Historic note
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Types and processes
 Lactic acid fermentation
 Salt solution or brine
 Materials needed in pickling
 Coloring and hardening agents
 Equipment used in pickling
 How to make salt stock
 Recipes for making salt stock...
 Sweet spiced fruit pickles
 Pickle syrups or juices
 Relishes and chutneys
 Savory or aromatic herbs and other...
 Cultural requirements
 Herbs for cookery and pickling
 Recipes for powdered mixed herbs...
 How to prepare podered and mixed...
 Liquid condiments
 Back Cover

Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 108
Title: Pickles and relishes from Florida fruits and vegetables
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026337/00001
 Material Information
Title: Pickles and relishes from Florida fruits and vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 61 p. : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: <Gainesville Fla.>
Publication Date: <1941>
Subject: Pickles -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cookery (Relishes)   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Summary: Includes recipes and instructions for making pickles and relishes using fruits and vegetables grown in Florida.
Statement of Responsibility: by Isabelle S. Thursby.
General Note: "A revision of bulletin 83".
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: This collection includes items related to Florida’s environments, ecosystems, and species. It includes the subcollections of Florida Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit project documents, the Florida Sea Grant technical series, the Florida Geological Survey series, the Howard T. Odum Center for Wetland technical reports, and other entities devoted to the study and preservation of Florida's natural resources.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026337
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002454083
oclc - 41460403
notis - AMF9393

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Types and processes
        Page 5
    Lactic acid fermentation
        Page 6
    Salt solution or brine
        Page 7
    Materials needed in pickling
        Page 8
    Coloring and hardening agents
        Page 9
    Equipment used in pickling
        Page 10
    How to make salt stock
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Recipes for making salt stock pickles
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Sweet spiced fruit pickles
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Pickle syrups or juices
        Page 34
    Relishes and chutneys
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Savory or aromatic herbs and other seasonings and condiments
        Page 46
    Cultural requirements
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
    Herbs for cookery and pickling
        Page 54
    Recipes for powdered mixed herbs and soups and sauce essences
        Page 54
    How to prepare podered and mixed herbs for gifts and sales
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Liquid condiments
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
    Back Cover
        Page 62
Full Text


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

BULLETIN 108 (A Revision of Bulletin 83) JUNE,


(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)

H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak

R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension1
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor1
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager1
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent and AAA Administrative Officer
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S.A., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist and Leader in Land-Use Planning
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant Leader in Land-Use Planning
J. R. GREENMAN, B.S.A., State Representative, B.A.E.
R. V. ALLISON, PHD., Soil Conservationist'
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Specialist
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent



How TO MAKE SALT STOCK ._____.--___.
Selection of Products ..------- 11
Cucumber Salt Stock_ ....___ 13
To Freshen Salt Stock----- 14

Spiced Vinegar for Sour
Pickles No. 1 --__------.---. 15
Spiced Vinegar for Sour
Pickles No. 2 ______._.....---... 16
Seasoned Vinegar No. 3---.--- 16
Spice Mixture .---------------- 16
Dill Pickles (Fermented) -- 16
Dill Cucumber Pickles _-._... 17
Dilled Green Tomatoes -------_ 18
Dilled Okra _.____.... --- 18
Sauerkraut (Fermented
Cabbage) __ ___ 18
To Can Sauerkraut.___--------.-- 19
Spoilage of Sauerkraut--- --- 19
Sweet Vegetable Pickles ---- 21
Mixed Sweet Pickles (Salt
Stock or Fresh) ---....__.... 22
Sweet Spiced Pickled Tomatoes
(Quick Process) ........----- 22
Sweet Spiced Loquats ---.. ..---- 29
Sweet Pickled Figs---- 29
Spiced Plums ....-------------- 30
Spiced Muscadine Grapes ----.- 30
Mango Sweet Pickle No. 1..... 30
Mango Sweet Pickle No. 2----- 31
Sweet Pickled Surinam
Cherries _----____..........--- 31
Sweet Spiced Papaya--.-----. 31
Pickled Pineapple Chunks --- 32
Hemphill House Special Pinata
Sweet Pickle --..-__.. -- 32
PICKLE SYRUP OR JUICES -------------------



---8------ --- --- ---- ------ - -

-- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- - -- -- -- --- 11

Vegetable Salt Stock -_--- 14
Fruit Salt Stock _---. --..___.... 15

--- ....._.....___ __ ... 15
Sweet Gherkins (Salt Stock
or Fresh) __ 22
Cucumber Mangos No. 1
(Salt Stock or Fresh)___. 23
Sweet Mango Pickle No. 2_---- 23
Sweet Pickled Watermelon
(Salt Stock Process) _____-- 24
Sweet Pickled Watermelon
(Quick Process) ---- 24
Pickled Plums or "Plum Olives" 24
Pickled Kumquats __ 25
Pickled Calamondins __- 25
Pickled Limes and Limequats 25
Bread and Butter Pickle No. 1 25
Bread and Butter Pickle No. 2 26
Cucumber Olive Pickles ___- 26
Artichoke Pickle -- __ 27
Walnuts ... _----_ 27
Pickled Walnuts ---... -----....-_ 27
--..---. --- _. ._ _- ....-- -.... ....... 27
Peaches, Pears, Pineapple,
Papaya ...-------------... ...--...- 32
Guava Sweet Pickle-- --------.-- 32
Sweet Spiced Kumquats --..--- 33
Baked Pickled Orange Slices._ 33
Baked Pickled Whole Citrus
Fruits ---.----_.. ------------...- 33
Sweet Spiced Grapefruit
Pickled _-......._..... ..- .....-.__ 34
Tangerine Sweet Pickle --.------ 34

-- ------_-. 34

RELISHES AND CHUTNEYS .-_--- __-_...--.
Artichoke Relish -- -------36
Flamingo Relish ----------36
Honey Beet Relish -___-... ....- 36
Rosy Radish Relish --------36
Sweet Pepper Relish No. 1 __. 37
Sweet Pepper Relish No. 2 __- 37
Sweet Mango Relish __ ---. 37
Fruit Relish ----------- 37
CATSUP AND SAUCES ------.--_.._._-_-_--.-
Chili Sauce ....-------- 41
Bordeaux Sauce --------_.__._ ---- 41
Pepper Sauce No. 1 --____...- --- 41
Pepper Sauce No. 2 -_____.--- 41
Pimiento Catsup _-------___._.-. 42

.------------- ------------- ----------- 34
Palm Beach Pineapple Relish--- 38
Pineapple Chutney Relish -_---- 38
Guava Chutney No. 1_.-- 38
Guava Chutney No. 2 -----...... 39
Mango Chutney No. 1 ------ 39
Mango Chutney No. 2 __._ --. 39
Tropical Mince Meat- ----- 40
Pear Relish -------- 40

--------------------- ------------ --- ---------
Florida Cranberry Catsup_
Tropical Catsup ------------
Spiced Youngberry Catsup-
Grape Catsup ....-------------

PICKLE POINTERS ........--_........ --- ------------------
SAVORY AND AROMATIC HERBS -__-- ---------..------.---------
CULTURAL REQUIREMENTS --- --- ---------...---
Drying and Storing__----- 47 Mint -----
Basil ._____........------------- ._ 48 Nasturtium ..
Caraway -_ ------... 48 Parsley
Chives .---_-_. ___..--- ___ ..-. 49 Pepper.-- ----.
Coriander -----_________ ----------49 Sage ....----..
Dill __.....----.__-__-. 49 Savory _---
Garlic ....______..----- -----.- 50 Tarragon --
Ginger --______ 50 Turmeric ---.---
Sweet Marjoram __. __ 50 Thyme ----_.---

--- 42
-- 42
-- 42

----------------------------- 43
__.__- -- --_-- 46
------------------------------ 47
....-- -.-- 51

-----_- 51
........------___--. 52
--- - 52
---------___--------- 53
--.------------------- 53
-...... .. ------ -- --53
-.. .-.- 53

HERBS FOR COOKERY AND PICKLING ---...--- ---------.- ----..------- 54
Fagot of Herbs .- ._..--_ ---... 54 Essence of Sweet Herbs -----. 54
Bouquet Garni _------- 54
HERB VINEGARS ----__----_.--- -___....__.. ........- 55
Tarragon Vinegar ---_._--_ 56 Sweet Marjoram Vinegar -.... 56
Mint Vinegar __ 56 Celery Vinegar -__~- 56
Sweet Basil Vinegar .___--- ..... 56 Salad Vinegar -- _____ 56
OTHER SEASONINGS ._---.-___------------------ .---.. 56
Feli 56 Olives 57
Sweet Bay -.__.--------------- 57 Pearl Onion -...._-_---___.----.- 58
Chutney ....---_............... 57 Mustard ---- ____.. 58
Curry Powder --_- 57 Mustard Seed -- -.....--------- 58
Capers ---_-- ---- 57 Paprika ..- ---- --__ 58
Cayenne --_---------_ 57 Pepper ---_- __ 58
Celery Seed _---_.----. 57 Salt -.--__-.. ...........-----_- 58
Horseradish .....---------------- 57 Shallots .----_... --__--------.____.-- 58
LIQUID CONDIMENTS -.- --- -......... --- -- 58
Catsup .........-_._-____.... .- 58 Hot Pepper Sauce ---------58
Chili Sauce __ 58 Vinegar -- --- 59
Soy Sauce -_---.... ..- 58
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS -- __. .. ........... ....... -- -- ------- 59

Pickles and relishes are important to the meal. While they
are not considered as real food, they go far towards making real
food more interesting. It is for flavor that pickles are eaten, and
for their crisp spiciness that stimulates appetites for other whole-
some but less flavorful foods, and gives a different tang to the
bill of fare. The season for making the homely pickles, the spicy
fruits, the delectable relishes is always with us.
The true flavor of pickles and relishes really comes from spices
and herbs, carefully selected and perfectly blended to suit a
given product. We travel far and spend time and money freely
to secure spices and herbs, for many of them thrive only in
tropical countries, as cloves, cinnamon, mace and pepper. There
are many herbs and other seasonings, however, that thrive
equally well in Florida and hence should be found growing in
our own yards. Mustard seed and dill are two of the most com-
mon. And we all should be familiar with the roots of the pungent
and racy ginger, of tumeric, and of many others.
The discussion in this bulletin will be confined to the principles
of making both fermented and quick process pickles and to
relishes of fine flavor and keeping qualities from Florida fruits
and vegetables, and of growing and using savory and aromatic
Note: Research findings, taken from the latest data, now
show that pickles have a real nutritive value and can be used in
the diet as a source of mineral and vitamin requirements. It is
pointed out in particular that the manufacture of pickles from
fresh cucumbers and similar products, so popular at the present
time, like fermented and pastuerized dill pickles-those of the
weaker salt solutions-are a step in the right direction, since
these retain more of the original nutritive values found in the
fresh articles.
It would thus seem the pickle is now cast in a somewhat dif-
ferent role than we formerly were taught to believe.

The term pickle applies to any food that is preserved in brine
or vinegar, either with or without bacterial fermentation, and
either with or without the addition of spices and sugar.
Pickling is an art and the making of high grade pickles in-
volves considerably more than just the mere putting of the

Florida Cooperative Extension

products into brine. In the first place the products themselves
must be fresh, sound, of fine quality, and of proper maturity
and must be given the requisite time to cure and then time to
develop flavor.
There are two types of pickles, the quick process pickles,
which are made from fresh vegetables, and salt stock pickles,
which are made from vegetables that have first been "cured" in
a salt solution, or brine, for six weeks or longer. Such pickles
are termed "salt pickles" or "salt stock". The brining process
is the secret of successful commercial pickle making.
The first step-brining-is a most important one, as it is
responsible for the success or failure of the pickles. The brine
cure better prepares the tissues of the fruits or vegetables to
absorb the vinegar or the spicy syrup.
Brining or "curing" vegetables and fruits in salt solution pro-
duces in them desirable changes in color, texture and flavor.
While it is possible to make pickles from uncured, fresh vege-
tables, pickles made from salt stock are finer in flavor, more
crisp in texture, and more attractive in color and general ap-
pearance and have better keeping qualities than have quick
process pickles. If a homemaker is ambitious to build up a
small business for the sale of pickles of superior quality, she
must learn first of all to make high grade salt stock. Well
cured stock, if properly cared for, keeps for months and from
it, sweet, sour, mustard or mixed pickles and various type relishes
may be made.
The object of brining is to bring about a lactic acid fermenta-
tion that will produce good flavor and texture and so change
the composition of the vegetables that they will keep for a long
time. The brine is made of salt and water carefully propor-
tioned and accurately measured. A weak brine permits the
growth of desirable yeasts and lactic acid bacteria, but prevents
the growth of putrefactive bacteria that would naturally cause
the product to spoil. However, if the solution is too weak the
pickles will be soft and only the putrefactive bacteria will de-
velop; if it is too strong the action of the lactic acid bacteria
is hindered. Therefore, the strength of the solution must be
accurately measured. This is done by means of a device called
a salinometer. As most vegetables contains 80 % or more of water
and as the salt in the solution draws out part of the water, the

Pickles and Relishes

brine solution should be tested frequently and kept from drop-
ping below the minimum that makes for safety.
The brine also extracts the vegetable juices and fermentable
sugars and this aids the required acid fermentation. The lactic
acid and the salt preserves the product, provided air is excluded
and yeast scum has not been allowed to develop. In the presence
of air, aerobic micro-organisms, so-called "pickle scum", develop
and destroy the acid so that softening and spoilage take place.
Not only is exclusion of the air after lactic fermentation is com-
plete an essential part of the process, but it is most desirable
to carry on the process of curing under practically air-tight
Strong (20% to 25%) brine acts as a preservative, while a
5% to 15% brine will permit desirable fermentation during which
process the sugars present in the vegetable juice will be largely
changed to lactic acid bacteria on the vegetable, which, with the
brine, acts as a preservative.
The storage of vegetables or fruit in brine until certain de-
sired changes in color, flavor and texture take place is called
curing. Lactic acid fermentation may or may not have taken
place. Those cured with fermentation have a pleasant fermented
flavor while those cured without have less flavor. Vegetables
lose their raw flavor and become crisp, the flesh becomes semi-
transparent and the color changes from green to a dark olive
or yellowish green. When fermentation has stopped the pickles
are considered "cured" and are known commercially "s "salt
stock". With proper care this salt stock may be kept in the
solution for a year or so.
The vegetables most often used for making salt stock besides
cucumbers are cauliflower, chayotes, tiny silver skinned onions
beans, peppers, green tomatoes, okra, mangos, and gherkins.
Watermoln rind or the citron melon is largely used for sweet
pickles. The citron of commerce is always cured in salt before
it is introduced to the sugar syrup.
All vegetables used for pickling should go through this pro-
cess to prepare the tissues to better absorb the vinegar or sweet
spiced syrup. Overnight soaking in brine or parboiling are not
recommended and short cuts and overnight methods are based
on a mistaken idea of what really constitutes a good pickle.

Florida Cooperative Extension
When the vegetables are ready to be made into vinegar
pickles they are removed from the brine, soaked overnight in
cold water (warm water hastens the process) to remove the
excess of salt from their tissues. Then they are stored in vine-
gar which may be plain or sweetened and spiced.
Salt: Dairy salt used in butter making is suitable for pickling
purposes. Table salt or salt to which anything has been added
to prevent caking is not recommended for pickling and brining.
Alkaline impurities in the salt are especially objectionable. A
high grade of half ground or three-quarters ground white rock
salt may be used.
Vinegar: Vinegar is a condiment made from fruit juices or
other solutions rich in sugar or starch which undergo fermenta-
tion to yield acetic acid. Since it is the acetic acid in vinegar
that is responsible for the preservation of pickles, it is necessary
that the vinegar not be too low in acidity. A vinegar of 40
to 60 grain strength should be used. (The acid content of vine-
gar is normally expressed in "grains". A "10 grain" vinegar con-
tains 1% of acetic acid and a 40 grain vinegar 4% acid.) The
flavor of vinegar is due in a large degree to the product from
which it is made. Vinegar made from fruit juices has a fruity
flavor and odor. Apple or cider vinegar is the type most used
by housekeepers. It is amber colored and is noted for its ex-
cellent flavor, fine bouquet and sharp, acid taste.
Distilled, malt, spirit or grain vinegar is made by the acetic
acid fermentation of dilute distilled alcohol. These vinegars
lack the fruity flavor and aroma of fruit-juice vinegars, though
they contain the same amount of acetic acid. They are much
cheaper than fruit vinegars and may be used if white color and
low cost are more important than aroma and flavor.
Malt or distilled vinegar has a more constant acid content
than fruit vinegars. The use of malt vinegar or a white grape
vinegar with white vegetables such as cauliflower, young ears
of corn, and onions will cause them to retain their clear, white
color. Vinegar, like salt, increases the crispness of pickles.
Sugar: Granulated sugar is used in pickle making. Too much
sugar causes pickles to shrivel.
Spices: The kind and amount of spices used will vary with
the type and kind of pickle. Whole spices are to be preferred
to ground ones. They should be tied loosely in a cheesecloth bag
and be pounded lightly before using. Spices should be used in
moderation and with a discriminating hand.

Pickles and Relishes

Water: Soft water is recommended. Much lime and other
salts, as occur in many natural waters, may prevent proper acid
formation in pickles made by the fermentation process. If pres-
ent in even very minute proportions, iron is most objectionable,
as it may cause blackening of the pickles.
An old-time custom still prevails to a slight extent of "green-
ing" pickles by heating them with vinegar in a copper kettle.
This is not a recommended practice, as in this treatment copper
acetate is formed and the pickles take up appreciable quantities
of it. Copper acetate is a poisionous substance and pickles so
treated are regarded as adulterated and cannot be marketed.
Alum is sometimes used for the purpose of making the pickles
firm. The use of alum in connection with food products is of
doubtful expediency, to say the least, and its use should be dis-
couraged. If proper methods are used in pickling, the salts and
acids in the brine will give all the firmness desired. In making
pickles by the quick process, as with watermelon rind or sliced

I W.

4 -,

Fig. 1.-Glass top jars are satisfactory for use in pickling. Note posi-
tion of bale on jar at left, correct for pickles to be fermented in the jar
-rubber and top being in place. The jar is kept full of brine during
fermentation. When fermentation is complete the jar is sealed by bring-
ing bale downward to position as seen in center jar.

10 Florida Cooperative Extension
green tomatoes, hydrated or powdered lime may be used with
safety and good results.
Containers: Half gallon and gallon all-glass fruit jars are
ideal for use in fermenting pickles and for storing the pickles
when fermentation is completed. See Figure 1. The ordinary
Mason jar and similar type containers covered with zinc screw
caps, with or without porcelain linings, are not desirable because
the zinc or other metallic cap is corroded by the acids in the
brine. The zinc salts thus formed are poisonous. Of course
stoneware open crocks, malted milk jars and similar containers
may be used but they are not as convenient as the all-glass jars
with the easily adjusted rubber and top. Vinegars sometimes
act upon the glazing of earthenware containers and form un-
wholesome products.
A circular piece of wood should be cut to fit each crock to
serve as a float on which to place a weight to keep the products
submerged in the brine,
or a plate may be used
instead of the wooden
disc. A piece of rubber
cut several inches larger
than the opening of the
container and a bag of
sand may be made to
serve as a practically air-
PI tight cover on the crocks
or similar containers.
See Figure 2. Wooden
kegs or casks are used to
advantage in making
Sa r ge quantities of
pickles. New hardwood
barrels or new paraffin
lined spruce barrels with
a 6" opening in the head
are recommended. If
old barrels are used, they
must be treated to re-
Fig. 2.-A stone churn or crock is an
excellent container for fermenting or stor- move all odors and flay-
ing pickled tomatoes. The cover (shown in ors. A solution made of
front) should be used under the rubber
on which the sand bag is resting. one ounce of salsoda or

Pickles and Relishes 11

one half ounce of lye per gallon of water is efficacious. Fill bar-
rel and allow solution to remain in it several days until it smells
"sweet". Then "soak out" barrel with hot and cold water. When
thoroughly dry, line the inside with melted paraffin, to prevent
the pickles acquiring any undesirable flavor.
Salinometer: If much salting and pickling is done, the pur-
chase of a simple instrument called a salinometer, which costs
about $1.00, is advisable. With its use the exact salt content
of the brine can be measured. To make the reading, some of
the brine is put in the cylinder and the salinometer is floated
in it. The depth to which the bulb sinks varies with the salt
content of the brine. The figure on the instrument at the sur-
face of the brine gives the strength of the brine in degrees. If
the salinometer is floated in clear water
at 60 F., the reading is 1; in saturated
salt solution, it is 1000.
Scales: If a salinometer is not avail-
able, more satisfactory results will be ob-
tained if the salt is weighed rather than
measured. Kitchen scales are satisfactory.
In making sauerkraut it is most import-
ant that both the salt and shredded cab-
bage be weighed accurately.
For pickling, products must be fresh,
crisp and whole. Do not allow to stand
after gathering. Cucumbers should be cut
from the vines leaving '/s to 1/4 inch of
stem and should not be bruised; tomatoes
should be mature but not show signs of
coloring and the calyx should be retain-
ed. Jerusalem artichokes should be care-
fully scraped. Ears of corn should be very
young. Okra too should be young and
tender and cut with as much stem as pos-
etFi. 3.aThe s linoky sible. Chayotes also should be young and
and accurately the salt tender and cut with as much stem as pos-
strength of brine. sible. There should be no sign of toughen-
ing of skin at either blossom or stem end and with a portion of
the stem left on. In like manner, beans, the fleshy seed pods
of the rat-tailed radish, martynias or unicorn pods, burr gherkins

Florida Cooperative Extension

and other products should be freshly gathered and prepared
immediately for the fermenting process.



Fig. 4.-A 3-quart malted milk jar filled with okra, showing
cover (consisting of a sheet of rubber cut from a discarded innertube,
and a sand pouch) in position. A similar method is used for tomatoes
and other vegetables during fermentation.

Pickles and Relishes

The secret of successful pickling by the fermentation process
lies in bringing about acid fermentation quickly and under condi-
tions most favorable to the lactic acid bacteria and unfavorable
to micro-organisms capable of spoiling the product. To do this,
air should be excluded from the brined products before, during
and after fermentation. The exclusion of air will prevent the
growth of spoilage organisms that require air for growth. Con-
tainers if not fitted with airtight covers like the lightning type
jars, may be covered practically airtight by means of a sheet of
rubber and a sack of sand. See Figure 4.

4 one-gallon lightning type glass jars
1 to 4 gallon crock or paraffined wooden container
12 pounds (about 4 bushel) cucumbers
9 quarts brine (10% or 40* salinometer reading)
Brine should just float a fresh egg and requires-
9 quarts (2% gallons) soft water
2 pounds (about 3/4 cups) salt
If desired to hasten fermentation, add 4 tablespoons sugar.
If hard water is used, add z2 cup or preferably 1 cup vinegar to
the gallon. One pound and three ounces (about 17/s cup) salt
placed on the cover the second day. Five ounces (about 1z cup)
placed on the cover at the end of the week for five weeks. Final
brine strength should be 15% or 600 salinometer reading.
Use only freshly gathered, unbruised cucumbers with stems
intact. Weigh and wash. Pack into the jars or crock-glass
jars to within an inch of the top or crocks to within two inches
of the top, and fill to overflowing with the brine in which the
sugar and vinegar-if used-are dissolved. Adjust rubber and
glass covers, if glass jars are used, and leave the bale up. If in
a crock, cover cucumbers with a plate or a paraffined board and
weight it down well below the surface of the brine. Cover with
the sheet of rubber and the sack of sand as directed on page 10.
Set the containers in a pan or where the overflow during the per-
iod of fermentation will not do any damage. This loss or over-
flow of brine should be replenished every few days with fresh
brine. Keeping the containers full and overflowing prevents
the formation of mica-derma or pickle scum as in the open crock
method, which, if not removed at frequent intervals, attacks the
vegetables underneath and spoilage ensues.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Every week it is the part of precaution to test the strength
of the brine which should never fall below 40' salinometer read-
ing, but should gradually increase in strength from 3 to 4
degrees each week. Since the brine is steadily diluted by
the juices drawn from the cucumbers, at the end of the first
day one pound and three ounces (about 17/ cup) of salt should
be placed on the cover, so it will not sink to the bottom before
it is dissolved; if it sinks, the salt solution at the bottom will
be very strong while that near the surface may be so weak the
pickles will spoil.
At the end of each week thereafter until five weeks have
passed, place on the cover 1/3 pound salt or 1/2 cup for each 12
pounds of cucumbers. At testing after the end of the second
week, it should be noted that the brine gradually has increased in
strength, until at the end of 5 or 6 weeks, when fermentation
is over, the strength of the brine will have reached 15% or a
60 salinometer reading. Curing is complete when fermenta-
tion ceases.
The cucumbers then will be firm and crisp in texture, translu-
cent and free from whitish spots, dark olive or yellowish green
in color and, of course, strongly salty. The cucumber salt stock
is now ready to be stored in air-tight containers in a cool place
until needed to be made into various kinds of pickles.

Drain off the brine, cover with fresh water that feels fairly
hot to the hands. Hold at about this temperature, changing
and stirring occasionally, for 10 to 12 hours or longer, accord-
ing to the salty flavor desired. Do not remove all salt, as some
is needed for flavor. The stock is now ready to make into
salt, sour, sweet or spiced pickles, cucumber rings, chow-chow,
Dixie relish, picalilli, India relish, or combined with other stock
and made into mustard and mixed pickles.

Fermented salt stock may be made from other vegetables by
following the same directions as given for cucumbers. (See
page 13.) In preparing cauliflower, leave it whole or break heads
into flowerets. Peppers should be left with stems on; green
beans should be left intact, as should martynias, chayotes and
other vegetables. Avoid crushing or bruising.

Pickles and Relishes

Fermented fruit stock may be made from papaya, watermelon,
cantaloupes, or "pie" melon, the citron of commerce, and other
fruits, by following the outline for making cucumber salt stock.
Under-ripe cantaloupes should be cut into convenient pieces,
seeds and soft centers removed and the sections pared. Pare off
the thick green skin from watermelon rind, all the red portions,
and cut into well shaped pieces. Small green papayas may be
left whole. Grapefruit peel, Seville or sour orange peel, and
other citrus products may be held as salt stock until needed
for preserving or candying. (See Bulletin 100, Preserving Florida
Citrus Fruits, for detailed directions for curing and crystallizing
the citron of commerce.)
After the pickles have been freshened or had excess salt re-
moved, they should be drained and sorted. To secure the most
attractive pack, the pickles should be as nearly uniform in size
as possible. Cover the pickles with 45 to 50 grain vinegar and
store for a week or 10 days and then transfer to a fresh vinegar
if a very sour taste is desired. When only one application of
vinegar is used, after a few weeks the water in the pickles dilutes
the acid greatly and may permit softening and the pickles may
spoil. Covered with a second vinegar of the right strength,
with spices and other flavoring agents added, if desired, they
should keep indefinitely-after being sealed, of course.
Since the flavor and other appetizing qualities of the many
kinds of pickles are due largely to the spices added, it is left to
the housewife with a flair for testing and experimenting for
something different, to blend and perfect new ones and inter-
esting flavor combinations from the variety of herbs and other
seasoning agents that may always be at hand, if a place is pro-
vided for growing them in the home or flower garden.
Allow about 1 quart of vinegar for each 2 quarts of cucumbers
or other vegetables.
1 quart vinegar 12 tablespoon whole cloves
V cup sugar % tablespoon mustard seed
/ tablespoon celery 1/3 tablespoon pepper corms
seed 2 sprigs tarragon
Mix vinegar and sugar. Add spices tied loosely in a piece
of cheesecloth. Simmer the mixture for 5 minutes. Allow
the spices to stand in the vinegar overnight. Pack salt stock

16 Florida Coo rative Extension

pickles that have been freshened and then stored in vinegar
for 10 days into clean, hot containers, and strain the spiced mix-
ture over them. Seal.

2 tablespoons white mustard 1 tablespoon mace
seed 3 tablespoons grated
1 tablespoon whole black- horseradish
pepper 1 tablespoon celery seed
1 tablespoon whole allspice 1 tablespoon whole cloves
1 inch piece ginger root 2 large cloves garlic
4 to 6 cups vinegar 4 dried red peppers
Heat vinegar and spices together at simmering for 5 minutes,
and set aside overnight. Then strain to remove spices and pour
the liquid over the drained cucumbers or other vegetables packed
in glass top jars that have been prepared as directed above.

3 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon mustard seed
1 cup water 2 hot, red peppers
1/ cups sugar 1 tablespoon celery
1 ounce Spice Mixture (below) seed
Mix and bring to the boiling point and pour while boiling
hot over the brined, prepared vegetables. Seal in sterile, air-
tight jars and store in a cool place.

5 tablespoons allspice Y4 cup white mustard seed
1/3 cup coriander 6 dried red peppers
6 bay leaves
Mix well and use as stated above.

Dill pickles are made by a special process. The flavor of dill
is characteristic and a weak brine is used which permits fast
fermentation and curing. Some manufacturers add dill in a
vinegar solution, after the pickles are cured with salt. Others
add the dill direct to the brine in which they are cured, using
no vinegar at all. This is the genuine dill pickle, or German
"dill" and is the type that the housewife should be most inter-
ested in making. However, for Florida conditions it is recom-
mended that a small amount of vinegar be added to the brine
to flavor fermentation and inhibit the spoilage organisms in
the first stages of fermentation.

Pickles and Relishes 17

4 gallons glass top jars or 1 12 pounds (about bu.) cu-
4-gallon crock or paraf- cumbers (5% or 20" salin-
fined wooden container, ometer reading)
a sheet of rubber and Brine requires 8quarts soft
a sack of sand water
2 cups vinegar 14 pounds (about 2 cups) cook-
2-3 layers of dill ing salt
1 ounce (4 tablespoons) mix-
ed pickled spices
2 cloves garlic
1 layer grape leaves
Use medium size freshly picked cucumbers with small portion
of stem left on. Wash and drain. Cover bottom of container
with a layer of the dill and spice. Add the cucumbers, packing
in gently and firmly, with alternate layers of the mixed pickle
spice and dill. Then pour the brine mixed with the vinegar
over the cucumbers. The addition of one tablespoon of sugar
per gallon capacity of the container assists in the development
of the proper acidity. If a glass top jar is used, fill to over-
flowing with brine, adjust rubber and top, leaving the bail of
the lid in the half closed position so that gas formed during
fermentation can escape. Any loss of brine during fermenta-
tion and storage must be replaced at frequent intervals with
fresh, as the jars must be kept filled with brine at all times.
When fermentation is over, the jars may be filled and sealed
completely or preferably be packed in smaller containers for
more convenient use, ones that can be made air-tight. Drain
off the brine, after transferring the pickles to the smaller glass
jars, bring the brine to the boiling point, fill the jars to over-
flowing, seal and store in a cool place. Dill pickles should be
ready for use 4 to 8 weeks after they are first placed in the
If crocks or wooden containers are used instead of glass jars,
fill with the cucumbers, spice and dill to within 2 to 3 inches
of top, and if they can be obtained finish with a heavy layer of
clean grape leaves. Cover with plate or a circular piece of wood
one inch less in diameter than container and a weight sufficient
to keep cucumbers submerged. Pour over the pickles the brine
and vinegar mixture to overflowing. If containers are not fitted
with some kind of air-tight cover, use a sheet of rubber and
a sack of sand as directed on page 10. This device furnishes
a practically air-tight seal, and if container is kept full and run-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ning over with brine, will prevent the formation of "pickle
scum" which causes softening and spoilage.
When pickles are sufficiently cured, which may be determined
by their agreeable flavor and dark green color, it is best to
transfer them to quart glass jars or cans. Fill completely with
old brine or make up new, adding a small amount of fresh spice
and dill. A clove of garlic to the jars adds an interesting flavor.
Do not store glass jars in the sun or light as the light will
kill the lactic bacteria. Dill pickles cure slowly, usually six
weeks or longer is required before they acquire the desired flavor,
color and texture; also dill pickles keep less well than others
because the brine in which they are fermented and stored is
weak. It is difficult to make good dill pickles in open containers,
hence the glass top jar is recommended. If large quantities
are desired, a sealed keg or barrel should be used.
Medium size green tomatoes make exceptionally choice dills
when used freshly gathered and fermented under proper con-
ditions as given above. In about 6 weeks the tomatoes should
be ready to use, crisp, well flavored with dill and clear through-
out with no white spots when cut. For storage pack in all-glass
jars, add 1/4 to 1/2 cup vinegar to each jar. Fill the jars with
the pickle brine, but first strain it, bring to a boil and cool.
Seal jars air-tight and store in a cool, dry place.
Small, tender pods of okra cut with as much stem as possible
also make fine dill pickles. Follow directions as given above.
In about 6 weeks the okra should be clear, of good flavor and
texture and with not a trace of the mucilaginous fibres remain-
NOTE: For more detailed information regarding making of pickles,
read carefully Farmers Bulletin No. 1438, Making Fermented Pickles.
Select only sound heads of cabbage. Remove all decayed or
bruised leaves. Wash well, drain and quarter heads and slice
off and discard the core portion. Shred the cabbage either
with a knife or a slaw cutter with blades set to cut the shreds
about the thickness of a dime. Cut about 5 pounds of cabbage
at a time, weigh accurately and mix lightly but thoroughly with
2 ounces of saft, until juices flow freely. If small amounts of

Pickles and Relishes

cabbage and salt are mixed at a time the mixing will be more
thorough. When salt has dissolved pack the cabbage-salt mix-
ture into the container.
Large size all-glass jars are excellent but malted milk or other
jars and crocks may be used. To force out the air, pack the
mixture down gently but firmly with a large wooden masher
but do not pound kraut. Pack glass jars to barely within one
inch of top, leaving space for the frothing to prevent an over-
flow. Pack into crocks until nearly full. Cover the kraut with
a clean cloth, a plate and heavy weight. Put the container in
a warm place where fermentation may begin at once. A tempera-
ture of 700 to 750 F. is usually used, in which case fermentation
is completed in from 10 days to two weeks, depending on tempera-
ture. Fermentation is more rapid at higher temperatures, but
spoilage is more likely to occur and a better quality of kraut is
produced at a lower temperature.
Fermentation will begin within a day after packing, as will
be shown by the rise in the level of the brine and possibly by
the formation of gas bubbles at the surface. A scum usually
forms on the surface of the brine within a few days. Remove
the scum every few days and wash and scald the cloth fre-
quently, replacing it and the cover, and the weight on top of
it. Cover container with another cloth to keep out dust. Do
not permit scum to accumulate unchecked, as it slows fermenta-
tion, endangers spoilage, and results in an inferior product.
When fermentation is complete, bubbles cease to rise to the
top of the liquid and the liquid settles. The sauerkraut should
then be canned. Canning is simple and assures a good supply
throughout the year.
After fermentation is complete, pack the cold kraut firmly
but not too tightly into hot, sterile, glass jars. Add enough
of the kraut brine to fill the jars completely; if there is not
enough kraut brine, add a brine made by dissolving 2 table-
spoons of salt in 1 quart of water. Adjust the rubbers and
covers, partially seal the jars. Place in water bath, and process
pints 15 minutes at simmering. Set the jars far apart so that they
will cool as quickly as possible. If tin is used, contents must be
steaming hot before can is sealed.
Kraut may discolor, soften, or spoil for the following reasons:

Florida Cooperative Extension

A wrong proportion of salt to cabbage; poor mixing of salt
and cabbage; poor packing; poor skimming; dirty containers;
the rising of the shredded cabbage above the surface of the
brine, or the storage of the kraut in too warm a place.
2 cups small cucumbers about
2 inches long 3 green peppers, seeded and
2 cups large cucumbers chopped
2 cups pickling onions 11 quarts vinegar, hot
2 cups small green tomatoes cut Also 3 cups vinegar for
in halves or quarters soaking
1 cup snapbeans, cut diagonally 2 cups brown sugar
in 1 inch pieces 6 tablespoons flour
1 cup cauliflower, flowerets, cut 1 teaspoon celery salt
uniform size 6 tablespoons powdered mustard
1 tablespoon tumeric
If salt stock is used, freshen it first and then cut into desir-
able pieces. If fresh vegetables are used, cut and soak them
overnight in brine made by dissolving 1 cup of salt to 2 quarts
of water, then drain them. Soak the drained vegetables 1 hour
each time in 2 changes of clear water, and drain them again.
Cover the vegetables with a mixture of 3 cups of vinegar and
3 cups of water. Let the mixture stand for 24 hours. Heat it
to the simmering point, then drain the vegetables and discard
the liquid. Mix the sugar, flour and spices. Add the 12 quarts
of hot vinegar slowly, stirring to make a smooth paste. Cook
this over a pan of hot water until the mixture is well thickened.
Pour the mixture over the drained vegetables while they are
hot. Stir thoroughly. Pack the pickles hot into clean, hot jars,
and seal at once.

4 quarts of small white onions 3 tablespoons allspice
V4 cup grated horseradish 3 tablespoons white mustard
1 quart white vinegar seed
% cup sugar 1 small hot red pepper for each
If salt stock is used, freshen it first. If fresh onions are
used, drop the into hot water to loosen the outside skin; cut
off the dark portion from the root and slip off the skin, leaving
the onion perfectly smooth. Cover the onions with boiling hot
brine made by dissolving 1 cup of salt in 1Y2 quarts of boiling
water. Soak the onions for 24 hours, then drain them. Soak
them in fresh water for 1 hour, and drain them.

Pickles and Relishes

Mix vinegar, sugar and spices. Boil the mixture for 1 minute.
Pack the onions into clean, sterile, hot jars. Cover the pickles
with boiling syrup after packing a hot red pepper in each jar,
and seal. Cool the jars quickly and store in a cool place.
As with sour pickles, better sweet pickles are obtained by
using vegetables previously cured in brine than by using fresh
vegetables. The vegetables should be freshened as directed for
sour pickles. Prick the vegetables through and through with
a silver fork, otherwise the sweet vinegar may cause shriveling.
Store the pickles in strong unsweetened vinegar for about 1
week. Then drain and use /2 the drained vinegar for making
the syrup.
Prepare the syrup of-
2 pints vinegar drained from 1 tablespoon each of mace,
the pickles ginger root, and whole
2 pints fresh vinegar cloves
2 cups sugar, granulated or 2 tablespoons stick
brown cinnamon
Simmer the vinegar, sugar, and spices together for 5 minutes
and let stand overnight. Strain. Return sweet spiced vinegar
to pickles and seal.
Onions, cauliflower, green and red peppers, round yellow toma-
toes, red and green pear-shaped tomatoes, small ears of corn,
tiny melons, yellow and green pod beans, /2 grown pods of
the unicorn plant, okra, chayote, burr gherkins, as well as cucum-
bers are used for making delicious mixed pickles in the same
way. (All these vegetables should be first cured in brine for
best results.) Very small vegetables are to be preferred. When
larger vegetables are used it is better to cut them into pieces
of desired size and shape.
Careful arrangement of the various pickles in the jar, giving
some thought to color as well as kind and shape of the product
will give a more attractive pack and more satisfying results.
If sour pickles are desired, fill the jars completely with 45
grain vinegar and store for 10 days. Pour off and add fresh
vinegar to them and seal. If sweet ones are wanted, cover the
second time with a liquor made by dissolving four to six pounds
of sugar in a gallon of vinegar. Seal hot.

Florida Cooperative Extension

1 quart small whole cucumbers
1 quart large cucumbers, sliced
1 quart small white onions,
cut in half
1 cup Golden Wax beans, cut
11/2 inches on the "bias"
1 cup green beans, cut same way
1 cauliflower broken into
4 small chayotes, cut into
If salt stock is used, freshen it

1 cup small okra
1 large green pepper, seeded
and sliced
2 red peppers, seeded and sliced
/4 cup horseradish, cut in pieces
3 quarts vinegar
3 pounds brown sugar
4 tablespoons celery seed
4 tablespoons white mustard
VY teaspoon black pepper
first and then cut as desired.

Soak for 10 days in 45 grain vinegar before putting in the sweet
spiced solution. If fresh vegetables are used, cut and soak them
overnight in brine made by dissolving 1 cup of salt in 2 quarts
of water, then drain; wash the vegetables with fresh water and
drain again.
Add the horseradish to the drained vegetables. Mix the vine-
gar, brown sugar, and spices. Boil the mixture for 10 minutes.
Pour the boiling hot syrup over the vegetable mixture. Soak
the pickles for 2 days, then drain and again heat the syrup to
the boiling point. Pack the pickles into clean, sterile, hot jars.
Cover the pickles with boiling syrup, and seal the jars.
5 pounds small yellow or 1 teaspoon whole allspice
green tomatoes 1 tablespoon stick cinnamon
31 pounds sugar 1 teaspoon whole cloves
2 cups vinegar 1 tablespoon white mustard
2 lemons sliced thinly seed
The green plum or peach tomatoes are best for this pickle,
although the large green tomatoes may be cored and cut in
quarters. Wash, and peel thinly, if desired. If small tomatoes
are used, prick well to prevent bursting. Mix the vinegar, sugar,
and spices. Boil the mixture for 5 minutes. Pour the boiling
syrup over the tomatoes, let them stand for several hours or
overnight, then drain off the liquid and boil it until it coats a
spoon. Add the tomatoes, and boil the mixture until the toma-
toes are clear. Pack the tomatoes into clean, sterile hot jars.
Cover the tomatoes with the boiling syrup, and then seal the jars.

2 quarts small, green cucum-
bers, uniform size, 1-2
2 quarts boiling vinegar
2 pounds of sugar (4 cups)

2 tablespoons whole allspice
1 tablespoon celery seed
2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
2 tablespoons whole cloves
% cup mustard seed

Pickles and Relishes

If salt stock is used, freshen it first, as previously directed.
If fresh cucumbers are used, cover them with boiling hot brine
by dissolving 2 cups salt in 1Y2 quarts boiling water, soak the
cucumbers in this brine for 24 hours, then drain them. Heat
the vinegar to the boiling point and pour it over the cucumbers.
Let the mixture stand for 24 hours, then drain. Save the vine-
gar and add the sugar and spices. Boil the mixture for 5
minutes. Pack the pickles into clean, sterile, hot jars. Cover
the cucumbers with the boiling syrup and seal the jars.
12 large cucumbers 3 4 quarts spiced vinegar
Celery relish, other chopped pickle, or chutney
If salt stock is used, treat as directed for Sweet Vegetable
Pickles, page 20. If fresh cucumbers are used, mix them with
1% cups of salt, let them stand for 5 or 6 days, drain, soak
them in fresh water for several hours, and then drain them
With an apple corer carefully remove from the stem end the
central seed portion. Fill the cavity with celery relish, honey
beet (page 35) or other chopped pickle or with Palm Beach
Pineapple Relish (page 37). "Plug" the cavity with a portion
of the end removed. Pack the cucumbers into clean, sterile, hot
jars. Cover with boiling Spiced Vinegar No. 2 (page 15), or
if Palm Beach Pineapple Relish is used with Sweet Spiced Vine-
gar (page 28), partially seal the jars. Process the cucumbers
5 to 10 minutes at simmering. Seal at once.
Remove centers from large sweet cucumber pickles as directed
above. Or young pickled papayas (3 to 4 inches in length) may
have a circular piece removed from one side and be filled with
the following mixture:
1 cup citron or watermelon rind 1/4 cup preserved or candied
/4 cup preserved ginger Surinam cherries
2 cup spiced orange or grape- V4 cup sweet red pepper jam
fruit peel or 1 cup spiced
kumquat or a mixture of
these fruits
Close openings with the pieces removed or with a preserved
cherry or orange peel. Cover with a hot spiced syrup, seal and
process pints 5 to 10 minutes at simmering.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Best texture, flavor and keeping qualities for watermelon
pickles are made by curing the rind in brine rather than by the
old fashioned heat treatment method. Proceed to freshen the
rind as previously directed. Then store in strong, unsweetened
vinegar for one week. Prepare a syrup of-
3 pints of vinegar, white, if 3 pounds of sugar
light color is desired 1 tablespoon each of mace,
2 lemons, sliced ginger root and whole
2 sticks cinnamon cloves
Simmer vinegar, sugar, spices and lemon together for about
5 to 10 minutes, and let stand overnight. Strain hot liquid over
melon rind and bring all to a boil. Let stand overnight and
repeat the process the following day. The rind will be crisp,
tender and well flavored. If a less sour product is desired, use
part of the first vinegar in making the syrup, though fresh,
new vinegar is to be preferred.
4 pounds watermelon rind 1 pint water
2 tablespoons lime water 4 pounds granulated sugar
2 quarts cold water "ime water 2 tablespoons whole cloves
2 quarts vinegar 4 long pieces stick cinnamon
2 lemons, sliced
Select rind from a firm, not over-ripe melon, and before
weighing, trim off the green skin and pink flesh. Cut in inch
cubes and soak for 22 hours in the lime water. Freshen in
cold water. Drain, cover with fresh water and cook for 12
hours, or until tender, and add more water as it boils off. Let
stand overnight in this same water, and next morning drain.
Bring to the boiling point the vinegar, 1 pint of water, the sugar
and the spices tied loosely in cheesecloth. Add the drained
watermelon, and boil gently for 2 hours, or until the syrup is
fairly thick and rind clear. Remove the spice bag, pack the
watermelon pickle in sterilized glass jars, seal air-tight, and
store in a cool place.
NOTE: The lime (calcium oxide) may be secured from the drugstore
or use air slacked lime-2 ounces (2 tablespoonfuls) to 2 quarts of water
for 2 pounds of fruit.
Select firm, rare-ripe cultivated or wild plums. Do not re-
move stem or seeds. Wash and pack, without crushing, into
sterilized jars. Add 2 tablespoons of salt and 1 tablespoonful

Pickles and Relishes

of sugar to each quart jar, fill the jars with a mixture of Yi
vinegar and Y water. Seal and store.
They will be ready for use in about 6 to 8 weeks. They are
somewhat like olives in taste.
NOTE: A more desirable product may be obtained by fermenting the
plums by the method given for dill pickles (page 16), omitting the pickle
spice and dill.
Either fully mature kumquats still in the green stage, but just
before they turn yellow, or ripe, well colored fruit may be used
for making into fermented pickles. The little Meiwa is especially
nice to use.
Use freshly gathered fruit. Scrape thoroughly to remove any
scale or dust. Wash and rinse. Pack, without crushing, in all-
glass containers to within 1 inch of top, and place weight or some
slats across the fruit in such way as to prevent their rising in
the pickling solution-at no time should the kumquats be exposed
above the solution. Cover with brine made by adding 3 table-
spoons salt to 1 quart water (see Table 1, page 45) to completely
fill the jar. Use only glass top jars. Adjust rubber and top on
jar and partially seal. As fermentation takes place and liquid
recedes, it should be replaced with new brine, keeping container
full so as to leave no air space. As soon as fermentation is over
the jar should be sealed.
The kumquats should be cured in about six weeks to two
months. They will be found to make an admirable substitute for
olives, and with the super-abundance of kumquats in Florida they
should be pickled in quantities.
Caution: Do not wait until fruit is becoming dry or over ma-
ture before using.
Follow directions as given for kumquats.
May be pickled as directed for kumquats.
In recent years a type of cucumber pickle known as the
"bread and butter" pickle has appeared on the market and has
found great favor. This pickle differs from the ordinary cucum-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ber pickle in that it is not made from cucumbers which have
previously undergone a lactic acid fermentation in brine. Fresh
green cucumbers are used in its preparation. The cucumbers
are washed, graded and uniformly sliced cross-wise. The round
cucumber chips so obtained are packed in a sweet spiced vine-
gar in glass jars generally with a few pieces of onion. The
"bread and butter" pickle owes its attraction to its delicious
crispness and care must be taken in preparation to avoid too
long heating as this will destroy the crispness and make the
chips "mushy". Please observe the following directions:
Use fresh green cucumbers and a few onions.
Wash the cucumbers and peel and wash the onions.
Cut the cucumbers and onions into coarse slices, cross-
Prepare a light brine by dissolving % pound of salt in one
gallon of water.
Cover the cucumbers and the onions separately with this
brine and let stand overnight and then drain thor-
Make a liquor of equal volumes of vinegar and water and
use to scald the pickles about 5 minutes, or until they
are tender. Be careful not to get them too soft.
Drain this liquor off thoroughly. Do not use again.
Dissolve 6 pounds brown sugar in a mixture of 1 quart
water and 3 quarts vinegar. Then add the following
spices: 2 tablespoons celery seed, 2 tablespoons
mustard seed, and 2 tablespoons ground turmeric.
Pack the drained pickles in glass top jars.
Bring the vinegar and spices to a boil and pour hot over
the pickles and seal.

Slice 25 cucumbers of medium size and 12 small onions. Soak
in cold water with a large handful of dairy salt for 3 hours. Then
drain well. Scald 1 quart of vinegar, 2 cupfuls of white sugar,
2 tablespoonfuls of mustard seed, 2 tablespoonfuls tumeric, 2
tablespoonfuls celery seed, and 1 large teaspoonful of cassia buds.
Pour this scalding hot mixture over the cucumbers and onions
previously packed in jars. Seal.

100 small cucumbers 1 pint of small white onions
1 cupful dairy salt /2 cupful white mustard seed
% cupful celery seed 1 cupful salad oil
% tablespoonful ground
black pepper
Slice the cucumbers and onions very thin, sprinkle with the
salt and let stand overnight. In the morning drain well, add

Pickles and Relishes

the celery mand mustard seeds, salad oil, and pepper, mixing all
together very thoroughly. Put into fruit jars and fill jars with
cold vinegar. Seal. While these are delicious they will remain
firm a few months only.
1 gallon artichokes 3 tablespoons mixed whole
2V2 cups sugar spices
1 clove garlic 3 tablespoons salt
2 tablespoons turmeric 2 quarts vinegar
Scrub well then pack artichokes into clean, hot jars. Tie spices
loosely in cheesecloth bag, add sugar and vinegar. Simmer 15
minutes, bring to boil and pour over artichokes. Process 15
minutes at simmering; then complete seal.
Pickled walnuts are popular in European countries but seldom
made in America. The whole nuts should be picked after they
have become about two-thirds grown but before the shell has
begun to harden. It should be possible to pierce them through
easily with a pin or a darning needle, that is, the shell must
still be soft. As they are intensely astringent, a rather pro-
longed curing process is desirable to render them edible.
Make enough brine to cover walnuts thoroughly, using 6
ounces of salt to the quart of water. Stir them night and morn-
ing and change the brine every three days. After nine days
in the brine, strain off the walnuts and leave them on dishes
exposed to the air until they turn quite black, which they should
do in a few hours.
Boil the vinegar, allowing half a gallon of vinegar to about
100 walnuts with (for each half gallon) a teaspoonful of salt,
2 ounces of black pepper, 3 ounces bruised ginger, a drachm of
mace and /2 ounce of cloves, stuck in two or three small onions,
and 4 ounces of mustard seed. When these have been well
boiled together for 5 minutes, pour the hot seasoned vinegar
over the nuts. Repeat in two days. Then pack nuts in jars,
cover with the boiling hot vinegar and seal at once.

There exists a growing demand for quality fruit pickles, both
for the well known sweet, spiced pears and peaches as well as

Florida Cooperative Extension

an unsupplied demand for the newer and more intriguing pickled
guavas, kumquats, papayas and others of the better known sub-
tropical fruits that only Florida can supply at this time.
Spiced fruit, or the so-called sweet pickle fruit, saturated
with a spicy, sweet-sour syrup, is the easiest of all pickles to
make. Only fresh, high quality fruits should be used and should
be graded for size and stage of ripeness. The ripest should be
kept in one lot if there is a marked difference. If fruits like
carissa, green papayas, kumquats and plums are not peeled,
puncture them thoroughly with a silver fork or in some other
way to permit the syrup to penetrate without causing shrivel-
ing. Guavas, ripe papayas, and peaches, should be pared; grape-
fruit and other large citrus fruits should be carefully grated
and cut into convenient halves or quarters as preferred.
In general it may be said that figs, guavas, ripe papayas, pine-
apples, and all fruits that make good preserves can be easily made
into pickles by adding to the rich preserve syrup a small amount
of high grade vinegar and whole spices-stick cinnamon, whole
cloves, allspice and ginger being commonly preferred. Pour the
boiling hot spiced syrup over the preserves and let stand to
permeate and penetrate the fruit. The next day or days after,
drain off the syrup and repeat the operation until the fruit is
thoroughly saturated and flavored and is clear, tender, translu-
cent and shapely.
For spicing crabapples, figs, peaches, pears, pineapples, and
many other fruits prepare the following syrup:
3 pounds sugar 1 tablespoon ginger root
2 pints water 11 teaspoons whole cloves
1 pint vinegar 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
Prepare fruit, puncturing if needed to prevent shriveling. If
pears are very hard, pre-cook 10 minutes in water to cover and
use this liquid to dilute the vinegar for the syrup.
Peaches, like pears and quinces, may need pre-cooking before
being placed in syrup. To prevent discoloration, drop the fruit
as it is prepared into a salt solution made by dissolving 1 table-
spoon salt in each quart of water. Very soft fruits like guavas
and ripe papaya may need the opposite treatment, i. e., may need
to stand in the sugar overnight to be "firmed" and this liquid
which the sugar draws out can then be used in place of a syrup
made with water. Also a higher proportion of sugar, 3 pound
to 1 pound of fruit, produces a finer quality product than the

Pickles and Relishes

propositions given for syrup above and is to be preferred for the
best quality guava or papaya pickle.
Thoroughly ripe, fresh, firm figs, with stems trimmed to 4
inch, benefit if they are placed in a strainer and are dipped for
one minute in boiling water before being added to the spiced
syrup. A soda treatment for figs is never necessary when ripe,
fresh, unbruised figs are used. When used, the repeated wash-
ing and handling that the practise calls for, only serves to destroy
or break down the delicate structure of the fig. Figs require a
long cook to get rid of the white chalky color.
Boil the syrup, vinegar, and water together. Tie spices loosely
in a cheesecloth bag and pound lightly to increase the flavor.
Whole spices do not cloud and darken products as much as
ground spices.
Place the fruit in the syrup and cook gently until somewhat
clear and tender. Cover and let stand in the syrup overnight.
Reheat and, if clear, pack boiling hot into hot containers and
seal at once. Processing pints 5 minutes at boiling ensures an
air-tight seal.
Many fruits like the papaya call for many boiling of syrup
which is poured back boiling hot over the fruit on successive
days rather than giving one long cook. Better color, flavor
and texture is obtained in this way.
2 quarts loquats (with stems, 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
blossom ends and seeds 1 cup hot water
removed) 1 lemon or 3 calamondins
/2 pint vinegar 4 cups sugar
I tablespoonful whole cloves
Wash loquats and remove stem and blossom ends. Cut down
one side and remove seed. Slice lemons or calamondins. Steam
loquats in the water 2 to 3 minutes to soften and to prevent
shriveling. Add other ingredients and cook gently about 10 min-
utes. Let stand overnight. Bring to the boiling point in the
morning and cook until syrup is somewhat thick. Pour into jars
and seal boiling hot. Very delicious to serve with cold meats.
5 quarts figs 1 quart sugar
1 quart water 1 tablespoonful whole
1 pint vinegar cloves
2 tablespoonfuls stick 1 teaspoonful allspice
cinnamon 1 teaspoonful mace
1 pint sugar 1 lemon sliced

Florida Cooperative Extension

Prepare figs in same manner as for fig preserves, that is, cook
5 quarts of figs until tender in about a 30 degree syrup made
by allowing one quart of water to each pint of sugar, cooking
about one hour.
When figs become tender, add 1 quart of sugar, 1 pint of
vinegar, the spices-one tablespoonful of allspice and one tea-
spoonful of mace. Cook until figs are clear and transparent.
Allow them to stand in the syrup overnight. Pack in pint jars
and process for 15 minutes at boiling.
7 pounds of fruit 3 tablespoonfuls whole
1 pint of vinegar cinnamon
4 pounds sugar 2 tablespoonfuls whole
1 tablespoonful allspice cloves
Make a syrup of the sugar, spices and vinegar. Cool slightly,
add the fruit. Cover and let stand overnight. Drain off liquid
and boil rapidly for about 10 to 20 minutes. Add plums and
let stand until cold. Pack into jars and process pints 15 minutes
at simmering (1800 F.).
Pick the grapes from the stem, wash and slip the pulp from
the skins, steam the pulps over a vessel of hot water in a double
boiler until they can be rubbed through a coarse sieve to remove
the seeds. Combine pulp with skins and weigh. To each 7
pounds allow the same proportions of sugar and spices as for
spiced plums given above. Cook all together until very thick,
and skins very tender; pack while hot, and seal at once.
Seedling mangos, not yet mature, may be used. Pare, cut into
thick slices. Cook in clear water until barely tender-not soft-
then drain. Make the following syrup:
3 pounds brown or white sugar
1 pint cider vinegar
1 teaspoonful whole cloves
1 tablespoonful stick cinnamon
1 teasponful whole allspice
1 lemon sliced, or
4 calamondins, cut in halves
Cook the syrup until thick. Pour over the mangos and allow
them to heat through in the syrup. Can and seal while hot.
These are delicious.

Pickles and Relishes

Select small, ripe mangos. Peel and place in a kettle or
crock, covering with syrup made by boiling 1 pint of sugar and
1 pint of vinegar and water with sufficient whole cloves, all-
spices, and cinnamon to produce the desired flavor. When cold,
drain off liquid, and pour over the fruit. Repeat several times.
The last time put the fruit in boiling syrup and when well heated
transfer to clean, sterile jars and seal at once. The continued
draining off of the liquid and reheating cooks the fruit without
breaking it. Only mangos free from fibre should be used as
directed above, and the syrup should become increasingly heavy
as it receives the repeated cooks.
Wash and remove pits from large freshly gathered Surinam
cherries (may stuff with pineapple, raisins, preserved orange
peel, if desired). To each pound of cherries add 3/4 pound of
sugar. Sprinkle the zugar over the fruit in layers, and let stand
overnight. In the morning, stir gently until the sugar is dis-
solved, and drain from the fruit. For each pound tie whole
spices-one teaspoonful each of the cinnamon stick, allspice, and
mace-in a loose cheesecloth bag, drop this into the juice to-
gether with Y2 lemon, limequats or calamondins sliced, and boil
together for about 10 minutes. While the syrup is hot, add Y4
cupful cider vinegar to each pint. Cool slightly and pour over
the drained cherries. Let stand overnight. Repeat process. Pack
and simmer pints 10 minutes.
Peel and cut fruit in medium size, shapely, uniform pieces-
or if desired in large pieces, cut in quarters. Do not remove
seed. Weigh and for every pound of papaya add 3/ pound of
sugar. Sprinkle over fruit and allow to stand a few hours or
until sugar is dissolved. Place over heat, bring to a boil and
boil 10 minutes. Cover tightly and remove from heat and let
stand overnight. Next day drain off syrup, bring to boil and
pour over papaya, repeating process until fruit is clean and
syrup heavy. Then add Y2 cup best vinegar to each pint syrup
and whole spices-1 teaspoon each cinnamon, cloves and all-
spice tied in bag-to syrup. Boil 5 to 10 minutes, then add
fruit and cook another 5 minutes. Transfer to hot, sterile
jars and seal at once. If preferred the vinegar and spices could
be added to the dissolved sugar in the beginning.

Florida Cooperative Extension

4 quarts prepared 2 tablespoons stick cinnamon
pineapple 1 tablespoon whole cloves
2 cups vinegar 2 slices each of lemon and
5 cups sugar oranges
Cut full ripe pineapple in thick slices, then pare and remove
eyes and cores. Mix the vinegar, sugar and spices. Boil for
5 minutes. Place the chunks in syrup and simmer until the
pineapple is tender and clear. Let stand overnight. Reheat,
pack fruit in hot jars. Cover the pineapple with boiling syrup
and seal at once.
3 pounds green tomatoes, sliced 1 cup orange blossom honey
rather thick or cut in quar- 3 cups vinegar
ters 1 tablespoon celery seed
2 pounds pineapple, fresh or 1 tablespoon each stick
canned, sliced about % as cinnamon, cloves and
thick as tomato slices, or allspice
2 pounds green mango, peeled 2 tablespoons white mustard
and sliced seed
3 pounds granulated sugar 1 blade mace
Mix vinegar, sugar, honey. Tie cinnamon, cloves and all-
spice in thin muslin bag and add. Bring to boil and cook 10
minutes. Pour over tomato and pineapple. Cover and let stand
overnight. Drain off liquid and boil as before. Add fruit and
cook until fruit is tender and clear and syrup somewhat thick-
ened. Let stand overnight. Pack in pint jars and simmer 10
NOTE: Any syrup left over is delicious diluted with hot water and
used to baste roast, ham, or lamb, or stiffened with gelatine as a jelly for
piquant garnish for cold meats or for molded fruit or in Anerican or
other salads.
For Sweet Spiced Pickle Peaches, Pears, Pineapple, Papaya
and other fruits, see pages 27, 28 and 29.
3 pounds prepared guavas 3 dozen whole cloves
3 cups brown sugar 2 large sticks cinnamon
1 cup white sugar 1/ cup preserved ginger, or
/4 cup best vinegar 4 pieces of ginger root
1 tablespoon allspice s teaspoon salt
Select large, meaty guavas. If with clean, unblemished skin,
do not peel. Cut off stem and blossom ends, cut in halves and
scoop out centers. Place fruit in preserving kettle; add other
ingredients, and let stand 3 to 4 hours. Then cook until fruit

Pickles and Relishes

is tender and syrup heavy. Time required depends on type of
guavas used. Seal boiling hot in hot, sterile jars. If dry ginger
is used, remove before serving.
2 pounds whole kumquats 11/2 pints water
11/2 pounds sugar 1 cup vinegar
Whole Spice
Thoroughly clean well colored kumquats by scraping with a
paring knife and a stiff brush. Rinse well and drain. Make
a slit with a sharp pointed knife into and across the sections
of each kumquat to prevent them from bursting open and to
facilitate penetration of the spiced syrup. Drop kumquats
into an abundance of boiling water and cook until tender.
Drain and add to sugar-vinegar mixture. Cook briskly until
kumquats are clearing and syrup is becoming thick. Add spice,
1 stick cinnamon broken, 1 tablespoonful each cloves and all-
spice tied in bag. Cover and let stand overnight to "plump".
Boil again until kumquats are clear, shining and transparent
and syrup is thick. Let stand again, covered tightly. When
cold, pack in sterile jars, adding small amount of spice, heat
syrup, strain over fruit, seal and process pints for 5 minutes.
Grate and boil whole oranges, preferably Navels, in a gen-
erous amount of water one hour or until tender, changing
water twice and adding salt to the first boiling. Drain, cut
into half-inch slices. Prepare the following spiced syrup:
2 cupfuls of sugar 1/ cupful water
1/4 cupful corn syrup 20 whole cloves
1 cupful vinegar 2 two inch pieces of
Contents of 2 cardamon stick cinnamon
seed pods 12 bruised coriander seeds
Boil 5 minutes, add orange slices, and boil 15 minutes. Trans-
fer to a casserole and bake 3 hour in a slightly hotter than
moderate oven (400 F.). If syrup does not completely cover
the fruit, baste occasionally. Seal in sterilized jars. Serve
with hot or cold meats.
Proceed exactly as for Pickled Orange Slices, except that
small whole fruits are needed, such as kumquats, orangequats
or calamondins. Puncture well but do not grate.
NOTE: A group of 5 or 6 copper nails about 1 to 11/4 inches long,
placed in a circle about %/" apart in a wood spatula, is convenient and
effective for puncturing small fruits like kumauats, limequats, and cala-
mondins. Puncture both blossom and stem ends. Thus treated, the fruit
is not as likely to burst or split in cooking as when cut with a knife.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Select tree ripened fruit of good quality and thick peel. Wash
and grate carefully, removing all the yellow rind. Remove peel
and cut into convenient quarters or in half inch strips as pre-
ferred. To one pound of fruit add at least 3 pints of water
and bring slowly to a boil and boil 10 minutes. Then change
water and bring to boil as before. Taste liquid and if very
bitter, drain off and renew. If only slightly bitter, boil peel
until tender. Drain and add peel to a syrup made by adding
3/ pound sugar to 1 pint of water for each pound of fruit taken.
Boil until peel is clear and syrup heavy. Add /2 cup white vine-
gar to each pound of fruit and whole spice-cinnamon and cloves
-tied in cheesecloth bag and lightly bruised. Bring to a boil
and let stand covered 24 hours. Reheat and pack. The peel
should be beautifully clear, tender, yet firm, well flavored and
the syrup heavy. Sweet pickled citrus fruit should be among
the most popular of Florida pickles.

Choose small, firm tangerines of uniform size and unblemished
skins. Wash. Push a fine knitting needle entirely through
each fruit 6 or eight times. Let fruit stand overnight well covered
with salt water-weighting down with a plate.
In the morning put the fruit with an abundance of cold water
in a large preserving kettle and boil gently until tender-chang-
ing the water twice. Remove fruit with skimmer. Make a
syrup sufficient to cover well tangerines, using 1 cupful water
and 1 cupful pickle vinegar to each pint of sugar, /2 stick cin-
namon, 10 whole cloves and 1 lemon sliced. Stir until sugar is
dissolved, add fruit and cook until syrup is thickened and tanger-
ines are somewhat clear. Let stand overnight or several nights.
Boil again until fruit is translucent and syrup heavy. Pack
carefully in jars. Process pints at simmering 15 minutes. This.
is an unusual and delicious pickle to serve with chicken, veal
and other meats. If additional flavor is desired, tangerine juice-
may be used in place of water.

Left-over sweetened, spiced vinegars, excess juices drained'
from various pickles and relishes-peach, plum, watermelon,
mango, citrus, the fruit pickle juices in particular with their

Pickles and Relishes

rich characteristic flavors-are especially desirable for use in
general cookery.
The delightful syrup is very valuable for using with mince-
meat. It is delicious to use diluted with hot water to baste baked
ham or roast lamb-the sweet, spice and sour all adding greatly
to the final flavor. The syrup stiffened with gelatine as a jelly
for piquant garnish for cold meats or for jellied fruit or vege-
table salads, for fruit salad dressings or the sweetened vinegar
used alone as a dressing for lettuce is liked by many; a half
cup of rich syrup may serve for part liquid and part sweet-
ening in spice cake. In all there are many uses for this com-
bination: good vinegar, sugar and spices combined with fruits
and vegetables.
Relishes consist of mixed, chopped or ground fruits or vege-
tables or a combination of both fruits and vegetables with the
addition of spices and other seasoning agents. As adjuncts to
the menu they are prized mostly for their flavor. Just as sweet
vegetable pickles, mustard pickles and other mixtures are best
made from the vegetables cured in brine rather than by the
use of the fresh products, so are all vegetable relishes best
made in the same way, while the relishes such as tomato catsup,
chili sauce and chutneys are made from the fresh chopped or
ground fruits and vegetables, spiced and cooked down to a
Chutneys are of East Indian origin. True chutneys are a
hot, sweet, spicy mixture, flavored largely with fresh ginger
and the ingredients minced fine. Proportions seem very capri-
cious and the pungency and spiciness may be easily regulated
to suit the taste.
Whatever the type, the purpose is to get a tart, spicy flavor
through the vegetable or fruit, to keep or develop attractive
color and to give crispness to those made from vegetables. For
quick process pickles the vegetables are often salted down over-
night to draw out the juices. Quick process vegetable relishes
are not so crisp as those made from salt stock and the flavor
is different, but they require much less work. While the author
personally objects to the salting down overnight process, feel-
ing that it is a wasteful and undesirable practice, a few recipes
for so making are given.

Florida Cooperative Extension

1 quart artichokes, scraped and 3 cups sugar
put through medium food 1 quart vinegar
chopper 1 tablespoon of turmeric
1 pint onions, put through 4 tablespoons white
medium food chopper mustard seed
1 pint pimiento, chopped 2 tablespoons celery
or ground seed
Soak the artichokes, pimientos, and onions in brine over-
night, using 1 cupful of salt to 1 gallon of water. In the morn-
ing, drain dry, mix with mustard seed and turmeric. Dissolve
the sugar in the vinegar and bring to boiling, then pour over
the vegetable mixture.
Heat to boiling, fill sterilized jars, and seal.
NOTE: The Jerusalem Artichoke is a plant belonging to the compos-
ite family, and is a tuberous rooted sunflower. The tubers may be
served like potatoes. The smoother growing White French variety is to
be preferred for table use rather than Red Brazilian.
8 large white onions 1 quart cider vinegar
12 large sweet red peppers 2 cups sugar
2 hot red peppers, with seeds 2 teaspoons mustard seeds
removed 2 teaspoons celery seeds
2 teaspoons salt
Remove skins from onions and seeds from peppers ana put
through fine plate of food chopper. Combine all ingredients. Let
stand one hour. Bring to boil and cook 15 minutes at boiling.
Fill into hot jars and seal at once. Serve as catsup. Fine to
serve with baked beans or cold meats.
Chop together 4 cupfuls peeled raw beets and 2 cupfuls of
raw cabbage until quite fine. Add 1 cupful of grated horseradish
root, 2 cupfuls sugar, 1 cupful strained honey, 3 teaspoonfuls
salt, 2 hot, red peppers with seed removed, and enough vinegar
to cover. Bring to a boil and cook together 10 minutes. Pour
into sterilized jars and seal.
1 pint French Breakfast Scar- 1 cup sugar
let Globe or similar type 1 tablespoon mustard seed
radish, ground tablespoon dill seed
1 cup celery, ground 2 hot, red peppers with
1 cup onion, white or red, seed removed
ground 2 teaspoons salt
Vinegar to cover.
Use only fresh, crisp radishes. Wash, remove tops and roots.
Put all vegetables through coarse blade food chopper, chopping
into bowl. Combine all ingredients. Let stand a few hours.

Pickles and Relishes

Bring to a boil and cook 10 minutes. Pack boiling hot in
sterilized jars and seal.
12 red peppers, seeded and 12 red onions, medium
ground coarsely size, ground
12 gren peppers, seeded 2 cups vinegar
and ground coarsely 2 cups sugar
The peppers must be of unquestionable freshness, never
shriveled, as this denotes staleness. Mix all ingredients and
boil about 20 minutes. Pour into hot, sterile jars and seal at
Remove the seeds from 1 dozen large, fresh, sweet red peppers.
Grind, mix with 1 teaspoonful of salt, and let stand 3 hours.
Drain; add 1 pint of vinegar and 3 cupfuls of sugar; then cook
until like jam, usually about 45 minutes. Pour into small, hot
containers and seal. This jam is fine for potato and other
salads, is delicious mixed with cream cheese for sandwiches.

Peel green mangos, cut from seed, chop or put through
coarse blade of food chopper enough to make one quart. Chop
or grind two large onions, six sweet red peppers and two large
hot peppers. Add 1 tablespoonful of salt, 1 tablespoonful each
white mustard seed and celery seed, 4 cupfuls sugar and 1 cupful
vinegar. Two cupfuls raisins also may be added if desired.
Combine all ingredients. Bring to boil and boil 5 minutes.
Let stand overnight. Next morning cook until slightly thick-
ened (about 10 minutes). Pack boiling hot and seal. Mango
may be combined with sweet fruits as papaya or pineapple for
making jams and other products.

4 pounds sliced peaches 2 teaspoons salt
1 quart vinegar 1 clove garlic
3 pounds sugar 1/2 ounce dried chili peppers
2 pounds raisins 2 tablespoons white mustard
1 pound preserved ginger seed
Juice, pulp, rind of one orange and one lemon
1V2 cups sliced kumquats (may be canned kumquat stock)
Peel the fruit and slice. Add sugar and vinegar and boil 10
minutes. Grind the lemon, orange and garlic and chili peppers
and add with the remaining ingredients to the fruit and boil
the mixture until thick, stirring as needed. Let stand overnight.
Bring to a boil and boil 10 minutes. Pack into sterilized con-

Florida Cooperative Extension

trainers and seal boiling hot. Guavas, pears, pineapple, mango
and other fruit may be used in place of peaches or in combina-

4 cups pineapple crushed 3 cups granulated sugar
1 cup tarragon vinegar 1 teaspoonful cloves
1 tablespoon stick cinnamon
Cook the pineapple with the vinegar and spices (tied in a
bag until fruit is clear and syrup thickened-about 45 minutes.
Remove spice bag and seal hot. A wonderful sauce for cold

1'/2 quarts shredded pine- 1 cup cider vinegar
apple 1 cup grapejuice
12 large green mangos 2 cups brown sugar
4 onions Juice of 3 lemons or limes
4 sweet red peppers V4 cup mustard seed
2 hot red peppers 1 tablespoon ginger
6 medium size green 2 cups raisins
tomatoes 1 tablespoon salt
Chop or grind the mangos, onions, peppers, and tomatoes.
Add the other ingredients in the order given and cook all to-
gether until thick, stirring carefully. Seal while boiling hot.

3 pounds prepared guavas 3 pounds tamarinds
3 pounds brown sugar 3 pods chili pepper,
2 pounds raisins dried
1 pint pimiento 2 cloves garlic
1 pound green ginger 1 pound onions
1 tablespoon each ground 1/4 cup mustard seed
allspice, cloves, cinna- 1/4 cup celery seed
mon and salt Y4 tablespoon pepper
Remove fibrous hulls of tamarinds and soak pulp in 2 quarts
of best vinegar, stirring often to dissolve the pulp from the
seed. When pulp is dissolved, run through fruit press or colander
to remove seed. Put guavas, from which seeds have been re-
moved, through the medium knife of the food chopper. Put
the raisins through the same chopper. Use the finest blade
for the green ginger, peppers, garlic (or onions) and mustard
seed. Mix all ingredients together and boil 30 minutes. Let
stand overnight. Reheat to boiling, re-season if needed, and
pour in hot, sterilized jars and seal at once.

Pickles and Relishes

3 pounds guavas 1 clove garlic
3 pounds sugar 1 pound onions
2 quarts best vinegar 12 tablespoons mustard
2 pounds seeded raisins 11/ tablespoons powdered
2 tablespoons salt ginger
2 teaspoons each cinna- 3 small hot peppers
mon and cloves
Put guavas through fruit press to remove seed. Boil until
smooth and thick. Put raisins, onion, garlic through food chop-
per. Add these and sugar, vinegar, and seasonings. Cook until
thick, stirring occasionally, and let stand overnight. Reheat,
seal boiling hot. Hold several weeks before using.
Peaches, pears, pineapple, carissa, surinam cherries, mangos
may be used in place of guavas in above recipe.
4 pounds sliced and peeled 3 pounds brown sugar
green mangos 2 ounces yellow chili
1 quart vinegar % pound green ginger
2 pounds currants 1 tablespoon salt
2 pounds raisins 2 cloves garlic
1/2 pound onions
Chop all fine except raisins and currants. Mix and let stand'
overnight before cooking is possible. Can be made with sweet
budded mangos, using the juice of 5 limes or lemons. Cook
until thick as desired. Seal boiling hot.
3 pounds green mangos, /4 ounce cloves
pared and sliced 4 large cloves garlic
3 pounds tamarind 1/4 ounce pimiento
2 pounds raisins 4 tablespoons salt
8 pounds brown sugar 3 pints strong vinegar
1/ pound chilies 1/4 ounce mace
2 pounds green ginger
Remove hull from ripe tamarinds and soak the pulpy pods
in the vinegar-after reserving /2 cup. Stir them about with
a wooden spoon to get the pulp off the seed; then remove seed
and the leathery parts in which they are enclosed. Cut the
raisins small. Scrape the ginger and grate it. Pound the chilies,
garlic, and mustard seed in a mortar, using a little of the vine-
gar to moisten. Mix all ingredients thoroughly. Let stand five
days. Pack in containers and process pints 25 minutes at sim-
NOTE: The tamarind (Tamnrindus indica), a beautiful leguminous fruit
tree whose brown pods contain a pulp rich in sugar and acid, is used
as an important ingredient in chutneys and for making a healthful,
delightful drink. Many bushels of fine tamarinds waste every year in
southern Florida, when they could so well be used to further enrich and'
add flavor to guava and other chutneys.

Florida Cooperative Extension

4 quarts green tomatoes 1 pint vinegar or 1/ vinegar and
(ground) 1/2 pint grape, plum, pine-
3 oranges and 3 lemons or apple, mango, or other fruit
2 pints kumquats (ground) juice
1 pint coconut, grated 1 teaspoon cloves
1 pound raisins, seedless 5 pounds sugar (brown)
3 teaspoons cinnamon 1 glass tart jelly or jam
1 pint figs 1 teaspoon mace
1 pound pineapple shredded 1 teaspoon allspice
Select oranges and lemons with clear, well ripened skins.
(Oranges artificially colored have tough, undesirable peeling.)
Scrub thoroughly and cut into convenient pieces for putting
through food chopper, grinding all portions except seeds. If
kumquats are used, clean and cut in halves to remove seed
before putting through chopper. Grind tomatoes and seeded
raisins. Combine all materials. Let stand several hours. Boil
20 minutes. Let stand overnight, re-season if necessary. Boil
again 10 minutes, pack hot in jars, and process pints 10 minutes
at boiling, quarts 15 minutes. This mince-meat serves not only
as a choice filling for pie but may be used as a filling for cakes
and sandwiches; as a thick spread on Angel cake, topped with
whipped cream and a surinan cherry for garnish, it serves as
a delectable dessert for any special occasion.

1 peck pears 5 medium size onions
6 medium peppers (3 red 2 pounds sugar
and 3 green) 1 tablespoon turmeric
2 tablespoons mixed 1 tablespoon salt
whole spices 4 cups vinegar
Drain juice from peppers but allow the juice of other in-
gredients to remain in mixture. Grind pears in food chopper
with onions. Combine all ingredients and cook 30 minutes. Seal
while hot in sterilized jars.


Tomato and other catsups and sauces differ considerably in
texture and appearance from pickles but are used in much the
same way as relishes. Catsups made from acid, juicy varieties
of fruits are preferred to very sweet fruits. Catsups should
be cooked to a very thick consistency to prevent separation.

Pickles and Relishes


gallon red-ripe tomatoes,
cups sweet red peppers,
or pimientos
hot pepper
cup brown sugar
tablespoons celery seed
tablespoons salt
quart vinegar

1 tablespoon white mustard
1 bay leaf
1 teaspoon garlic finely
1/2 ounce stick cinnamon
1 teaspoon cloves (whole)
Y4 nutmeg, grated
1 tablespoon ginger

Select sound, fresh, red-ripe tomatoes, sufficient for 1 gallon.
Wash, scald, remove skins, cores and any green or yellow spots
and put through food chopper with the onions and peppers, using
fine blade. Tie spices loosely in a cheesecloth bag. Boil the
spices with the vegetables until the mixture is reduced one
half. Stir well to prevent scorching. Add the vinegar, sugar and
salt. Boil mixture rapidly and stir well for 5 minutes. Pour the
boiling chili sauce into clean, sterile, hot jars and seal immedi-

3 quarts green tomatoes, put
through food chopper
3 quarts cabbage, put
through food chopper
1 pint celery, put
through food chopper
1 pint onions, same way
6 tablespoons salt
1 cup sugar
Mix well and boil rapidly f
hot in hot, sterile jars.

1 1 clove garlic
6 tablespoons mustard seed
4 tablespoons celery seed
2 tablespoons each black pep-
per, cloves, allspice, gin-
ger and turmeric, tied
loosely in bag and light-
ly pounded
2 quarts of good vinegar
or 20 to 25 minutes. Seal boiling

Wash small cherry or Chili peppers (red and green), prick
with a needle. Pack into bottles. Cover with good cider vinegar,
and cork. It will be ready for use within a few days. As the
sauce is used, more vinegar may be added to the peppers.

4 dozen red tabasco 1 clove of garlic
or chili peppers % cupful spiced vinegar
Boil the finely chopped garlic and peppers until tender, drain,
rub through a sieve, and add to the paste enough spiced vinegar
to make it of a creamy consistency. Bottle and seal. Onions
may be used in place of garlic if desired. Use spiced vinegar.
(Page 15.)

Florida Cooperative Extension

6 pounds ripe, roasted 2 tablespoons powdered
and peeled pimientos ginger
2 tablespoons salt 2 tablespoons powdered
2 pounds sugar cinnamon
1 quart vinegar
Roast and peel the pimientos as for canning. Remove stems
and seeds, weigh and pass through a food chopper. Rub spices
together, add sugar, and mix well with the pepper pulp. Heat
thoroughly and add the vinegar slowly. Cook all together until
smooth and of the proper consistency. Pack hot into hot bottles,
cap and seal. Process pints 25 minutes at 180' F.
5 pounds roselle V2 tablespoon paprika
(use calyx only) 3 tablespoons cinnamon
1 cup water 1/2 tablespoon ground
1 pint vinegar cloves
2 pounds brown sugar % tablespoon salt
Cook together roselle and water until tender. Rub through
a sieve. Add other ingredients and cook rapidly until thick.
(Reduce to about % the original quantity.) Put in sterilized
containers and seal.
4 pounds prepared 1 teaspoon salt
guavas 1 clove garlic
1 quart vinegar 2 tablespoons chilies
2 pounds sugar or hot peppers
1% pounds raisins 1/4 cup each white
1 pound preserved mustard and celery
ginger seed
Cut blossom and stem ends from fruit; peel if blemished, and
remove seed. Put through food chopper with raisins, garlic,
ginger, mustard seed and chili. Add remaining ingredients and
boil 30 minutes. Let stand overnight. If too heavy, dilute with
vinegar. Reheat, bottle and seal. Allow to season several weeks
before using.
Carissa, mangos, tamarinds, may be substitute for guavas.

3 quarts rare ripe 2 sticks cinnamon
Youngberries 1 dozen whole cloves
3 cups sugar 1/2 to 3 cup vinegar
Wash, drain and mash berries. Tie the spices loosely in a
cheesecloth bag. Add vinegar, spices, and sugar to the berries
and cook rapidly until the mixture is thick. Pour into clean,
sterile, hot jars, and seal at once.

Pickles and Relishes

4 pounds grapes 4 teaspoon cayenne pepper,
2 tablespoons cinnamon or 1 hot red pepper
1 tablespoon cloves 1 cup vinegar
and allspice 2 pounds sugar
1 teaspoon salt
Use firm but fully ripe fruit. Wash, stem, and separate skins
and pulps. Heat pulps until soft enough to liberate seeds. Rub
through fruit press and combine with skins. Steam covered
until tender and run through fruit press again. Add remain-
ing ingredients and cook rapidly until thick. Use whole spices,
tied loosely in a bag to prevent darkening the product, and re-
move before bottling. Pour in hot, sterile bottle to within 2
inches of cap. Seal and process immediately 10 minutes at

Grape catsup is a pleasing sauce to serve with cold meats.
Moreover, it holds an important place in muscadine grape utili-
zation, because it can be made from varieties which, owing to
their acidity, are not well adapted for use in other ways. In
making catsup the juicy varieties are best, and an acid juicy
variety is to be preferred to a very sweet one.
The bunch grapes may of course be used in the same manner
as the members of the muscadine family.

Quality pickles depends upon the quality of products used
and requires:
1. Absolutely fresh, highgrade fruit and vegetables,
sorted for size and degree of ripeness.
2. Highest quality whole spice preferably-used with a
light hand. (Flavor comes out as pickles stand.)
3. High grade cider vinegar, with fine, fruity flavor
and aroma--or distilled vinegar-clear and colorless
for light vegetables such as onions and cauliflower.

Fine texture, flavor and color of pickles require:
1. Excluding air from the brined vegetables before,
during and after fermentation.
2. Maintaining a fairly uniform temperature during
3. Maintaining a salt content of brine high enough to
prevent growth of spoilage organisms.
4. Adding a small amount of vinegar to brine for
all dillss" to favor desirable fermentation and to
inhibit undesirable fermentation.

44 Florida Cooperative Extension


Types of pickles include:

1. Fruit pickles, as whole peaches, pears, papayas,
pineapple, cooked in a spicy, sweet-sour syrup.
2. Quick process pickles salted overnight and com-
bined with spices and vinegar the second day, as
"Bread and Butter" pickles.
3. Salt stock, or fermented pickles, requiring three to
six weeks to cure-in general the recommended
method vegetable pickles.
4. Relishes, catsups, chutneys and sauces, consisting
of spiced, cooked and strained fruits, vegetables
and nuts.

Quality of salt for making brines: Use cooking salt. Avoid the use of salt to which materials have been added to prevent caking.
Quality of water for making brine: Use soft water. Rain water, boiled, cooled, and, if necessary, filtered is very satisfactory. If soft
water is not available, it is best to boil, then cool, tap or well water, and carefully pour it off from any sediment which settles. Filter it
through closely woven cloth. Add one tablespoon of vinegar to each quart of hard water after it has been boiled, cooled and filtered.
Quantity of brine needed: Allow from one-half to two-thirds the volume of the material to be brined. Example: One gallon of the vege-
table will require from one-half to two-thirds gallon of brine.

Salt Salinometer
Solution Reading
Percent Degrees
5 20


Ounces Cups
2 Scant 14 cup or
3 level table-

4 3a cup or 6 level
tablespoons (will
just float a fresh

6 9/16 cup or slight-
ly over % cup.

8 % cup

10 1 cup.


Permits rapid fermentation with
formation of lactic acid. Must be
watched closely for signs of spoilage.
Small quantities of vinegar, about 14
cup to 1 quart of water, may be add-
ed to help prevent spoilage.
Permits rather slow fermentation
with formation of lactic acid. After
fermentation, pickles keep well in
this brine for 2 to 3 months: (1) if
kept below surface of brine; (2) if
brine is protected from air; (3) if
stored in a cool place.
Permits very slow fermentation with
formation of lactic acid. After fer-
mentation, pickles keep in this brine
indefinitely: (1) if kept below sur-
face of brine; (2) if brine is protect-
ed from air; (3) if stored in a cool
Practically no fermentation takes
place and no lactic acid is formed.

Saturated salt solution, no fermenta-
tion takes place. Produced when a
large amount of salt is added to veg-


For making dill pickles. Sometimes
for making dilled green tomatoes,
snap beans, okra, chayotes, kum-
quats, calamondins.

For "curing" cucumbers and most
other vegetables which are to be
made into a salt stock for pickles.

For curing vegetables such as cauli-
flower and pimentos which do not
shrivel much. For storing vegeta-
bles previously fermented in a 10
percent brine.

For making unfermented salt stock
of silver skin onions, green pep-
pers, Keiffer pears, clingstone
oeaches and other vegetables and
hard fruits which do not shrivel
much and which do not require fer-
mentation for flavor or color.
For preserving vegetables indifi-
nitely, merely a method of preser-





SIt is a commodious and a pleasant thyng to a Man-
sion, to have an orcherde of sundry fruits. But it is
more commodious to have a fayre garden repleted
with herbs of aromatycke and redolent savours.
-Andrew Borde.
The salubrious climate of Florida should be
potent with the fragrance of the aromatic or
savory herbs grown not alone for their reputed
medicinal qualities, but also for use in the fine
seasonings of foods and in making choice pickles and
Herbs grown and cured in our own gardens even under
adverse conditions would have more flavor value and
fragrance than the near-fresh ones purchased at the store.
Far more satisfying results can be obtained with many
recipes in this bulletin if home-grown herbs are used.
For housewives unfamiliar with the production of many
of these, a few cultural suggestions are offered for the
most commonly used and easily grown.
While it may not be practical for every gardener to grow any
large number of savory or aromatic herbs, yet every Florida
home should grow at least anise, basil, benne, chives, coriander,
dill, ginger, lavender, sage, savory, mint, thyme, tarragon,
turmeric, and a few others most in demand for seasoning. These
should prove profitable and exceedingly interesting to the Flor-
ida housewife. Whether they are grown in a real bed of various
aromatic plants, or a scattering of such plants among the flowers
in the perennial border, or in a kitchen window box, this oppor-
tunity to add spiciness to the potpourri of both summer and
winter fragrance, and to give "seeming and savor" to soup,
sauce, salad, stuffing and other every-day foods, as well as to
all pickles and relishes, should not be overlooked.
They are a very satisfactory group to work with, exceedingly
pleasant to handle because of their frangrant and aromatic foli-
age, least exacting of plants and their culture is simple. However,
since the frangrance and flavor of the herbs depend upon the
characteristic essential oil it manufactures, it is important to
grow plants under conditions producing the finest quality.

Herbs and Seasoning

In the southern sections of the state many of these herbs
may be grown in the open throughout the year. In the more
northern sections certain of the biennials are grown as annuals
on account of their tendency to winter-kill. Others do not like
extreme heat or direct exposure to the sun and so require semi-
shade and plenty of moisture. Still other herbs make best
growth during the long, cool, winter nights.
Culture of herbs is not difficult. Their production can be
handled to the best advantage by setting aside a small portion
of the vegetable garden or preferably the flower garden, where
the biennials and perennial herbs may be grown year after year
without disturbance. This plot should be convenient to the
water supply, should dry weather prevail, and conveniently near
to the operations of the kitchen for gathering in small and fre-
quent quantities as needed. A strip of land at one side of the
garden that is not needed and which can be conveniently skipped
in the plowing would be an ideal place for the herb garden. It
should be rather long than wide-so that the herbs can be
gathered without walking on the bed; three feet is a good width
as that can be reached across fairly well. The soil should be
rich and mellow. Since many herbs are either biennials or
perennials and occupy the same place for more than one year,
it is imperative that the soil be well prepared-spaded or plowed
-and a liberal amount of bone meal and compost be thoroughly
mixed with the soil before seeding or setting the plants. Their
culture does not differ greatly except as to methods of propaga-
tion, planting distances, and moisture requirements.
For best quality the herbs require to be grown rapidly, hence
the soil should be well cultivated, free of weeds and be well
watered during periods of droughts.
Some of the herbs may be started by sowing the seeds where
the plants are to remain-thinning of course when well estab-
lished. Others should be started in boxes and later trans-
planted to their place in the garden.
Methods of drying herbs and preparing them for use are also
very similar, the main point being to gather them at the proper
stage of maturity and dry rapidly in the shade, so that they
will retain their color. Herbs when sufficiently dry are crisp.
Many of them are stored in powdered form, and should be separ-

Florida Cooperative Extension

ated from the stalks and crushed with a rolling pin or passed
through a fine sieve or food grinder to make a fine, uniform
powder. Each different variety may be stored separately or
may be blended, in a suitable mixture, with or without the
addition of spices.
Here follow a few statements relative to some of the desir-
able savory or aromatic herbs most easily grown under condi-
tion offered in Florida.
Basil is considered one of the finest spices for use in pickling.
It is of two types-sweet green basil and a dwarf form. Basil
is an annual and the seeds may be planted in the open ground
where the plants are to remain. A very few plants are sufficient
for the needs of the average family. Sometimes one or two
plants of basil may be grown in the flower border.
The leaves and flowers have a clove-like, spicy flavor and are
prized for use in spiced vinegar, for pickles, in gravies, for
soups, stews, salads, and meats and fish cookery. Basil is an
especially choice flavor for tomato dishes. It is said that it was
the distinct and peculiarly pleasant flavor of sweet green basil
that once made Fetter Lane sausages so famous.
Sweet green basil, too, is just the right herb for flavoring
turtle soup; sea coast towns should take notice.
When dried and powdered, basil is used for spicing meat or
other fish, sausage, liver paste and similar products. The flow-
ers with the tender tips of the stems with their folige are cut,
tied in very small bunches and dried.
Caraway belongs to the same family as the herb anise and
carrots. The finely cut leaves with tiny white flowers in umbels
resemble Queen Anne's Lace or wild carrot. The flavor is most
familiar to us through its use in ryebread, cakes and confec-
tionery, cheese and pickled beets. The young shoots and tender
leaves are sometimes used in raw salads. Caraway also "peps"
up a cooked vegetable salad.
The very young leaves can be finely chopped and added to
vegetable soups and gravies. The seed are saved by cutting off
the heads before the ripening seed begin to shatter and spread-
ing them on muslin to dry in the shade. When reasonably dry
the seeds are rubbed out of the heads, separated from the chaff
and then stored in thin cloth bags in a well ventilated spot to

Herbs and Seasoning

avoid their heating and becoming rancid. When dried and
powdered, caraway is used as spice for liver, smoked and other
The chive is the smallest member of the onion family. Its
tiny bulbs grow in thick bunches, but the young tender leaves
which may be cut freely are of delicate and pleasing flavor, simi-
lar to that of a very mild onion. They add a delicate snap to
salads and dressings, dry bean dishes, jellied chicken, hot vege-
tables, omelets and other mixtures. The plant grows to a
height of 6 to 8 inches with dark green, grass-like foliage and
bear pretty, violet clusters of bloom, hence chieves should be used
more often as ornamental border plants. They are propagated
by dividing the clumps and resetting in the fall, preferably in
rich soil.
Coriander is an annual as easily grown in Florida as dill,
growing about the same height as dill with flower heads much
the same size. Like dill it is grown for its seeds which are
harvested and used for flavoring bread, poultry dressings, smoked
sausage, curries, spiced meat, fish and pickles in the same manner
as caraway seed is used.
Coriander is also used in candies-it is the interesting little
rough coated pink or white sugar plums found in some of the
best mixed sweets and that are so extremely good. It is ground
for cakes or sprinkled over cookies, sweet rolls, or bread, like
poppy or caraway seed.
While the seeds of coriander are valuable as spice, they must
be thoroughly ripe and stored for sometime before using, as
when green they have an unpleasant taste.

Dill is one of the very easiest and hardiest of the herbs to
grow and often reaches a height of four to five feet in Florida.
The seed should be planted in the fall and if given rich soil and
plenty of moisture will have seed heads ready to cut by the
following April or May. One of the most common uses of dill
is for flavoring pickles. For this purpose the seed heads, with
several inches of the stem bearing them, are cut about the time
the seed begin to ripen and tied in bunches to cure in the shade.

Florida Cooperative Extension

In making dill pickles, generous layers of the dill are placed in
the jars or kegs with the pickles to add their distinctive and
popular flavor.
Garlic is used in minute quantities as a seasoning in almost
all forms of savory cooking, in omelets, salads, soups, sauces
and dressings where a delightful, piquant flavor suggestive of
onions is desired. Garlic adds a distinctive, desirable flavor to
dill pickles.
Garlic is the mighty atom of the onion family and is no sea-
soning to hand to a raw recruit in the kitchen. The skilled cook
has a definite technique of garlic control-uses frequently, but
in undetectable quantities. If garlic can be actually identified,
too much has been used.
The garlic comes in a bunch of cloves which are separated and
planted like onion sets.
Ginger, Zinziber officinale, often confused with the common
ornamental, ginger lily, grows well in Florida and produces
choice roots if given rich soil, sufficient moisture and semi-shade.
Ginger will long remain as one of the world's most popular spices
and should be grown in every Florida home garden. It is an
erect herb, 12" to 24" high, canna-like in appearance and grows
from thickened rhizomes which branch finger-like and send up
new shoots from the tips near the surface of the soil. If desired
for preserving or candying, the roots should be dug while tender
and succulent, rather than when old, tough and fibrous. Fresh
green ginger is an indispensable part of chutneys, giving them
much of their spiciness and punget flavor.
The leaves and stems of this plant have a very pleasing odor
and a peculiar, aromatic taste. The plants are cut when the
flowers are not quite open. The green parts are used for sea-
soning soups, meat pies and dressings. The dwarf form of
marjoram known as pot marjoram is sometimes used as an or-
namental bedding plant.
Sweet marjoram was one of the most popular herbs in the
colonial garden. This with rose geranium, rosemary, lemon ver-
bena, and lavender are the five fragrant herbs used by those
careful housewives to scent linens.

Herbs and Seasoning


Both peppermint and spearmint are easily propagated. It is
done by taking a few of the stems with roots attached and trans-
planting them to rich, moist soil. The mint bed improves with
frequent cutting and watering during dry periods. It is well
to keep one portion of bed closely sheared down while mint is
being used from another portion, thus providing a continuous
supply of fresh tips. Peppermint is not grown in home gardens
as much as spearmint, yet it may well be included in a collec-
tion. The tender leaves and stems are used for flavoring; they
must also be dried and stored. Of the several kinds of mints
grown for their essential oils and characteristic flavors, the
one known as spearmint is most commonly planted.
Five or six plants, occupying a space 3x3 feet, will supply
an abundance for flavoring iced tea and other cool and refresh-
ing drinks, ices and dessert sauces.
Spearmint is also used for flavoring jellies, to which it gives
flavor in addition to an attractive color. In fact, mint jelly is
highly esteemed. Mint vinegar may be used at the table as a
spice or may be added to meat dishes and to different kinds of
gravy where mint flavor is desired.

The common dwarf as well as the tall nasturtiums take their
important and colorful place among the savory herbs. The half-
ripened seeds with their pungent flavor, are frequently added to
mixed pickles and to mustard pickles and are a good substitute
for capers. Both leaves and flowers are used in salads. Where
a continuous supply of fresh leaves and flowers is desired, plant-
ings should be made at intervals of five to six weeks.

The best known and always reliable seasoning and garnish-
ing herb is the moss curled variety of parsley and is commonly
grown in the home gardens, though the coarse leaved turnip
rooted varieties are used extensively in soups and stews, espe-
cially by the people of the Mediterranean regions. Only a few
plants of the curled parsley are needed, as the plants continue
to produce stems and leaves as long as kept closely cut.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Peppers are not herbs, of course, but they are too closely
associated with the making of pickles and relishes not to take
an important lace in a bulletin of this kind.
They belong to the nightshade family and are of many fas-
cinating types. Their culture should have a strong appeal for
the maker of pickles, for no pack could be considered complete
without their decorative touch of beautiful color, and some types
contribute a desired hotness and pungency. There are two types
of peppers, the hot, pungent varieties classed as spices and the
large, sweet peppers classed as vegetables and used in salads
and general cookery and in pickles and relishes.
The mild, large fruited, meaty, sweet peppers, of which the
best known are Bell or Bullnose, Ruby King and World Beater,
and the thick meated pimiento or Spanish pepper, are grown for
market in Florida in large quantities. The pimiento, sweet and
especially thick meated, is used for canning. It is often confused
with pimento, which is allspice, a species of aromatic trees. A
few of the best known hot peppers are of the following:
Chili (or chilli). Several types of chili peppers varying from
6 to 8 inches in length to 1 inch and less, of varying degrees of
hotness, are used for canning and pickling purposes and in chili
con care and in tamales. The small hot red peppers-Red Chili,
Cherry, Birdseye and others are used for making pepper sauce.
Cheyenne or Mexican Chili, an exceedingly hot variety, is used
almost exclusively for grinding and is sold as Cayenne.
Peppers for Gifts or Sale: There is a profit to the gardener
who will specialize on these small varieties of peppers like Coral
Gem Bouquet, Red Cluster, Celestial and Birdseye. Their neat,
compact habit of growth, their fruits, turning from yellow to
bright red as they mature, all contribute to make most attractive
potted plants for gifts or for sale, especially for the festive holi-
day season.
Salvia officinalis, the kitchen sage, is cousin to the vivid scarlet
Salvia. It is easily grown and one of the few herbs that still
belongs to modern everyday life. There are several varieties
of sage-green, purple and variegated sage. The type having
whitish, oval leaves is most commonly grown in kitchen gardens
and one or two plants will supply the leaves required for season-
ing poultry dressing, sausage, and other meats. For the best

Herbs and Seasoning

quality of dried sage the leaves should be taken before the plants
reach the blooming stage.
Clippings can be tied in very small bunches and should be
dried quickly over the stove and stored in air-tight containers
to preserve the flavor. The common sage when in bloom is quite
ornamental and deserves a place in the flower garden.
The tender stems and leaves of both summer and winter
savory are both popular and useful herbs and are grown, cut
and dried in the same manner. The savorys, like thyme and
sage, do much for meats but are strong flavored and should be
used sparingly.
Tarragon, like mint, should be in every kitchen garden as it
contributes a special flavor to any dish to which it is added.
However, its delicate, aromatic flavor best seasons salads, vine-
gar, mustard and pickles. One of its principal uses is for mak-
ing tarragon vinegar. The leaves, fresh or dry, are the portion
used and every effort should be made to force the plants into
vigorous growth. Whenever the flower stems appear they should
be cut out.
Turmeric, one of the principal ingredients of the famous Orien-
tal curry, is grown and handled like ginger, which it resembles
somewhat both in its growing habits and in appearance. This
colorful condiment is used in the popular bread and butter pickles,
mustard and similar types.
Thyme belongs to the mint family but is a bit more difficult
to propagate and grow. After the plants are two to three years
old they become too woody to yield a good grade of tender stems,
and new plants should be started. The plants should be in full
bloom when bloom is sheared off together with an inch or so
of the tender stems and leaves. Like sage, thyme must be stored
away from the light in air-tight containers to preserve color,
delicate flavor and aroma. If thyme plants are grown vigorously
three or four crops of bloom are produced during the year. There
are many species of thyme-lemon thyme, clean smelling and
fragrant and a pleasant seasoning; golden thyme, silver thyme
and others. Thyme and sage are practical necessities to every
home garden. What savor would the Thanksgiving and Christ-
mas feasts have without them?

Florida Cooperative Extension

Make up the essential "Kitchen Bouquet", if blended season-
ing and good flavoring are to be preserved.
Soup essences with their subtle flavors of the old-time kitch-
en should be revived. Old fashioned as well as the best modern
cookery calls for their use. A bundle of herbs, for instance,
belongs in every stock pot, and when supplemented by a dash of
lemon peel imparts to good stock the delicious flavor brought
out by the French chefs. An "herb bouquet" is invaluable in pot
roasting meats and in baking fish. The term sweet herbs, or
"fine herbs" as the French say, includes sage, balm, marjoram,
basil, summer savory, chervil and thyme.

One ounce each of sweet basil and lemon peel, two ounces
each of dried parsley, thyme, and sweet marjoram. Dry. Mix
and seal in a jar for use as desired.


One sprig each of sweet marjoram, rosemary, thyme, two of
parsley, two green onions, three whole cloves, one or two blades
of mace, two good sized peppers (Capsicum) with one or two
of the black peppercorns, a stalk of celery, and a quarter of a

Peel one carrot, onion, sweet potato, and parsnip; seed one
large red pepper; chop with one shallot and two cloves of cinna-
mon, and mace, and three bay leaves. Mix thoroughly and sea-
son with salt and pepper. Spread layers of mixture in a baking
pan, alternating with layers of brown sugar. Place in a hot
oven until it is dark brown. Add 1/2 cup of cold water; place on
top of stove; cook (stirring the while) until it forms a brown,
thick, rich syrup. Strain. Seal boiling hot in jars. This is so
concentrated a very little will flavor and color sufficiently. This
should be kept conveniently near for fine seasoning, gravies,
stews and soups.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Make up the essential "Kitchen Bouquet", if blended season-
ing and good flavoring are to be preserved.
Soup essences with their subtle flavors of the old-time kitch-
en should be revived. Old fashioned as well as the best modern
cookery calls for their use. A bundle of herbs, for instance,
belongs in every stock pot, and when supplemented by a dash of
lemon peel imparts to good stock the delicious flavor brought
out by the French chefs. An "herb bouquet" is invaluable in pot
roasting meats and in baking fish. The term sweet herbs, or
"fine herbs" as the French say, includes sage, balm, marjoram,
basil, summer savory, chervil and thyme.

One ounce each of sweet basil and lemon peel, two ounces
each of dried parsley, thyme, and sweet marjoram. Dry. Mix
and seal in a jar for use as desired.


One sprig each of sweet marjoram, rosemary, thyme, two of
parsley, two green onions, three whole cloves, one or two blades
of mace, two good sized peppers (Capsicum) with one or two
of the black peppercorns, a stalk of celery, and a quarter of a

Peel one carrot, onion, sweet potato, and parsnip; seed one
large red pepper; chop with one shallot and two cloves of cinna-
mon, and mace, and three bay leaves. Mix thoroughly and sea-
son with salt and pepper. Spread layers of mixture in a baking
pan, alternating with layers of brown sugar. Place in a hot
oven until it is dark brown. Add 1/2 cup of cold water; place on
top of stove; cook (stirring the while) until it forms a brown,
thick, rich syrup. Strain. Seal boiling hot in jars. This is so
concentrated a very little will flavor and color sufficiently. This
should be kept conveniently near for fine seasoning, gravies,
stews and soups.

Herbs and Seasoning

Cellophane envelopes or bags make excellent packages and
they have the added conveniences of being transparent. Dried
leaves may be packed in glass jars. Powdered herbs may also
be packed in narrow-necked bottles. Dry and powder each herb
and mix in the proportions and cork tightly in bottles or jars
with labels showing their use. These labels may be made more
attractive if they are labeled for interesting occasions, such as
-the Thanksgiving turkey, the Christmas turkey, the Christ-
mas goose, Christmas pig, St. Michael's goose (September 29),
Christmas sausage.
For goose, pork and duck, sage and onion predominate. Other
sweet herbs such as thyme, sweet marjoram, and chervil may
be added. Sage and thyme predominate in pork sausage.
Chicken may be stuffed with chives, parsley, sweet marjoram,
thyme, a little sage and basil. Sage, summer savory, sweet
marjoram, thyme, parsley, chervil, may be used for turkey,
quail and squab. In Denmark the entire stuffing for roast chicken
is often just parsley.
Tarragon is especially good in fish sauces; spearmint in lamb
sauce; basil in tomato dishes; winter savory in string beans.
For use in omelets, bottle thyme, tarragon, chives, marjoram
and a bit of chervil.
For use in ground meats, bottle marjoram, winter savory
with half as much basil, thyme and tarragon. Powder and cork.

Dried seeds and herbs are sometimes added to vinegar to
give flavor and aroma to a preparation which is most advan-
tageous to have ready for use in various dressings and sauces,
for serving with salads, and for flavoring pickles. For pickling
the aromatized vinegars are especially valuable, as the flavor
is more evenly blended throughout the pickles, and the herbs
from which it is made serve as a garnish when mixed through
them. While these vinegars can be made at home at small cost,
they are quite expensive when purchased at the first class grocery
as an imported luxury product. The various kinds of herb
vinegars make most acceptable gifts.

Florida Cooperative Extension

Make it at a time when the leaves are at their best. Cover
the leaves with vinegar, let stand three weeks, stirring each
day. Strain and bottle. Some think it should steep longer.
Mint vinegar may be used the same way. First heat a pint
of vinegar to simmering point. Pour this over a pound of
chopped mint, stir; cool and seal. For a "sweet vinegar" add
a pound of sugar and stir until dissolved. Use for lamb, mutton,
beans, peas or for salads.

This is made in the same manner as tarragon vinegar.
Made also as tarragon vinegar.

1 quart vinegar 1 pound chopped celery
z ounce celery 2 teaspoons sugar
seed (crushed) 1 teaspoon salt
Heat vinegar (being careful not to boil) with the crushed
celery seed, salt and sugar to nearly simmering, and pour over
the chopped celery and allow to cool. Pour the mixture into
a large bottle and shake it well each day for 12 to 14 days. Then
strain, cool, cork and store it until needed for use.

A very good salad vinegar can be made of a mixture of 3
ounces each of tarragon, savory, chives, shallots, a handful of
the tops of mint and balm, all dried and pounded. Put into wide-
mouthed bottle or jar with a gallon of the best vinegar. Cover
closely, and let stand for a month, shaking or stirring daily.
Then press all the juice and vinegar from the herbs. Let stand
a day to settle, then strain through flannel bag. Bottle and
The young tender sassafras leaves gathered in the early spring,
dried and powdered make delightful seasonings. The French
use feli in gumbo and for seasoning and thickening gravies and

Herbs and Seasoning

Grey green, spicy and aromatic are the leaves of the sweet
bay tree, common to Florida hammocks. The leaves are always
to be found in mixed pickled spices. They are usually sold dry.
Smoked fish are often packed between layers of green bay
leaves. Bay leaves are used in cooked vegetables and sauces
but removed before serving. A bit of bay is especially good in
tomato mixture.
An East Indian condiment or relish compounded of tropical
fruits-mango and tamarind-is made sweet and hot with spices,
ginger, chilies, lime juice and the ingredients minced fine;
domestic variations may contain apple, peaches, tomatoes, and
raisins. The proportions seem capricious and the punginess and
spiciness may be easily regulated to suit the taste. (See pages
35, 38 and 39.)
A prepared powder consisting of pungent spices, hot chilies,
tumeric, and ginger, mixed together.
The small, flat, green flower bud of the Caper plants, having
a mixture of flavor like horseradish and water cress. Capers
are usually picked and are used for seasoning sauces and salads.
May be purchased dry.
A fine grained granite colored powder, very hot, used in salad
dressings and sauces; not to be confused with paprika, the sweet
Hungarian pepper, which is added to salad dressings mainly
for color.
Very small, round yellow seed of the celery plant mixed with
vegetable salads and with pickling spices.
The pungent root is grated or scraped and is used as a condi-
ment, like mustard. It is always propagated from cuttings taken
from the roots. After grating and covering with vinegar and
storing in bottles it must be kept tightly sealed from the air in
order to prevent discoloring.
The most familiar is the green olive pickled in brine. Other
types are ripe pressed salted olives and canned ripe olives.
Olives are mainly served as a relish or salad ingredients.

Florida Cooperative Extension

This is the smallest variety of white onion, usually pickled
in brine and usually sold in bottles. Imported from Holland
Powder of light yellow color, very piquant in flavor, used
mainly for dressing.
Small round, brown and yellow seed used in salads, salad dress-
ings and in pickles and relishes.

Bright red powder of mild, peppery flavor. Paprika is added
to soups, omelets, salads and salad dressing, mainly for color.

Sold as round pepper corns, also as a powder, black and white,
the white being stronger than the black.

Common salt, celery salt and onion salt.

Small brown onions. More powerful than onion in flavor but
not quite as strong as garlic; used as seasoning for cooked and
raw vegetables as well as in sauces and dressings.

Cooked, concentrated highly seasoned pulp of numerous vari-
eties, such as tomato catsup, cucumber catsup, mushroom cat-
sup and others. (See pages 40, 41, 42 and 43.)

Cooked, concentrated tomato base, seasoned with pepper,
onions and spices. (See recipe page 41.)

Fermented juice of the soybean, dark brown and of an intense
saltiness. Soy sauce is the staple condiment on the table of
Chinese restaurants.
Thin liquid with a cayenne pepper base and vinegar, extremely
hot and can be used only in very small quantities; is sometimes
added to French dressing, meats, and soups. (See recipe page

Herbs and Seasoning

Fermented acid derived from malt, apples, grapes, wine, ber-
ries, herbs, and spices. The most widely known are tarragon
vinegar, chili vinegar, raspberry vinegar, nasturtium vinegar,
wine vinegar and cider vinegar. (See Farmers' Bulletin 1424,
Making Vinegar in the Home.)

The writer wishes to express appreciation to Dr. E. W. Berger of the
State Plant Board, for his many helpful suggestions in the preparation
of this bulletin. Dr. Berger has varied and interesting experiences in
pickling and originated the very successful method of brining "under
cover" advocated in this bulletin. For illustrations on pages 10 and 12
we are indebted to Dr. Berger.
Thanks are due Dr. B. V. Christensen, formerly of the University of
Florida, for the preparation of the herb planting table. Only the herbs
that have been grown successfully by Dr. Christensen in his Medicinal
Plant Garden at the University of Florida are listed.
Appreciation is also expressed to the authors of the bulletin, Herbs-
Their Culture and Use, Circular 83, Vermont Agricultural Experiment
Station, and to others who have offered valuable suggestions.


Common and Botanical Name

Anise, Pimpinella anisum----- .

Balm, Melissa officinalis....-

Basil, Ocimum basilcum_

Borage, Borago officinalis ..

Caraway, Carum carvi_

Catnip, Nepeta catria.--__-

Coriander, Coriandrum sativum

Dill, Anethum graveolens_

Fennel, Foenicul vulgare -

Fennel, sweet_
Ginger, Zingiber officinalis._-_-

Horehound, Marrubium vulgare
Hyssop, Hyssop officinalis .......-


a n P g
I .I 1|I













Soil Preference

a ;3
o X

x a c
ri' rBl


Seeds used in medicine and
Fragrant, leaves used for tea

Clove-like seasoning for soups
and meats

Leaves used in punch and
claret cup
Seeds used in cakes and candies

Spreading in habit; keep away
from pets
Seeds used for flavoring bread
and poultry dressing
Flavoring for pickles

Seeds used in French and
Italian cookery
Important, commercially
render, succulent roots for can-
dying and preserving; green
ginger for chutneys and gin-
gered fruits
Used in making cough remedies
Tender leaves used in salads

- I- I

. %M


Common and Botanical Name

Lavendar, Lavendula, sp-

Marjoram, Sweet, Marjorana
hortensis ..._--._...

Peppermint, Mentha piperita-

Rosemary, Rosmarinus
officinalis ........_

Rue, Ruta graveolens..._.. .
Sage, Salvia officinalis __..
Spearmint, Mentha viridis.------
Turmeric, Curcuma long ...------


(3) (4)







I *.. 0
Q Of Ki








COL. 1. Family Name; B-Boraginaceae; L-Labiatae (Mint);
Rut-Rutaceae; U--Umbelliferae; Z-Zingiberaceae.
COL. 2. A-Annual; P-perennial; (A)-treated as an annual.
COL. 3. C-cuttings; D-divisions; R-rhizomes; S-seeds.
COL. 4. O-open; I-indoors or in special seedbeds for later
COL. 5. The depth is given in inches. M-indicates that the
row or seedbed should be covered with mulch or bur-
lap to conserve moisture until the plant is rooted.
COL. 6. Refers to distance apart at final thinning.

COL. 7.
COL. 8.

COL. 9.
COL. 10.
COL. 11.
COL. 12.

Rows should be spaced at intervals given.
Refers to best time for planting; S-Sept.; O-Oct;
F-Feb.; M-March.
S-exposed to sun; P-partial shade required for best
P-poor; M-medium rich, any fair garden soil; R-rich,
L-light soil; A-average garden soil, well tilled.
M-moist, but well drained garden soil; D-dry; A-
average well drained garden soil.

Soil Preference

) a Remarks

0 -

(8) (9) (10) (11) (12)
S,O,F,M P M A D English, fragrant; French used
for borders of herb garden;
used in linen closets

S,O,F,M S M A A Flavoring for soups, roasts,

F,M S M A M Shear portions of bed alternate-
ly; tender leaves and stems
used for flavoring

S,O,F,M S P L D Seasoning for meats, poultry,

S,O,F,M S M A A Very bitter
S,O,F,M S M A A Good for all seasonings
F,M S M A M Used for oils and flavorings

F,M P R A M Resembles ginger; used in
Bread and Butter pickles,
| mustard, etc.

7( 44

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