Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 541
Title: Selecting and using beef and veal
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 Material Information
Title: Selecting and using beef and veal
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 36 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Pearson, A. M ( Albert Marchant ), 1916-
Kirk, W. Gordon ( William Gordon ), 1898-1979
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1954
Subject: Beef   ( lcsh )
Veal   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Beef)   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Veal)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: A.M. Pearson and W.G. Kirk.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026428
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926386
oclc - 18276369
notis - AEN7057

Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

OC.i 22 1954
June 1954

Bulletin 541


Selecting and Using

Beef and Veal


Fig. 1.-U. S. Choice wholesale beef rib. (Courtesy USDA Production
and Marketing Administration.)

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to

Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Win. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
J. B. Culpepper, Secretary, Tallahassee
John S. Allen, Acting Presidents
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.5
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent

H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 13
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist s
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant '
E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Economist
N. K. Roberts, M.A., Asst. Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
F. T. Calloway, M.S., Agr. Statistician
C. L. Crenshaw, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer s
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1'
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate 2
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
U. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant s
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. 0. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. W. Edwardson, M.S., Asst. Agronomist 3

T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman z
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist2
It. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 2
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Physiologist

E. L. Fonts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist '
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman 8
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Hush. 8
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Hush.

J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associate Editor 3
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist

Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist '
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist2
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
B. D. Thompson, M.S.A., Interim Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & MycologistV
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant -Path.
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.'1
J. C. Driggers. Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.2
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist 3
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 2
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist s
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
O. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist3
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian 1
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian 3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry Pathologist
J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst. Poul. Path.


W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
II. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiol
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist

W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S.. Asso. Animal Husb.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer 2
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
I. S. Harrison M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist

M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist
D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Hush.
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist

Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist 2
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist

Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.

C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
R. L. Jeffers. Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist

G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. M. Crall, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. in Chg.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
D. L. Myhre, B.S., Asst. Soils Chemist
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in

1 Head of Department
SIn cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of 1
SOn leave

SELECTION OF BEEF AND VEAL .........................- .. .....- -----.------- 5
Factors which Influence the Grade of Beef ............-..... .... -----------.. 5
Grades of Beef Carcasses ..............................-.....--------- 7
Grades of Veal and Calf Carcasses ......... .... .. ...............-----......-- 9
Flavor in M eat ................... ...- .............. ...- ...-.....-- .. -- 10
CUTTING OF M EAT ........ .. ........ .-. ................---. ----..----.- ..------ 10
Cuts of B eef ................. ................. ............. ..... ..... ....- -.. -. 10
Cutting the Veal and Calf Carcass ........ ........................... -.. -------..---- 10
CARE OF MEAT IN THE HOME ... ................... ....-----...- 31
Methods of Preserving Beef and Veal .........- ... ..........- ---- --.... 32
Corned Beef --.............. .................. ..- ...-- ..- .. ---- 33
D ried B eef ....... .. ......... .................. ...... ............ ...- ----- ... 34
PREPARATION OF MEAT FOR THE TABLE .........--...------.---- .--.---.- -- 35
M methods of Cooking M eat .................... ......... ........ .......... ...-...- 35
Other Methods of Preparing Less Tender Cuts ............-..-........... 36


BELL, VIOLA M., and M. D. HELSER. Essentials in selection of meat. John
Wiley and Sons, Inc. 1930.
BULL, SLEETER. Meat for the table. McGraw-Hill. 1951.
HELSER, M. D. Farm meats. The Macmillan Co. 1929.
National Livestock and Meat Board. Ten lessons on meat. 6th Ed. 1943.
TOMHAVE, W. H. Meat and meat products. J. B. Lippincott Co., 1930.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of vealers and slaughter calves. Service and Regulatory An-
nouncements, No. 113. 1951.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of veal and calf carcasses. Service and Regulatory Announce-
ments, No. 114. 1951.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of carcass beef. Service and Regulatory Announcements, No.
99. 1950.
U. S. Department of Agriculture. Official United States standards for
grades of slaughter cattle. Service and Regulatory Announcements,
No. 112. 1950.
ZIEGLER, P. T. The meat we eat. 3rd Ed. Interstate Printers and Pub-
lishers. 1952.


The authors express their appreciation to Harold Mowry for making
the pictures used in this bulletin. They also acknowledge the help of
R. M. Crown, formerly Assistant Animal Husbandman, in the preparation
of certain parts of this bulletin.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal1


Meat is a nutritious, palatable food that is largely digestible.
It is an excellent dietary source of protein, containing all of the
essential amino acids. It supplies most of the B-complex vita-
mins, being especially rich in niacin, which will prevent and cure
pellagra. Recently, researchers have found meat to contain
vitamin B12, which is important in red blood cell formation.
Meat is also a good source of many minerals, especially iron,
copper and phosphorus. Not only is meat nutritious but its
flavor makes it one of the most appetite-satisfying foods.
In purchasing food, the housewife is a careful and critical
buyer. This is especially true in purchasing fruits, vegetables
and canned goods. Fruits and vegetables are selected upon a
basis of quality and freshness, while canned goods are largely
purchased by their brand name. However, meats, particularly
beef and veal, are not so easily selected. Few housewives are
able to recognize the various steaks and roasts, and the recogni-
tion of quality in the retail cuts is even more elusive.
This bulletin is designed to: (1) aid in identifying the
various cuts of beef and veal, (2) serve as a guide in selecting
meat from a quality standpoint, with special reference to the
use of government grades, (3) present the various methods of
preserving beef and veal, and (4) outline some standard methods
of cookery used in preparing meats for the table.

The term "beef" has a rather comprehensive usage, which
includes the meat obtained from all classes of cattle except
vealers and calves. Frequently the terms "veal" and "calf"
are used interchangeably to designate the meat from animals
of the bovine species which are under one year of age. How-
ever, by definition of the United States Department of Agri-
culture, veal is the flesh of calves not under three weeks of
age nor over 12 weeks of age at the time of slaughter. Calf
carcasses are from animals which have passed the veal stages
but have not taken on the characteristics of beef, or from ani-
mals between 12 weeks and one year of age at the time of slaugh-
ter. Beef, then, is the meat from all animals of the bovine
species which are beyond one year of age at time of slaughter-
SA revision of Bulletin 321 by W. G. Kirk and A. L. Shealy.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

ing. Sometimes a special classification known as baby beef is
used, which is the meat from good type animals having a high
degree of finish that are marketed between 12 and 18 months
of age.
The grade of a beef or veal carcass is determined by three
factors: (1) conformation or form, (2) finish or the amount
and distribution of fat, and (3) quality.
Conformation.-The term conformation refers to the general
form and outline of the carcass. The ideal carcass has short
shanks and a short neck, a well developed, thick round, a full,
thick, heavily-muscled loin, and a well proportioned, thick chuck.
In general, the ideal carcass has a high proportion of meat to
bone and a large percentage of the high-priced cuts (loin, round
and ribs) in relation to the low-priced cuts (chuck and plate).
In contrast, a low-grade carcass has long shanks, a long, thin
neck, prominent hip bones, heavy, coarse shoulders, a long, thin,
tapering round, a shallow loin and poorly arched ribs, showing
lack of development in the high-priced cuts.
Finish.--Finish refers to the amount, character and distri-
bution of external and internal fat throughout the carcass. A
well finished beef carcass has an even covering of fat over
the chuck, rib, loin and round. Inside, the carcass shows abun-
dant overflow or lining fat between the ribs, and the inside of
the flank shows fat streaking in the large lean muscle. When
the carcass is cut the fat is liberally streaked through the lean
muscles. This intermixture of fat throughout the lean is called
"marbling" and indicates quality as well as finish.
Fat makes the meat more attractive and a good external cov-
ering is necessary for aging, which is the process of holding
the meat at temperatures of 320 to 38 F. in the meat cooler
for several days to three weeks while the enzymes break down
the connective tissue. This renders the meat more tender and
improves the flavor. Beef lacking an external covering of fat
dries out rapidly and the surface begins to decompose with the
development of slime and mold.
Fat makes the meat more palatable and increases the degree
of tenderness. An external covering of fat prevents loss of
moisture during the cooking process, bastes the meat while
it is cooking and adds to the flavor. Although excess fat may
be undesirable, fat is necessary to give the meat a full, rich
flavor and to prevent drying out during cooking with the at-
tendant toughness.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Quality.-In meat, quality is determined by the size, color
and texture of the bones; color, firmness and texture of muscle
fibers; amount and appearance of connective tissue; and dis-
tribution and texture of the fat. The animal's age is considered
under quality and is determined by the appearance of the bones.
A young animal has soft, porous, moist, red bones. The carti-
lage buttons on the tip of the chine bones are unossified and
soft in the young animal and gradually become hard and flinty
as the animal matures. Poor quality beef contains a high pro-
portion of bone which is white and flinty in character. Good
quality is indicated by fine textured lean which is bright red
in color, smooth and velvety in appearance, and well marbled.
On the other hand, poor quality is evidenced by coarse-textured,
dark-colored lean with a relatively large quantity of connective
tissue. An even distribution of fat with abundant marbling
indicates high quality; lack of finish, uneven distribution of
fat and absence of marbling are indicative of poor quality.

The United States Department of Agriculture has set up cer-
tain established grades for fresh beef and veal. This makes it

it must appear on every wholesale cut. (Courtesy USDA Production Mar-
keting Administration.) SD


Fig. 2.-These are exact replicas of the grade stamps appearing on the
upper five grades of beef carcasses. In applying the stamp to a carcass,
it must appear on every wholesale cut. (Courtesy USDA Production Mar-
keting Administration.)

\Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

possible to purchase beef and veal by grade with assurance that
the meat will come up to the specifications of the grade.
The grades of beef set up by the USDA are as follows from
highest to lowest: Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility,
Cutter and Canner.
Under Office of Price Stablization regulations in effect during
and following World War II, government grading was com-
pulsory and many purchasers learned the advantages of buying
by grade. Even though grading is no longer mandatory, it is
usually possible to obtain government graded beef by asking
your butcher. Government graded beef is stamped and the
grade can be easily recognized by the consumer, as shown in
Figure 2. Sometimes butchers take advantage of the unin-
formed by advertising U. S. graded AA or A grade meat, but
such grades are not recognized as official.
The meat packers have their own systems of grading meat,
which are largely patterned after government grades. How-
ever, the grades are placed on the meat by a representative
of the packer and are thus more subject to variation, as the
supervision is not so close. The packer grades do offer a step
towards standardization and systematizing the selling of beef
by name brands, but government grades have the advantage
of being more comparable from one location to another and
of being made by a grader free of packer pressure.
The following is a brief discussion of the government grades
for beef carcasses:
Prime Grade.-As the name denotes, meat bearing this grade
approaches perfection. It comes only from steers and heifers
which are blocky and compact and carry a considerable amount
of finish. The Prime grade provides meat which approaches
perfection in flavor and tenderness. Most Prime beef is used
by restaurants, hotels, dining cars or steamships. In general,
the meat is too expensive and carries too much fat to suit the
average housewife.
Choice Grade.-Meats of this grade come from steers, heifers
and young cows not quite equal to those in the Prime grade
in one or more of the grading factors, but are definitely supe-
rior in eating qualities. A large proportion of this grade goes
into restaurants and public eating places. However, the select
butcher trade handles large quantities of this grade. Although
cutting waste is considerable, the superior flavor and tender-
ness of Choice beef make it a favorite of many housewives.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Good Grade.-Most meat in this grade goes into the retail
butcher shops where it is a universal favorite of those desiring
to compromise between good eating qualities and economy of
cost. It contains less fat than the higher grades but has a fair
amount of exterior covering and a slight amount of marbling.
It comes from steers, heifers and young cows.
Commercial Grade.-Beef qualifying for this grade is quite
variable in conformation, finish and quality. Young cows, steers
and heifers that are inferior in conformation and finish fall
into this grade. Carcasses of older animals may carry plenty
of finish and conformation for the higher grade but be graded
Commercial because of their lack of quality as evidenced by
maturity. Meat from Commercial carcasses should be cooked
with moist heat or be ground to produce tender meat. How-
ever, the flavor is usually superior, and it is an economical
source of lean meat.
Utility Grade.-Beef of Utility grade is decidedly inferior
in conformation, finish and quality. Although some finds its
way into retail channels, it is not suitable for oven-roasting or
broiling. However, this grade produces excellent pot-roasts,
stew meat and ground meat in which finish is not essential.
Cutter and Canner.-These are the two bottom grades of
beef and are not on the market in carcass form. Filet mignon
(tenderloin muscle) and other boneless beef cuts are made from
these grades. Most meat classifying as Cutter and Canner is
used as ground beef, processed or canned.

Veal and calf carcasses are graded the same, although there
is some difference in maturity. Differentiation is based pri-
marily upon color of the lean, although appearance of bones,
texture of lean, character of fat and carcass weight are con-
The grades are Prime, Choice, Good, Commercial, Utility and
Cull. The same grade factors, conformation, quality and finish,
used in grading beef carcasses are considered. The amount of
finish and the relative importance of conformation and quality
vary from veal to calves, but the same general principles hold
true as in beef grading. Consequently, detailed grade specifica-
tions for calf and veal carcasses will not be discussed.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

The flavor of meat is largely determined by the amount of
meat extractives and fat-both internal and external. As the
animal matures, meat extractives increase in the muscles, there-
by improving the flavor. Consequently, mature beef has a rich
full flavor, whereas veal and calves have little flavor. On the
other hand, meat from a mature animal lacks in tenderness
because of the amount of connective tissue, while veal is ex-
tremely tender. In general, young steers and heifers from 15
to 30 months of age, of good conformation and well finished,
produce flavorful and comparatively tender meat.

The guiding principles in cutting meat are: (1) separation
of the thin and thick cuts, (2) division of tender and less tender
cuts, (3) size of cuts desired, and (4) the structure of the cut.
Whenever possible, these principles should be followed.
Due to differences required in the cooking time, thin cuts are
separated from the thick cuts. For example, the loin (a thick
cut) is separated from the flank (a thin cut). As different
methods of cookery are required for tender and less tender
cuts, the rib (tender) is separated from the chuck (less tender).
The size of cuts desired necessarily influences the method of
cutting. Structure is considered, because meat cut across the
grain is more tender, more attractive and easier to carve.

A side of beef is divided into fore and hind quarters. The
division is usually made between the 12th and 13th ribs, which
leaves one rib on the hindquarters. Although this practice
varies somewhat according to local cutting procedures, a 12-rib
forequarter will be used as standard in this bulletin. The
following pictures illustrate the cuts and method of cutting.

Since both veal and calf are cut the same, they will be con-
sidered together. The same principles apply as in cutting beef
The flesh of veal and calves, when exposed to air, dries out
and turns dark more rapidly than beef. For this reason, the
hide is left on the carcass at slaughtering time to be removed

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 3.-Side of beef, outside and inside views, showing wholesale

Side of Beef.-The following wholesale and retail cuts are shown:

6. Wholesale ribs
7. Navel ) make up
8. Brisket f the plate
9. Fore shank
10. Chuck rib roast

11. Chuck roast
12. Round bone pot
13. Neck

According to USDA standard grades, the above side of beef would
grade "Good." Note the fullness of the round and loin and the compactness
of the carcass. The fat is uniformly distributed over the loin, ribs, chuck
and the thicker part of the round. There is little fat, however, on the
plate and lower part of the round.

1. Round
2. Rump
3. Loin end
4. Short loin
5. Flank

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 4.-Round steak, the least expensive steak of the hindquarter.

Round Steak.-Round steak is oval in shape with a small round
bone in the center. It consists of several large muscles but
lacks in exterior and interior fat. The cut shown, however, has
more fat throughout the lean tissue than is found generally in
round steak. The steak above is from the center of the whole-
sale round which is higher in quality than steaks cut from
either the loin or shank end. The shank end of the round con-
tains a relatively small amount of lean meat and a large amount
of bone and connective tissue. It is used as pot roast, stew, or
ground meat. The round steak is often divided into top and
bottom round steaks by dividing along the natural seam. Top
round contains the large muscle nearest the camera and is most
desirable, while the other portion is the bottom round and con-
tains two major muscles.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 5.-Rump roast.

Rump Roast.-The rump is a wedge-shaped piece of meat
lying between the round and loin end (Fig. 3, No. 2). It has a
moderate amount of fat and a relatively large portion of bone, as
it contains the hip joint and part of the pelvic arch. This cut
is suitable for roasting, but to facilitate carving it is frequently
boned and rolled. The lean portion can be used as boneless
steaks for broiling or pan frying if of good quality.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 6.-Round bone sirloin steak.

Round Bone Sirloin Steak.-Sirloin steaks are obtained from the whole-
sale loin end cut (Fig. 3, No. 3) and are characterized by being oblong in
shape and containing sections of the backbone and hip bone. No two sirloin
steaks are the same in muscle and bone because of the changing positions of
these structures. The steaks procured from the loin end are considered
more tender and to have a more desirable flavor than those from the end
towards the wholesale round cut.
The above steak is known as the round bone sirloin (note round bone
in lower center of cut) and is one of the most desirable steaks from this
section. The lean meat has been cut across the grain, since all of the muscle
fibers run in one direction. The round bone sirloin steak is well marbled
and contains a small proportion of bone to meat.

f 7.q

Fig. 7.-Double bone sirloin steak.

Double Bone Sirloin Steak.-The characteristics of this steak are muscle
fibers running in two directions and a relatively large proportion of fat
and bone to lean meat. When lean meat is cut parallel to the muscle
fibers (see right of figure) it lacks tenderness and, for this reason, it is
not as desirable as the round bone sirloin steak. This steak may be
broiled and when cut three inches thick makes an excellent roast.

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Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 8.-Porterhouse is considered the highest quality steak in the
beef carcass.

Porterhouse Steak.-Porterhouse, T-bone and club steaks are
obtained from the short loin (Fig. 3, No. 4). Porterhouse is
considered to be the highest quality steak in the beef carcass.
It is characterized by the T-bone conformation, large "eye of
beef" above the bone, and the tenderloin muscle below. When
the tail end of the steak, which is rather coarse, is cut off,
the resulting steak is known as a "short cut" porterhouse. These
steaks should be cut about 3 inch thick if they are to be cooked
well done, but if slightly rare meat is preferred, 1 to 11/ inches
is not too thick. Porterhouse, because of its flavor and tender-
ness, is in most demand and, therefore, is the most expensive
cut in the beef carcass.

Fig. 9.-T-bone steak is similar in quality to porterhouse.
T-Bone Steak.-T-bone steak can be recognized readily by the distinct
T-bone formation. This steak shows considerable portion of tenderloin
muscle, but usually there is much less than in porterhouse steak, or none
at all. The "eye of beef" above the bone is similar in quality to that of
the porterhouse. This cut, as indicated in the figure, contains a consider-
able quantity of kidney fat or suet. It is cut and cooked as is porter-
house and the price is approximately the same.

Fig. 10.-Club steak is a high quality cut.
Club Steak.-One or two club steaks are obtained from the rib end
of the short loin. These steaks have neither T-bone nor tenderloin muscle,
but may or may not have a rib (13th rib). Club steaks have a large
"eye of beef" which in good quality beef is well marbled and surrounded
on the exterior by fat. This is a high quality cut and usually is broiled.
For oven broiling, 1 to 1% inches in thickness is best. Club steaks are
considered to be slightly inferior in quality to porterhouse and T-bone
steaks. However, they have a higher percentage of lean to fat and bone
than do the other steaks obtained from the short loin.

Fig. 11.-Flank steak, of medium tenderness but rich in flavor.
Flank Steak.-The flank is the cheapest wholesale cut of the hind-
quarter. It contains about 50 percent surplus fat and connective tissue
and very little bone. Its chief value lies in the large abdominal, flat,
rectangular-shaped muscle which is known as the flank steak. The muscle
fibers of the steak are large and run lengthwise. When used for Swiss
steak it is scored on both sides diagonally to the fibers. When rolled with
suet or fat pork it may be used as a roast. This steak is rich in flavor
and when properly prepared is of medium tenderness.

Fig. 12.-Chuck end of rib.
Chuck End of Rib.-There are 13 ribs in a side of beef. In quartering
the side one rib, the 13th, is left on the hindquarter which leaves 12 ribs
in the forequarter. The wholesale rib cut (Fig. 3, No. 6) contains seven
ribs and corresponding sections of the backbone. Note the number of
muscles which go to make up the thickness of this cut and the small
cartilagenous section of the shoulder blade at the upper edge of the cut.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 13.-An attractive folded rib roast from the 9th and 11th
rib section.

Rib Roasts.-Retail roasts from the wholesale rib cut are
the choicest roasts in the carcass. These roasts have the least
bone of any forequarter cut and there is usually sufficient fat
on the exterior and intermingled with the lean to baste it
naturally as it cooks. Rib roasts are sold as standing, folded
or rolled. The first cut from the loin end of the rib is known
as the 11th and 12th rib roast; the middle cuts-the 9th and
10th and the 7th and 8th rib roasts; the chuck end as the 6th
rib roast. The weight of the 6th rib cut is about equal to that
of the 11th and 12th rib cut. The prepared folded rib roast
shown in Fig. 13 was taken from the 9th and 10th rib section.

Ii~~ ,,,

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 14.-Chuck rib roast, which is well flavored meat.

Chuck Rib Roast.-The square cut chuck (Fig. 3, wholesale cuts 10, 11,
12 and 13) has many small muscles and, as the muscle bundles run in
various directions, it is impossible to cut all the muscles across the grain.
The chuck has a relatively large amount of connective tissue, little fat
and a fairly high percentage of bone. The retail cuts may be made in
various shapes and sizes. The chuck rib roast consists of two ribs with
corresponding vertebrae and part of the shoulder blade. It is made up of
a number of muscles, contains a moderate amount of fat and a considerable
quantity of bone. A chuck rib roast from a carcass which grades Com-
mercial or higher makes a satisfactory roast or it may be cut into chuck
steaks. It is well flavored because it contains a relatively large amount
of meat extractives. It is usually braised or pot roasted.

Fig. 15.-Boned and rolled chuck rib roasts.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Boned and Rolled Chuck Rib Roasts.-The chuck rib roast when taken
from a medium-sized carcass may be too large for a small family. Figure
15 shows this roast boned and made into two rolls. Each of these rolls
weighs approximately 4 pounds. The rolls contain a good proportion of
lean and fat which is well distributed, very little connective tissue and
no bone. The roll on the right is from the section next to the ribs and
is considered to be the tenderer of the two, whereas the roll on the left
contains the exterior fat. The quality of these roasts is excellent and
there is no waste.

Fig. 16.-Chuck roast.

Chuck Roast.-The chuck roast is similar in muscle structure, fat
content, and quality of lean to the chuck rib roast. It contains a small
end of the shoulder blade, two ribs and corresponding portions of the
backbone. When taken from a Commercial or higher grade carcass it
makes a good roast or it may be used for steaks. It may be cooked as
a pot roast or used for braising. Because of its size it is often cut cross-
wise, making two roasts, or it may be boned and divided into top and
bottom rolls.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 17.-Round bone pot roast, also known as cross rib roast or arm
bone roasts.

Round Bone Pot Roast.-Round bone pot roast is cut across the ribs
and at right angles to the chuck roasts (see Fig. 3, No. 12). It is known
also as cross rib roast or arm bone roast because it is cut across the ribs
and has the small round arm bone in the center. The short ribs may be
removed, as in this cut. It may be cut into steaks for pan frying, and
when cut of suitable thickness it is used for Swiss steak. When cut into
steaks it sometimes is sold as round steak. It differs, however, from
round steak in that the muscles are smaller and it has a characteristic
small round muscle near the bone.

Neck End of Chuck.-The neck end of chuck as pictured shows a large
proportion of lean meat. However, this piece contains the large shoulder
knuckle, one rib and all of the neck vertebrae. In good quality carcasses
one or two pot roasts can be cut from the thicker part. These will be
similar in quality and texture to the chuck roast (Fig. 16). The neck
proper is well-flavored meat but lacks tenderness. Boneless neck, because
of its flavor, is one of the most desirable cuts for ground beef. Chopping
or grinding finely divides the connective tissue present and thus makes
the meat tender. It also makes excellent stew meat.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 18.-Neck end of chuck.

Fig. 19.-Shoulder or soup knuckle.

Shoulder or Soup Knuckle.-The shoulder or soup knuckle contains
a large amount of bone, connective tissue and varying amounts of lean
meat, depending upon the method of cutting. This cut, as the name implies,
is used for soup.

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IF*L -;C~bL

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 20.-The fore shank.

Fore Shank.-The fore shank has a large amount of bone and con-
nective tissue. The connective tissue makes it a highly desirable cut for
soup or for pressed or jellied beef. A small pot roast or several shoulder
steaks may be cut from the larger or upper end. The lower part of the
shank is cut into 2- or 3-inch lengths to use for soup, or the meat may
be used for stew or ground beef.

Fig. 21.-The brisket.

Brisket.-The plate of beef consists of the navel and brisket (Fig. 3,
Nos. 7 and 8). The lean and fat, which are well flavored, are deposited
in alternate layers. The plate contains the lower end of the ribs and
breast bone. The brisket can be identified from the navel by the presence
of the breast bone and the granular nature of much of the exterior fat.
There is a large amount of bone and fat, and the fat when cooked has a
sweet flavor. This cut is used for soup, stews and ground beef.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 22.-Boiling pieces from plate.

Boiling Pieces from Plate.-Sections consisting of two or more rib
ends are cut from the plate and sold as boiling beef. Note the alternate
layers of lean and fat in the folded cut. These cuts usually have moder-
ate amounts of fat and the lean is well flavored.

Fig. 23.-Short ribs of beef, used for boiling or as a pot roast.

Short Ribs of Beef.-Short ribs of beef are cut from the upper portion
of the navel. They are cut from 2 to 4 inches in length and are used for
boiling or as a pot roast. The short ribs are considered to be the best
part of the plate.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 24.-Boned and rolled navel.

Boned and Rolled Navel.-The navel piece can be boned, rolled
and cut into pieces of any desired size. Note the thin outside
lean portion which is fibrous and lacking in tenderness. The
inside of the roll contains desirable proportions of lean to fat
and is well flavored. If the roll contains a moderate amount of
fat, it can be used as a roast. Because of the thinness of the
muscles in this cut it is used more frequently for boiling or
stewing than for any other purpose.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 25.-Side of veal, outside and inside views, showing wholesale cuts.

Side of Veal.-The following whoesale cuts are shown:

1. Leg 4. Flank 7. Shoulder
2. Rump 5. Ribs 8. Fore shank
3. Loin 6. Breast

Note the absence of large quantities of fat on the exterior, around
the kidneys and in the pelvic region; also the light color of the flesh
compared with that of a beef carcass.

1 "i

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Fig. 26.-Veal cutlets, one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.

Veal Cutlet.-The thicker part of the leg of veal is used as veal cut-
lets (steaks) or roasts, while the shank is used for stew meat or soup.
Veal cutlets are characterized by having a small round bone surrounded
by relatively large muscles. Note the large proportion of lean to bone
and fat. Veal cutlets are tender and suitable for broiling, but it is neces-
sary to add some fat in the cooking process. They have a good flavor
and are one of the most economical cuts in the veal carcass.

Fig. 27.-Veal roast from loin end.

Veal Roast from Loin End.-The entire loin of veal can be used for
roasts or chops. This cut shows a roast from the round or rump end of
the loin. The bone in the lower part of the picture is part of the femur
socket. Note the lack of fat and that some of the muscles have been cut
along the muscle fibers.

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Fig. 28.-Veal roast from the loin.
Veal Roast from the Loin.-This cut shows the section of the loin end
next to the short loin. Note the difference in bone and muscle structure
compared with the roast in Fig. 27. No two chops obtained from the loin
end are the same in muscle and bone because of the changing position
and shape of these structures.

Fig. 29.-Round bone roast of veal.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

Round Bone Roast.-This roast gets its name because it contains part
of the arm bone which is round. It is known also as "cross the rib roast"
because it contains a short section of three ribs. The round bone roast
contains a large proportion of lean meat to bone and fat and is considered
one of the most economical cuts from the forequarter. Although the
roasts or chops from the shoulder of veal are not as choice as those from
the rib and loin they are tender and well flavored (Fig. 29).

Fig. 30.-Veal roast from the short loin.

Veal Roast from the Short Loin.-This roast is characterized
by the presence of the T-shaped bone, the large muscle above
the round tenderloin muscle below the bone. There is little
exterior or kidney fat and the thin part of the cut has been
folded under. Chops from the short loin are considered to be
the choicest in the veal carcass.

Fig. 31.-Boned and rolled rib roast of veal.
Boned and Rolled Rib Roast.-Standing or folded rib cuts from a veal
carcass are rather thin for roasting. The above picture shows a boned
and rolled roast from the rib section. Note the large muscle in the center
of the roll and the absence of fat either on the exterior or between the
muscles. When the rib section is used for chops the bones are left in.

Fig. 32.-Shoulder roast of veal.
Shoulder Roast of Veal.-The shoulder roast contains, in addition to
ribs and backbone, part of the shoulder blade. It is frequently boned
and rolled when sold as a roast, but when cut into chops the bones are
left in. Note the number of muscles, some of which are cut necessarily
parallel to the muscle fibers.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

before shipping. Veal and calf carcasses do not contain suffi-
cient fat to be satisfactorily aged. Therefore, these meats
should be used within a short time after slaughter, or frozen
and preserved for future use.
Calf and veal are used for chops, roasts, stewing or ground
meat. The thickness of the carcass largely determines the use
of the wholesale cuts.
Although veal and calf are relatively tender, cuts such as the
neck, fore shank and breast are high in connective tissue and
lack tenderness. They are often used as stew meat, ground
meat, or in the case of the shank, for making soup.

Meat is a highly perishable food and requires cleanliness and
care, or it will spoil rapidly. The undesirable changes which
meat undergoes are classified as (1) oxidative, (2) enzymatic
and (3) putrefactive. The oxidative changes are due to the
taking up of oxygen by the fat, resulting in an undesirable
flavor change known as rancidity. Rancidity is not normally a
problem in fresh meats, as the putrefactive changes occur
more rapidly. Consequently, rancidity occurs primarily in frozen
and cured meats, more particularly in pork and poultry.
The enzymatic changes occur after death when the catalytic
enzymes begin to break down the connective tissue. These
enzymes are responsible for the development of tenderness and
the full flavor of aged beef, but if allowed to proceed too far
will result in decomposition of the tissue. This process is slowed
by refrigeration and is not normally a major cause of spoilage.
The putrefactive changes are largely the result of bacterial
action on the lean tissue. Growth of bacteria, which are uni-
versally present, can be retarded by refrigeration. However,
fresh meat has a limited storage life due to bacterial decomposi-
tion, unless the storage temperature is below freezing.
Fresh meat should be kept in the coldest part of the home
refrigerator to minimize meat spoilage. Unless it is to be used
within several days, it should be frozen, cured or canned to pre-
vent spoilage. In storing fresh meat in the refrigerator, the
paper should be removed or opened and wrapped loosely to allow
the surface to dry out. The dry surface will materially inhibit
the growth of bacteria. Meat which cannot be used before
danger of spoilage occurs may be cooked and held in the refrig-
erator for much longer periods. However, cooked meat should

Florida A I rcli ,if i Experiment Stations

be covered tightly to prevent dehydration. Place it in a covered
dish or wrap in moisture-proof paper.

Preservation of meat is based upon checking the growth of or
destroying the bacteria and upon inactivating the catalytic
enzymes causing autolysis or break down of the tissues. The
methods discussed below act in one or both of these ways:
Freezing.-Freezing slows down or retards the changes oc-
curring in fresh meat. Frozen meat closely approaches the fresh
product. Thus freezing is preferred as a method of preserving
meat by most people.
Following are the steps in preparing and freezing meat:
1. Divide meat into desired cuts.
2. Wrap each cut in a good grade of commercial freezer paper.
Take care to exclude all air by folding in the edges, thus prevent-
ing dehydration or "freezer burn." If two steaks are placed in
the same package, separate with a sheet of oiled paper.
3. Clearly label each package with name of cut, date and
weight (if possible).
4. Place meat in the fr. :l- at 0 F. or below as quickly as
possible after wrapping.
5. Take care to avoid over-loading the home freezer.
6. Store frozen meat below 15 F., in either the home freezer
or the freezer-locker plant.
Either rancidity or dehydration usually limits the storage life
of frozen meat which has been properly packaged. It is recom-
mended that frozen beef and veal be held in freezer storage
no longer than 12 months to minimize these undesirable changes.
Canning.-Canning destroys the bacteria by heat and sealing
in air-tight containers prevents further contamination. The
process is described fully in other publications.
Curing.-In curing meat of any kind, use only clean untainted
meat from a healthy animal. Cleanliness reduces bacterial con-
tamination and prevents spoilage. If in doubt as to the sound-
ness of the meat, discard it and avoid the danger of spoilage.
Although a wide variety of ingredients are used in curing
meat, common salt is the only basic element. A good grade
dairy salt or common table salt is recommended because of their

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

freedom from impurities. Salt preserves meat by removing the
moisture, thereby inhibiting the growth of bacteria. Salt, when
used alone, tends to make the lean tissues dry and hard. Sugar
is used to give flavor and counteract the hardening effect of
salt. Brown sugar is commonly preferred, but white sugar,
syrup or molasses is sometimes used. Saltpeter is usually
added to curing mixtures in small quantities to develop the
desirable bright pink color of the cured product. Unless salt-
peter is used, the cured meat becomes gray in color.
Curing can be accomplished most satisfactorily at 380 F.
At this temperature the curing ingredients penetrate the meat
quite rapidly, yet the temperature is low enough to inhibit the
growth of microorganisms. Lower temperatures result in a
reduced rate of salt penetration, and below 320 F. the length of
time necessary in the cure is measurably increased. Tempera-
tures above 400 F. materially increase the incidence of spoilage.

Corned beef is prepared from the cheaper cuts of meat, such
as the plate, chuck and shank, although other cuts may be
used. Meat that contains some fat is more desirable than that
devoid of finish. The following recipe has been found satisfac-
tory for every 100 pounds of beef:
8 lbs. salt
3 lbs. sugar (brown usually preferred)
3 oz. saltpeter
5 gals. water
Large earthenware jars and hardwood boxes or barrels make
excellent curing receptacles. Receptacles must be water-tight
and should be thoroughly scrubbed and scalded before being
used. Containers made of soft woods should not be used, as
they impart a resinous flavor to the product.
In corning, cut the meat in pieces of the desired size, usually
about 4 to 6 pounds. Rub each piece of meat with salt and pack
in the container. Sprinkle a layer of salt over each layer of
meat as it is packed. Allow to stand over night in the cooler.
Make a pickle with the remaining curing ingredients and heat
to boiling to kill any organisms present. Cool to 38 F. and
pour the solution over the meat. Weight down with a hard-
wood block and be sure all the meat is submerged. Keep in cooler
at 32 to 38 F. Repack the meat on the fourth and eighth day
to insure uniform penetration of the curing mixture. The meat

Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

should be kept in the brine until used. It can be used in 10
days, but is better after 15 to 20 days. If it becomes too salty,
the excess can be removed by soaking in water or by parboiling.

The round is most commonly used in making dried beef, but
any large muscle with a high proportion of lean can be used.
The round is usually divided into three parts by following the
natural division between the muscles. This facilitates cutting
across the grain after it is dried and smoked.
Brine Method.-The same curing procedure is followed as was
previously outlined for corned beef. The meat should be cured
3 days per pound; a 5-pound piece of meat would require 15
days, After removal from the brine, hang until it becomes
thoroughly dry and then smoke it according to the procedure
used for the dry method.
Dry Method.-The following mixture has proven satisfactory
for curing 100 pounds of beef:
5 lb. salt
3 lb. sugar (brown preferred)
3 oz. saltpeter
Mix the curing ingredients thoroughly and divide into three
equal portions. Rub the meat with one portion and pack in a
tight vessel. Allow the meat to cure four days, remove it and
rub with the second portion of the curing mixture. Repack the
meat, placing the pieces which were on top at the bottom of the
pack. Repeat again in four days, using the remainder of the
curing ingredients and leave for an additional three to five days.
The pickle which collects in the bottom of the container should
be left to aid in curing.
When taken from the cure, the excess salt is removed by
washing and the meat is allowed to drip. The cured meat is
dried at a temperature of 130 to 1400 F. for 30 hours. In the
event this temperature cannot be obtained, the meat is allowed
to dry for a longer period before smoking.
The cured beef is smoked for 24 hours at a temperature
of 100 to 140 F. for a mild smoke flavor, or it may be smoked
for a longer period if a more pronounced smoke flavor is de-
sired. Sometimes it is the practice to smoke for a few hours
each week until the meat is used. Green, non-resinous, hard-
woods such as hickory or oak make the best fuels, although
corn cobs can be used.

Selecting and Using Beef and Veal

The finest quality meat may prove a disappointment if not
properly cooked. On the other hand, a low grade piece of
meat may become very palatable after proper preparation. Good
meat cookery retains the natural meat flavors, but improper
preparation will destroy flavor and decrease palatability.

Meat is cooked (1) to develop the flavors and make more
palatable, (2) to improve the appearance, (3) to kill bacteria
and other microorganisms and (4) to soften the connective
tissues, thereby tenderizing.
In selecting a method of cookery for a piece of meat con-
sider the grade of the carcass and the cut to be cooked. In
general, the more tender cuts, which have a minimum of
connective tissue, are from the part of the carcass which has
been used least in life. The muscles used most have fibers
with thickened walls and are surrounded by a large amount of
connective tissue. Consequently, the location of the cut must
be considered in selecting a method of cookery.
There are only two basic methods of cooking meat-by dry
heat or by moist heat. The more tender cuts which contain a
small amount of connective tissue and have a moderate amount
of fat should be cooked by dry heat, while the less tender cuts
which contain little fat and a large amount of connective tissue
should be cooked by moist heat. Methods of cooking by dry heat
are roasting, broiling and panbroiling. Methods with moist heat
are braising and simmering in liquid, or stewing.
Each method of cooking is described below:
Roast.-To cook in an oven without added moisture (dry
heat). Oven temperatures of 300 to 350 F. are recommended.
Broil.-To cook by direct heat from hot coals, a gas flame or
an electric element. To grill. Makes use of temperatures of
350 to 4000 F.
Panbroil.-To cook in a hot, uncovered frying pan, pouring
off the fat as it accumulates.
Braise.-To brown meat in a small amount of added fat, then
to cover and cook slowly in the meat juices or in added liquid.
The liquid is usually water, but milk, cream, dilute vinegar and
vegetable juices are sometimes used. The temperature after
browning should be reduced so the liquid will not boil.

FI,; id, Agricultural Experiment Stations

Stew or Simmer.-To cook in liquid at a temperature of 1850
F. Meat should never be boiled, as this, causes loss of flavor
and makes the meat stringy and difficult to carve. Small, uni-
form pieces of meat may be cooked in liquid with or without
added vegetables.
Low temperatures in meat cookery have the following ad-
vantages over high temperatures: (1) less moisture is lost, (2)
less shrinkage occurs due to retention of both moisture and fat
and (3) the meat is more tender, has more juice and has a
richer flavor.

Preparing the less tender cuts by pounding has been practiced
for many years. The object is to break down the connective
tissue in the meat. In doing this, meat juices are liberated, so
flour is used to take up the juices and conserve the flavor. Pound-
ing with a tenderizing mallet, which has blunt knife-like edges
at right angles to each other, is most effective.
The cubing machine works on the same principle as the
mallet, with blunt knife-like edges which break much of the
connective tissue by pressure but do not cut through the steak.
Cuts of meat can be scored with a knife by cutting more or
less across the grain. This method is commonly used in pre-
paring flank steak, which has long, strong muscle fibers.
Grinding meat is one of the most common methods of tender-
izing. The grinder breaks up the connective tissues and muscle
fibers. Meat thus prepared can be broiled or panbroiled in the
form of patties, or it can be molded into a loaf and roasted with
dry heat. To develop a good flavor and prevent ground beef
from drying out, it should contain about 1 part fat to 4 parts
lean. The cuts of beef used for making ground meat are often
lacking in fat, which can be added by grinding enough suet to
give the proper proportion. The additional fat will baste the
meat as it cooks.
Larding of lean, less tender cuts of meat adds to the flavor
and prevents dryness. Small strips of fat can be placed in the
lean meat by use of a larding needle. The fat will melt as the
meat cooks, giving it added juiciness and flavor. A cover of
fat is sometimes added to veal roasts to prevent dryness and
add flavor.

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