Group Title: Shark liver oil
Title: Shark liver oil, a source of vitamins A and D in poultry nutrition
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Title: Shark liver oil, a source of vitamins A and D in poultry nutrition
Alternate Title: Bulletin 385 : Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Rusoff, Louis L.
Mehrhof, N. R.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1943
Copyright Date: 1943
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026429
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aen5834 - LTUF
18232372 - OCLC
000925188 - AlephBibNum

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 385


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



SHARK LIVER OIL
A SOURCE OF VITAMINS A AND D

IN POULTRY NUTRITION

L. L. RUSOFF and N. R. MEHRHOF


Fig. 1.-Chick in control lot showing symptoms of vitamin A deficiency.


TECHNICAL BULLETIN



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


April, 1943







EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.ID., President
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director'
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. O. Grata, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, Business Managers
Claranelle T. Alderman, Accountant'

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' a
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarians
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist *
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Hush.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.4
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.*
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Nutr. Tech.
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr.
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.'
O. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Hush.
J. E. Pace, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist'1
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist1
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist1
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist s
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist' 3
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associates
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist'
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist'
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Chemists
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyors


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.'
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.'
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit. Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Associate.Agronomist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
J. W. Sites, M.S., Asso. Hort.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.s
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnim, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Gee. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husb. in Charge'
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Husb. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker. B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
R. A. Fulford, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbh.
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge5
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2 *
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Hort. in Chg.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Jack Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 '
Harry Armstrong, Asso. Meteorologists
1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
s Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
5 On leave.


rM f









SHARK LIVER OIL, A SOURCE OF VITAMINS A AND D
IN POULTRY NUTRITION

L. L. RUSOFF1 and N. R. MEHRHOF

CONTENTS
PAGE
TESTS FOR SHARK LIVER OIL ................................................... ......... .......... .... 4
V ITAM IN A .................................... .......... .................... ..................................... 5
R review of Literature ....... ......... .............................................................. 5
P oultry Studies ............................... ..................................................... 6
VITAMIN D ................... ...................... ........................................... ...... 8
Review of Literature ............................................................. .................... 8
Poultry Studies ........................................................................................... 9
SUPPLEMENTATION OF AN ALL-MASH RATION WITH SHARK LIVER OIL........ 10
SU M M ARY ................................ .. .. ..... ............................................................... 12
LITERATURE CITED ..................... ....... ....... ........................................ 12

INTRODUCTION

Commercial shark fishing is an important industry in Florida.
The shark furnishes the raw material for a number of products
such as shark liver oil, shark meal, leather, and shark fin soup.
The possibility of obtaining glandular products from the shark
such as insulin, thyroxin and epinephrin is still being investi-
gated. Shark liver oil is the most valuable and important pro-
duct obtained from the shark at this time. It is used as a source
of vitamin A by commercial poultrymen who mix their own feed
and by commercial feed manufacturers.
Only a few years ago sharks were caught particularly for their
hides, fins and teeth. Since 1935 shark livers have been pro-
cessed in Florida for oil because of their vitamin A content.
The oil is obtained from livers of sharks found in the tropical
waters off the coast of Florida, mainly of the lemon species
(Hypoprion brevirostris Poey), but any or all of the following
species may be included: sand tiger (Odontaspis littocalis
Mitchill), mackerel (Isurus punctatus Storer), leopard (Galeo-
cerdo arcticus Faber), hammerhead (Sphyrna zygaena Lin-
naeus), great white (Carcharodon carcharias Linnaeus), sand-
bar (Carcharinus milberte Valenciennes), and nurse (Gingylos-
toma cirratum Gmelin). The oil is extracted from the liver
with live steam, washed with sodium hydroxide and filtered.
Previous published reports of studies of shark liver oil and
of its use with poultry are combined with additional observa-
tions to make these findings more generally accessible.

1L. L. Rusoff, formerly assistant in animal nutrition.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TESTS FOR SHARK LIVER OIL

Identification of shark liver oil is made by physical and chemi-
cal tests among which specific gravity, refractive index, un-
saponifiable matter, saponification number, iodine value and free
fatty acid percent are the most common. Some of these tests
for liver oil from sharks caught in various parts of the world
are found in the literature (9, 12, 14, 19, 23, 24, 25).2 Most
of the analyses are in fair agreement, but there is some varia-
tion in the saponification number and iodine value of oil from
different species of sharks and between individual sharks of the
same species. Investigators report a high percentage of un-
saponifiable matter in shark liver oil as compared with other
fish liver oils.
Rusoff and French (19) reported the following results for
Florida shark liver oils, using the methods in the United States
Pharmacopoeia XI. Shark liver oil is an amber to brown oily
liquid, possessing a fishy odor and taste. It is insoluble in water,
slightly soluble in alcohol, and soluble in chloroform, ether, ben-
zine, ethyl acetate and carbon disulfide. A solution of 1 drop
of oil in 1 c.c. of chloroform, when shaken with 1 drop of sul-
furic acid, acquires a light violet color, changing to purple and
finally to violet blue or brown. When equal parts of oil and
benzine are centrifuged for 25 minutes at 25 C. no precipitate
forms and a clear solution remains.
TABLE 1.-ANALYSES OF SHARK LIVER OILS AS DETERMINED BY METHODS
IN THE UNITED STATES PHARMACOPOEIA XI.
Sand Lemon Dusky
Shark Shark Shark Blended Oil
Average

Specific gravity 250 C. 0.918 0.921 0.919 0.917 0.923
Refractive index 200 C. 1.4758 1.4769 1.4759 1.475 1.480
Cold test
Clear ......... ...... 35 C. 350 C. 350 C. 450 C.
Cloudy .......... .... 10 C. 10 C. 10 C. 15 C.
Free fatty acid ........... 0.1 c.c. 0.2 c.c. 0.1 c.c. 0.1 c.c. 0.3 c.c.
Unsaponifiable matter 3.13% 2.94% 3.13% 3.00% 6.00%
Saponification number 172 172 171 170 187
Iodine value ...... ......... 145 143 125 125 -145

The specific gravity, refractive index, cold test, free fatty acid
and unsaponifiable matter, saponification number and iodine
value for the liver oils of the sand shark, lemon shark, dusky
2 Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited."





Shark Liver Oil in Poultry Nutrition


shark, and a blended oil from several species are presented in
Table 1.
It is observed from the table that the specific gravity of the
oils ranges from 0.917 to 0.923 at 25" C. The refractive index
is from 1.475 to 1.480 at 200 C. The cold test shows that the
oil becomes turbid at 10 to 150 C., but becomes fluid and clear
at 35 to 450 C.
Free fatty acid test: Florida shark liver oil requires 0.1 to
0.3 c.c. of 1/10 normal sodium hydroxide for neutralization. The
amount of unsaponifiable matter is from 2.94 to 6.00 percent.
The saponification number is from 170 to 187. The iodine value
is from 125 to 145.
VITAMIN A
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Hidesaburo (8) stated that shark liver oil contained vitamin
A.. Poulsson and Weidemann (15) reported that the vitamin A
potency of shark liver oil and cod liver oil was approximately
the same. Schmidt-Nielsen (22) reported vitamin A values for
the liver oils of the black spiny shark (Etmopeterus spinax) as
60 and 300 U.S.P.3 units per gram; of the herring shark (Lamno
cornubica) from 500 to 10,000 units; of the Greenland shark
(Somniosus microcephalus) as 2,500 units; and of the sun or
giant shark (Cetorhinus maximum Gunnerus) as 10,000 U.S.P.
units per gram. Asenjo (1) stated that West Indian shark liver
oil (Carcharinus sp.) contained more than 1,000 Sherman units
of vitamin A per gram. Asenjo, Dalman and Axtmayer (3)
reported that the liver oils from two female sharks (Carcharinus
sp.) caught in the month of July, 1932, off the coast of Puerto
Rico contained slightly more than 13,300 Sherman units of vita-
min A per gram.
Jones and Christiansen .(10), using colorimetric technique,
found that the vitamin A potency of commercial samples of
several species of shark liver oil, such as nurse, sawfish, leopard,
dusky and sun shark, ranged from 168 to 4,500-6,000 U.S.P. X
units per gram. Sawfish and leopard shark liver oils from fresh
livers contained 3,400 and 3,080 units by colorimetric assay,
while bio-assay showed 2,222 U.S.P. X units and 2,700 units of
vitamin A per gram, respectively.
Tsujimoto (26) reported that liver oils from several species
of sharks (Centrophorus sp., Squalus japonicus, Somniosus
United States Pharmacopoeia.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


microcephalus, Rhinodon typicus and Oretalabus japonicus) have
less vitamin A potency than cod liver oil. Pugsley (16) stated
that British Columbia "mud" shark liver oil contained 8,600
I.U.4 of vitamin A per gram by vitametric assay (E -- being
5.40). Rusoff (18) reported over 15,000 U.S.P. XI units of
vitamin A per gram of liver oil of the Florida lemon shark
(Hypoprion brevirostris Poey). Guti6rrez (6) assayed the liver
oil of the shark, Scoliodon palasorrah, caught in Philippine
waters and found not less than 2,400 U.S.P. XI units of vitamin
A per gram. Majumdar (13) reported Indian shark liver oil
to have an average vitamin A content of 10,000 I.U. per gram,
while Rajagopal (17) reported 13,600 I.U. of vitamin A in In-
dian shark liver oil.
The liver oil of the blue shark, Carcharias glaucus L., caught
in the Atlantic off the Spanish, French and Irish coasts was
assayed by Legendre and Lormand (11), who reported 320 to
3,500 units of vitamin A per gram. Holmes, Tripp and Satter-
field (9) reported shark liver oil to contain 30,800 units of vita-
min A.
Harrison and Samson (7) reported that the soupfin shark,
Galeorhinus zyopterus, caught off the Pacific coast usually con-
tains 80,000 to 100,000 I.U. of vitamin A per gram of liver oil.
This is the highest value ever reported for the vitamin A content
of shark liver oil.
POULTRY STUDIES
Shark liver oil (poultry grade) was proven to be a potent
source of vitamin A for poultry by the authors (20), who dem-
onstrated that the oil contained approximately 9,000 U.S.P. XI
units of vitamin A per gram.
In this study, 8 lots of 25 day-old Single Comb White Leghorn
chicks from the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station poul-
try flock were housed in pens equipped with wire grid floors.
The basal vitamin A-deficient ration of Elvehjem and Neu (5),
consisting of the following ingredients, was used:
Ingredient Percent
W hite corn ....................... .......... ............. 58,0
W heat middlings .............................. ...... .... 25.0
Commercial domestic casein ... .................. 12.0
Irradiated dry yeast ................................. .... 2.0
(3,600 units of vitamin D per gram)
Steamed bone meal ... .................. ...... ....... 1.0
Ground limestone ........ ............................ .... 1.0
Salt ........ ............. ...... ........ .................. 1.0
*International Units (same as U.S.P. XI units).





TABLE 2.-AVERAGE WEIGHTS OF CHICKS, ONE DAY OF AGE, AT THE END OF EIGHT WEEKS AND AT THE END OF 12 WEEKS
ON A VITAMIN A-DEFICIENT RATION WITH, AND WITHOUT, SUPPLEMENTS OF OIL.

One Day-Old Eight Weeks-Old Chicks Twelve Weeks-Old Chicks
Lot Additions to Basal Chicks
No. Ration per 100 Average Average Weighted Average Weighted
Grams of Feed** No. Weight Number Weight Average Number Weight Average
grams grams grams I grams grams
Male Female Male Female M ale Female Male Female
I Basal only .............. 25 35 -
II 40 mg. reference
cod liver oil* ...... 25 35 11 9 592 535 563 7 8 1008 857 932
III 40 mg. commercial
cod liver oil con-
centrate .............. 25 36 9 15 555 526 540 7 13 859 781 820
IV 40 mg. shark
liver oil ................ 25 36 11 11 666 509 587 11 10 1069 817 943

V 33.3 mg. shark
liver oil ................ 25 35 9 12 685 514 599 7 10 1093 778 935
VI 26.7 mg. shark
liver oil ................ 25 38 9 12 629 548 589 8 10 995 863 929
VII 20.0 mg. shark
liver oil ................ 25 37 9 12 606 525 565 7 11 1053 853 953
VIII 13.3 mg. shark
liver oil ............... 25 37 10 10 643 488 546 7 8 1033 809 921

*40 mg. reference cod liver oil contains 120 U.S.P. XI units of vitamin A.
**A vitamin A-free vegetable oil was added to keep oil content uniform for all lots.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Lot I received the basal ration alone, while Lots II and III
received the basal ration supplemented with reference cod liver
oil and a commercial cod liver oil concentrate containing 120
U.S.P. XI units of vitamin A per 100 grams of feed, respectively.
Lots IV to VIII were given the basal ration supplemented with
shark liver oil. The same quantity of shark liver oil was given
to Lot IV as reference cod liver oil in Lot II. Lots V to VIII
were given 83.3, 66.6, 50.0 and 33.4 percent of this amount,
respectively. A vitamin A-free vegetable oil was added to each
lot to keep the oil content the same. Fresh batches of feed were
mixed each week. The average weights of the chicks at 1 day
of age, at the end of 8 weeks and at the end of 12 weeks are
presented in Table 2. The chicks in Lot I (control) showed the
symptoms of vitamin A deficiency-uneven gait, swollen eyelids,
ruffled feathers, poor growth, unthriftiness, and pale comb-
after the third week (Fig. 1), and all had died prior to the end
of the sixth week.
An examination of Table 2 shows that at the end of 8 weeks
the cockerels receiving shark liver oil weighed more than those
receiving cod liver oil, while the reverse was true of the pullet
weights with the exception of Lot VI. A weighted average for
both sexes shows that the chicks which received shark liver oil,
with the exception of those of Lot VIII (33.3 percent level),
made gains as good as those on the reference cod liver oil and
better than those on the commercial cod liver oil concentrate.
Death occurred at random throughout the experiment and the
percentage of mortality in any of the shark liver oil chicks was
never greater than that of the reference cod liver oil chicks.
From the average weights of the chicks in the various lots at
the end of 8 and 12 weeks, the shark liver oil used in this study
was estimated to contain more than 6,000 and up to 9,000 U.S.P.
XI units of vitamin A per gram.

VITAMIN D
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Very few investigators have reported on the vitamin D con-
tent of shark liver oil. Asenjo, Cook and Axtmayer (2) re-
ported that Puerto Rican blue shark (Carcharias milberti
Valenciennis) liver oil contained 50 I.U. vitamin D per gram
and Cunningham (4) showed New Zealand shark liver oil to
contain 13 I.U. of vitamin D per gram.





Shark Liver Oil in Poultry Nutrition


Rusoff and Mehrhof (21) recently determined that Florida
shark liver oil contains from 30 to 40 A.O.A.C.5 units of vita-
min D per gram.
POULTRY STUDIES
The A.O.A.C. method for vitamin D assay (1935) was fol-
lowed with the exception of the substitution of cross-bred chicks
for Single Comb White Leghorn chicks. Six lots of 24 cross-
bred (Single Comb Rhode Island Red male x Light Sussex
female) day-old chicks, each lot consisting of 12 cockerels and
12 pullets, were used in this trial. The chicks were kept in bat-
teries located under uniform conditions. To eliminate the possi-
bility of sunshine entering the room the windows were covered
with red burlap and heavy brown paper. Ruby colored lights
were used in each chick battery and in the room.
The basal vitamin D-free ration used was as follows:
Ingredient Percent
Ground yellow corn ......................................... 59
Pure wheat flour middlings ................................ 25
Crude domestic acid-precipitated casein ........ 12
Calcium carbonate (precipitated) ............. 1
Calcium phosphate (precipitated) .................. 1
Iodized salt ................. ............ ............... 1
Non-irradiated yeast ..................-................. 1
Lot I received the basal ration, Lots II and III received the
basal ration supplemented with 20 and 15 units of vitamin D
(U.S.P. XI reference cold liver oil containing 95 units of vita-
min D per gram) per 100 grams of ration, respectively. Lots
IV, V, and VI received the basal ration plus 0.50, 0.375 and 0.25
percent of shark liver oil, respectively. These rations were pre-
pared at 10-day intervals and were adjusted to equal oil content
by adding a vitamin D-free oil.
The average percentages of bone ash of the chicks fed varying
supplement of reference cod liver oil or shark liver oil are pre-
sented in Table 3.
When the bone ash percentages of the chicks on shark liver
oil are compared with those of reference cod liver oil, it appears
that the shark liver oil ranges from 30 to 40 A.O.A.C. units of
vitamin D per gram. If birds are kept in confinement away from
sunlight, additional vitamin D must be incorporated in the ration
from a source other than shark liver oil.

SAssociation of Official Agricultural Chemists.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 3.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGES BONE ASH OF COCKERELS AND PULLETS
FED REFERENCE COD LIVER OIL OR SHARK LIVER OIL.

Lot Liver Oil Supplement Percentage Bone Ash
Number per 100 gms. of Ration* Cockerels I Pullets Average
I 0 ......... ....... .. ...... ... ...- 28.16 34.02 31.09
II 20 units reference cod liver oil 39.09 44.69 41.89
III 15 units reference cod liver oil 37.70 43.31 40.50
IV 0.50% shark liver oil .................. 37.81 47.52 42.66
V 0.375% shark liver oil .......... 36.52 40.20 38.36
VI 0.25% shark liver oil ........... 35.59 35.86 35.72

*A vitamin D-free oil was added to keep oil content uniform for all lots.


SUPPLEMENTATION OF AN ALL-MASH RATION
WITH SHARK LIVER OIL

Two trials were conducted in which chicks were fed the regu-
lar all-mash ration used at the Poultry Laboratory supplemented
with shark liver oil or cod liver oil.
In the first experiment, 102 Barred Plymouth Rock day-old
chicks were divided equally into 3 lots containing 34 chicks each.
The chicks were brooded and reared in cages in confinement
under uniform conditions during the 8 weeks' trial.
The chicks were fed, ad libitum, an all-mash ration composed
of the following ingredients:
Yellow corn meal ............................ 40 pounds
Wheat bran ....................................... 15 pounds
Wheat shorts ...................... ... ..- 10 pounds
Meatscrap .......... ..... ................. 10 pounds
Ground oats ........................ .............-- 10 pounds
Dried skim milk ................................. 10 pounds
Alfalfa leaf meal ................................ 2 pounds
Ground oyster shell .................. 2 pounds
Salt ......................... ........ .......... 1 pound
Irradiated yeast ..............-.... .....--. ... 2 pounds

Lot I received the basal ration; Lot II the basal ration plus
1/8 of 1 percent of cod liver oil (3,000 U.S.P. XI units of vitamin
A per gram) ; and Lot III the basal ration plus 1/16 of 1 per-
cent of shark liver oil (approximately 9,000 U.S.P. XI units of
vitamin A per gram).






Shark Liver Oil in Poultry Nutrition


TABLE 4.-AVERAGE WEEKLY WEIGHTS OF BARRED PLYMOUTH ROCK CHICKS
ON AN ALL-MASH RATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH COD LIVER OIL OR
SHARK LIVER OIL.

Period Lot I Lot II Lot III
S (Check) (/s % cod liver oil) (j-% shark liver oil)
Weight Weight Weight
weeks grams grams grams
Initial 36.3 36.4 35.7
1 61.6 61.2 61.6
2 96.1 99.8 102.9
3 159.8 164.1 168.6
4 234.9 240.3 251.2
5 315.4 327.1 349.5
6 433.3 443.4 469.4
7 542.2 561.9 590.9
8 673.6 716.0 748.5


The average weekly weight per chick is given in Table 4.
At the end of 8 weeks the average weight per chick for Lots I,
II, and III was 673.6, 716.0 and 748.5 grams, respectively.
These weight differences are more significant than the data in-
dicate, since cockerels composed 50 percent of the control lot,
41.9 percent of the lot receiving cod liver oil, and 33.3 percent
of those in the lot receiving shark liver oil. The average weight
of the cockerels at the end of the 8-week period was 710.6,
763.9, and 837.3 grams, for Lots I, II, and III, respectively.
The average pullet weight at the end of 8 weeks was 636.7
grams for Lot I, 681.4 grams for Lot II, and 704.5 grams for
Lot III.

TABLE 5.-WEEKLY AND TOTAL FEED CONSUMPTION PER CHICK ON AN ALL-
MASH RATION SUPPLEMENTED WITH COD LIVER OIL OR SHARK LIVER OIL.

Period Lot I Lot II Lot III
(Check) (/s % cod liver oil) (1l% shark liver oil)
weeks grams grams grams
1 36.9 40.9 40.4
2 89.3 96.6 101.9
3 179.1 189.1 164.6
4 224.4 215.9 228.4
5 311.8 328.9 308.9
6 378.7 359.0 366.2
7 466.7 500.1 511.7
8 570.9 510.6 485.2
Total 2,257.8 2,241.1 2,207.3_


Total


2,257.8


2,241.1


2,207.3






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Figures on weekly and total feed consumption per chick for
the 3 different lots are presented in Table 5. The feed con-
sumption was greatest in Lot I and lowest in Lot III. In Lot I,
3.55 pounds of feed was required to produce 1 pound of gain,
in Lot II 3.13 pounds, in Lot III 2.95 pounds of feed.
Chicks receiving shark liver oil were heavier and more effi-
cient in feed utilization at 8 weeks than those receiving cod liver
oil, which in turn were heavier and more efficient than the con-
trol lot. It should be pointed out also, that 67 percent of the
birds in this group were pullets, which indicates that weight
differences are more significant.
In the second trial, using different levels of cod liver oil and
shark liver oil, and combinations of these 2 oils in the all-mash
ration fed to S. C. White Leghorn chicks, there were no signifi-
cant differences in the weights of cockerels or pullets at 8 weeks
or the weights of the pullets at 12 or 20 weeks. There did not
appear to be any advantage in adding more vitamin A than
required.
SUMMARY

Shark liver oil (poultry grade) contains approximately 9,000
U.S.P. XI units of vitamin A per gram and 35 A.O.A.C. units
of vitamin D per gram, which is a relatively low amount of
vitamin D.
Rations that are low in vitamin A can be reinforced by the
addition of 1/16 of 1 percent of shark liver oil with optimal
results under the conditions of the experiment.
Acknowledgment.-The shark liver oil used in these studies was sup-
plied through the courtesy of Shark Industries, Inc., Hialeah, Florida.

LITERATURE CITED
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Shark Liver Oil in Poultry Nutrition 13

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14 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

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