crop followed peanuts while the
1950 and 1951 crops followed the cover crop oats. This supports
the findings of the continuous crop and rotation experiment that
peanuts do better in rotation than when grown continuously.
Since the yield increases were higher on the fertilized plots
it is possible that the peanuts were feeding on the residual plant
nutrients from the preceding crop. This agrees with previous
findings (12).

TABLE 10.-PEANUT YIELDS IN POUNDS PER ACRE FROM FERTILITY
EXPERIMENT.

Treatment Year

N PsO, K20 1949 1950 1951

0 0 0 1950 2080 2220
0 48 40 1750 2420 2500
4 48 40 2040 2240 2510
8 48 40 1940 2600 2290
16 48 40 1970 2440 2280
16 0 40 2160 2440 2360
16 12 40 1890 2410 2310
16 24 40 2030 2450 2490
16 48 40 1970 2440 1 2280
16 48 0 1950 2440 2440
16 48 10 1980 2380 2400
16 48 20 1880 2410 2280
16 48 40 1970 2440 2280

Average 1958 2383 2371


Non Sig. Non Sig. Non Sig.


L.S.D. 5%






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Soybeans.-Soybean yields are presented in Table 11. Yields
in general were very low. Plantings were made in late April,
late May and early June with no apparent effect on yield. Dis-
eases such as bacterial spot, Xanthomonas phaseoli sojense
(Hedges) Starr and Burkh., and downy mildew, Peronospora
manshuria (Naum.) Syd. ex Gaiim., and a species of lepidoptera
larvae, probably velvet bean caterpillar, Anticarsia gemmatilis
(Hbn.), did much damage. Evidence of this is seen in Figure 7.
Unfertilized soybeans seemed to suffer worse from diseases and
insects, which may partially account for the relatively large re-
sponse to fertilizers, especially nitrogen (Fig. 8).
It is suggested that the low soybean yields might have been
due to the residual undecomposed organic matter left after the
preceding crop, oats, was harvested. Because of the small plots
it was hard to get the straw disked in deeply enough to permit
complete decay before the soybeans were planted, hence the
decaying straw probably robbed the soybeans of moisture and
nitrogen in the initial stages of growth. This supposition was

Fig. 7.-Close-up view of unfertilized soybeans in foreground, showing
disease and insect injury.







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 21

TABLE 11.-SOYBEAN YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM FERTILITY
EXPERIMENT.


Treatment Year


N PAO, KO 1949 1950 1951


0 0 0 5.7 5.8 5.2

0 72 60 7.8 6.1 5.0
8 72 60 10.2 4.8 6.1
16 72 60 10.2 8.8 7.5
32 72 60 15.2 16.8 9.4

32 0 60 12.3 17.8 7.8
32 18 60 11.0 15.6 8.4
32 36 60 18.1 15.7 7.6
32 72 60 15.2 16.8 9.4
32 72 0 16.4 15.7 7.2
32 72 15 13.2 17.4 8.9
32 72 30 16.3 14.5 8.6
32 72 60 15.2 16.8 9.4

Average '12.4 12.6 7.4

L.S.D. 5% 1.6 5.3 1.9
L.S.D. 1% 2.1 7.2 2.5

TABLE 12.-OAT YIELDS IN BUSHELS PER ACRE FROM FERTILITY
EXPERIMENT.


Treatment IYears
N N
(Total) i(Side) P2O, K2O 1950 1951 1952

0 0 0 0 49.2 38.8 29.8
0 0 108 60 56.8 36.0 41.0
25 15 108 60 72.1 57.2 49.3
50 30 108 60 71.7 73.8 43.0
100 60 108 60 53.2 72.9 81.7
100 60 0 60 64.3 69.2 48.2
100 60 27 60 49.3 68.2 48.1
100 60 54 60 47.8 61.0 65.1
100 60 108 60 53.2 72.9 81.7

100 60 108 0 39.7 58.4 73.1
100 60 108 15 42.9 73.0 82.4
100 60 108 30 43.6 72.5 88.6
100 60 I 108 60 53.2 1 72.9 81.7

L.S.D. 5% 19.3 13.0 19.5
L.S.D. 1% non sig. 17.4 26.0






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


partially confirmed by the nitrogen response obtained (Table 11).
In practice it might be advantageous to remove the straw from
the field by baling or plow it down to a depth of five or six inches
with a moldboard plow about two weeks before planting the
beans.
Oats.-Oat yields from the fertility experiment are presented
in Table 12. Nitrogen gave some significant yield responses for
oats harvested for grain. Responses varied from season to
season and indicate that while nitrogen is extremely important
for oats the rate of application required varies with the season.
In planting oats for grain 10 pounds of nitrogen applied at plant-
ing followed by 15 to 30 pounds as a top-dressing during the
season would be a reasonable application unless seasonal condi-
tions seem to warrant additional applications.
The response of oats to phosphorus and potash in 1950 was
probably masked by the high rate of nitrogen applied to the
treatments where phosphorus and potash were the variables.
Where nitrogen was the variable, the highest level decreased
the yield due to excess top growth and lodging. In 1951 and
1952 the highest level of nitrogen did not cause yield declines,
and responses to both phosphorus and potash were obtained.
Fig. 8.-Soybeans unfertilized in foreground and fertilized in background
and to left.







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 23

Cover Crops.-Green weights of lupines and oats for green
manure are presented in Tables 13 and 14. Lupines were un-
fertilized and oats for green manure were fertilized as shown
in Table 2. As in the continuous crop and rotation experiment,
there was no yield in 1951 due to the loss of the crop in February
from cold weather.


TABLE 13.-GREEN

Level of
Fertility on
Previous Crops*

0
N Levels**
0
1
2
3
POs Levels**
0
1
2
3
K20 Levels**
0
1
2
3


WEIGHT OF LUPINES IN POUNDS PER ACRE FROM
FERTILITY EXPERIMENT.

1950 1951 1952

15,400 ........ 5,179
12,900 9,196
15,800 .. 7,599
15,100 ........ 8,857


15,750
12,900
14,400
13,900
15,750
16,100
12,700
13,500
15,750


L.S.D. 5% non sig.
L.S.D. 1%
* Lupines not fertilized.
** See Table 2 for fertilizer levels.


10,890
10,793
12,439
8,373
10,890
4,211
8,373
5,663
10,890

3,710
4,948


No fertilizer was applied to the lupines in the fall of 1949 and
since the area previously had been farmed uniformly no sig-
nificant yield differences were expected or obtained in 1950.
However, 1952 results showed a significant yield increase for the
treatment that had received the highest rate of potash on the
preceding crops. This increase is attributed to the residual ef-
fects of fertilizer. Yields on the whole were much lower in 1952
than in 1950, which is in line with results obtained from the
rotation experiment where lupines followed peanuts in a three-
year rotation.
Nitrogen increased the green weight of oats both years. Oat
yields were low in 1952.
Soil Analyses.-The analyses of the soils from the fertility
experiment are presented in Table 15. There was an over-all
decrease in pH of 0.4 to 0.6 units. This decrease corresponds to
that taking place for the three-year rotation in the previous







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 14.-GREEN WEIGHT OF OATS IN POUNDS PER ACRE FROM
FERTILITY EXPERIMENTS.


Treatment

N P2O I

0 0

0 72
8 72
16 72
32 72

32 0
32 18
32 36
32 72

32 72
32 72
32 72
32 72

L.S.D. 5%
L.S.D. 1%6

TABLE 15.-EFFECT OF
BAY




Initial Levels (1949)

After 3 Years
Cropping (1952)
Treatment*

0-0-0

No-Ps-Ka
Ni-Ps-K,,
N2-P3-Ks
Ns-Ps-K

Ns-Po-K3
N,-P2-K,

Ns-P3-Ko
Nn-P3-K,
Na-P8-Ko
Ns-Ps-K3
Ns-Ps-K


L.S.D. 5%
L.S.D. 1%


1950

5953

8228
6921
9825
12414

10793
9825
13068
12414

10164
12245
11277
12414


3049
4066


FERTILIZER RATES ON
SANDY LOAM (1949 TO


pH

5.9





5.5

5.5
5.5
5.4
5.4

5.4
5.3
5.4
5.4

5.4
5.3
5.4
5.4


K

108





24

69
75
73
67

70
77
66
67

33
65
63
67


Years

1951


1952

1791

1791
2565
4017
5324

4840
5324
4017
5324

4985
4501
4211
5324


2643
non sig.

CHEMICAL STATUS OF RED
1952).


Pounds per Acre


Ca


23 84 44
28 100 59


* Fertilizer rates designated by subscripts are given in Table 2.


% O.M.


1.04





0.94

0.94
0.94
0.94
0.95

0.97
1.01
0.97
0.95

0.97
0.97
1.04
0.95

non sig.






Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 25

experiment where it was attributed in part to peanuts in the
rotation. Available potash in the soil decreased in the three-
year period, even where the highest levels of potash were applied.
Where no potash was applied, only 33 of the initial 108 pounds
per acre of exchangeable potassium were left after three years.
This probably accounts for the significant responses of corn and
oats to potash in 1951.
The level of exchangeable calcium in the soil after three years
was less than the initial level. The decrease in exchangeable
calcium corresponded with the decrease in pH.
Available phosphorus increased more than 100 pounds per acre
after three years' fertilization at the highest level. This prob-
ably accounts for the lack of response of corn and oats to phos-
phorus at the higher levels in 1951.
The decrease in the organic matter content of the soil was
not significant and was well within sampling error. This seems
to indicate that, on old soils, a three-year rotation, in which the
residues of the crops are returned to the soils, does not deplete
the soil organic matter.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Three years' data from a continuous crop and rotation experi-
ment and a fertility experiment are reported. The continuous
crop vs. rotation experiment contained 13 treatments; namely,
five in continuous corn, three in continuous peanuts, three two-
year rotations and two three-year rotations. The soil fertility
experiment consisted of four rates of nitrogen, phosphoric acid
and potash applied to four cash crops and one cover crop in a
three-year rotation. The soil type was primarily Red Bay fine
sandy loam. The criterion of response was yield data supported
by soil analysis.
After peanuts were grown two consecutive years with no cover
crops, yields decreased 40 percent. Oats and lupines as cover
crops grown in the winter between continuous peanut crops
helped maintain peanut yields, but there was still a decrease of
10 and 20 percent, respectively.
Oats and lupines did not grow well after peanuts. This in-
compatibility was progressive and depended on the number of
times the peanuts-oats or the peanuts-lupines combination ap-
peared in the rotation.
Peanuts grown in two- or three-year rotations maintained their
initial yield. Cover crops grown in these rotations had no effect
on peanut yields.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Residual fertilizer was utilized by peanuts. If the other crops
were fertilized in the rotation, peanuts required little fertilizer.
Sulfur used on peanuts for insect and disease control and the
removal of the peanut vines, relatively high in calcium, caused
soil pH reduction.
Corn generally yielded better in the two- and three-year rota-
tions than when grown continuously. Cover crops gave small
but non-significant increases in corn yields; however, cover crop
growth was generally poor.
If soybeans are grown in a rotation after oats for grain the
residual oat straw should be either removed by baling or plowed
deep enough to promote decay before the soybeans are planted.
Nitrogen is required for all non-legume crops. Phosphorus is
deficient until a residual supply is built up. Some reserves of
potash may be present but they are expended in one or two years
by most crops.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express appreciation to F. B. Smith, W. L. Pritchett, W. J.
Friedmann, Jr., and Nathan Gammon, Jr. for assistance in this work.

LITERATURE CITED
1. Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station Leaflet No. 18, 8 pp. 1939.
2. BRAY, R. H., and L. T. KURTZ. Determination of total, organic and
available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science 59: 39-45. 1945.
3. CARRIGAN, R. A. Methods of determination of soil pH. Soil Sci. Soc.
of Fla. Proc. 2: 25-39. 1940.
4. COLLINS, E. R., and H. D. MORRIS. Soil Fertility studies with peanuts.
N. C. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 330. 1942.
5. GAMMON, NATHAN, JR. Determination of total potassium and sodium
in sandy soils by flame photometer. Soil Sci. 71: 211-214. 1951.
6. KILLINGER, G. B., W. E. STOKES, FRED CLARK and J. D. WARNER. Pea-
nuts in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 432. 1947.
7. KILMER, VICTOR J., and L. T. ALEXANDER. Methods of making mechani-
cal analyses of soils. Soil Sci. 68: 15-24. 1949.
8. PARKER, F. W., and J. F. FUDGE. Soil phosphorus studies; 1. The
colorimetric determination of organic and inorganic phosphorus in
soil extracts and the soil solution. Soil Sci. 24: 109-117. 1927.
9. PREVATT, R. W. Correlation between rapid quantitative soil tests
and some crop yields. Unpublished Master's thesis, Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta., Soils Dept. June 1951.







Soil Management Practices on Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam 27

10. ROMAINE, J. D. When fertilizing, consider plant food content of crops.
Better Crops with Plant Food, 24: 3: 6-9, 37-42. 1940.
11. WALKLEY, A. An examination of methods for determining organic
carbon and nitrogen in soils. Jour. Agr. Sci. 25: 598-609. 1935.
12. WEST, H. O. Peanut production. Miss. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 366. 1942.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs