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Business analysis of landscape nurseries in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Business analysis of landscape nurseries in Florida
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Landscape nurseries in Florida
Physical Description: 2 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Perkins, George R
Almeter, Carolyn A
Dasse, Frank A ( Frank Arthur ), 1933-
University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agriculture Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1973
Publication Date: 1975
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Nurseries (Horticulture) -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Landscape nurseries -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1973-1974.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000304501
oclc - 03947372
notis - ABT1084
lccn - 78643478
System ID: UF00026341:00001

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
Full Text



George


R. Perkins


Economic I


Carolyn Almeter


-\
N.
I.


Business Analysis of La*ndscape

Nurseries in Florida, 1973


Food and Resource Economics Department
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


August 1975


on

38




























ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Special appreciation is expressed to the nurserymen who furnished

figures on their business operations on a confidential basis and for
the time they spent explaining them and answering questions. Thanks
are also due to the county extension agents who assisted in collecting
the data. It is hoped that the business analysis will give nurserymen
--those who did not participate in the program as well as those who
did--a useful basis of comparison for appraising their business and
making better management decisions.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. . . . .. .. .. ... i

LIST OF TABLES . . . . ... ... ii

LIST OF FIGURES. . . . .. . .. iii

INTRODUCTION . . . ... .. .. ... 1

DEFINITION OF TERMS . . . . . 2

DATA PRESENTATION. . . . .. . 2


LIST OF TABLES


Table
1 Size of business for three large volume and three
smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973. 4

2 Rates of production, three large volume and three
smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973. 5

3 Labor efficiency, three large volume and three smaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973. . 5

4 Efficiency in the use of capital, three large volume
and three smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida,
1973 . . . . . . 6

5 Efficiency in use of space, three large volume and
three smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida,
1973 . . . . . . 7

6 Comparison of certain cost and returns measures, three
large volume and three smaller volume landscape nurseries
in Florida, 1973 . . . . 8

7 Average dollar costs per nursery for various categories
of expense, for three large volume and three smaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973. ... 9

8 Percent of total costs for various categories nf expense,
three large volume and three smaller volume landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973 .. .... .. ........ 10










Table Page
9 Average costs per dollar of sales with sales
adjusted for plant inventory change, three large
volume and three smaller volume landscape nurseries
in Florida, 1973 . . . 12

10 Average costs per dollar of sales without adjust-
ment of sales for plant inventory change, three
large volume and three smaller volume landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973. . . ... 13

11 Income summary, three large volume and threesmaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973 . 14

12 Factors usually associated with level of profit,
three high profit and three lower profit landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973 ... . . 15

13 Degree of association between level of profit and
factors which seemed related to it, six landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973. ... . .. 16

14 Range of figures on profits and eight factors
usually associated with profits, six landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973. .... . 17

15 Comparison of business analysis factors for six
years for same eight Florida landscape nurseries
which furnished data for 1968, 3969, 1970. 1971,
1972 and 1973 . . . ... .18


LIST OF FIGURES


Figure
1 As the total score on the first eight factors in Table
13 goes up, the profit usually goes down, six landscape
nurseries in Florida, 1973. . . ... 19

















BUSINESS ANALYSIS OF LANDSCAPE NURSERIES IN FLORIDA, 1973


George R. Perkins and Carolyn Almeter


INTRODUCTION


Data for this report were collected through personal interviews
with participating nurseries. The cooperating nurseries were not
selected on a statistical sampling basis. Many of the nurseries
joined the survey when it was started several years ago and have con-
tinued to participate. Each year some new nurseries wishing to part-
ticipate are included in the analysis and those desiring to discon-
tinue are eliminated. The data refer to the 1973 tax year which may,
in some instances, not strictly conform to the 1973 calendar year.
In order to assemble the tables which follow in this report, a
set of figures, developed from comparable data from each cooperating
nursery, was generated. Data on those nursery operations having more
than one type of business, i.e., container and field, were allocated
in accordance with the way inputs were used. If a nursery production
operation was a part of a landscape business, the landscape portion
was defined as including the entire operation, i.e., other components
as well as the landscape part--in short, the entire business.
The figures for each type of nursery were classified into two
major sections. The first major section contains averages for nur-
series classified by the level or volume produced. The second sec-
tion classifies nurseries by their profit levels. Within each major
section, the tables were divided into specified information, i.e.,
rate of production, level of profit, etc.
Those nurseries having sales in excess of $480,000 were classified
as large volume operations and those having sales less than $325,000

GEORGE R. PERKINS was formerly extension economist and assistant
professor of food and resource economics. CAROLYN ALMETER is a statis-
tical aide in the Food and Resource Economic Department.










were designated as small volume. Each table has figures selected as
"the one best measure" followed by "other useful indicators" which
may be significant to nurserymen.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

Most of the terms used in the tables are self-explanatory. Those
which may need some explanation are defined below.
Total sales of services, plants, materials, etc.--Includes plants
and materials sold and income from landscaping services. Does not
included plants purchased for immediate resale.
Percent of capital turnover annually--Calculated by dividing the
value of own plants sold by the total capital.
Labor income--Calculated by subtracting total gross costs from
total gain.
Nursery "farm income"--Labor income plus interest on investment.
This is the return to the operator for his management .and capital.
Net return--Labor income minus operator's salary.
Return to capital--Nursery farm income minus operator's salary.
Percent return to capital--Return to capital divided by total
capital owned.
Percent plant turnover--Square feet equivalent of own plants sold
divided by average square feet of own plants in production.

DATA PRESENTATION


The data in Tables 1 through 12 relate to size of business, rates
of production, labor efficiency, efficiency in the use of capital, effi-
ciency in the use of space, costs and returns, income, and other factors
for nurseries classified by size or volume of sales. Various analyses
relating to profit are shown in Tables 13, 14, and 15.
Table 16 denotes profit indicators for nurseries which have been
included in the study since 1968. An almost steady improvement in their
profit picture can be seen. Most nurseries cooperating in the program
made modest but constant progress; a few reported losses while still
others progressed a great deal. It is not claimed that the progress
made is due to their participation in this business analysis program.
Actually, more than half of all the nurseries surveyed showed improve-
ments in earnings. The study does, however, show each cooperating






3



nursery how it compares with respect to each factor in the analysis.
In Figure 1 each nursery is ranked by nursery farm income and a

summary of the factors associated with profit. As the total score
goes up, the total profit goes down. The upward sloping line indi-
cates that those nurseries which score poorly on certain management
factors also rank low on profits.












a
Table i.-- Size o business for three large volume and three smaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973


Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


One best measure
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc.

Other useful indicators
Total sales above adjusted
for plant inventory change
Sq. ft. equivalent own
plants sold
Sq. ft. equivalent own
plants sold adjusted for
plant inventory change
Average sq. ft. of own
plants in production
Average acres equivalent
own plants in production
Average number of employees
Average hours estimated
employee time

Capital owned
Growing plants
Land
Machinery & equipment
Bldgs., fences, wells, etco
Supplies
Total owned capital

Capital managed
Growing plants
Land
Machinery & equipment
Bldgs, fences, wells, etc.
Supplies
Total managed capital


$648,647$1,103,075


$615,795$1,020,934

296,683 540,513


281,657 500,264

1,141,836 2,060,552


26.21
40.83


47.30
70.65


$194,220


$210,657

52,853


57,326

223,121

5.12
11.00


84,926 146,952 22,880


$230,516
29,244
53,747
46,315
149q20


$366,480
45,984
93,002
86,941
21.514


$ 94,552
12,505
14,492
5,690
8.326


$


sq.

sq.

sq.

acre


hour


$


$374,743 $613,921 $135,565 $


$230,516 $366,480 $ 94,552 $
74,102 131,462 16,742
53,747 93,002 14,492
46,315 86,941 5,690
14 920 21,514 8,326


$419,600 $699,399 $139,801


$


The large volume nurseries each had annual income from services,
plants and other materials in excess of $480,000.

bThe smaller volume nurseries each had annual income from services,
plants and other materials less than $325,000.













Table 2.--Rates of production, three large volume and
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973


three smaller


Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


One best measure
Sq. ft. equivalent of own plants
sold adjusted for plant inventory
change per acre in production


Other useful indicators
Sq. ft, equivalent of own plants
sold per acre in production
Total sales adjusted for plant
inventory change per acre in
production


10,745 10,576 11,192 sq. ft.


11,318 11,426 10,318


$23,492 $21,538 $41,127


sq. ft.


Table 3.--Labor efficiency, three large volume and three smaller volume
landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973.

Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


One best measure
Total sales of ::rvices,
-lants, materials, etc.,
per employee $15,887

Other useful indicators
Total sales of services, plants
materials, etc. adjusted for plant
inventory change per employee $15,082
Sq. ft. equivalent of own plants
sold per employee 7,266
Sq. ft. equivalent of own plants
sold adjusted for plant inventory
change per employee 6,898
Average sq. ft. in production per
employee 27,966


$15,613 $17,656 $




$14,451 $19,151 $


7,651


7,081


4,805


sq. ft.


5,211 sq. ft.


29,166 20,284 sq. ft.


aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.

bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.


---------------











a
Table 4.--Efficiency in usp of capital three large volume and three smaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973


Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


One best measure
Percent of own capital
turnover annually

Other useful indicators
Percent of managed capital
turnover annually

Capital owned
Per employee
Per acre

Capital managed
Per employee
Per acre

Capital managed investment
per employee in
Plants
Land
Machinery & equipment

Capital managed i:vestmen.:
per acre in
Plants
Land
Machinery & equipment

Percent of capital] ma-,red in
Plants
Land
Machinery & equipment
Bldgs., fences, wells, etc.
Supplies
Total


173.09 179.68 143.27



154.59 157.72 138.93


$ 155
14,296


158 $ 12,324
12,978 26,466


$ 10,277 $ 9,899
16,007 14,785


$ 5,646
1,81.5
1,316



$ 8,794
2,827
2,050


54.94
17.66
12.81
11.04
3.56
100.00


$ 5,187
1,861
1,316



$ 7,747
2,779
1,966


52.40
18.80
13.30
12.43
3.08
100.00


$ 12,709
27,294



$ 8,596
1,522
1,317



$ 18,459
3,268
2,829


67.63
11.98
10.37
4.07
5.96
100.00


aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.


bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.


$
$


$
$



$





$
























Table 5.--Efficiency in use of space, three large volume and three
smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973

Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


One best measure
Percent of production area (or
plant) turnover annually 25.98 26.23 23.69 %

Other useful indicators
Percent plant turnover with
sq. ft. equivalent of own plants
sold adjusted for plant inventory
change 24.67 24.28 25.69 %
Average value of plant inventory
per acre in production $8793.97 $7747.37 $18459.45 $

aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000

Nurseries with annual sales less than $325,000


















Table 6.--Comparison of certain cost and r turns measures, three large
volume and three smaller volume landscape nurseries in
Florida, 1973

Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


Returns
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc. per
hour of employee time $7.64 $7.51 $8.49 $

Costs
Total costs pe5 hour of
employee time $7.72 $7.65 $8.19 $

Difference between
Total sales and costs per
hour of employee time $-.09 $-.15 $ .30 $

Price goal
Total sales per hour of
employee time which would
have been required to yield
a 15% return on investment
(not including plant inventory
increase as part of return). $8.12 $8.03 $8.72 $

aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.

bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.

CCalculated by dividing item 8 in Table 1 into item 1 of that table.

dCalculated by dividing item 8 in Table 1 into total costs in table













Table 7. Average dollar costs per nurserX for various categories of
expense, for three large volume and three smaller volume
landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973

Average Average Average
Items of cost all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery

---------------Dollars---------------

Cash costs
Materials and supplies 178,616 307,349 49,883
Wages, salaries and commissions 268,443 479,592 57,294
Operators' salaries 25,433 35,505 15,362
Equipment operating expense 20,354 34,358 6,349
Insurance 20,293 35,138 5,448
Taxes, licenses and bonds 11,017 10,253 11,782
Advertising 7,372 10,645 4,099
Repairs 24,304 43,233 5,376
Utilities 8,999 11,114 6,883
Rent-land and/or buildings 7,083 14,167 0
Other expenses 40,666 70,561 10,771
Total cash costs 612,580 1,051,914 173,246

Non-cash costs
Depreciation machinery & equip. .16,376 28,090 4,661
Depreciation buildings, etc. 4,554 7,779 1,328
Inventory decrease on supplies 0 0 0
Interest on capital @ 6% 22,485 36,835 8,134
Total non-cash costs 43,414 72,705 14,122
Total all costs 655,994 1,124,619 187,368

aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.

bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.





















Table 8.--Percent of total cRsts for various categories of expense,
three large volume and three smaller volume landscape
nurseries ,in Florida, 1973


Average Average Average
Items of cost all 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery

---------------Percent--------------

Cash costs
Materials and supplies 27.23 27.33 26.62
Wages, salaries and commissions 40.92 42.64 30.58
Operators' salaries 3.88 3.16 8.20
Equipment operating expense 3.10 3.06 3.39
Insurance 3.09 3.12 2.91
Taxes, licenses and bonds 1.68 .91 6.29
Advertising 1.12 .95 2.19
Repairs 3.70 3.84 2.87
Utilities 1.37 .99 3.67
Rent--land and/or buildings 1.08 1.26 0
Other expenses 6.20 6.27 5.75
Total cash cost 93.38 93.54 92.46

Non-cash costs
Depreciation machinery & equipment 2.50 2.50 2.49
Depreciation buildings, etc. .69 .69 .71
Inventory decrease on supplies 0 0 0
Interest on capital @ 6% 3.43 3.28 4.34
Total non-cash costs 6.62 6.46 7.54
Total all costs 100.00 100.00 100.00

aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.


bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.













Table 9.--Average costs per dollar of sales with sales adjusted for
plant inventory change, three large volume and three smaller
volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973

Average costs per $ sales with sales
Items of cost adjusted for plant inventory change
All 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery

----------------Cents-------------

Cash costs
Materials and supplies 29.01 30.10 23.68
Wages, salaries and commissions 43.59 46.98 27.20
Operators' salaries 4.13 3.48 7.29
Equipment operating expense 3.31 3.37 3.01
Insurance 3.30 3.44 2.59
Taxes, licenses, and bonds 1.79 1.00 5.59
Advertising 1.20 1.04 1.95
Repairs 3.95 4.23 2.55
Utilities 1.46 1.09 3.27
Rent--land and/or buildings 1.15 1.39 0
Other expenses 6.60 6.91 5.11
Total cash costs 99.48 103.03 82.24

Non-cash costs
Depreciation machinery & equipment 2.66 2.75 2.21
Depreciation buildings, etc. .74 .76 .63
Inventory decrease on supplies 0 0 0
Interest on capital @ 6% 3.65 3.61 3.86
Total non-cash costs 7.05 7.12 6.70
Total all costs U10b.3 11U.16 88.94

aNurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.

hNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.











Table 10.--Average costs per dollar of sales without adjustment of sales
for plant inventory change, three large volume and three
smaller volume landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973

Average costs per $ sales without adjust-
Items of cost ment of sales for plant inventory changes
All 6 3 large 3 smaller Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery

-----------------Cents---------------

Cash costs
Materials and supplies 27.54 27.86 25.68
Wages, salaries and commissions 41.39 43.48 29.50
Operators' salaries 3.92 3.22 7.91
Equipment operating expense 3.14 3.11 3.27
Insurance 3.13 3.19 2.81
Taxes, licenses, and bonds 1.70 .93 6.07
Advertising 1.14 .97 2.11
Repairs 3.75 3.92 2.77
Utilities 1.39 1.01 3.54
Rent--land and/or buildings 1.09 1.28 0
Other expenses 6.27 6.40 5.55
Total cash costs 94.44 95.36 89.20

Non-cash costs
Depreciation machinery & equipment 2.52 2.55 2.40
Depreciation buildings etc. .70 .71 .68
Inventory decrease on supplies 0 0 0
Interest on capital @ 6% 3.47 3.34 4.19
Total non-cash costs 6.69 6.59 7.27
Total all costs 101.13 101.95 96.471


ANurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.
bNurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.
Nurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.












Table l1.--Income summary, three large volume and three smaller volume
landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973


Average Average Average
Item all 6 3 large 3 satllet Your
nurseries nurseries nurseries nursery


Value of production & other gain
Income from services, plants
materials, etc. 648,647 1,103,075 194,220 $
Inventory increase own plants -32,852 -82,141 16,437
Inventory increase for supplies 3,477 5,865 1,089
Miscellaneous cash income 7,776 13,550 2,003
Total gain 627,049 1,040,349 213,749 $

Cash costs less operator's
salary (from Table 7) 587,147 1,016,409 157,884 $
Non-cash costs (from Table 7) 43,414 72,705 14,122
Total gross costs 630,560 1,089,114 172,006 $

Labor income -3,512 -48,766 41,742 $
Interest on investment
(from Table 7) 22,485 36,835 8,134 $
Nursery "Farm income" 18,973 -11,930 49,876 $
Operator's salary (from Table 7) 25,433 35,505 15,362 $
Net return -28,945 -84,271 26,381 $
Return to capital -6,460 -47,435 34,514 $
Percent return to capital
(Table 1) -1.72% -7.73% 25.46% %

Cents per hour of employee time

Labor income (Table 1) -4. -33. 182.
Nursery "Farm income"
(Table 1) 22. -8. 218.
Net return (Table 1) -34. -57. 115.
Return to capital (Table 1) -8. -32. 151.

a
Nurseries with annual sales in excess of $480,000.
burseries with annual sales less than $325,000.
Nurseries with annual sales less than $325,000.












Table 12.--Factors usually associated with level of profit, three high
profit and three lower profit landscape nurseries in Florida,
1973

3 high 3 lower
Factor profit profit Your
nurseries nurseries nursery


Profit
Nursery farm income

Sales & inventory gain
Gain in sales & plant inven-
tory value over previous
year

Level of cost
Cost per $ of sales and plant
inventory value increase

Size of business
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc.

Sales price level
Difference between sales value
& costs per hour of employee
time


Production rate
Sq. ft. equivalent own plants
sold adjusted for plant inventory
change per acre in production

Labor efficiency
Total sales per employee $

Capital use efficiency
Percent of capital turnover

Space use efficiency
Percent plant turnover


$ 65,511




$ 61,824



77.71C


$-27,565


$ 17,557



113.21C


$248,894 $1,048,401


1.150


10,645


22,869


114.82%


-.24,


14,144


$ 18,452


214.41%


22.87% 35.91%


$


$


sq.


$














Table 13.--Degree of association between level of profit and factors
which seemed related to it, six landscape nurseries in
Florida, 1973


Number and percent of the Rank of your
Factor 3 highest profit nurseries nursery
which were in the best on on each
each factor factor.

Number Percent

Profit
Nursery farm income 3 100

Sales & inventory gain
Gain in sales & plant inven-
tory value over previous
year 2 67

Level of cost
Cost per $ of sales and plant
inventory value increase 3 100

Size of business
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc. 1 33

Sales price level
Difference between sales value
& costs per hour of employee
time 3 100

Production rate
Sq. ft. equivalent own plants
sold per acre in production 1 33

Labor efficiency
Total sales per employee 1 33

Capital use efficiency
Percent of capital turnover 0 0

Space use efficiency
Percent plant turnover 1 33
Total score for your nursery on
the above eight factors which
are usually related to profit













Table 14.--Range of figures on profits and eight factors asually-associ-
ated with profits, six landscape nurseries in Florida, 1973

Average figures for the 3 best and
Factor the 3 poorest nurseries on each factor
Average for Average for Your
3 best 3 poorest nursery


Profit
Nursery farm income

Sales & inventory gain
Gain in sales & plant inven.
value over previous year

Level of cost
Cost per $ of sales and plant
inventory value increase

Size of business
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc.


Sales price level
Difference between sales value
& cost per hour of employee time


$ 65,511



$132,110



77.710


$1,103,075


1.15


Production rate
Sq. ft. equivalent own plants sold
adjusted for plant inventory change
per acre in production 15,226


Labor efficiency
Total sales per employee

Capital use efficiency
Percent of capital turnover

Space use efficiency
Percent plant turnover


$ 26,529


214.41%


9,564


$ 14,791


114.82%


37.96% 20.82%


$-27,565



$-52,729


113.21%



$194,220


$



$


$


sq.


$


37.96%


20.82%





Table 15.-Comparison of business analysis factors for six years for same eight Florida landscape
nurseries which furnished data for 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, and 1973

Average for the same 3 nurseries in:

Factor Unit 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973


Profit
Nursery farm income
Percent return to capital

Sales & inventory gain
Gain in sales and plant
inventory value increase

Level of cost
Cost per $ sales and plant
inventory value increase

Size of business
Total sales of services,
plants, materials, etc.


23,630
15.29


$ 12,897



S 93.56


$ 98,697


27,044
15.09


28,863



93.96


127,435


31,715
16.02


12,330



92.68


41,223
17.11


23,038



90.11


41,316
14.07


89,492



95.60


65,140
22.42


78,773



90.82


134,775 141,576 240,636 304,798


Sales price level
Difference between sales value
& costs per hour of employee
time, not considering inventory
increase part of income


Production rate
Sq. ft. equivalent own plants adjusted
for plant inventory change per
acre in production sq. ft. 10,049


Labor efficiency
Total sales per employee

Capital use efficiency
Percent of capital turnover

Space use efficiency
Percent plant turnover


$ 13,195


% 133.45


10,223


15,636


139.62


14,084 14,510


15,008 12,485


121.12


92.25


% 22.00 22.59 30.11


-.15


10,499


18,770


127.41


11,666


24,462


144.37


29.29 23.15 25.27










S40 -
040

4O
Ln I



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Rank in level of profit




Figure 1.--As the total score on the first eight factors in Table 13, goes
up, the profit usually goes down, six landscape nurseries in
Florida, 1973
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