• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Selection of a grove site
 Selecting and buying trees
 Starting the young grove
 Care of young trees
 Fertilization
 Diseases and insects
 Spraying
 Spray schedule for satsuma...
 Quality fruit
 Packing and shipping














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division; no. 41
Title: Satsuma oranges in northern and western Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026353/00001
 Material Information
Title: Satsuma oranges in northern and western Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clayton, H. G ( Harrold Gray )
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: 1925
 Subjects
Subject: Satsuma orange -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Oranges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by H.G. Clayton.
General Note: "March, 1925".
Funding: Bulletin (University of FLorida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026353
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570187
oclc - 40656600
notis - AMT6494

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Selection of a grove site
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Selecting and buying trees
        Page 6
    Starting the young grove
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Care of young trees
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Fertilization
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Diseases and insects
        Page 14
    Spraying
        Page 15
    Spray schedule for satsuma oranges
        Page 16
    Quality fruit
        Page 17
    Packing and shipping
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






March, 1925


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA,
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN,
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF
AGRICULTURE, COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


SATSUMA ORANGES IN NORTHERN

AND WESTERN FLORIDA

By H. G. CLAYTON


Fig. 1.-A cluster of satsuma oranges


Bulletin 41











BOARD OF CONTROL
P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra
W. B. DAVIS, Perry
JOHN C. COOPER, JR., Jacksonville
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION DIVISION

A. A. MURPHREE, A.M., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, B.S.A., Editor
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary


COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK

E. W. JENKINS, B.Ped., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
JOHN M. SCOTT, B.S., Animal Industrialist
HAMLIN L. BROWN, M.S., Dairy Specialist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citrus Pathologist
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Entomologist and Pathologist
N. R. MEHRHOF, B.S., Poultryman

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK

FLAVIA GLEASON, State Agent
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, L.I., Assistant State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, B.S., Food and Marketing Agent
EVA RICHARDSON, B.S., Dairy and Nutrition Agent








SATSUMA ORANGES IN NORTHERN
AND WESTERN FLORIDA
By H. G. CLAYTON
The satsuma orange is adapted to a wide range of soils thru-
out northern and western Florida. Climatic conditions in these
sections are favorable to the growing of this orange, altho until
recently only little attention had been given to it, except in small
plantings. The satsuma has been planted in practically every
county of Florida, but has not been a successful commercial crop
in the main citrus belt of this state. While good satsumas have
been produced in southern Florida, this variety does not grow
as successfully in that section as do other citrus varieties. There-
fore, it has little commercial importance in central and southern
Florida, but in northern and western Florida it is the leading
citrus variety. The satsuma of this area is of excellent quality
and colors better and earlier than that of southern Florida.
The satsuma usually is ripe and has sufficient sugar content
for shipping during October and November, before a large part
of the round oranges of central and southern Florida are ripe.
At this time there is a ready sale in many markets for the sat-
suma. However, in order to gain commercial importance, this
fruit must be produced in sufficient quantities to justify carlot
shipments, altho there is always a limited local demand for it
and at a fair price.
When ripe the satsuma has a fine flavor and good texture, and
is of a very fine quality. When well colored it is. especially
attractive. A demand has been created for it in Southern cities,
also in Chicago and surrounding markets, which up to the pres-
ent have been only partially supplied. It, therefore, seems ad-
visable to increase the plantings of satsumas in northern and
western Florida, in order to supply distant markets and local
demands.
SELECTION OF A GROVE SITE
In setting a satsuma grove, considerable care should be taken
to secure a favorable site. Suitable soils and frost protection
are very important considerations, and in the large territory to
which this fruit is adapted it is an easy matter to pick out a
location that has these advantages.
Soils.-Satsumas do well on a variety of soils. The soils most
desirable in the territory referred to are: The rolling pine lands






.Florida Cooperative Extension


with a clay subsoil 20 to 30 inches from the surface, and well-
drained high hammock lands. The better grades of flatwoods
land can be made suitable, if proper drainage is provided. How-
ever, the average flatwoods palmetto land is not likely to produce
a good satsuma grove. Plantings made on low wet soils have
not been successful; they may start off nicely and look promising
for the first few months but will later turn yellow and quit
growing. Nor are sandy oak ridges likely to produce good
groves, as such lands are too loose and the trees will suffer for
lack of moisture during dry weather. Low hammocks usually
contain good citrus soil. However, such land is not recommended
for satsumas, due to the probability of too frequent injury by
cold. Particularly should one avoid the poorer types of loose
sandy soils, as satsuma trees will grow slowly unless the soil is
fairly compact and retains moisture during drought periods.
Frost Protection.-There are many locations thruout the ter-
ritory referred to where frost protection is naturally available.
A difference of 5 or 10 degrees in temperature is frequently
recorded in a small locality, due to elevation, nearness to a body
of water, or the character of the soil. Satsuma trees planted on
high rolling land are less liable to be injured by cold than trees
planted on level or flat lands, because of the better air drainage
and air circulation of the higher land. This is due also to a
somewhat later growth during the early spring months, which
prevents the appearance of bloom and new growth until after
danger of frost is passed. It is desirable to hold back the spring
flush of growth as late as possible in order to escape spring
frosts.
We are able to secure a certain amount of frost protection by
cleaning up the ground, by plowing in November and then leaving
it bare thru the winter, giving no further cultivation unless weed
growth becomes heavy.
In dry weather, citrus trees are more subject to cold injury
than when there is plenty of moisture in the soil, as freezing is
first a drying process. Therefore, a soil well filled with water in
winter is in itself a real help.
Windbreaks or bodies of timber adjoining a satsuma grove on
the north and west should be opened up to allow air drainage,
because the cold air is likely to pass over this timber and to settle
in any depression or pocket formed in the timber. Northern
slopes usually hold back spring growth a little longer than south-
ern slopes.







Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 5

Water Protection is afforded to groves in this section by lakes,
large ponds and streams (altho small bodies of water do not
offer a great amount of protection) and by proximity to the Gulf
of Mexico and its bays. Citrus groves planted on low lands,
having little or no water protection, are quite liable to be frozen
back or have their fruit buds injured by cold too frequently to
prove profitable investments.
Banking Trees.-It is advisable to mound or bank up the earth
around the base of young trees for the winter season. These
banks should be well up above the points where the buds were
inserted. This should be done in November or December. Only
dry, clean soil, free of trash, should be used in order to avoid
injury to the tree trunks by wood lice.


Fig. 2.-Young satsuma trees banked for frost protection before plowing
the orchard

Avoid making the banks out of heavy clay, as growers in
Escambia County have observed that this type of bank is packed
as a result of the movement of the tree by wind. Because of
this movement a space into which cold air settles is left between
the tree trunk and the bank. Sandy soil will settle around the
tree trunk and leave no air space for the cold air. It is a good
idea to go over the grove with a hoe or a rake and freshen up






Florida Cooperative Extension


the earth in the banks before a freeze. Allow the banks to
remain until March when, usually, danger of frost is passed.
This banking will prevent the freezing of the trunk of the tree
and save the bud from cold injury.
The citrus tree is a rapid grower and should its top become
frozen, the frozen part can be cut off and a new top will soon
grow to take its place. For this reason it is probable that there
will be no loss of fruit for more than two successive years.
Shipping Facilities.-It is a decided advantage for a grove to
be near a shipping point. Long hauls are expensive and incon-
venient. When citrus fruit is to be shipped in carlots, packing-
house facilities are necessary. A properly constructed packing
house of fair capacity can serve several hundred acres of groves.
An association owning a packing house of such capacity can well
afford to equip it with the best machinery and provide in it only
the best supervision and, thereby, be able to market the fruit to
the best advantage. Small isolated groves, where such facilities
cannot be secured, are at a considerable disadvantage in market-
ing their fruit.
SELECTING AND BUYING TREES
Buds.-The Owari is the only kind of satsuma recommended.
This is a hardy strain and a satisfactory bearer. The trees are
thornless and grow upright. The fruit is of excellent quality.
Stock.-Citrus trifoliata is the only stock, so far known, upon
which satsumas should be budded. It is the hardiest stock of
the citrus group. The fruit does not dry out on trees budded on
this stock as readily as it does on trees budded on other stock.
It colors fairly well as soon as ripe, and remains in good condition
for a reasonable period after picking. This stock requires a
constant supply of moisture in the soil and, therefore, is not well
adapted to high dry sandy lands, which point must not be over-
looked in the selection of soils for satsumas. Trifoliata stock
does not recover as readily when severely injured by cold as do
the sour orange and lemon stocks used in the citrus belt. Tri-
foliata stock grows faster than the bud, the result being an
enlarged trunk at the bud union and below.
Buying Trees.-In purchasing young trees it should be remem-
bered that Florida still maintains a quarantine against the im-
portation of citrus trees from outside the state. This quarantine
is primarily for protection against citrus canker. There are in
the state a number of nurseries which handle satsuma trees, and






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 7

while unable to care for the heavy demands of the past few
years, these nurseries are preparing to take care of future de-
mands. To buy from only reputable concerns is as pertinent to
the citrus grower as to any other business man. In most cases
we must rely solely upon the honesty of the nurseryman in secur-
ing true-to-variety, thrifty and well-grown trees.
Dormant Buds.-During the shortage of nursery stock for
the past few seasons some growers have set out dormant buds.
This is not a practice to be recommended. There is little to be
gained and a great chance of disappointment. The nursery
practice is to bud in the fall on one and-two-year-old stock.
These buds are allowed to grow a year before being sold (during
this time the trees are staked), the buds are kept tied to make
them grow straight, suckers that come below the buds are re-
moved, etc. Even in the nursery where the trees are closely
planted to facilitate handling, some of the buds will die, others
will get knocked out and some will make such poor development
that they will be discarded.
In view of this one can readily see that it will cost more to
care for 1,000 trees planted over 14 acres of ground than to care
for them in 1-10 acre of nursery. Then on the small area they
are more likely to get proper attention and the poor trees can be
eliminated, leaving only good sound trees for setting in grove
formation.
In actual results as seen in the field trees with year old buds
make a grove cheaper, more uniform and of equal or better size
at a given age than do dormant buds.

STARTING THE YOUNG GROVE
Planting.-Satsuma trees may be planted at two seasons of
the year. The most advisable time is when the trees are dor-
mant, between December 15 and March 1. They also may be
planted during the rainy season in July, but the winter season
is decidedly better. The trees should be set not closer than 22
feet; and a preferred distance is 25 feet each way, which gives
69 trees to the acre. While several systems of arranging the
trees may be used, the most common method is to plant in
squares.
Soil Preparation.-Soil should be prepared properly before
fruit trees of any kind are planted. Wherever possible the land
should be cleared, stumped, thoroly plowed and grown to some






Florida Cooperative Extension


crop like velvet beans or cowpeas the year before the trees are
to be set out. Raw land contains little or no bacterial life,
which is necessary to plant growth, and almost any crop that
will grow on it will improve the soil for the succeeding citrus
crop.
Where it is not possible to follow the above plan and trees
must be planted on newly cleared land, the soil should be plowed
thoroly; or, better, plowed thoroly, cross plowed and then har-
rowed both ways. This will put it in good condition for the
young trees.
Before planting begins the ground should be measured off
carefully and a stake set where each tree is to be planted. This
will insure, first, proper distance between the trees and, second,
straight rows, both of which give the grove a better appearance
and make it more convenient to cultivate.
The trees should be set at the same depth or a little shallower
than they grew in the nursery. Planting too deeply will result
in slow growth. This point in particular should be emphasized,
as there is a tendency in setting trees in loose soil to set them too
deeply. The holes should not be dug until the trees are ready to
be planted. If they are opened much in advance of planting, the
soil will dry out. In digging the holes keep the top soil separate
from the subsoil; then, when filling in around the roots, use the
top soil. The digging of big holes is to be avoided, as the soil
about plants in such a hole is likely to settle and carry the tree
downward with it. This may place the tree too low. A planting
board will be found convenient in setting the trees in their proper
places.
Setting Trees.-If trees must be kept out of the ground sev-
eral days, they should be heeled-in. To do this, unpack the
plants, place their roots in a furrow and cover with moist soil.
They may remain in this condition several weeks if necessary.
However, the sooner they are planted the better. Never leave
the roots exposed to the sun and wind. As soon as the trees are
unpacked, cover their roots with moist sacks. All bruised or
broken roots should be cut off before the trees are set. Where
large plantings are made a good method is to haul the trees to
the field in a barrel with the roots in water; this will keep trees
in fine condition.
In setting the tree it is important to keep the bud well above
the ground. Set the tree straight and work the soil around and







Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 9

among the roots. When the hole is filled carefully pack the soil
over the roots and pour a pail of water around the base of the
tree. After the water soaks into the ground, dry earth should
be raked over the wet surface to act as a mulch and prevent
evaporation. If the soil is poor, one pound of a complete fer-
tilizer may be mixed in with the earth at planting. This, how-
ever, is not necessary, if the soil is naturally fertile.


~-~7
~. :*



Si T


Fig. 3.-A planting board. To use: First, place center notch against stake
previously set to mark place for tree; second, place stakes at both
ends of board; third, remove board and dig the hole; fourth, replace
board and set tree as shown in illustration. The board marks the
level of the ground, which avoids setting the tree too deeply.

CARE OF YOUNG TREES
Culture.-The object of the grower for the first few years is
to grow healthy trees of good size upon which he will later
produce fruit.
To this end it is essential that the soil be given frequent and
shallow cultivation. Young citrus trees need a constant supply
of moisture in order to establish a good root system. A good
plan is to keep cultivated a strip of ground about three feet wide
on each side of the tree row. Cultivation should begin in March







Florida Cooperative Extension


and end about the middle of August. The aim is to make as
much growth as possible and still give it time to harden up before
cold weather. An Acme harrow used around the tree row about
every 12 days will give excellent results. Grass and weeds
should be kept hoed away from the trees since they take up
moisture and fertility which should go to the trees. This is
particularly true the first two years. Plowing in the young
grove should be done early in the fall, care being taken not to
cut the tree roots. The grove can then be harrowed and left
until spring.
Under certain conditions it may be desirable in the fall to
plow only a strip of land near the trees, leaving the middles (to
prevent the soil from blowing) until spring. Truck crops can be
grown in the middles for the first few years and will not injure
the trees unless planted too close to the tree row or unless they
take too much moisture or fertility from the trees. Avoid such
crops as sweet potatoes, watermelons and peanuts as an inter-
crop. Some cover crop should be grown during the summer
months. Bunch velvet beans, cowpeas and beggarweed, etc.,
are good and crotalaria, a new cover crop, looks very promising.
Culture of Bearing Trees.-After trees get to be four or five
years of age all the ground should be allotted to their use, truck
and other inter-crops should be discontinued. Such trees should
have clean, shallow cultivation until the rainy season gets well
started along in June or July and the grove should then be laid
by, allowing the cover crop to grow until fall. This cover crop
may be mowed in September and the grove plowed and harrowed
as soon as the fruit is picked. Cultivation of a bearing grove if
continued too late in the summer may delay the maturing of the
fruit for two or three weeks.
Watering.-The roots of young trees should be kept in moist
soil. Early planting is advisable in order that the roots may be
established before the dry season. If the soil becomes very dry
before the roots are established well, some of the trees are likely
to die, particularly during the first and second years. It is a
good practice to water the trees as often as is necessary in order
to keep the soil fairly moist. This will not be necessary some
seasons, while during others a number of trees are liable to die
unless they are watered regularly. It is not likely that after
the first year watering will be necessary, only in exceptional






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 11

cases, as the moisture can be retained by frequent and shallow
cultivation.
Pruning.-Heavy pruning and severe cutting-back of a young
tree is not desirable. Allow the trees to form low heads, as it
is advantageous to have the growth near the ground. Low heads
also afford some protection against cold. Often a mature tree
does not have for its main branches those left on it at the nur-
sery, as other branches may come out and make a more vigorous.
growth.
Do not, by pruning, try to confine the growth of the tree
to its original nursery form but rather give the young tree a
chance to show how it is inclined to grow and then train it ac-
cordingly. Dead growth and undesirable branches should be cut
out. Observation has indicated that trees so handled produce
more fruit than those which have had their lower branches
pruned enough to make them head rather high. Long weak
limbs may be headed back in order to keep the trees compact and
symmetrical. Do not leave stubs in pruning, but cut close to the
trunk or branch so that the
cut surface will heal over
readily. Each tree should be
developed with three or four
main branches as a frame-
work.
In case of cold injury prune
the trees back to good sound
wood. Do this within a few
weeks after the freeze, or as
soon as the extent of the dam-
age or injury can be deter-
mined.
During the second year
after the trees are trans-
planted it is advisable to go
thru the orchard and set new
trees for any dead and un-
promising ones. A tree once
promising ones. A tree once Fig. 4.-A year-old satsuma tree.
stunted or weakened seldom Note typical orange dog injury to
recovers; such a tree should the leaves
be replaced by another, unless it promises to recover quickly.






Florida Cooperative Extension


FERTILIZATION

Stable Manure.-Stable manure can be used more liberally
with satsumas than with many other varieties of oranges. It is
particularly valuable for satsuma plantings on new land. If
applied too early in the spring, it will tend to open the soil and
make it too dry. It should be avoided late in the fall also, as
an application at this time may induce a growth to come on too
early in the spring, subjecting the trees to frost injury. Stable
manure may be used in larger quantities on heavy soil than on
light, sandy soil.
Commercial Fertilizers.-No hard and fast rules can be laid
down for fertilizing citrus trees. Different soils and previous
treatment of these soils, kind of cover crops grown, condition
of the trees, etc., are all factors to be considered in selecting a
fertilizer. A young orchard should have two or three'applica-
tions of a com-
p 1 e t e fertilizer
each year, de-
pending upon the
needs of the soil;
a total of about
two or three
pounds to the
tree for the first
year is sufficient,
usually. This fer-
tilizer should an-
alyze about 4
percent ammonia,
6 to 8 percent
phosphoric acid
and 3 to 5 per-
cent potash. The
first application
should be made
in February or
t oMarch and the
second in June or
July. Sometimes
Fig. 5.-A two-year-old satsuma tree it is advisable






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 13

to make a third application about August. In such cases
it would be best to put on the second application in May or
early June. In the last application the percentage of ammonia
should be either reduced or omitted entirely, as it will tend to
induce early growth and, therefore, subject the trees to greater
danger of cold injury.
On bearing groves the ammonia content of the fertilizer may
be reduced and the potash raised to 6 or 8 percent.
The foregoing recommendations are for average conditions,
but exceptional cases may arise where the trees can use more
fertilizer. On the lighter soils of South Florida, young citrus
trees are fertilized with a light application about every two
months of the growing season.
Sources of Ammonia, Phosphoric Acid and Potash.-Ordinary
corn and cotton fertilizers will not prove satisfactory for sat-
suma groves, because the materials used in such fertilizers do
not meet the demands of the citrus tree.
The ammonia should be derived from more than one source.
Nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, tankage, dried blood, cot-
tonseed meal and fish scrap are all good sources of ammonia.
But it is not best to get more than a third or a half of the am-
monia desired from the last four materials named. Phosphoric
acid may be secured from acid phosphate. It is better, however,
to get a part of it from acid phosphate and a part from steamed
bone. The potash should come from sulphate of potash.
On light soil the potash content of the fertilizer may be in-
creased as much as 2 or 3 percent over the formula recommended
for general use. The fertilizer should be worked well into the
soil. Distribute it as far out as the roots extend, being careful
to keep it from the immediate base of the tree. For young trees
it is particularly advisable to scatter the fertilizer thoroly and
evenly.
The amount of fertilizer to use in subsequent years will de-
pend upon the growth of the trees. As they grow larger more
fertilizer is needed. The amount of fertilizer to apply can be
determined only by an inspection of conditions. Some grpves
require twice the usual application of fertilizer, while others
produce good crops with a minimum amount of added plant food.
Application of Lime on citrus groves should not be made with-
out some consideration for the needs of lime in the soil. Lime
has been found beneficial in some instances and extremely det-
rimental in others. A large quantity of lime applied in a single






Florida Cooperative Extension


application is likely to be detrimental and may injure the grove
for several years. Satsuma trees do best on a slightly acid soil.

DISEASES AND INSECTS

There are always certain diseases and insects to contend with
in any type of fruit growing, and the satsuma is no exception.
In western Florida it is subject to most of the citrus pests
found in southern Florida for which methods of control are
known.
One of the most common diseases to contend with is citrus
scab. It is a fungous disease, and can be controlled by spraying
with Bordeaux-oil emulsion. Lime-sulphur also is used in scab
control, but is less effective than Bordeaux-oil.
Insect pests most likely to occur on
citrus trees and fruit are (1) Orange
dogs which eat the leaves of young
trees; they may be picked off by hand
or the trees sprayed with arsenate of
lead-(2) several kinds of scales and
whiteflies, all of which sap the trees
by sucking their juices; they may be
controlled by spraying with oil-emul-
sion-(3) mites and spiders; mites
russet the fruit and sap the foliage;
several kinds of spiders, called red
spiders, sap the foliage and fruit; all
of these can be controlled by spray-
ing with lime-sulphur-(4) thrips
work in the bloom and scar the young
fruit; they can be controlled by
spraying in the bloom with nicotine-
sulphate solution-(5) the citrus
aphis has been found on satsumas in
Fig. 6.- Standard satsuma western Florida. As yet we do not
strap 121/2x61/x26% out- know how this pest will act in this
side; 12x6-247/s inside. territory. It would be well for grow-
ers to keep a sharp lookout. Nicotine sulphate sprays and nico-
tine sulphate-lime dust are the most effective control materials.
Further information concerning insect and disease control can
be secured from bulletins of the Florida Experiment Station, by
inquiring of county agents, or by writing to the Agricultural






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 15

Extension Division of the College of Agriculture, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

SPRAYING

Everyone who plants satsuma trees may expect to do some
spraying. To get results the right kind of spray material prop-
erly made, must be applied at the right time for the particular
insect or disease to be controlled and must be applied properly.
Spraying should be done under high pressure, which breaks up
the material into a fine mist, and care must be taken to reach
all the affected parts.


Fig. 7.-A bearing satsuma tree


For small groves the barrel type of sprayer when properly
used will give fairly satisfactory service. On large groves or
where several small growers will cooperate, power sprayers
should be used.









SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR SATSUMA ORANGES

Disease or Insect Time to Spray Material Used Object
SCAB, a fungous In height of bloom 3-3-50 Bordeaux mixture, To cover old scab lesions and to protect expand-
disease or about 10 days plus percent oil ing leaves and small fruit.
later If aphids are numerous, or as many as 25 thrips
to the bloom are present add 1/? pint of nicotine
sulphate to the 50 gallons of Bordeaux oil.
NOTE: Scab spraying will hardly be needed in young non-bearing groves, and the above spraying should be sufficient for commercial control
where scab infection is fairly bad.


INSECTS, scales and
Whitefly, suck-
ing insects

1st application
2nd application


In early June when
fruit is the size
of a marble


September 1 to
December 1


ll emulsion
(1 percent oil)



Oil emulsion
(1 percent oil)


If whiteflies or scales are numerous, they are
easier to kill at this time than usual because of the
stage of growth which they are in. If infestation
is very heavy, a second spraying should be given
in July.
Clean up spray applied in order to clean up the
old infestation and to give new growth a chance.
The strength of the oil emulsion spray should be
increased to 1% or 2 percent for use after the
trees have become dormant, as in late November.


Rust MITES and Whenever mites and 32 lime-sulphur solution, During rainy weather little damage is done by
SPIDERS spiders become num- 1 to 60. Do not use when mites and spiders, but during dry weather they sap
erous usually in dry temperature is above 90. the fruit and foliage. Sometimes only one spray-
weather. June is a ing a year is needed. Spray as often as these
critical month. pests become numerous.
NOTE: Dusting for mites and spiders. Dusting may be preferable to spraying in certain cases. Use 1 part flowers of sulphur to 3 parts of
air-slaked or hydrated lime and apply as a dust.


THRIPS and APHIDS When trees are in 'Nicotine sulphate, pint
-when no scab is full bloom to 50 gals. water, plus %
present gal. lime-sulphur or 2 or
13 pounds of soap.


To be applied when thrips are numerous (25 or
more to a blossom) to protect the young fruit from
the scarring of thrips. Also when aphids are
numerous to protect young growth.


CAUTION. When temperature is above 90' do not spray. During hot weather quit spraying during the middle of the
day. To do thoro spraying a machine that will maintain 150 to 200 pounds pressure is required.
Always stop spraying while a gallon or more of spray material remains in the sprayer, as the material in the bot-
tom of the sprayer may burn the foliage.


-" -- -- --






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 17

QUALITY FRUIT
The ideal of the satsuma grower should be to produce only
high quality fruit. To do this requires constant thought and
effort. Diseases and insects of both trees and fruit must be kept
under control. Good cultivation and proper fertilization are also
essential. Too much ammonia in the fertilizer usually will cause
coarse, rough fruit, and may cause ammoniated fruit. Cul-
tivation too late in the season tends to delay maturity of
fruits and retards coloring. The first fruit produced by young
trees is apt to be rather coarse and of relatively poor quality.
The best citrus growers in Florida follow a rather systematic
plan of culture and fertilization, they do not constantly keep
changing fertilizers and other cultural practices. A citrus tree
is a long lived tree and a grower should be careful to do nothing
which might react unfavorably on his trees the following year.

PACKING AND SHIPPING

Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with great care,
being careful not to bruise it. One decayed fruit may cause
many others to decay. In clipping the oranges from the trees
clip the stems very close. A long stem may injure the fruit
with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the fruit in
the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to the packing
house in first class condition.
Grade the fruit carefully; consider every doubtful orange as a
cull. Make two classes of fruit-brights and russets-and two
grades of each class. Clean the fruit before packing; use good
paper; put up a good, solid, uniform, full-packed box. Stencil
each box true to name, quality and size.
It is a common practice thru the citrus belt to spray with oil
emulsion a few weeks before shipping from groves heavily
infested with whitefly; this loosens the sooty mold and makes
the fruit much easier to clean.
Satsumas are shipped in half boxes or straps the same as
tangerines. It was formerly the practice to fasten two straps
together for shipping, but this practice has been discontinued.
Crate material and tissue wraps should be ordered well in
advance of the time actually needed. It is necessary to do this






Satsuma Oranges in Northern and Western Florida 17

QUALITY FRUIT
The ideal of the satsuma grower should be to produce only
high quality fruit. To do this requires constant thought and
effort. Diseases and insects of both trees and fruit must be kept
under control. Good cultivation and proper fertilization are also
essential. Too much ammonia in the fertilizer usually will cause
coarse, rough fruit, and may cause ammoniated fruit. Cul-
tivation too late in the season tends to delay maturity of
fruits and retards coloring. The first fruit produced by young
trees is apt to be rather coarse and of relatively poor quality.
The best citrus growers in Florida follow a rather systematic
plan of culture and fertilization, they do not constantly keep
changing fertilizers and other cultural practices. A citrus tree
is a long lived tree and a grower should be careful to do nothing
which might react unfavorably on his trees the following year.

PACKING AND SHIPPING

Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with great care,
being careful not to bruise it. One decayed fruit may cause
many others to decay. In clipping the oranges from the trees
clip the stems very close. A long stem may injure the fruit
with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the fruit in
the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to the packing
house in first class condition.
Grade the fruit carefully; consider every doubtful orange as a
cull. Make two classes of fruit-brights and russets-and two
grades of each class. Clean the fruit before packing; use good
paper; put up a good, solid, uniform, full-packed box. Stencil
each box true to name, quality and size.
It is a common practice thru the citrus belt to spray with oil
emulsion a few weeks before shipping from groves heavily
infested with whitefly; this loosens the sooty mold and makes
the fruit much easier to clean.
Satsumas are shipped in half boxes or straps the same as
tangerines. It was formerly the practice to fasten two straps
together for shipping, but this practice has been discontinued.
Crate material and tissue wraps should be ordered well in
advance of the time actually needed. It is necessary to do this








18 Florida Cooperative Extension

in order that hasty, short-order printing and the confusion often
arising therefrom may be avoided. In addition to this, early
ordering insures having these things ready when packing time
arrives.

90s: diameter 3 Inches: 3 layers. 106s; diameter 2a Inchesl 3 layers. 120s: diameter 21 Inches: 3 layers.


15fruits. Lay- 15 fruits. Lay-
ers I and 3. er 2,


20fruits, Lay- 20fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3. er 2.


144s:dlameter 2tinches 4 layers, 168s; diameter 21 inches 4 layers, 196s diameter 2 inches: 4 layers.


18 fruits. Lay- 18 fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3. ers 2 and 4.


Fig. 8.- Different
sizes of satsumas
make necessary dif-
ferent styles of
packing.


216si diameter, 21 inches; 4 layers,


27 fruits. Lay- 27 fruits. Lay-
ern 1 and 3. ers 2 and 4.


25 fruits. Lay- 24 fruits. Lay-
ers 1 and 3. ers 2 and 4,

Satsumas are pack-
ed in standard half
size boxes or straps.
The above diagram
illustrates the vari-
ous packs. (U. S. D.




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