Historic note
 Title Page
 Selection of a grove site
 Selecting and buying trees
 Starting the young grove
 Caring for the young grove
 Packing and shipping
 Diseases and insects
 Spray schedule for satsuma...

Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division; no. 33
Title: Satsuma oranges in north and west Florida
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026352/00001
 Material Information
Title: Satsuma oranges in north and west Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 15 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Clayton, H. G ( Harrold Gray )
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Division, University of Florida
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: 1922
Subject: Satsuma orange -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Oranges -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Statement of Responsibility: by H.G. Clayton.
General Note: "June, 1922"
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026352
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570124
notis - AMT6431

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Selection of a grove site
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Selecting and buying trees
        Page 5
    Starting the young grove
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Caring for the young grove
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Packing and shipping
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Diseases and insects
        Page 14
    Spray schedule for satsuma oranges
        Page 15
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

Bulletin 33

(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)





The satsuma orange is adapted to a wide range of soils thru-
out North and West Florida. Climatic conditions in these sec-
tions are favorable to the growing of this orange, altho until

Fig. 1.-A cluster of satsuma oranges

June, 1922

Florida Cooperative Extension

recently only little attention had been given to it, except in
small plantings. The satsuma has been planted in practically
every county of Florida, but has. not been a successful commer-
cial crop in the main citrus belt of this state. While good sat-
sumas have been produced in South Florida, this variety does
not grow as successfully in that section as do other citrus
varieties. Therefore, it has little commercial importance in
Central and South Florida, but in North and West Florida it
is the leading citrus variety. The satsuma of this section is of
excellent quality and colors better and earlier than that of
South Florida.
The satsuma usually is ripe and has sufficient sugar content
for shipping during October and November, before a large
part of the round oranges of Central and South Florida are
ripe. At this time there is a ready sale in many markets for
the satsuma. However, in order to gain commercial importance,
this fruit must be produced in sufficient quantities to justify
carlot shipments, altho there is always a limited local demand
for it and at a fair price.
When ripe the satsuma has a fine flavor and good texture,
and is of a very fine quality. When well colored it is especially
attractive. A demand has been created for it in southern cities,
also in Chicago and surrounding markets, which up to the pres-
ent have been only partially supplied. It, therefore, seems ad-
visable to increase the plantings of satsumas in North and West
Florida, in order to supply distant markets and local demands.


In setting a satsuma grove, considerable care should be taken
to secure a favorable site. Suitable soils and frost protection
are very important considerations, and in the large territory
to which this fruit is adapted it is an easy matter to pick out
a location that has these advantages.
Soils.-Satsumas do well on a variety of soils. The soils best
adapted to them in the territory referred to are: First, rolling
pine land with subsoil twenty to thirty inches from the sur-
face; second, well-drained pine land having yellow sandy sub-
soil; third, sandy high hammock. The better grades of flat-
woods land can be made suitable, if proper drainage is provided.
However, the average flatwoods palmetto land is not likely to

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

produce a good satsuma grove. Nor are sandy oak ridges likely
to produce good groves, as such lands are too loose and the
trees will suffer for lack of moisture during dry weather. Low
hammocks usually contain good citrus soil. However, such land
is not recommended for satsumas, due to the probability of too
frequent injury by cold. One particularly should avoid the poorer
types of loose sandy soils, as satsuma trees will grow slowly
unless the soil is fairly compact and retains moisture during
drought periods.
Frost Protection.-There are many locations thruout the ter-
ritory referred to where frost protection is naturally available.
A difference of 5 or 10 degrees in temperature is frequently
recorded in a small locality, due to elevation, nearness to a body
of water, or the character of the soil. Satsuma trees planted
on high rolling land are less liable to be injured by cold than
trees planted on level or flat lands, because of the better air
drainage and air circulation of the higher land. This is due
also to a somewhat later growth during the early spring months,
which prevents the appearance of bloom and new growth till
after danger of frost is passed. It is desirable to hold back the
spring flush of growth as late as possible in order to escape
spring frosts.
We are able to secure a certain amount of frost protection
by cleaning up the ground, by plowing in November and then
leaving it bare thru the winter, giving no further cultivation
unless weed growth becomes heavy.
In dry weather, citrus trees are more subject to cold injury
than when there is plenty of moisture in the soil, as freezing
is first a drying process. Therefore, a soil well filled with water
in winter is in itself a real help.
Windbreaks or bodies of timber adjoining a satsuma grove on
the north and west should be opened up to allow air drainage,
because the cold air is likely to pass over this timber and to
settle in any depression or pocket formed in the timber. North-
ern slopes usually hold back spring growth a little longer than
southern slopes.
Water Protection is afforded to groves in this section by lakes,
large ponds and streams (altho small bodies of water do not
offer a great amount of protection) and by proximity to the
Gulf of Mexico and its bays. Citrus groves planted on low

Florida Cooperative Extension

lands, having little or no water protection, are quite liable to
be frozen back or have their fruit buds injured by cold too
frequently to prove profitable investments.
Banking Trees.-It is advisable to mound or bank up the
earth around the base of young trees for the winter season.
These banks should be well up above the points where the buds
were inserted. This should be done in November or December.
Only dry, clean soil, free of trash, should be used.
Avoid making the banks out of heavy clay, as growers in
Escambia County have observed that this type of bank is packed
as a result of the movement of the tree by wind. Because of
this movement a space is left between the tree trunk and the
bank into which cold air settles. Sandy soil will settle around
the tree trunk and leave no air space for the cold air. It is a
good idea to go over the grove with a hoe or a rake and freshen

Fig. 2.-Young satsuma trees banked for frost protection before plowing the

up the earth in the banks before a freeze. Allow the banks
to remain until March when, usually, danger of frost is passed.
This banking will prevent the freezing of the trunk of the tree
and save the bud from cold injury.

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

The citrus tree is a rapid grower and should its top become
frozen, the frozen part can be cut off and a new top will soon
grow to take its place. For this reason it is probable that
there will be no loss of fruit for more than two successive years.
Shipping Facilities.-It is a decided advantage for a grove
to be near a shipping point. Long hauls are expensive and in-
convenient. When citrus fruit is to be shipped in carlbts,
packing-house facilities are necessary. A properly constructed
packing house of fair capacity can serve several hundred acres
of groves. An association owning a packing house of such
capacity can well afford to equip it with the best of machinery
and provide in it only the best supervision and, thereby, be able
to market the fruit to the best advantage. Small isolated
groves, where such facilities cannot be secured, are at a con-
siderable disadvantage in marketing their fruit.


Buds.-The Owari is the only kind of satsuma recommended.
This is a hardy strain and a satisfactory bearer. The trees
are thornless and grow upright. The fruit is of excellent
Stock.-Citrus trifoliata is the only stock, so far known, upon
which satsumas should be budded. It is the hardiest stock of
the citrus group. The fruit does not dry out on trees budded
on this stock as readily as it does on trees budded on other
stock. It colors fairly well as soon as ripe, and remains in good
condition for a reasonable period after picking. This stock re-
quires a constant supply of moisture in the soil and, therefore,
is not well adapted to high dry sandy lands, which point must
not be overlooked in the selection of soils for satsumas. Tri-
foliata stock does not recover as readily when severely injured
by cold as do the sour orange and lemon stocks used in the
citrus belt.
Buying Trees.-In purchasing young trees it should be re-
membered that Florida still maintains a quarantine against the
importation of citrus trees from outside the state. This quar-
antine is primarily for protection against citrus canker. There
are in the state a number of nurseries which handle satsuma
trees, and while the heavy demands of 1921 nearly depleted the
supply, these nurseries are preparing to care for future de-
mands. To buy from only reputable concerns is as pertinent

Florida Cooperative Extension

to the citrus grower as to any other business man. In most
cases we must rely solely upon the honesty of the nurseryman
in securing true-to-variety, thrifty and well-grown trees.


Planting.-Satsuma trees may be planted at two seasons of
the year. The most advisable time is when the trees are dor-
mant, between December 15 and March 1. They also may be
planted during the rainy season in July, but the winter season
is decidedly better. The trees should be set not closer than 22
feet; and a preferred distance is 25 feet each way, which gives
69 trees to the acre. While several systems of arranging the
trees may be used, the most common method is to plant in
Soil Preparation.-Soil should be prepared properly before
fruit trees of any kind are planted. Wherever possible the land
should be cleared, stumped, thoroly plowed and grown to some
crop like velvet beans or cowpeas the year before the trees are
to be set out. Raw land contains little or no bacterial life,
which is necessary to plant growth, and almost any crop that
will grow on it will improve the soil for the succeeding citrus
Where it is not possible to follow the above plan and trees
must be planted on newly cleared land, the soil should be
plowed thoroly; or, what is better, plowed thoroly, cross plowed
and then harrowed both ways. This will put it in good condi-
tion for the young trees.
Before planting begins the ground should be measured off
carefully and a stake set where each tree is to be planted. This
will insure, first, proper distance between the trees and, second,
straight rows, both of which give the grove a better appearance
and make it more convenient to cultivate.
The trees should be set at the same depth at which they grew
in the nursery. Planting too deeply will result in slow growth.
This point in particular should be emphasized, as there is a
tendency in setting trees in loose soil to set them too deeply
to secure best moisture conditions. The holes should not be
dug until the trees are ready to be planted. If they are opened
in advance of the planting season, the soil will dry out. In
digging the holes keep the top soil separate from the subsoil;

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

then, when filling in around the roots, use the top soil. The
digging of big holes is to be avoided, as the soil about plants
in such holes is likely to settle and carry the tree downward
with it. This may place the tree too low. A planting board
will be found convenient in setting the trees in their proper

Fig. 3.-A planting board. To use: First, place center notch against stake
previously set to mark place for tree; second, place stakes at both
ends of board; third, remove board and dig the hole; fourth, replace
board and set tree as shown in illustration. The board marks the
level of the ground, which avoids setting the tree too deeply.

Setting Trees.-If trees must be kept out of the ground sev-
eral days, they should be heeled-in. To do this, unpack the
plants, place their roots in a furrow and cover with moist soil.
They may remain in this condition several weeks if necessary.
However, the sooner they are planted the better. Never leave
the roots exposed to the sun and wind. As soon as the trees
are unpacked, cover their roots with moist sacks. All bruised
or broken roots should be cut off before the trees are set.
In setting the tree it is important to keep the bud well above
the ground. Set the tree straight and work the soil arouihd
and among the roots. When the hole is filled carefully pack

Florida Cooperative Extension

the soil over the roots and pour a pail of water around the base
of the tree. After the water soaks into the ground, dry earth
should be raked over the wet surface to act as a mulch and
prevent evaporation. If the soil is poor, one pound of a com-
plete fertilizer may be mixed in with the earth at planting.
This, however, is not necessary, if the soil is naturally fertile.

Culture.-The soil should be given frequent and shallow culti-
vation, beginning with the spring months and continuing until
the rainy season begins. Young citrus trees need a constant
supply of moisture in order to establish a good root system. A
very good plan is to keep cultivated, all during the spring and
summer, strips of land several feet wide around the rows of
trees. An acme harrow is a good tool to use for this purpose.
Grass and weeds should be kept hoed away from orange trees,
since they rob the trees of needed moisture and fertility, par-
ticularly the first year.
Plowing of the orchard should be done in October, and not
later than the middle of November. Usually the fruit has been
picked by this time. Care should be taken that the plow does
not come in contact with the young roots, which must not be
disturbed or cut off. Then the soil is harrowed and left for the
winter. During summer when there is an abundance of moist-
ure, it is advisable to sow a cover crop, such as velvet beans,
cowpeas or beggarweed. A very good rule is to lay-by the
grove in June, and allow the beggarweed to grow until fall when
it should be plowed under.
Truck crops also may be grown between the rows of trees.
This will not injure the trees unless too much moisture or fer-
tility is taken from them. Sweet potatoes and watermelons
particularly are to be avoided. Neither are peanuts recom-
mended, as they attract salamanders, which may injure the
roots of the trees.
Watering.-The roots of young trees should be kept in moist
soil. Early planting is advisable in order that the roots may
be established before the dry season. If the soil becomes very
dry before the roots are established well, some of the trees are
likely to die, particularly during the first and second years.
It is a good practice to water the trees as often as is necessary

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

in order to keep the soil fairly moist. This will not be necessary
some seasons, while during others a number of trees are liable
to die unless they are watered regularly. It is not likely that
after the first year watering will be necessary, only in excep-
tional cases, as the moisture can be retained by frequent and
shallow cultivation.
Pruning.-Heavy pruning and severe cutting-back of a young
tree is not desirable. Allow the trees to form low heads, as it
is advantageous to have the growth near the ground. Low heads
also afford some protection against cold. Often a mature tree
does not have for its main
branches those left on it at
the nursery, as other branches n
may come out and make a
more vigorous growth.
Do not, by pruning, try to
confine the growth of the tree
to its original nursery form,
but rather give the young tree
a chance to show how it is
inclined to grow and then
train it accordingly. Dead
growth and undesirable
branches should be cut out.
Observation has indicated
that trees so handled produce
more fruit than those which
have had their lower branches
pruned enough to make them
head rather high. Long weak Fig. 4.-A year-old satsuma tree.
Note typical orange dog injury to
limbs may be headed back in the leaves
order to keep the trees com-
pact and symmetrical. Do not leave stubs in pruning, but cut
close to the trunk or branch so that the cut surface will heal
over readily. Each tree should be developed with three or four
main branches as a framework.
In case of cold injury prune the trees back to good sound
wood. Do this within a few weeks after the freeze, or as soon
as the extent of the damage or injury can be determined.

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During the second year after the trees are transplanted it
is advisable to go thru the orchard and set new trees for any
dead and unpromising ones. A tree once stunted or weakened
seldom recovers; such a tree should be replaced by another, un-
less it promises to recover quickly.
Stable Manure.-Stable manure can be used more liberally
with satsumas than with any other variety of oranges. It is
particularly valuable for satsuma plantings on new land. If
applied too early in the spring, it will tend to open the soil and
make it too dry. It should be avoided late in the fall also, as
an application at this time may induce a growth to come on too
early in the spring, subjecting the trees to frost injury. Stable
manure may be used in larger quantities on heavy soil than on
light, sandy soil.
Commercial Fertilizers.-A young orchard should have two
or three applications of a complete fertilizer each year, depend-
ing upon the
needs of the soil;
a total of about
two or three
pounds to the
tree for the first
year is sufficient,
usually. This fer-
tilizer should
analyze about 4
percent of am-
monia, 6 to 8 per-
cent of phos-
phoric acid and
3 to 5 percent of
potash. The first
application should
be made in Feb-
ruary or March
and the second in
June or July.
Sometimes it is
.... ... advisable to ap-
Fig. 5.-A two-year-old satsuma tree ply a third appli-

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

cation about September or October. At this season the percent-
age of ammonia either should be reduced or omitted entirely, as
it will tend to induce early growth and, therefore, subject the
trees to greater cold injury.
The foregoing recommendations are for average conditions,
but exceptional cases may arise where the trees can use more
fertilizer. On the lighter soils of South Florida, young citrus
trees are fertilized with a light application about every two
months of the growing season.

Fig. 6.-A bearing satsuma tree

Sources of Ammonia, Phosphoric Acid and Potash.-Ordinary
corn and cotton fertilizers will not prove satisfactory for sat-
suma groves, because the materials used in such fertilizers do
not meet the demands of the citrus tree.
The ammonia should be derived from more than one source.
Nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, tankage, dried blood, cot-
tonseed meal and fish scrap are all good sources of ammonia.
But it is not best to get more than a third or a half of the

Florida Cooperative Extension

ammonia desired from the last four materials named. Phos-
phoric acid may be secured from acid phosphate. It is better,
however, to get a part of it from acid phosphate and a part
from steamed bone. The potash should come from sulphate
of potash.
On light soil the potash content of the fertilizer may be in-
creased as much as 2 or 3 percent over the formula recommended
for general use. The fertilizer should be worked well into the
soil. Distribute it as far out as the roots reach, being careful
to keep it from the immediate base of the tree. For young trees
it is particularly advisable to scatter the fertilizer thoroly and
The amount of fertilizer to use in subsequent years will de-
pend upon the growth of the trees. As they grow larger more
fertilization is necessary. The amount of fertilizer to apply
can be determined only by an inspection of conditions. Some
groves require twice the usual application of fertilizer, while
others produce good crops with a minimum amount of added
plant food.
Application of Lime on citrus groves should not be made with-
out some consideration for the needs of lime in the soil. Lime
has been found beneficial in some instances and extremely de-
trimental in others. A large quantity of lime applied in a single
application is likely to be detrimental and may injure the grove
for several years.

Handle the fruit from the tree to the car with great care,
being careful not to bruise it. One decayed fruit may cause
many others to decay. In clipping the oranges from the trees
clip the stems very close. A long stem may injure the fruit
with which it comes in contact.
Picking bags and good field boxes for handling the fruit in
the grove will enable the grower to get the fruit to the packing
house in first class condition.

Bulletin 33, Satsuma Oranges

No. and Size 76; Dia. 31/ in.; Layers 3

Grade the fruit care-
fully; consider every doubt-
ful orange as a cull. Make
two classes of fruit -
brights and russets-and
two grades of each class.
Clean the fruit before pack-
ing; use good paper; put
up a good, solid, uniform,
full-packed box. Stencil
each box true to name,
quality and size.
It is a common practice
thru the citrus belt to spray
with oil-emulsion a few
weeks before shipping from
groves heavily infested
with whitefly; this loosens
the sooty mold and makes
the fruit much easier to
Satsumas are shipped in
half boxes or straps the
same as tangerines. It was
formerly the practice to
fasten two straps together
for shipping, but this prac-
tice has been discontinued.
Crate material and tis-
sue wraps should be order-
ed well in advance of the
time actually needed. It is
necessary to do this in or-
der that hasty, short-order
printing and the confusion
often arising therefrom
may be avoided. In addi-
tion to this, early ordering
insures having these things
ready when packing time
Fig. 7.-Different sizes of sat-
sumas make necessary differ-
ent styles of packing

Florida Cooperative Extension

There are always certain diseases and insects to contend
with in any type of fruit growing, and the satsuma is no ex-
ception. In West Florida it is subject to most of the pests
found in South Florida for which methods of control are known.
One of the most common diseases to contend with is citrus
scab. It is a fungous disease, and can be controlled by spraying
with bordeaux-oil emulsion. Lime-
sulphur also is used in scab control,
but is less effective than bordeaux-
Insect pests most likely to occur
on citrus trees and fruit are: (1)
Orange dogs which eat the leaves of
young trees; they may be picked off
by hand or the trees sprayed with
arsenate of lead--(2) several kinds
of scales and whiteflies, all of which
sap the trees by sucking their juices;
they may be controlled by spraying
with oil-emulsion- (3) mites and
spiders; mites russet the fruit and
sap the foliage; several kinds of spid-
ers, called red spiders, sap the foliage
and fruit; all of these can be con-
trolled by spraying with lime-sul-
Fig. 8, Standard satsuma phur- (4) thrips work in the bloom
strap 12Y2x6Y2x26% out- and scar the young fruit; they can
side; 12x6x24% inside. be controlled by spraying in the
bloom with nicotine-sulphate solution.
Further information concerning insect and disease control can
be secured from bulletins of the Florida Experiment Station, by
inquiring of county agents, or by writing to the Agricultural
Extension Division of the College of Agriculture, University of
Florida, Gainesville.

Disease or Insect
SCAB, a fungous
1st application
2nd application


Just before growth

In height of

3rd application 2 weeks later
NOTE: Scab spraying will hardly be needed

Material Used Object
3-3-50 bordeaux mixture, To cover old scab lesions, direct spray especially
plus 1 percent oil toward under surface of leaves; reduces very early
-citrus-scab infection.
3-3-50 bordeaux mixture, To protect expanding leaves and small fruit from
plus 1/ percent oil citrus scab. If 25 or more thrips to the bloom are
present, add 1/2 pint of nicotine sulphate to the 50
gallons of bordeaux oil.
Same as 2nd To protect small fruit from citrus scab.
in young non-bearing groves, and the above schedule is intended for fairly bad scab

INSECTS, scales and
Whitefly, suck-
ing insects
1st application
2nd application

Rust MITES and

In May when fruit
is the size of a

September 1st to
December 1st

Oil emulsion
(1 percent oil)

Oil emulsion
(1 percent oil)

Whenever mites and 32 lime-sulphur solution,
spiders become num- 1 to 60. Do not use when
erous usually in dry temperature is above 90".
weather. June is a
critical month.

If whiteflies or scales are numerous, they are
easier to kill at this time than usual because of the
stage of growth which they are in. If infestation
is very heavy, a second spraying should be given
in July.
Clean up spray applied in order to clean up the
old infestation and to give new growth a chance.
During rainy weather little damage is done by
mites and spiders, but during dry weather they sap
the fruit and foliage. Sometimes only one spray-
ing a year is needed, other years more than one
spraying will be needed. Spray as often as these
pests become numerous.

NOTE: Dusting for mites and spiders. Dusting may be preferable to spraying In certain cases. Use one part flowers of sulphur
to 3 parts of air-slacked or hydrated lime and apply as a dust. |
THRIPS-When no When trees are in Nicotine sulphate, 1 pint To be applied when thrips are numerous (25 or
scab is present full bloom to 50 gals. water, plus % more to a blossom) to protect the young fruit from
gal. lime-sulphur or 2 or the scarring of thrips.
3 pounds of soap.
CAUTION. When temperature is above 90* do not spray. During hot weather quit spraying during the middle of the
day. To do thoro spraying a machine that will maintain 150 to 200 pounds pressure is required.
Always stop spraying while a gallon or more of spray material remains in the sprayer, as the material in the bot-
tom of the sprayer may burn the foliage.

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