Title: Sprinkler, trickle, and other irrigation systems
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 Material Information
Title: Sprinkler, trickle, and other irrigation systems
Alternate Title: Bulletin 197 ; Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Harrison, D. S.
Smajstrla, A. G.
Zazueta, Fedro S.
Publisher: Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1983
Copyright Date: 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00026366
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aab7764 - LTQF
acf1279 - LTUF
10758960 - OCLC
000405049 - AlephBibNum

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






SOctober 1983
-r October 1983


Sprinkler, Trickle,
And Other Irrigation

Cost Estimates for Citrus
And Orchard Crops

D. S. Harrison, A. G. Smajstrla, and F. S. Zazueta


Systems:


F. U of
!.F.A.S. Un v. of Floridd


Florida Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
John T. Woeste, Dean for Extension


Bulletin 197








Sprinkler, Trickle,
And Other Irrigation Systems:
Cost Estimates for Citrus and Orchard Crops

D. S. Harrison, A. G. Smajstrla, and F S. Zazueta'

In recent years the use of trickle systems for irrigation of citrus and or-
chard crops has escalated rapidly in Florida. Irrigation with permanent over-
head sprinkler systems and traveling gun sprinkler systems slowed considerably
during the same time period. Primary reasons for these changes have been
1) to reduce the cost of irrigation, 2) to reduce water usage, and 3) to obtain
cold protection for citrus.
Costs of irrigation have changed dramatically in recent years. An eco-
nomic analysis of systems used for citrus irrigation was made by Reuss and
Harrison (1968). At that time the predominant systems were (a) permanent
overhead sprinklers, (b) self-propelled (traveling) high pressure guns, (c)
portable high pressure guns, and (d) perforated pipe sprinklers. Total annual
costs (fixed and variable) per acre ranged from $59.40 to $72.60 or about
$5 per acre-inch of water applied. At today's prices these costs are 3 to 4
times greater at $159 to $223 per acre, or about $23 to $27 per acre-inch.
Trickle irrigation systems (drip and spray-jet) offer the advantages of both
lower initial and operating costs as compared to permanent sprinklers and
traveling guns. They operate at much lower pressures and thus reduce fuel
consumption. They are also easily automated. Thus they reduce labor costs
as compared to portable systems, which have dramatically decreased in num-
bers due to higher labor costs.
Trickle systems reduce water usage for citrus and orchard crop produc-
tion, primarily because they reduce waste during applications. Water is
placed into or very near the crop root zone, thus reducing non-productive
evaporation and wind drift losses. When properly managed, trickle systems
minimize losses due to deep percolation or lateral flow as would occur with
seepage and flood irrigation systems. They also apply water at low flow rates,
thus allowing less productive water sources to be used, and allowing irriga-
tion to be applied when water supplies are too limited for seepage or flood
irrigation.
An additional major advantage of trickle irrigation systems is that they
offer a degree of cold protection for citrus. Under-tree spray-jets have been
found to reduce freeze damage when operated during radiation frost condi-
tions. Many irrigators have installed spray-jet systems primarily for this ad-
vantage.


'Professor, Associate Professor, and Visiting Assistant Professor, respectively,
Agricultural Engineering Department, IFAS, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611








The above factors have caused the Florida citrus industry to shift to trickle
irrigation systems very rapidly in the last 5 years. From 1978 to 1980, ap-
proximately 69,000 acres of trickle irrigation systems were installed in Flor-
ida citrus groves. It is estimated that an additional 60,000 acres is currently
being designed or installed. Low operating costs, water savings, and cold
protection during radiation frosts and freezes, have made under-tree spray-
jet systems the most popular type of trickle irrigation system in Florida citrus
and orchard crops.


Trickle Irrigation Systems

Because of the increasing interest in trickle irrigation in Florida, three
demonstration systems were designed and installed in 1981. Two were lo-
cated in citrus groves and one in a pecan orchard (Harrison and Smajstrla,
1982). The objective was to demonstrate the costs and the water and energy
savings obtainable with these systems when properly designed, installed and
managed. All systems were under-tree spray-jet types, designed to utilize
one 15-GPH spray-jet per tree for citrus and two 15-GPH spray-jets per tree
for pecans. These systems are typical of those currently being installed for
citrus and orchard crop irrigation in Florida.
Tables 1 and 2 show the orchard characteristics and some of the trickle
irrigation system characteristics for the three demonstration systems. Spray-
jets were selected rather than point-source emitters for the demonstration
systems because of their ability to distribute water over a greater portion of
the tree root zone. This is a particular concern due to the limited lateral
movement of water in typical Florida sandy soils and the need to cover a large
portion of the tree root zone under the canopy.
The field demonstration systems were installed with three private owner-
cooperators in the state. Tensiometers were installed in all systems for irri-
gation scheduling. The systems are currently in operation. Records of irri-
gations, as well as all operating costs, maintenance costs and yields are being
kept for all systems, as well as gross returns.
Table 2 shows costs of the demonstration systems. Initial investments
ranged from $482 to $950 per acre. The low cost of $482 for the pecan or-
chard system occurred due to; (1) the reduced lateral pipe because of the
widely-spaced (60 ft x 60 ft) trees and, (2) the reduced pipe sizes and pump
capacity required by subdividing the system to irrigate in 2 sets rather than
irrigating the entire system in one set as is done for citrus systems designed
for cold protection. These costs represents the bid price that could be ex-
pected for the design and installation of systems of this type in Florida today.
Initial costs for the citrus irrigation systems ranged from $632 to $950 per
acre. These values represent the range in expected costs for citrus spray-jet





Table 1. Orchard and trickle irrigation field demonstration system characteristics
Orchard Type of Number Number GPH/ Tree Spacing
Type System of Acres of Trees Tree (ft)
Citrus Under-Tree
A. re) ra 36 2,633 14.8 22 x 22 30 x 30
(Orange) Spray-Jet
Citrus Under-Tree
B. 40 4,512 14.8 28 x 14
(Orange) Spray-Jet

C. Pecan Under-Tree 57 922 29.6 60 x 60
Spray-Jet

Table 2. Costs and characteristics of trickle irrigation field demonstration systems
Number Flow Operating Well Power Horse- Fuel Use Initial
Type System of Rate Pressure Size Unit* power Rate Cost
Acres (gpm) (psi) (inches) Reqd. (gal/hr) ($/Acre)

Under-Tree
A. Uder-Tree 36 650 25 8 G 21 3.00 $632
Spray Jet
Under-Tree
B. der-Tree 40 1,140 30 8 D 63 5.08 $950
Spray-Jet
Under-Tree
C. Under-Tree 57 227 30 6 E 10 7.5 kW $482
Spray-Jet


*G = gasoline, D = diesel, and E = electric








irrigation systems designed to also provide freeze protection. The 40% dif-
ference in initial costs resulted from a tree density for System B almost twice
that of the lower cost System A (Table 2). The greater density resulted in a
requirement of more emitters per lateral, thus larger laterals and a greater
pumping capacity.
Table 3 lists fixed, operating, and total costs per acre, and total cost per
acre-inch of water based on projected average water applications of 7 inches
per year for spray jets and 9 inches for traveling gun and permanent overhead
sprinkler systems. Although fixed costs of the trickle systems are compara-
ble with costs of other systems commonly used for citrus irrigation, operat-
ing costs are much lower. This makes the total annual costs per acre for
the systems analyzed $159 and $191, which are less than the traveling gun
and overhead sprinkler system costs. Low operating costs are especially
advantageous in a dry year when the system must be operated much more
than average.
A detailed cost analysis for each trickle system is given in Appendices
A-C. The format used in the Appendices was developed to allow individu-
als to analyze their personal system costs in a complete and simplified man-
ner by substituting their actual component costs in the appropriate places
in the tables.


Sprinkler Irrigation Systems

Two types of sprinkler irrigation systems have been extensively used in
Florida orchard crops in the past and remain in use today. These are per-
manent overhead sprinkler and traveling gun sprinkler systems. Initial in-
vestment costs for permanent overhead sprinklers and traveling guns for
typical Florida citrus applications are shown in Table 3 and Appendices
D-E. Initial costs were $655/acre and $1,192/acre for the traveling gun
and permanent overhead systems, respectively. Cost analyses were made
based on a typical system size of 60 acres. Costs for different acreages may
vary considerably.
Table 3 also shows annual fixed, operating, and total costs for the sprinkler
systems. Fixed costs were based on a 15% interest rate and straight-line de-
preciation for the life of the components. Operating costs were based on the
application of 9 inches of water per year for both sprinkler systems. This is
typical for Florida conditions.
Fixed costs were $118/acre and $171/acre for the traveling gun and per-
manent overhead systems, respectively. Corresponding operating costs were
$106/acre and $39/acre, respectively. Total annual costs were approximately
$224/acre for the traveling gun and $210/acre for the permanent overhead
system. This was $24.84 and $23.35 per acre-inch of water applied by the







Table 3. Irrigation system cost estimates for citrus production in Florida
Initial Fixed Operating Total Costs*
Type System Costs Costs Costs
$/Acre $/Acre $/Acre $/Acre $/Acre-ln.

Under-Tree
A. pray-Jet** $ 632 $136.21 $ 22.94 $159.15 $22.74

Under-Tree
B. prayJet** $ 950 $171.14 $ 20.05 $191.19 $27.31
Spray-Jveling Gun
D. Traveling Gun $ 655 $117.97 $105.63 $223.60 $24.84
Cable Tow
Permanent
E. Overhead $1,192 $171.17 $ 38.95 $210.12 $23.35

* Actual contract costs for complete systems. Based on water applications of 7 inches per year for trickle and 9
inches per year for traveling gun and permanent overhead systems, and fixed and variable costs as shown in
Appendices A-E.
** Designed to irrigate entire acreage at one set for cold protection and irrigation.







traveling gun and permanent overhead systems, respectively. The greater in-
itial cost of the permanent overhead system was offset by the greater oper-
ating cost of the traveling gun system. A detailed cost analysis of these
systems is given in Appendices D and E.
Both the permanent overhead and traveling gun sprinkler systems were
designed to irrigate only a portion of the field area per set. Both also apply
water above the plant canopies and are thus not adaptable to freeze protec-
tion. Freeze protection for tree crops requires continuous water applications
below the canopy to provide continuous energy inputs and to avoid breakage
of limbs due to ice formation.


System Cost Comparisons

The initial costs of trickle irrigation systems for tree crops in Florida
ranged from $482 to $950 per acre for the three systems analyzed (Tables 1-
3). The lower costs were for widely spaced trees and systems designed to ir-
rigate only a portion of the field area at once. The greater costs were for
closely spaced trees and systems designed to irrigate the entire field area at
once, as for cold protection. Cost comparisons are shown graphically in Fig.
1 and 2.
Operating costs for trickle systems are relatively low due to low operating
pressures and reduced water applications due to the greater irrigation effi-
ciency of trickle systems as compared to other types of systems. The typical
water application for Florida tree crops using a spray-jet system is equivalent
to 7 inches per year over the entire area. Operating (discharge) pressures are
typically 25-30 psi at the pump. Annual operating costs for these systems
were approximately $20-23 per acre (Fig. 1). Total annual costs ranged from
$159 to $191 per acre.
Total annual cost for a permanent overhead irrigation system was $210 per
acre. It was approximately $224 per acre for a traveling gun (Fig. 1-2). The
traveling gun system initial cost ($118 per acre) was lowest of all systems
compared. However, annual operating cost was much greater than that of the
other systems, due both to the high operating pressure required at the gun,
and to the greater labor requirements.
Because of the large investments in relatively large diameter lateral pipe,
risers, and sprinklers, the initial costs of permanent overhead sprinkler sys-
tems are much greater than trickle systems or traveling guns. However, be-
cause of the long (20 year) depreciation period for the sprinkler distribution
system, the annual fixed cost per acre was determined to be approximately
$171. Annual operating costs were $39 per acre, thus producing a lower total
cost per year than the traveling gun (Fig. 1-2).
Depending upon the specific system design, the trickle systems studied
had total annual costs which were $19 to $51 less than permanent overhead
















USING:

15% INTEREST S 191.19
S20.o5
$159-15
$22.94


$171.14
$n6.21

- '77YR


S223.60



$10563


250
-J
z
z 200
4


SI
4 150
w




0 50
0.
g S


$210.12







$171. 17


YR


UNDER-TREE UNDER-TREE TRAVELING PERMANENT
SPRAY-JET SPRAY-JET (40AC) GUN (60AC) OVERHEAD
(36AC) (DOUBLE SET) (60 AC)

FIG. I ESTIMATES OF FIXED, VARIABLE, AND TOTAL COSTS FOR CITRUS
AND ORCHARD TRICKLE AND SPRINKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEMS,
APPLYING 7 TO 9 INCHES PER YEAR, 1983


$117.97
9"/
















300
USING:
10 YR. DEPRECIATION
< 250 15% INTEREST
S$224
z 9in. HzO: SPRINKLER SYSTEM $210
7in. HO0: SPRAY-JET SYSTEM **
S200 6in HO: DRIP SYSTEM0 b
S20 in. H20 CROWN FLOOD SYSTEM






V)0
$ $136
I1 _
50- $6 %8

$ 26
CROWN DRIP 2- **UNDER $PERMANENT *TRAVELING
FLOOD EMIT/TREE TREE JET OVERHEAD GUNS
FIG. 2 ESTIMATES OF FIXED, VARIABLE, AND TOTAL COST FOR CITRUS
AND ORCHARD IRRIGATION SYSTEMS, 1983








sprinkler irrigation system and $32 to $64 less than the traveling gun system
for citrus irrigation. The cost per acre-inch of water applied did not range as
widely because less water is typically applied with trickle systems. In dry
years, when more than the average depth of irrigation is applied, trickle sys-
tems are even more advantageous because the cost of each additional inch of
water applied is less.
An additional major benefit of the spray-jet trickle irrigation systems is
that they may provide freeze protection. This option can potentially save
millions of dollars in investments in citrus production systems, and it is the
primary reason that trickle systems are designed to irrigate the entire crop
area at one time.
If tree crops such as pecans are irrigated and do not require freeze protec-
tion, then trickle systems can be designed to irrigate the crop area in several
sets. They will thus be more cost effective. For comparison, the previously
described pecan irrigation system can be utilized for a total annual cost of
only approximately $100 per acre for 7 inches of irrigation annually (Appen-
dix A). This is approximately $14 per acre-inch.


Other Irrigation Systems

On flatwoods soils where water supplies "may be" plentiful, citrus is cur-
rently typically irrigated using crown flood or seepage systems. These sys-
tems remain popular because of low initial and operating costs for irrigation.
From Fig. 2, annual fixed, operating and total cost estimates were $26, $10
and $36, respectively, despite the fact that 20 inches (plus) of water must
be pumped.
Drip systems are also sometimes used for irrigation of tree crops in Flor-
ida. If only two 1-GPH drip emitters are used per tree, system cost will be
low due to reduced pipe sizes and pumping costs required. Annual fixed,
operating, and total costs for drip systems were $50, $7 and $57, respectively
(Fig. 2). Limitations of these systems as compared to the spray-jet systems
include poorer water distributions in the tree root zone and greater filtration
requirements. For citrus production, another major limitation is the low de-
gree of cold protection obtainable from drip systems.
Figure 2 compares costs of crown flood and drip irrigation systems with
those of the previously-discussed spray-jet and sprinkler systems. Despite
their limitations, crown flood and drip systems remain in use because of the
low irrigation costs incurred when they are used.

Paying for Irrigation

In all cases, irrigation systems must be economical if their use is to be rec-








ommended. Previous research in Florida has indicated that average yield in-
creases of 35% to 47% can be expected from irrigation of oranges and
grapefruit using sprinkler systems. This occurs because of the extremely
sandy soils and associated low water-holding capacities typical of much
of Florida.
At present citrus prices, irrigation costs shown in Fig. 2 can be paid with
certain yield increases (Table 4). For example, to pay for a traveling gun ir-
rigation system would require a yield increase of 112 boxes per acre if the net
income (excluding irrigation costs) was $2.00/box. Likewise to pay for the
under-tree spray-jet System A analyzed would require a citrus yield
increase of only 80 boxes per acre.


Additional Factors

There are several additional factors which affect irrigation system costs
but which are difficult to assess. First, filtration and chlorination are required
to prevent clogging of trickle irrigation systems. Life expectancy of trickle
system components is unknown, and damage by field workers is a factor
which must be considered. As more experience is obtained, additional data
will become available and allow these factors to be more accurately assessed.
Note: Labor costs of trickle systems (microjet and drip) listed in Append-
ices A-C and Figures 1 and 2, are for routine operating costs and DO NOT
include maintenance of jets and emitters! These costs are highly variable
from system to system, and no accurate assessment, based on field opera-
tions, can be made at this time. Also, under-tree spray-jet (microjet*) sys-
tems noted in Appendix B, System A, and Figure 2 include buried mains,
manifolds, and laterals. The reason is that these appear to be typical of the
industry trends. Drip systems have above-the-ground laterals.
Yield increases under trickle systems ( microjet and drip) appear to be
closely correlated to percentage of tree canopy covered by the wetted pat-
terns of emitter devices.

Summary

Trickle irrigation systems have recently become very popular in Florida.
This has primarily resulted because these systems save energy and water,
and they may provide freeze protection for citrus. Depending upon system
design, additional benefits can also result in terms of system initial and op-
erating costs. Typical trickle system annual costs ranged from $19 to $51 less
than permanent overhead sprinkler systems and $32 to $64 less than travel-
ing gun systems for citrus irrigation in Florida when trickle systems were












Table 4. Yield Increase Required to Pay for Irrigation (1983)
Type Boxes/Acre
System @ $1.50 @ $2.00 @ $3.00

Traveling Gun (9 in.) 149 112 75
Permanent Overhead (9 in.) 140 105 70
Under-Tree Spray Jet (A) 106 80 53
106 80 53
(7 in.)
Drip (2 emitters/tree) 38 29 19
Crown Flood 24 18 12







designed to irrigate for freeze protection. Costs were even less when a sys-
tem was designed for irrigation only, by dividing it into subsets.


Acknowledgement

The authors wish to acknowledge the untiring and excellent work by the
late Professor J. Mostella Myers, P.E., for his pioneering and continued ef-
forts in the field of trickle irrigation research in fruit crops and vegetables.


References

1. Harrison, D. S. and A. G. Smajstrla. 1982. Low Volume and Low Energy Tech-
nology Irrigation Systems Costs, Water Use, and Energy Efficiency in Florida.
Paper No. 82-2082. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. St. Joseph, MI.

2. Reuss, L. A. and D. S. Harrison. 1968. Inputs and Costs of Selected Sprinkler
Irrigation Systems for Citrus in Central Florida. IFAS Economics Mimeo Report
EC 69-8.


The names of trademarks, proprietary products, or vendors
mentioned in this publication are used solely for educa-
tional purposes and do not constitute an endorsement by
the University of Florida and does not imply approval to
the exclusion of other suitable products or vendors:







APPENDIX A.

PECAN IRRIGATION

(Dem. Project- System C)
Florida
TRICKLE SYSTEM (MICROJET)*
57 acres pecans, 7 inches per year


Investment
Costs


Well (6-inch; 400' deep),
Submersible Pump
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Microjet* system, irrigate in 2
sets buried mains and laterals
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Elec. energy, 837 hrs. x
80/kwh x 7.5 kwh/hr.
Elec. standby @ $1/hp/mo. =
10hpx 12mo.
Labor, @ 0.10/mhr/ac.-in.
(420 ac. in.** x .10 x $3.60)
Interest on investment, @ 15%
Taxes and insurance @ 12% inv.
TOTAL COSTS


$ 6,500.00 $ 650.00


21,000.00 2,100.00


502.20


120.00

151.20
2,062.50
137.50
$27,500.00 $5,723.40


Annual operating
costs/acre


- $13.57


Annual fixed costs/acre $86.84


Total annual cost/acre


- $100.41


*Trade Name Does not imply endorsement of product.
**Actual volume applied, based on 7.0 inches per year.


Annual
Costs








APPENDIX B.


CITRUS IRRIGATION

(Dem. Project- System A)


Florida


TRICKLE SYSTEM (MICROJET)*


Investment
Costs


$ 4,507.07


36 acres citrus, 7 inches per year


Well (8-inch; 400' deep),
Pump & Power Unit
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Microjet* system, irrigate all at
1 set; pump (650 gpm), motor
buried laterals and mainlines
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Energy; 157 hrs. @ 3.0 gal per hr =
525 gal @ $2.40/gal
Labor, @ 0.10/mhr/ac.-in.
(252 ac. in.** x .10 x $3.60)
Interest on investment, @ 15%
Taxes and insurance @ 1/2% inv.
TOTAL COSTS


Annual
Costs


$ 450.71


22,735.00 2,273.50

735.00

90.72
2,043.16
136.21
$27,242.07 $5,729.30


Annual operating
costs/acre


- $22.94


Annual fixed costs/acre $136.21


Total annual cost/acre


-$159.15


*Trade Name Does not imply endorsement of product.
**Actual volume applied, based on 7.0 inches per year.







APPENDIX C.

CITRUS IRRIGATION
(Dem. Project -System B)

TRICKLE SYSTEM (MICROJET)*
40 acres citrus, 7 inches per year
Investment
Costs


Well (8-inch; 700' deep),
Pump, Power Unit & Pump House
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Microjet* system, irrigate all at
1 set; pump (1140 gpm), above-
ground laterals and buried main-
lines (10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Energy; 115 hrs. @ 5.08 gal per hr =
584.2 gal @ $1.20/gal
Labor, @ 0.10/mhr/ac.-in.
(280 ac. in.** x .10 x $3.60)
Interest on investment, @ 15%
Taxes and insurance @ V2% inv.
TOTAL COSTS


Annual operating
costs/acre
Annual fixed costs/acre
Total annual cost/acre


- $20.05
- $171.14
- $191.19


$20,724.88 $2,072.49




17,305.81 1,730.58


701.04


100.80
2,852.30
190.15
$38,030.69 $7,647.33


*Trade Name Does not imply endorsement of product.
**Actual volume applies, based on 7.0 inches per year.


Florida


Annual
Costs







APPENDIX D.


CITRUS IRRIGATION
Florida
TRAVELING GUN (CABLE-TOW) SYSTEM
60 acres citrus, 9 inches per year


I


Well (10-inch; 400' deep),
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Pump incl. gearhead (550 gpm)
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Power Unit, 75 hp diesel
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Traveling gun unit, reel and hose
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Underground pipe; 6"; 1730' incl. risers;
(10 years, S.L. depreciation)
Diesel fuel- 5.8 gal/hr; 792 hrs
pumping time, fuel @ $1.20/gal
Oil 80 gal @ $3/gal
Repairs- @ $25/100 hrs
Labor, @ 0.20/mhr/ac.-in.
(540 ac. in. x .20 x $3.60)
Interest on investment, @ 15%
Taxes and insurance @ 1/2% inv.
TOTAL COSTS


investment
Costs


$ 7,200.00


7,000.00


7,000.00


Annual
Costs


$ 720.00


700.00


700.00


12,500.00 1,250.00

5,622.00 562.20


5,512.00
240.00
198.00


388.00
2,949.15
196.61
$39,322.00 $13,415.95


Annual operating
costs/acre $105.63
Annual fixed costs/acre $117.97
Total annual cost/acre $223.60








APPENDIX E.

CITRUS IRRIGATION
Florida
PERMANENT OVERHEAD SYSTEM
60 acres citrus, 9 inches per year
Investment Annual
Costs Costs
Well (8-inch; 400' deep),
(10 years, S.L. depreciation) $ 7,200.00 $ 720.00
Pump incl. gearhead (450 gpm)
(10 years, S.L. depreciation) 6,500.00 650.00
Power Unit, 40 hp diesel
(10 years, S.L. depreciation) 5,800.00 580.00
Permanent Overhead System incl.
pipe, risers, sprinklers
(20 years, S.L. depreciation) 52,000.00 2,600.00
Diesel fuel 3.0 gal/hr; 540 hrs
pumping time, fuel @ $1.20/gal 1,944.00
Oil 60 gal @ $3/gal 180.00
Repairs- @ $25/100 hrs 135.00
Labor, @ .04/mhr/ac.-in.
(540 ac. in. x .04 x $3.60) 77.76
Interest on investment, @ 15% 5,362.50
Taxes and insurance @ 1/2% inv. 357.50
TOTAL COSTS $71,500.00 $12,606.76

Annual operating
costs/acre $ 38.95
Annual fixed costs/acre $171.17
Total annual cost/acre $210.12









UL 28 1981


This public document was promulgated at a cost of $1,350.66, or 23 cents
per copy, to provide information about cost estimates for sprinkler, trickle,
and other irrigation systems used on citrus and orchard crops in Florida.
11-6M-83


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORI-
DA, INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES, K. R.
Tefertlller, director, In cooperation with the United States Department I
of Agriculture, publishes this information to further the purpose of the
May 8 and June 30, 1914 Acts of Congress; and Is authorized to pro-
vide research, educational Information and other services only to Indl-
viduals and institutions that function without regard to race, color, sex or national ori-
gin. Single copies of Extension publications (excluding 4-H and Youth publications) are
available free to Florida residents from County Extension Offices. Information on bulk
rates or copies for out-of-state purchasers Is available from C. M. HInton, Publications
Distribution Center, IFAS Building 664, University of Florida, Galnesville, Florida
32611. Before publicizing this publication, editors should contact this address to deter-
mine availability.




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