• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Introduction
 Soils adapted to peanuts
 Lime necessary for peanuts
 Fertilizing
 Varieties of peanuts grown
 Preparation of the soil
 Time to plant
 Seeding
 Distance to plant
 Peanuts planted with corn
 Enemies not numerous
 Cultivation should be frequent
 Harvesting peanuts
 Picking the nuts
 Harvesting with hogs
 Peanuts as hog feed
 Feeding peanuts in a ration
 Peanuts as a green grazing crop...
 Peanuts as a hay crop
 Peanuts good soil crop improve...
 Rotation increases yields
 Peanut butter














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Division of Agricultural Extension ; no. 6
Title: Peanuts in Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026335/00001
 Material Information
Title: Peanuts in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 20 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spencer, A. P ( Arthur Perceval )
Brown, W. E
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1916
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: A.P. Spencer, W.E. Brown.
General Note: "November 1916".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026335
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002569256
oclc - 47285489
notis - AMT5558

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Soils adapted to peanuts
        Page 2
    Lime necessary for peanuts
        Page 2
    Fertilizing
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Varieties of peanuts grown
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Preparation of the soil
        Page 8
    Time to plant
        Page 8
    Seeding
        Page 9
    Distance to plant
        Page 9
    Peanuts planted with corn
        Page 10
    Enemies not numerous
        Page 11
    Cultivation should be frequent
        Page 11
    Harvesting peanuts
        Page 12
    Picking the nuts
        Page 12
    Harvesting with hogs
        Page 13
    Peanuts as hog feed
        Page 13
    Feeding peanuts in a ration
        Page 14
    Peanuts as a green grazing crop for hogs
        Page 15
    Peanuts as a hay crop
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Peanuts good soil crop improvement
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Rotation increases yields
        Page 19
    Peanut butter
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







November 1916


COOPERATIVE DEMONSTRATION WORK
In
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT
OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATING


P. H. ROLFS, Director







PEANUTS IN FLORIDA

A. P. SPENCER, District Agent
W. E. BROWN, Agent Clay County

Peanuts are a staple crop thruout Middle, North and West
Florida, to a limited extent in South and East Florida and along
the East Coast. There has been a steady increase in acreage
for several years but the increase in yield per acre has improved
very little, if any, except where a few farmers have given the
crop special attention. Peanuts are easily grown and an in-
crease in yield and quality of the crop can be secured at less
extra expense than with most other farm crops.
Growing peanuts for commercial purposes in the United
States is confined almost exclusively to Tennessee, Virginia,
Texas, North and South Carolina and Georgia. The Florida
crop is used chiefly for hog feeding and the production of hay.
Climatic conditions in Florida are favorable for peanut grow-
ing and the season for planting may extend from March until
July. On suitable soils crop failure is practically unknown,
altho a prolonged wet season during the blooming period is
almost certain to lower the yield.


Bulletin 6







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOILS ADAPTED TO PEANUTS
Large areas of Florida soils are well adapted to peanuts and
wherever they are grown as a main crop they rank in import-
ance with corn. Peanuts are grown successfully on some lands
considered unprofitable for corn growing. Some fields produce
much better peanuts than others in the same neighborhood;
and altho the methods used in growing them are largely re-
sponsible, the variation in soils may be sufficient to make the
difference in yields.
The most productive peanut soils in Florida are well drained
medium fine sandy loam, containing small gravel, and underlaid
with a porous clay, eighteen inches to three feet from the sur-
face. Rolling high pine land or well drained sandy hammock
lands, the original timber growth of which was oak and hickory
with scattering pines, are considered the best. Good crops are
also produced on flatwoods pine land where drainage is pro-
vided, and the soil is well cultivated and limed. Wherever a
twenty-five bushel corn crop can be produced, a good crop of
peanuts may be expected. Stiff clay soils may produce a good
hay crop but because of the hard surface the bloom pegs cannot
penetrate the surface of the soil.
Without question there are larger acreages naturally well
adapted to peanut culture than are now growing the crop; and
a still larger acreage that could be improved and made suitable
by proper drainage and liberal application of lime.
LIME NECESSARY FOR PEANUTS
Peanuts thrive best on limestone or marl soils and even these
are frequently benefited by applications of lime. Soils that are
sour must be sweetened before a good crop of peanuts can be
grown. Some soils in Florida are so deficient in lime that pea-
nuts will frequently die or may make only a stunted growth.
On other soils a heavy top, very few nuts, and a large number
of pops are produced. The lack of lime in the soil is largely
responsible for this, altho poor drainage may have a similar
effect.
An application of two or three tons of ground lime rock per
acre or 1000 to 1200 pounds of hydrated lime applied two
months before planting, will have a beneficial effect. Part of
this lime will be taken up by the plant as fertilizer but the great-
est benefits will come from sweetening the soil and improving
its mechanical condition.







Florida Cooperative Extension


SOILS ADAPTED TO PEANUTS
Large areas of Florida soils are well adapted to peanuts and
wherever they are grown as a main crop they rank in import-
ance with corn. Peanuts are grown successfully on some lands
considered unprofitable for corn growing. Some fields produce
much better peanuts than others in the same neighborhood;
and altho the methods used in growing them are largely re-
sponsible, the variation in soils may be sufficient to make the
difference in yields.
The most productive peanut soils in Florida are well drained
medium fine sandy loam, containing small gravel, and underlaid
with a porous clay, eighteen inches to three feet from the sur-
face. Rolling high pine land or well drained sandy hammock
lands, the original timber growth of which was oak and hickory
with scattering pines, are considered the best. Good crops are
also produced on flatwoods pine land where drainage is pro-
vided, and the soil is well cultivated and limed. Wherever a
twenty-five bushel corn crop can be produced, a good crop of
peanuts may be expected. Stiff clay soils may produce a good
hay crop but because of the hard surface the bloom pegs cannot
penetrate the surface of the soil.
Without question there are larger acreages naturally well
adapted to peanut culture than are now growing the crop; and
a still larger acreage that could be improved and made suitable
by proper drainage and liberal application of lime.
LIME NECESSARY FOR PEANUTS
Peanuts thrive best on limestone or marl soils and even these
are frequently benefited by applications of lime. Soils that are
sour must be sweetened before a good crop of peanuts can be
grown. Some soils in Florida are so deficient in lime that pea-
nuts will frequently die or may make only a stunted growth.
On other soils a heavy top, very few nuts, and a large number
of pops are produced. The lack of lime in the soil is largely
responsible for this, altho poor drainage may have a similar
effect.
An application of two or three tons of ground lime rock per
acre or 1000 to 1200 pounds of hydrated lime applied two
months before planting, will have a beneficial effect. Part of
this lime will be taken up by the plant as fertilizer but the great-
est benefits will come from sweetening the soil and improving
its mechanical condition.








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


Fig. 1-Florida runner or North Carolina peanuts
In case the lime is not applied in the fall, which is the best
time, hydrated lime, at the rate of 800 pounds per acre just
before planting, should be used in preference to ground lime
rock. The hydrated form is more active than ground lime-
stone and will begin to neutralize the acidity in the soil at once,
and the peanut plants will get the benefit of the lime while
they are small. Because of the active and soluble condition of
hydrated lime it does not remain in the soil as long as ground
lime rock, and on sour soil its application may be necessary for
each peanut crop. If the soils are of a calcareous nature one
application of ground lime rock every four or five years may
be sufficient, but on the average flatwoods land of Florida or
where the soil is normally deficient in lime, the application
should be made for each crop, altho subsequent applications
may be much lighter than the first one.
An application of three hundred to four hundred pounds of
gypsum applied just before the bloom opens, can be substituted
for the lime and will produce good results.

FERTILIZING
Fertilizers are not usually applied to peanuts in Florida
altho judicious applications are generally beneficial. If the soil


I








Florida Cooperative Extension


contains a fair amount of humus supplied by leguminous crops
or weeds, it is not usually advisable to add any additional nitro-
gen fertilizer. An excess of ammonia will produce heavy tops,
a large proportion of pops and consequently a comparatively
light crop of solid nuts. The fertilizers most necessary are
phosphates, potash and lime. An application of 300 to 400
pounds of acid phosphate and 100 to 150 pounds of kainit per
acre will be sufficient for suitable soils that have been properly
prepared.
In case the soil is deficient in organic ammonia and lacking
in humus, 100 to 200 pounds per acre of cottonseed meal or
blood and bone added to the mixture will be profitable.
The fertilizer should be applied before the crop is planted.
After the ground has been plowed, broadcast the fertilizer over
the surface and then work it into the soil with a harrow or
disk. If the application is delayed it may be drilled into the
sides of the rows when the plants are small. In such case a
readily available form of ammonia is preferable as the crop
especially needs the ammonia when the plants are small or be-
fore they are able to gather nitrogen thru the tubercles on their
roots. A second application is not necessary since the peanut


Fig. 2-Florida runner or North Carolina peanut, natural size








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


Fig. 3-Little Spanish peanut, natural size
is a leguminous crop and gathers nitrogen from the air by the
tubercles.
Stable manure may be applied for peanuts only when well
rotted and then in limited quantities. Heavy applications of
fresh stable manure applied at planting time will produce heavy
tops and a small yield of nuts. An application given to thin
sandy land long enough in advance of planting to insure thoro
mixing with the soil is beneficial and improves conditions by
adding organic nitrogen and humus, both of which make soil
conditions more favorable for the nitrogen gathering bacteria.
Canada hardwood ashes, when pure and unleached, is a de-
sirable fertilizer as it contains approximately three to four per
cent potash and twenty-five to thirty per cent lime. The price
charged for Canadian ashes may make it too expensive for a
peanut fertilizer and farmers should purchase such goods only
on a guaranteed analysis.

VARIETIES OF PEANUTS GROWN
There are five main varieties of peanuts grown in Florida.
The Florida Runner or North Carolina is grown most extens-
ively and used almost entirely for stock feed. It is a rank
grower and has fine stems, which spread over the ground and
meet in the rows. It is a heavy yielder and the pods form along







Florida Cooperative Extension


the stems. The pod is medium size and usually contains two
and sometimes three seeds. It requires about 150 days to
mature and, hence, should be planted early. This variety may
stay in the ground several months after ripening without
sprouting and, consequently, is especially suitable for hog feed-
ing during fall and winter.
The vines make an excellent quality of hay on account of
the fine stems, which yield from three-quarters to one ton per
acre on the average. The average yield of nuts is usually from
twenty-five to forty bushels per acre and occasionally sixty-five
to eighty bushels are produced under exceptional good condi-
tions. The standard weight in Florida is twenty-five pounds
per bushel.
The Little Spanish variety is next in importance to the
Florida Runner. It will produce good crops on more widely
differing soils than any other variety grown in Florida. It re-
quires about 120 days to ripen and may be planted as late as
July 15. If planted early two crops may be grown in one sea-
son. It is used for stock feeding, particularly for hogs. The
stems have an upright growth and are coarser than those of
the Florida Runner. The pods are small, usually containing two
seeds and frequently only one. The color of the seed is light
brown. The pods cluster close around the base of the plant and
adhere well to the plant during digging.
On account of the upright habit of growth, the Little Span-
ish is somewhat easier to mow for hay than the spreading
varieties, yet it has a coarser stem and the quality of hay is not
so good. It is a good yielder, producing from twenty to thirty
bushels per acre on the average. Yields as high as fifty to
seventy-five bushels are produced under exceptionally good con-
ditions.
The Improved Spanish resembles the Little Spanish variety
very closely. It has a larger pod and is said to produce a
heavier yield of hay. Otherwise it is practically the same ex-
cept for its larger size.
The principal objection to the Spanish varieties is their
habit of sprouting as soon as the nuts are ripe. The riper nuts
frequently begin to sprout before the others on the same plant
are mature. If, however, they are harvested promptly, trouble
is avoided. The Spanish is desirable for early hog feeding, as
it matures in July and August.







Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


The standard weight per bushel for this variety is thirty
pounds, altho twenty-five is usually accepted as the standard
in Florida.
The Valencia is a comparatively new variety. It makes a
strong upright growth with coarse stems. The pods cluster
around the roots and adhere well during digging. The pods are
usually well filled with three and sometimes four seeds. The
color of the seed is carmen red.
This variety, altho a fair yielder, is not a general favorite
because of the tendency to sprout as soon as ripe if the ground
is moist, and because the large stems make coarse hay. It
matures in about 120 days and may be used for hog feeding in
July or August. It is quite extensively grown thruout Virginia
and Tennessee for the manufacture of peanut butter and
blanched or salted peanuts.
The yield averages from 20 to 30 bushels and under excep-
tionally good conditions 60 to 75 bushels per acre. The stand-
ard weight of the Valencia is twenty-two pounds per bushel.
The Jumbo Runner has been grown in Florida by only a
few farmers. It produces a heavy spreading top similar to the
Florida Runner. The pods are very large and usually contain
two seeds, dark brown in color. It ripens in about 130 days


Fig. 4-Valencia peanut, natural size







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 5-Jumbo Runner peanut, natural size
and produces from twenty to thirty bushels per acre with occa-
sional high yields of fifty to sixty bushels. As the stems are
fine they make a good quality of hay, yielding from three-
fourths to one ton per acre.
The standard weight per bushel is twenty-two pounds.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
The seedbed for peanuts should be thoroly broken six to ten
inches deep in November or December. All vegetable matter
should be turned under so that it may be well rotted before the
crop is planted. After plowing, the land-should be harrowed to
make it smooth. A winter oat crop, which may be pastured
during winter or may be allowed to ripen, may be grown on the
land to advantage. Where this is done it will be necessary to
rebreak the land just before planting. If, however, no winter
crop is grown, the land should be harrowed once every two
weeks during the winter to retain the moisture, then disked and
harrowed just before'planting to give a good seedbed and. to
make it loose and open.
TIME TO PLANT
The Florida runner and Jumbo runner make heavier yields
if planted in March or April, altho fair crops are often pro-







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 5-Jumbo Runner peanut, natural size
and produces from twenty to thirty bushels per acre with occa-
sional high yields of fifty to sixty bushels. As the stems are
fine they make a good quality of hay, yielding from three-
fourths to one ton per acre.
The standard weight per bushel is twenty-two pounds.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
The seedbed for peanuts should be thoroly broken six to ten
inches deep in November or December. All vegetable matter
should be turned under so that it may be well rotted before the
crop is planted. After plowing, the land-should be harrowed to
make it smooth. A winter oat crop, which may be pastured
during winter or may be allowed to ripen, may be grown on the
land to advantage. Where this is done it will be necessary to
rebreak the land just before planting. If, however, no winter
crop is grown, the land should be harrowed once every two
weeks during the winter to retain the moisture, then disked and
harrowed just before'planting to give a good seedbed and. to
make it loose and open.
TIME TO PLANT
The Florida runner and Jumbo runner make heavier yields
if planted in March or April, altho fair crops are often pro-







Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


duced when planted as late as June 15. Early plants bloom
and peg down during dry weather when they are more easily
cultivated and kept free from grass or weeds. Late crops may
bloom during the rainy season and the bloom spurs enter the
ground when it is saturated, which causes them to rot instead
of producing nuts. When peanuts make a quick growth while
still young the vines grow upright so that many of the bloom
pegs cannot enter the soil.
The Valencia and Spanish peanuts are early maturing and
may be planted any time up to July 15. They are not so
readily affected by wet weather as the running varieties.
SEEDING
The amount of seed required varies with the variety of pea-
nuts. The Florida Runner, Spanish and Valencia require about
one bushel of seed in the hull or eight to ten quarts shelled.
The Jumbo requires about two bushels of seed in the hull or ten
to twelve quarts shelled.
The seeds should be hulled before planting to avoid the pos-
sibility of planting pops or shriveled seeds. Furthermore, vari-
eties having two or more seeds to the pod will often give more
than one plant to the hill, which is usually not desirable, and in
case unhulled seed are planted in dry soil they will be slow to
germinate. It is also necessary to hull the seeds to sow them
with a planter. Hulling by hand is advisable since machines
split many of the nuts and injure their germination.
The Spanish variety, however, may be planted in the hull on
account of the small nuts and because they seldom have more
than two kernels in the pod. Shelling this variety is tedious
and as it is desirable to plant them thick most farmers do not
remove the hulls.

DISTANCE TO PLANT
The Florida runner or North Carolina and Spreading Jumbo
should be planted in rows three and a half to four feet apart
with one seed every eighteen to twenty inches if planted early,
or fourteen to sixteen inches if planted late. The Valencia,
Spanish, and other varieties making an upright growth, should
be planted in rows three feet apart with one plant every six to
eight inches in the row.
Except on very thin land peanuts do best when planted thick
as they cover the ground quicker and check the growth of







Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


duced when planted as late as June 15. Early plants bloom
and peg down during dry weather when they are more easily
cultivated and kept free from grass or weeds. Late crops may
bloom during the rainy season and the bloom spurs enter the
ground when it is saturated, which causes them to rot instead
of producing nuts. When peanuts make a quick growth while
still young the vines grow upright so that many of the bloom
pegs cannot enter the soil.
The Valencia and Spanish peanuts are early maturing and
may be planted any time up to July 15. They are not so
readily affected by wet weather as the running varieties.
SEEDING
The amount of seed required varies with the variety of pea-
nuts. The Florida Runner, Spanish and Valencia require about
one bushel of seed in the hull or eight to ten quarts shelled.
The Jumbo requires about two bushels of seed in the hull or ten
to twelve quarts shelled.
The seeds should be hulled before planting to avoid the pos-
sibility of planting pops or shriveled seeds. Furthermore, vari-
eties having two or more seeds to the pod will often give more
than one plant to the hill, which is usually not desirable, and in
case unhulled seed are planted in dry soil they will be slow to
germinate. It is also necessary to hull the seeds to sow them
with a planter. Hulling by hand is advisable since machines
split many of the nuts and injure their germination.
The Spanish variety, however, may be planted in the hull on
account of the small nuts and because they seldom have more
than two kernels in the pod. Shelling this variety is tedious
and as it is desirable to plant them thick most farmers do not
remove the hulls.

DISTANCE TO PLANT
The Florida runner or North Carolina and Spreading Jumbo
should be planted in rows three and a half to four feet apart
with one seed every eighteen to twenty inches if planted early,
or fourteen to sixteen inches if planted late. The Valencia,
Spanish, and other varieties making an upright growth, should
be planted in rows three feet apart with one plant every six to
eight inches in the row.
Except on very thin land peanuts do best when planted thick
as they cover the ground quicker and check the growth of







Florida Cooperative Extension


weeds and grass. However, they must be thoroly cultivated
until the crop is set, consequently too close planting would
interfere with cultivation.
Peanuts should be planted on the level except where the
land is likely to become wet before the crop is ripe. A ridge
four to six inches high should give sufficient elevation. Land
requiring a higher ridge will not be suitable for peanuts. After
the surface is smoothed the rows may be laid off with a marker,
the seed dropped with a planter and covered about two inches
deep. Germination will be hastened if the soil is well packed
over the seed with the press wheel of the planter. If the weather
is favorable the plants should be up in eight to ten days. Should
there be any missing plants after two weeks, it may be advis-
able to replant.

PEANUTS PLANTED WITH CORN
Peanuts may be planted in alternate rows with corn, partic-
ularly on dry sandy land. Where corn must be planted wide the
peanuts may be planted with it or they may be planted in May
or June when the corn is well matured. Some plant in the
same rows with corn, but on account of the difficulty of culti-
vating both crops when planted close together it is not the best
practice.
When peanuts are planted in the middles the corn rows


Fig. 6-Peanuts between eight-foot corn rows








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


should be six to eight feet apart. Otherwise the peanuts will
be shaded. This width will allow thoro cultivation of both pea-
nuts and corn to keep weeds in check. On land capable of pro-
ducing twenty-five bushels of corn per acre, better crops of both
corn and peanuts will be produced on a given acreage if they
are planted separately; but on sandy land where corn should
be planted wide, the addition of the peanuts will not reduce the
yield of corn. Consequently, the two crops planted together is
a decided advantage.

ENEMIES NOT NUMEROUS
The most troublesome peanut enemy is the salamander which
may be poisoned or shot. The sweet potato caterpillar is quite
destructive to peanuts if sweet potatoes are planted close to
them. The velvet bean caterpillar will eat peanut leaves, but
not until the velvet beans are almost exhausted. The army or
grass worm is as destructive to peanuts as to other plants. The
methods employed for combating these caterpillars on other
hosts will prove effective with peanuts.
Leafspot or anthracnose has not proved very serious in
Florida. However, it may be controlled by bordeaux mixture
applied when the disease first appears. Peanuts are subject to
root knot which can only be overcome by proper rotation of
crops.
CULTIVATION SHOULD BE FREQUENT
Peanuts should be cultivated frequently to conserve soil
moisture and prevent weeds and grass from growing. Weeds
and grass are especially harmful as they prevent the bloom
stems from piercing the ground, and in addition rob the crop of
soil moisture. The soil must be kept loose, otherwise the ovary
on the seed stem cannot pierce the soil readily and will become
destroyed before entering the ground and no nuts will be
formed. For this reason a clay soil that packs closely is not
suitable for peanuts.
The practice of covering the bloom pegs with dirt to insure
their pegging down is unnecessary if the ground is loose, and
may be harmful unless the vines are so rank and upright that
the pegs cannot reach the ground or unless the soil has become
very hard or overgrown with weeds.
Cultivation close to the plant should not be continued after
the plants have pegged down or the nuts will be destroyed.








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


should be six to eight feet apart. Otherwise the peanuts will
be shaded. This width will allow thoro cultivation of both pea-
nuts and corn to keep weeds in check. On land capable of pro-
ducing twenty-five bushels of corn per acre, better crops of both
corn and peanuts will be produced on a given acreage if they
are planted separately; but on sandy land where corn should
be planted wide, the addition of the peanuts will not reduce the
yield of corn. Consequently, the two crops planted together is
a decided advantage.

ENEMIES NOT NUMEROUS
The most troublesome peanut enemy is the salamander which
may be poisoned or shot. The sweet potato caterpillar is quite
destructive to peanuts if sweet potatoes are planted close to
them. The velvet bean caterpillar will eat peanut leaves, but
not until the velvet beans are almost exhausted. The army or
grass worm is as destructive to peanuts as to other plants. The
methods employed for combating these caterpillars on other
hosts will prove effective with peanuts.
Leafspot or anthracnose has not proved very serious in
Florida. However, it may be controlled by bordeaux mixture
applied when the disease first appears. Peanuts are subject to
root knot which can only be overcome by proper rotation of
crops.
CULTIVATION SHOULD BE FREQUENT
Peanuts should be cultivated frequently to conserve soil
moisture and prevent weeds and grass from growing. Weeds
and grass are especially harmful as they prevent the bloom
stems from piercing the ground, and in addition rob the crop of
soil moisture. The soil must be kept loose, otherwise the ovary
on the seed stem cannot pierce the soil readily and will become
destroyed before entering the ground and no nuts will be
formed. For this reason a clay soil that packs closely is not
suitable for peanuts.
The practice of covering the bloom pegs with dirt to insure
their pegging down is unnecessary if the ground is loose, and
may be harmful unless the vines are so rank and upright that
the pegs cannot reach the ground or unless the soil has become
very hard or overgrown with weeds.
Cultivation close to the plant should not be continued after
the plants have pegged down or the nuts will be destroyed.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Should grass grow in the rows after the nuts are set it may be
necessary to work with hand tools, hence, the necessity of thoro
cultivation before the nuts are set. Any shallow-working cul-
tivator may be used. A weeder does excellent work when the
plants are small, and a wide winged sweep after the plants begin
to peg down.
HARVESTING PEANUTS
As soon as the nuts are mature, harvesting should com-
mence. While the Florida Runner and Jumbo Runner will re-
main solid several weeks after ripening, the tops die, however,
and thus impair the quality of hay. The nuts will separate from
the stems, making difficult harvest.
Peanuts are usually harvested in Florida by running a turn-
ing plow just below the roots to cut them loose. The moldboard
is taken off so that no dirt is thrown on the vines. As nuts of
the Spanish variety adhere well in digging they may be pulled
up without plowing if the soil is loose. Peanut diggers similar
to potato diggers are used in other states with satisfactory re-
sults.
The vines and nuts are gathered by hand or by forks, and
the sand is shaken off. They are usually allowed to lie on the
ground about three days to cure. Proper airing requires piling
in stacks of from one-half to two tons each. The vines may be
stacked around an upright stake, having two or more cross
pieces which keep the vines from settling too close for good
ventilation. If the weather is dry the stacks may contain two,
three or more tons, which leaves fewer of the vines exposed on
the outside of each stack. A better quality of hay is thus pro-
duced. It is important that the nuts are not overheated in the
stack or the germination of the seed may be injured. When
curing sheds are used they are hauled while green into the
sheds and cured three weeks before picking. After the stacks
have stood ten days or longer the nuts may be picked and the
vines baled for hay.
PICKING THE NUTS
The nuts are usually picked from the vines by hand at a
cost of from twenty to twenty-five cents per bushel for labor.
This, however, is slow and laborious and where there is suffi-
cient acreage in a community, a peanut picker can be operated
profitably. A peanut picker with capacity for twenty to forty
bushels per hour, depending on the crop, will cost from $350 to







Florida Cooperative Extension


Should grass grow in the rows after the nuts are set it may be
necessary to work with hand tools, hence, the necessity of thoro
cultivation before the nuts are set. Any shallow-working cul-
tivator may be used. A weeder does excellent work when the
plants are small, and a wide winged sweep after the plants begin
to peg down.
HARVESTING PEANUTS
As soon as the nuts are mature, harvesting should com-
mence. While the Florida Runner and Jumbo Runner will re-
main solid several weeks after ripening, the tops die, however,
and thus impair the quality of hay. The nuts will separate from
the stems, making difficult harvest.
Peanuts are usually harvested in Florida by running a turn-
ing plow just below the roots to cut them loose. The moldboard
is taken off so that no dirt is thrown on the vines. As nuts of
the Spanish variety adhere well in digging they may be pulled
up without plowing if the soil is loose. Peanut diggers similar
to potato diggers are used in other states with satisfactory re-
sults.
The vines and nuts are gathered by hand or by forks, and
the sand is shaken off. They are usually allowed to lie on the
ground about three days to cure. Proper airing requires piling
in stacks of from one-half to two tons each. The vines may be
stacked around an upright stake, having two or more cross
pieces which keep the vines from settling too close for good
ventilation. If the weather is dry the stacks may contain two,
three or more tons, which leaves fewer of the vines exposed on
the outside of each stack. A better quality of hay is thus pro-
duced. It is important that the nuts are not overheated in the
stack or the germination of the seed may be injured. When
curing sheds are used they are hauled while green into the
sheds and cured three weeks before picking. After the stacks
have stood ten days or longer the nuts may be picked and the
vines baled for hay.
PICKING THE NUTS
The nuts are usually picked from the vines by hand at a
cost of from twenty to twenty-five cents per bushel for labor.
This, however, is slow and laborious and where there is suffi-
cient acreage in a community, a peanut picker can be operated
profitably. A peanut picker with capacity for twenty to forty
bushels per hour, depending on the crop, will cost from $350 to








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


$400. A list of the manufacturers can be had by writing to the
Extension Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
Where the owner of a picker does custom picking for other
farmers the usual charge is ten to fifteen cents per bushel.
The advantages of machine picking over hand picking are
that the machine separates the pops from the full nuts, leaving
only heavy, marketable nuts; the sand sifts out from the vines,
giving a much better quality of hay; the vines coming from the
picker are more or less torn in shreds, making a finer grade of
hay and in a much better condition to handle.
In sections where peanuts are a commercial crop the buyers
pay from one-half to three-quarters of a cent a pound more for
machine picked than hand picked nuts as they contain fewer
pops and dirt. After the nuts are picked they may be stored
in sacks or bins.
HARVESTNG WITH HOGS
A large acreage in Florida is harvested by turning hogs into
the field. This is usually an economical method and if properly
handled will produce pork at a low cost. The vines, however,
cannot be used for hay. However, they are returned to the
soil and are beneficial as humus; or the tops may be mowed off
and cured for hay and the hogs turned in to dig the nuts.
Hogs should always be turned into the field to gather the
nuts which have been pulled off during digging, and which
would otherwise be wasted.

PEANUTS AS HOG FEED
The peanut is the principal crop for fattening hogs in
Florida. The hogs are turned into the field as soon as the crop
is mature and allowed to eat as much as they will. They become
very fat in a short time and produce soft pork and lard. Buyers
usually discount the price paid for such hogs and require that
they be finished on corn to firm the meat.
To get the best results from feeding peanuts in this way
hogs should be turned into the field for a short time every day
at the start, and not be allowed to gorge themselves. If they
are confined to a comparatively small area they will eat the nuts
clean as they dig them and there will be less waste. Peanuts
are rich in protein and fat, which cause indigestion to hogs not
accustomed to concentrated feeds. Considerable losses, which
are due to indigestion and are frequently mistaken for hog








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


$400. A list of the manufacturers can be had by writing to the
Extension Division, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.
Where the owner of a picker does custom picking for other
farmers the usual charge is ten to fifteen cents per bushel.
The advantages of machine picking over hand picking are
that the machine separates the pops from the full nuts, leaving
only heavy, marketable nuts; the sand sifts out from the vines,
giving a much better quality of hay; the vines coming from the
picker are more or less torn in shreds, making a finer grade of
hay and in a much better condition to handle.
In sections where peanuts are a commercial crop the buyers
pay from one-half to three-quarters of a cent a pound more for
machine picked than hand picked nuts as they contain fewer
pops and dirt. After the nuts are picked they may be stored
in sacks or bins.
HARVESTNG WITH HOGS
A large acreage in Florida is harvested by turning hogs into
the field. This is usually an economical method and if properly
handled will produce pork at a low cost. The vines, however,
cannot be used for hay. However, they are returned to the
soil and are beneficial as humus; or the tops may be mowed off
and cured for hay and the hogs turned in to dig the nuts.
Hogs should always be turned into the field to gather the
nuts which have been pulled off during digging, and which
would otherwise be wasted.

PEANUTS AS HOG FEED
The peanut is the principal crop for fattening hogs in
Florida. The hogs are turned into the field as soon as the crop
is mature and allowed to eat as much as they will. They become
very fat in a short time and produce soft pork and lard. Buyers
usually discount the price paid for such hogs and require that
they be finished on corn to firm the meat.
To get the best results from feeding peanuts in this way
hogs should be turned into the field for a short time every day
at the start, and not be allowed to gorge themselves. If they
are confined to a comparatively small area they will eat the nuts
clean as they dig them and there will be less waste. Peanuts
are rich in protein and fat, which cause indigestion to hogs not
accustomed to concentrated feeds. Considerable losses, which
are due to indigestion and are frequently mistaken for hog








Florida Cooperative Extension


cholera, occur each year at the beginning of the pasturing sea-
son. This can be avoided by supplying a green pasture in con-
junction with the peanuts. The hogs should be changed each
day from one crop to the other to within about forty days be-
fore they are ready for market, when they may begin to receive
corn. The corn should be increased and the peanuts decreased
gradually until the animals receive a full corn ration.
Peanuts should be well ripened before fattening hogs are
turned into the field. Immature peanuts are not objectionable
for growing pigs.
Since peanuts may be planted at any time between March 1
and July, and since the different varieties ripen in 120 to 150
days, they are particularly adapted to providing hog feed at
different seasons. If a midsummer crop is desired for July and
August fattening, the Spanish or Valencia may be planted in
March. On the other hand, if one wishes to fatten the hogs
during September or October, the Florida Runner may be planted
at any time between March 1 and May 15. The earlier plant-
ings usually produce the heaviest yields.

FEEDING PEANUTS IN A RATION
Since peanuts contain a high percentage of protein and fat,
they can be combined with corn or other grains rich in starch
to give a balanced ration. The analysis shows peanuts to con-
tain:
Protein C. H. Fat
Peanuts in the hull ......-------------. 20.4 16.4 36.2
Peanut kernels ............-----------. 26.8 17.5 44.9
Peanut cake or meal from hulled nuts. 47.6 23.7 8.0
Peanut cake or meal, hulls included .... 28.4 27.0 11.1
Peanut hulls ..................--------------............. 7.3 18.9 2.6
In a recent experiment conducted by the Florida Experiment
Station, better gains were made when the ration consisted of
half corn and half peanuts than when it consisted of three-
fourths corn and one-fourth peanuts. In both instances the
hogs received green feeds also.
Where peanuts are produced at a cost of $10 to $12 per acre
and yield from twenty to forty bushels per acre they can be
profitably used in hog fattening. If, however, they must be
purchased at from three to six cents per pound, which is the
usual price paid, they should be combined with cheaper feeds
to make them economical.








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


Peanut meal is considered more economical for feeding pur-
poses than the entire nut, and where oil mills are operated
farmers may exchange the whole nut for meal. However, def-
inite experiments to determine the relative feeding value of
peanuts and peanut meal have not been conducted.
The hulls contain a large amount of fiber and are compara-
tively low (hardly as good as oat straw) in feeding value. They
may be used as roughage in a ration for cattle. They are some-
times ground and used to adulterate feeding stuffs.

PEANUTS AS A GREEN GRAZING CROP FOR HOGS
Peanuts are not extensively used as a green pasture for hogs
because most farmers prefer to let them ripen for fall feed.
However, a test conducted by the Alabama Experiment Station
indicates that their use as a summer grazing crop should be
more general.
Where corn alone was fed, the cost to produce one hundred
pounds of pork was $7.63, as compared with $1.85 where the
corn was supplemented with peanut pasture. In a second ex-
periment the cost per hundred pounds on corn alone was $7,
against $2.22 by the addition of peanut pasture.
It was also estimated that by feeding peanuts as a soiling
crop in conjunction with corn, one acre of peanuts grown on
land capable of producing from fifteen to eighteen bushels of
corn per acre was equal in feeding value to 59.9 bushels of corn.
In comparison with other pasture crops when one-half ration
concentrates was fed: One acre peanuts fed 10 hogs 53 days;
one acre sorghum fed 10 hogs 46.6 days; one acre soybeans fed
10 hogs 34.4 days; one acre chufas fed 10 hogs 32.2 days. This
comparison indicates that peanuts can be very generally em-
ployed as a summer grazing crop. This is an important con-
sideration for many sections of Florida where peanuts make a
heavy top growth and a low yield of solid nuts.

PEANUTS AS A HAY CROP
Since peanuts are a leguminous crop the vines are rich in
protein and make valuable hay. The vines must be cured before
they become too ripe, or they will be dry and woody. As soon
as the nuts are ripe the vines should be gathered.
Excellent hay can be produced if the vines are mowed at the
right stage of maturity, properly cured and stored. Peanut hay
is usually of a better quality if it can be cured under cover.








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


Peanut meal is considered more economical for feeding pur-
poses than the entire nut, and where oil mills are operated
farmers may exchange the whole nut for meal. However, def-
inite experiments to determine the relative feeding value of
peanuts and peanut meal have not been conducted.
The hulls contain a large amount of fiber and are compara-
tively low (hardly as good as oat straw) in feeding value. They
may be used as roughage in a ration for cattle. They are some-
times ground and used to adulterate feeding stuffs.

PEANUTS AS A GREEN GRAZING CROP FOR HOGS
Peanuts are not extensively used as a green pasture for hogs
because most farmers prefer to let them ripen for fall feed.
However, a test conducted by the Alabama Experiment Station
indicates that their use as a summer grazing crop should be
more general.
Where corn alone was fed, the cost to produce one hundred
pounds of pork was $7.63, as compared with $1.85 where the
corn was supplemented with peanut pasture. In a second ex-
periment the cost per hundred pounds on corn alone was $7,
against $2.22 by the addition of peanut pasture.
It was also estimated that by feeding peanuts as a soiling
crop in conjunction with corn, one acre of peanuts grown on
land capable of producing from fifteen to eighteen bushels of
corn per acre was equal in feeding value to 59.9 bushels of corn.
In comparison with other pasture crops when one-half ration
concentrates was fed: One acre peanuts fed 10 hogs 53 days;
one acre sorghum fed 10 hogs 46.6 days; one acre soybeans fed
10 hogs 34.4 days; one acre chufas fed 10 hogs 32.2 days. This
comparison indicates that peanuts can be very generally em-
ployed as a summer grazing crop. This is an important con-
sideration for many sections of Florida where peanuts make a
heavy top growth and a low yield of solid nuts.

PEANUTS AS A HAY CROP
Since peanuts are a leguminous crop the vines are rich in
protein and make valuable hay. The vines must be cured before
they become too ripe, or they will be dry and woody. As soon
as the nuts are ripe the vines should be gathered.
Excellent hay can be produced if the vines are mowed at the
right stage of maturity, properly cured and stored. Peanut hay
is usually of a better quality if it can be cured under cover.








Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 7-Curing shed for peanut vines
Especially is this true if it is harvested during the frequent
rains and humid atmosphere of July and August.
A peanut grower in Levy county, Florida, erected an inex-
pensive high shed for curing peanuts. This shed is not inclosed.
Cross pieces are placed one above the other about five feet apart.
Poles are laid on these to make a temporary floor. The green
hay is hauled to the barn immediately after cutting and spread
on the poles in layers about one foot deep. The wagons are
unloaded with an ordinary hay sling, consequently all the vines
are dropped from above onto the curing floor. As soon as one
floor is covered the poles are laid for the next floor until the shed
is filled to the top. After three weeks the nuts and vines are
thoroly cured and ready for picking. The poles are then pulled
out and the entire mass falls together.
Such a shed may be used for curing all kinds of forage and
may also be used as a cattle shed during winter.
Where it is intended for hogs to gather the nuts in the field
mowing the vines is practicable but where the crop is to be
picked the nuts must be cured on the vines, which necessitates
two or three days' sunning under favorable conditions or longer
during rainy weather. This exposure makes a poor quality hay.
The finer the stem the better the quality of hay, consequently
the Valencia and other large stemmed varieties do not make a
good grade of hay. The hay from the running varieties is
usually preferred on account o* its fine stems, altho it is more








Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


difficult to mow than that from the varieties that grow more
upright.
Peanut hay is palatable for all kinds of farm stock, and
particularly valuable for feeding dairy cows. It is about equal
in feeding value to alfalfa and red clover hay and is much more
nutritious than most hays shipped into Florida, as shown by
the following analyses:
Protein Carbohydrates Fat
Peanut hay ......--.......-- .. 11.7 46.9 1.8
Peanut vines...-..----........ 13.5 36.3 15.1
Alfalfa ......................-... 14.3 42.7 2.2
Cowpea hay..-................. 16.6 42.2 2.2
Red clover hay--..---....... 12.3 38.1 3.3
Timothy hay..............---- 5.9 45.0 2.5
The average yield of hay is from three-fourths to one ton
per acre.
PEANUTS GOOD SOIL IMPROVEMENT CROP
The peanut is a leguminous plant and may be used in rota-
tation with other crops for soil improvement. Under favorable


Fig. 8-Curing peanut vines under cover








Florida Cooperative Extension


;p


Fig. 9-Florida Runner variety, showing nuts attached to vines
Legume nodules on roots

conditions it usually has large numbers of nitrogen gathering
tubercles on its roots. Wherever plants show a scarcity of these
nodules it may indicate an acid soil, lack of humus, or absence
of the necessary nitrifying bacteria in the soil.
These bacteria may be applied to the seed artificially at
planting time for a slight cost per acre. Artificial inoculation
will not usually be necessary except with the first crop. Each
crop will leave sufficient bacteria to inoculate the succeeding
crop provided the soil is well drained.
The amount of soil improvement resulting from a peanut
crop will depend on the amount of refuse left in the soil. If
the entire plant, with the roots, is removed from the farm, the
peanut will actually deplete the soil instead of improving it. If
the roots with their nodules are left in the soil the effect on
future crops will be beneficial. To get the greatest benefits from
the crop the nuts may be fed to hogs and the vines made into
hay and fed to livestock and the manure returned to the land.
This returns from 65% to 80% of all nitrogen removed by the
crop, and the grower gets a profit from the stock. Hogs may
harvest the peanuts and destroy the vines. This practice re-
turns to the same field practically everything it grew with the
addition of nitrogen gathered by the plants.







Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


"A crop of sixty bushels of peanuts per acre with one ton of hay has
been found to contain approximately 85 pounds of nitrogen, 15 pounds
phosphoric acid, 32 pounds of potash, and 46 pounds of lime. Most of the
lime and potash is contained in the hay, while the greater part of the
phosphoric acid and more than half of the nitrogen are found in the nuts."
-Duggar's Southern Field Crops.
The beneficial results from growing peanuts in a rotation
with cotton are shown in the following results obtained by the
Arkansas Experiment Station:
1452 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following peanuts.
1309 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following soy beans.
1090 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following chufas.
901 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following corn.

ROTATION INCREASES YIELDS
The peanut is one of the most suitable crops for new land
provided the soil is naturally adapted and thoroly prepared two
or three months before planting. However, the largest yields
of nuts are produced following a proper rotation of crops. It
is never advisable to grow more than two crops in successive
years on the same land, and a still better practice is to follow
with some other crops for two or three successive years.
A good rotation would be peanuts followed by corn and vel-
vet beans, the next year followed by corn and cowpeas, then by
oats or rye planted during October for a winter cover crop. In
the cotton growing areas peanuts can be grown in rotation with
cotton and oats and more successfully where crimson or bur
clover can be included as a winter legume.
A good four year rotation with cotton would be:
1st year cotton followed by winter cover crop.
2nd year corn and velvet beans.
3rd year peanuts.
4th year oats and cowpeas.
A good three year rotation is:
1st year peanuts.
2nd year cotton and cover crop.
3rd year corn and velvet beans followed by winter oats.

PEANUT BUTTER
The production of peanut butter is an important industry in
the United States. However, a very small amount is produced
in Florida. Small factories with limited capital are operated
and are producing an excellent quality of butter. These fac-







Bulletin 6, Peanuts in Florida


"A crop of sixty bushels of peanuts per acre with one ton of hay has
been found to contain approximately 85 pounds of nitrogen, 15 pounds
phosphoric acid, 32 pounds of potash, and 46 pounds of lime. Most of the
lime and potash is contained in the hay, while the greater part of the
phosphoric acid and more than half of the nitrogen are found in the nuts."
-Duggar's Southern Field Crops.
The beneficial results from growing peanuts in a rotation
with cotton are shown in the following results obtained by the
Arkansas Experiment Station:
1452 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following peanuts.
1309 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following soy beans.
1090 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following chufas.
901 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following corn.

ROTATION INCREASES YIELDS
The peanut is one of the most suitable crops for new land
provided the soil is naturally adapted and thoroly prepared two
or three months before planting. However, the largest yields
of nuts are produced following a proper rotation of crops. It
is never advisable to grow more than two crops in successive
years on the same land, and a still better practice is to follow
with some other crops for two or three successive years.
A good rotation would be peanuts followed by corn and vel-
vet beans, the next year followed by corn and cowpeas, then by
oats or rye planted during October for a winter cover crop. In
the cotton growing areas peanuts can be grown in rotation with
cotton and oats and more successfully where crimson or bur
clover can be included as a winter legume.
A good four year rotation with cotton would be:
1st year cotton followed by winter cover crop.
2nd year corn and velvet beans.
3rd year peanuts.
4th year oats and cowpeas.
A good three year rotation is:
1st year peanuts.
2nd year cotton and cover crop.
3rd year corn and velvet beans followed by winter oats.

PEANUT BUTTER
The production of peanut butter is an important industry in
the United States. However, a very small amount is produced
in Florida. Small factories with limited capital are operated
and are producing an excellent quality of butter. These fac-







20 Florida Cooperative Extension

stories prefer the Florida Runner, claiming it to..be superior in
flavor, and richer in oil, than other Florida grown varieties.
About twelve pounds of butter are produced from one bushel of
well filled nuts.
The factories, however, have not enlarged their operations,
due to their inability to compete with northern firms who man-
ufacture several grades of peanut butter on a large scale and
have their goods and trade marks well established in practically
all markets.




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