Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 160
Title: Soft pork studies, II
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026430/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soft pork studies, II
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 45-52 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1921
 Subjects
Subject: Swine -- Experiments   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026430
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922805
oclc - 18171168
notis - AEN3314

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





Bulletin 160


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station





SOFT PORK STUDIES, II
By
JOHN M. SCOTT


Fig. 4.-Taking sample of fat from live hog


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


May, 1921








SOFT PORK STUDIES, II
BY JOHN M. SCOTT

The data given in this bulletin is a further report of experi-
ments which were started in 1920 and reported on, in a prelimin-
ary way, in Bulletin 157 of this station.
In that first report there were three hogs in each lot. How-
ever, this number has been increased to ten. By using a larger
number of hogs in each lot the results should be much more ac-
curate and valuable.
Another difference is, the tests reported herein were con-
ducted at a different season of the year, those of last year being
started in spring and those of this report being started last
summer and conducted thru the fall and winter. Just how the
different seasons of the year may affect the results, if it affects
them at all, is not known at this time.
Dr. A. L. Shealey, of the Veterinary Department, College of
Agriculture, University of Florida, rendered valuable assistance
in taking samples of fat. The melting point of the fat was made
in the chemical laboratory of this station.
All fat samples were rendered at a temperature of 1100C.

TAKING FAT SAMPLES
The samples were taken from the rear part of the ham.
A slit about two inches long was made, and a piece of fat taken
out. No muscular tissue was taken. It has been found inad-
visable to take samples from exactly the same place every time;
so they were taken first from the right side, then from the left
side. Where found necessary to take more than two samples,
the additional ones were taken a little to either side of where
the first and second ones were taken.
The place of making the cut was thoroly disinfected before
and after the operation; usually two stitches were taken to close
up the incision.
FEEDING TESTS
The feeding experiment began August 23, 1920, and was
divided into two parts, each lasting 44 days. Each pig was
marked so that it could be identified. A record of the individual
weights and gains was kept.






Bulletin 160, Soft Pork Studies, II


All the pigs used in the experiment were nearly of the same
age, aboutnine months old at the beginning of the tests.
Twenty Berkshire pigs were selected for the experiment.
These 20 pigs were separated into two lots of ten each. There
were six sows and four barrows in each lot.
A sample of fat was taken from each animal and the melting
point determined at the beginning of the experiment. Samples
were again taken at the close of each feeding period of 44 days.
These pigs were all raised on the Florida Experiment Station
farm and, hence, all had been fed and cared for alike up to the
time the experiment was begun. All were kept under like con-
ditions during the feeding tests, except that the feeds of the two
lots were different.
From the time these pigs were weaned until they were
started on the feeding test, they had access to Bermuda grass
pasture, and were given a light grain ration of corn and shorts.
Therefore, so far as the effect of the feed upon the melting point
of the fat is concerned there should have been no difference in
these 20 hogs.
FEEDS USED

During the first period Lot I was fed peanuts only. During
this same period Lot II was fed corn and shorts, equal parts by
weight, and to this was added bright cottonseed meal in the pro-
portion of one to eight parts corn and shorts, by weight; or, in
other words, an eighth of the ration was bright cottonseed
meal.
During the second period of the experiment Lot I was fed
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal. Lot II was fed peanuts only.
During the entire experiment these hogs were kept in a dry lot.

EFFECTS OF THE FEED

Lot I was fed peanuts only from August 23 to October 5.
During this period of 44 days there was a marked change in the
melting point of the fat of all animals except one, Number 18.
For some reason the feeding of peanuts to this pig did not lower
the melting point of the fat but, on the other hand, raised it
just a little. Pig Number 15 showed the greatest change in the
melting point of the fat. In this case it was lowered 13.0F. or,
in other words, softened.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 26.-PIG FEEDING EXPERIMENT, INCLUDING LOT I, FED PEANUTS
ONLY
Date: August 23, 1920 Date: October 5. 1920
Melting Melting Difference in
point 0 point
Pig of fat at the 0 of fat at the melting
No. beginning close point of fat

___ _g_ __ q ___.__ ___ _0__
1 90.0 F 30.2 86.3 136.6 46.6 25.1 77.1 -5.1 9.2
2 96.6 F 30.9 87.6 146.6 50.0 25.4 77.7 -5.5 9.9
3 115.0 F 28.1 82.5 185.0 90.0 25.0 77.0 -3.1 5.5
4 130.0 F 31.1 87.9 173.0 43.0 25.5 77.9 -5.6 -10.0
5 105.0 M 32.8 91.0 160.0 55.0 27.2 80.9 -5.6 -10.1
12 96.6 F 29.8 85.6 138.3 41.7 27.4 81.3 -2.4 4.3
13. 91.6 M 32.1 89.7 136.6 45.0 26.8 80.2 -5.3 9.5
15 80.0 M 30.0 86.0 123.3 43.3 22.8 73.0 -7.2 -13.0
17 71.6 M 28.3 82.9 106.6 35.0 24.6 76.2 -3.7 6.7
18 56.6 I F 27.9 82.2 85.0 28.4 28.5 83.3 + .5 + 1.1

Table 26 shows the pigs by numbers; weight in pounds at
the beginning of the test; sex; melting point of fat; weight at
the close of the first feeding period; pounds gained in those 44
days; melting point of fat at close of the first period; and the
difference in the melting point of the fat.
There was quite a variation in the weight of the pigs in Lot I.
The heaviest pig weighed 130 pounds and the smallest one
weighed 56.6 pounds.
In comparing the melting points of the fat of the various in-
dividuals in this lot, we see there are considerable differences.
It is no easy matter to account for these differences, since all
had been fed and cared for alike since weaning. The only ex-
planation is that it may be heredity.
The gain in weight made during this period was satisfactory.
The most interesting part of this table is the difference in the
melting point of the fat at the beginning and at the close of the
test. It shows clearly the effect of feeding peanuts. That is, the
feeding of peanuts lowers the melting point of the fat, or, in
other words, makes the fat soft. It will be noticed that there
was one exception to this. Hog Number 18, instead of becoming
softer, became a little harder; that is, the melting point of the
fat was raised 1.10F. This is a case hard to explain satisfactorily
at this time.
The rate of gain during the feeding period had no effect on
lowering or raising the melting point of the fat. Number 3 made






Bulletin 160, Soft Pork Studies, II


the largest gain in weight during this feeding period, but the
change of the melting point of the fat was not as great as with
others, not making as large gains in weight. For example,
Numbers 1, 2 and 15 made only about half as much gain in
weight as did Number 3, yet the change in the melting point of
their fat was nearly double that of Number 3. On the other.
hand, Number 12 gained less in weight than did Number 3, but
the change in melting point of fat of Number 12 was less than
that of Number 3.

TABLE 27.-PIG FEEDING EXPERIMENT, INCLUDING LOT II, FED CORN,
SHORTS AND BRIGHT COTTONSEED MEAL
Date: August 23, 1920 Date: October 5, 1920
Melting Melting Difference in
point 7 point melting
Pig of fat at the 0 of fat at the p t o
No. point of fat
No. .* beginning '- p close
0" bI U f

6 121.6 IF 32.2 89.9 155.0 33.4 30.9 87.6 -1.3 2.3
7 108.3 F 27.7 81.8 130.0 22.7 30.2 86.3 +2.5 + 4.5
8 106.6 M 31.0 87.8 136.6 30.0 33.2 91.7 +2.2 + 3.9
9 106.6 M 29.4 84.9 140.0 33.4 30.9 87.6 +4.0 + 2.7
10 85.0 F 33.1 91.5 121.6 36.6 32.5 90.5 .6 1.0
11 90.0 F 29.2 85.6 130.0 40.0 32.3 90.1 +3.1 + 5.6
14 68.3 F 28.0 82.4 78.3 10.0 28.9 84.0 + .9 + 1.6
16 68.3 M 26.6 79.8 98.3 30.0 29.0 84.2 +2.4 + 4.4
19 81.6 F 27.0 80.6 108.3 26.7 27.9 82.2 + .9 + 1.6
20 95.0 ] M 32.0 89.6 ] 111.6 16.6 36.5 97.7 +4.5 + 2.9
Table 27 gives the same data for Lot II as table 26 does for
Lot I. There was not quite as much variation in the weights of
the individuals in Lot II as in Lot I. There was more difference
in the melting point of the fat of the individual hogs at the be-
ginning of the experiment than later. The gain in weight during
this period was not as good as with Lot I. This may be due, per-
haps, to the fact that peanuts will produce larger gains than will
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal.
It has been a generally accepted fact that a ration of corn,
shorts and cottonseed meal would produce hard pork, or raise
the melting point of the fat. However, in this test there are
two instances, Numbers 6 and 10, in which the melting point
was lowered. This might indicate that there are other factors,
aside from feed, that influence the melting point of the fat.
On the whole, corn, shorts and cottonseed meal raised the melting
point of the fat.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


REVERSING THE FEEDS
Table 28 is interesting. It gives the results of feeding to
raise the melting point of fat, or to harden the carcass after it is
known to have been softened by peanuts.
During the first 44 days of the experiment these pigs were
fed peanuts only, the results of which is given in table 26. On
October 6 the feed for these hogs was changed from peanuts to
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal. The gains produced during
this second period were satisfactory.
This table shows that corn, shorts and cottonseed meal make
a good ration for finishing peanut-fed hogs for market. Feeding
corn, shorts and cottonseed meal for 44 days raised the melting
points of the fat of the different individual hogs from 1.20F. to
15.3F. in some cases. For example, the melting point of the fat
of Number 13 was raised 15.30F. by corn, shorts and cottonseed

TABLE 28.-PIG FEEDING EXPERIMENT, INCLUDING LOT I, FED CORN,
SHORTS AND BRIGHT COTTONSEED MEAL
Date: October 6, 1920 | Date: November 18, 1920
Melting | Melting Difference in
point point melting
Pig of fat at the of fat at the
No. beginning close point of fat


1 136.6 F 25.1 77.1 185.0 48.4 28.4 83.1 +3.3 + 6.0
2 146.6 F 25.4 77.7 176.6 30.0 Sample Lost
3 185.0 F 25.0 77.0 233.3 48.3 28.4 83.1 +8.4 + 6.1
4 173.0 F 25.5 77.9 Died ................. ..
5 160.0 M 27.2 80.9 200.0 40.0 32.0 89.6 +4.8 + 8.7
12 138.3 F 27.4 81.3 175.0 36.7 28.1 82.5 + .7 + 1.2
13 136.6 M 26.8 80.2 188.3 51.7 35.3 95.5 +8.5 +15.3
15 123.3 M 22.8 73.0 161.6 38.3 30.8 87.4 +8.0 +14.4
17 106.6 M 24.6 76.2 146.6 40.0 29.6 85.2 +5.0 + 9.0
18 85.0 F 28.5 83.3 115.0 30.0 32.4 90.3 +3.9 + 7.0

meal; and of Number 15 it was raised 14.4 F. All the others
were raised six to nine degrees.
This is certainly sufficient evidence to indicate that peanut-
fed hogs can be given a ration that will cause their carcasses to
chill hard.
Table 29 is also interesting. During the first 44-day period
of the experiment the hogs of Lot II were fed a ration of corn,
shorts and cottonseed meal. During the last period of the same






Bulletin 160, Soft Pork Studies, II


TABLE 29.-PIG FEEDING EXPERIMENT, INCLUDING LOT II, FED PEANUTS
ONLY
Date: October 6, 1920 | Date: November 18, 1920
Melting Melting Difference in
point g point melting
Pig of fat at the 0 of fat at the of fat
No. beginning close


J n __ ._ _P__
6 155.0 F 30.9 1 87.6 226.6 71.6 30.4 86.7 .5 .9
7 130.0 F 30.2 86.3 190.0 60.0 30.5 86.9 + .3 + .6
8 136.6 M 33.2 91.7 196.6 60.0 31.9 89.4 -1.3 2.3
9 140.0 M 30.9 87.6 201.6 61.6 30.6 87.0 .3 .6
10 121.6 F 32.5 90.5 188.3 66.7 29.9 85.8 -2.6 4.7
11 130.0 F 32.3 90.1 203.3 73.3 32.9 91.2 + .6 + 1.1
14 78.3 F 28.9 84.0 111.6 33.3 31.8 89.2 +2.9 + 5.2
16 98.3 M 29.0 84.2 145.0 46.7 30.0 86.0 +1.0 + 1.8
19 108.3 F 27.9 82.2 156.6 48.3 30.8 87.4 +2.9 + 5.2
20 111.6 M 36.5 97.7 168.3 1 56.7 33.0 91.4 -3.5 6.3

number of days, they were fed peanuts only. In this case the
feeding of peanuts did not lower the melting point of the fat as
much as in the case of Lot I, table 26. In table 29, the results
indicate that the melting point of the fat of 50 percent of the
hogs continued to rise; that is, the fat hardened even tho the
hogs were fed peanuts. This is contrary to all former notions
or ideas. It has been supposed that, under all conditions, the
feeding of peanuts would lower the melting point of fat. Ap-
parently for some reason, and under some conditions, this is not
so.
RESULTS

Comparing the melting point of the fat of these 20 hogs at
the beginning of the experiment, there was a difference of 6.50C.,
or 11.70F., between the highest and the lowest. One is inclined,
therefore, to believe that some other factor aside from feed has
an influence in producing hard or soft pork.
The gain in weight produced by Lot I during the first part
of the experiment was satisfactory. In fact, some of the hogs
made exceptionally good gains. This goes to show that the
taking of samples of fat from the live hog does not interfere
with his making good gains in weight during the progress of the
experiment.
The results given in this bulletin are almost identical with
those given in Bulletin 157.






52 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

With this evidence it is safe to say that the feed given a hog
has a marked effect upon the melting point of the fat.
In nearly all cases where peanuts were fed the melting point
of the fat was lowered.
In nearly every case where corn, shorts and cottonseed
meal were fed, the melting point of the fat was raised.
Heretofore, it has been the opinion of many that it was im-
possible to so feed a hog that its flesh would chill hard, if it had
been fed peanuts until the: carcass was soft. There is now suf-
ficient evidence to show that such a hog can be so fed that the
carcass will chill hard.
This work also has shown clearly that there is a wide dif-
ference in the melting point of the fat of individual hogs, even
when fed alike.




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