• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Introduction
 Peanut oil valuable for food
 Yield of oil
 Varieties of peanuts for oil...
 By-products of the peanut...
 Peanut hay
 Harvesting the crop
 Stacking the crop
 Soils adapted to peanuts
 Lime necessary for peanuts
 Fertilizing
 Preparation of the soil
 Time to plant
 Seeding
 Distance to plant
 Peanuts planted with corn
 Cultivation should be frequent
 Picking the crop
 Peanuts food soil improvement...
 Rotation increases yields
 Acknowledgement
 Important facts














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Division of Agricultural Extension ; no. 12
Title: Peanuts for oil production
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026334/00001
 Material Information
Title: Peanuts for oil production
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Spencer, A. P ( Arthur Perceval )
Jenkins, E. W ( Edward Walker )
Publisher: University of Florida, Division of Agricultural Extension
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1918
 Subjects
Subject: Peanuts -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Peanut oil -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.P. Spencer and E.W. Jenkins.
General Note: "February, 1918".
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026334
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002569292
oclc - 47284982
notis - AMT5594

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Peanut oil valuable for food
        Page 3
    Yield of oil
        Page 4
    Varieties of peanuts for oil production
        Page 5
    By-products of the peanut oil factory
        Page 6
    Peanut hay
        Page 7
    Harvesting the crop
        Page 8
    Stacking the crop
        Page 8
    Soils adapted to peanuts
        Page 9
    Lime necessary for peanuts
        Page 10
    Fertilizing
        Page 11
    Preparation of the soil
        Page 12
    Time to plant
        Page 13
    Seeding
        Page 13
    Distance to plant
        Page 14
    Peanuts planted with corn
        Page 14
    Cultivation should be frequent
        Page 15
    Picking the crop
        Page 16
    Peanuts food soil improvement crop
        Page 16
    Rotation increases yields
        Page 17
    Acknowledgement
        Page 18
    Important facts
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






February, 1918


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA DIVISION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
P. H. Rolfs, Director



PEANUTS FOR OIL PRODUCTION
By A. P. SPENCER AND E. W. JENKINS
Peanut oil is one of the most important food oils of the world.
In 1912, approximately 151/ million gallons of edible oil, and 23
million gallons of inedible oil were produced in Marseilles. In
the same year Germany imported 68,765 tons of peanuts, practi-
cally all of which were used for making oil.
Until 1915 very little peanut oil was produced in the United
States, altho the nation has been a large consumer. Importations
for the year ending June 30, 1914, amounted to 1,332,100 gallons,
a large part of which was used in making oleomargarine.
Present war and transportation conditions and the urgent
needs for edible oils by the allied armies have reduced the impor-
tation of oils into the United States to a very appreciable extent,
so that the price of peanut oil at the mills has increased 100 per-
cent since 1915.


* "- *
FIG. 1.-Peanut products: a, ground peanut hay; b, screenings from picker;
c, screenings from oil mill; d, crushed peanuts; e, peanut cake; f, peanut
meal; g, peanut oil


Bulletin 12







Florida Cooperative Extension


In the United States the consumption of peanut oil for salad
and cooking purposes and in making oleomargarine and similar
compounds may be greatly increased by manufacturing a higher
grade of edible oil than those heretofore imported. Such oil
must compare in quality with the best brands of European oils,
and consequently should sell at a much higher price than most of
the imported peanut oils. In France only the finest grades of oil
are used as food; since most of this supply was retained for local
consumption, only second-grade oils were imported into the
United States. These second-grade oils have been used in the
manufacture of vegetable oleomargarines which are chiefly mix-
tures of peanut, cocoanut and similar oils, ripened with milk. An
additional quantity of this oil is used in the preparation of sar-
dines. Peanut oil is superior to olive oil for this purpose, in that
peanut oil will stand the continued heating required for cook-
ing the sardines, while olive oil will not. The lower grades of
non-edible peanut oil are used in making soap.
Heretofore there has been no established market for high-
grade American peanut oil because of the limited amount pro-
duced. These facts would indicate that a permanent industry
may be established in the United States that will continue after
the close of the war if the manufacturers of peanut oil will make
a product to compare favorably with the best grades of oil pro-
duced in Europe, utilize the lower grades as is done in Europe,
and make the most profitable use of by-products. Inasmuch as
European oil may be restricted from the market during the period
of the war, American oils should gain a reputation in American
markets for quality which will make it difficult to replace them
with imported oil. Present conditions should encourage the pea-
nut industry, particularly in the South, where a readjustment of
the farming program has been made necessary by the advent of
the boll weevil.
Wherever the boll weevil has made it necessary to substitute
other crops for cotton a largely increased acreage of peanuts is
being grown. Farmers report yields of from 40 to 100 bushels
per acre on land usually producing 20 to 40 bushels of corn, or
good crops of cotton. Land now under cultivation in Florida
suitable for growing peanuts is quite extensive, and a still larger
area of cut-over land will grow good crops when cultivated. This
would indicate that there is enough land thruout the South suit-
able for growing peanuts to supply the entire domestic trade and
a considerable quantity for export, should there be a foreign mar-







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


ket at the close of the war. The very large area of cut-over sandy
lands of the South is well suited to growing peanuts.
In the manufacture of peanut oil there are valuable by-prod-
ucts, such as inferior nuts, peanut cake, peanut vine hay and
other feed products. (Fig. 1.) These by-products are among the
richest of stock feeds, and can be utilized to a good advantage in
feeding cattle, hogs, horses and mules, so that the by-product it-
self is an important source of profit to both the oil manufacturer
and the farmer.
Taking all factors into consideration it seems there is an oppor-
tunity for farmers, stockmen, mill owners, and bankers to inter-
est themselves in increased production of peanuts and peanut oil,
and thereby build up an industry that will give farmers a cash
crop, provide them with stock feed, and allow for investments in
an enterprise that promises to be more profitable than cotton
raising.
The peanut oil industry affords cotton mill owners an oppor-
tunity to convert their cotton seed oil mills into peanut oil mills.
While it is necessary to install additional machinery for making
high-grade oil, the oil presses, grinders, filter presses, and con-
veyers in the cotton seed oil mills can be used for making peanut
oil. It is also necessary to have an equipment for cleaning and
shelling the nuts as well as machinery for picking and planting.
The peanut industry has been an important one for many
years so that the processes of manufacture of high-grade oil are
well known and the necessary machinery is entirely practical
for a further development of the industry.
PEANUT OIL VALUABLE FOR FOOD
Peanut oil can be used without additional refining; if pressed
from sound stock it has a good color and a sweet nutty flavor.
It can be substituted for animal fats, and is satisfactory for sal-
ads and table oil, just as it runs from the press, whereas cotton-
seed oil must be refined before being used. In this respect pea-
nut oil is like olive oil. The best grade of peanut oil for table
use comes direct from the nuts, just as the best olive oil comes
from the fresh olives.
Rancid peanut oil made from spoiled nuts, or from sound nuts
improperly treated, can be refined and made edible, but this
lacks the characteristic peanut taste of the high-grade oil, and is
inferior for salads and table purposes. Such oil if properly re-
fined and mixed with other oils may yield an entirely satisfactory







Florida Cooperative Extension


FIG. 2.-Spanish peanut, natural size
product. Just to what extent the refining process can be made
profitable will depend on the commercial value of competing prod-
ucts, as the lower grade peanut oil must compete with the cheaper
grades of cottonseed oil in the manufacture of oleomargarine,
soap and other oil products.
YIELD OF OIL
An analysis of twelve samples of Spanish peanuts shows them
to contain 52.8 percent of oil, and nineteen samples of the Vir-
ginia peanuts an average of 43 percent, figured on the basis of dry
shelled nuts. A further analysis (Farmers' Bulletin 751) of
shelled nuts grown at Florence, S. C., shows that shelled Spanish
nuts contain 49.1 percent, Valencias 49.6 and the African or
North Carolina 45.9 percent of oil, or approximately 50 percent
by weight. In actual practice there are about 600 Ibs. of hulls
and trash in each ton of the farmers' stock, or, stated otherwise,
one ton of farmers' stock will yield about 1400 lbs. of sound
clean nuts. Estimating these nuts to contain 50 percent oil
would give approximately 700 lbs. of oil, and 700 pounds of
high-grade meal in each ton of the farmers' stock. If the nuts are
crushed with the hulls the yield of meal will be about 1250 lbs.,
but of a lower grade.
After the trash is removed and the oil expressed from Spanish
nuts, the residual peanut cake contains about 9 percent of oil,








Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


which would leave approximately 637 pounds of oil for each ton
of the farmers' stock, or a total of 85 gallons. One bushel of
good farmers' stock will yield about 11-8 to 11/ gallons of oil.
For Florida no actual analyses have been made to determine the
amount of oil obtainable from one ton of nuts. The foregoing
figures are only approximate inasmuch as the percentage of oil
in all varieties of peanuts differs when grown on different soils
and under different climatic conditions.
Where a peanut mill is equipped with the best of modern ma-
chinery a slightly higher percentage of oil may be obtained.
However, on a commercial scale it is not likely to be profitable to
express a larger percentage of the oil as it would decrease the ton-
nage capacity of the mill if less than 8 or 9 percent of oil were
left in the cake. This would also require more power at a cost
greater than the value of the increased amount of oil recovered.

VARIETIES OF PEANUTS FOR OIL PRODUCTION
The main varieties of peanuts grown in Florida are the Flor-
ida Runner or African, the White Spanish, and Valencia. The
Jumbo Runner is grown only to a limited extent. Of these the
Florida Runner is at present most extensively grown and is
used almost entirely for stock feed. The White Spanish is
grown in about the same territory; it will produce good crops on
a greater variety of soils than any other variety grown. The
Valencia is a comparatively new variety. It is a fair yielder on the
average peanut soils, but is not considered so desirable as either
the Florida Runner or the Spanish, altho on most lands used for
trucking it has produced good yields when other varieties grown
side by side with it have failed. The Jumbo Runner resembles
the Florida Runner in its habits of growth, but yields a very large
nut. It has proven fairly satisfactory on most of the peanut
areas of the State, altho it has not grown in favor to any extent.
For oil production the White Spanish (fig. 2 ) is the favorite
variety; the proportion of meat to hull is greater than in other
varieties, and it yields a higher percentage of oil. The main
objection to it has been that it sprouts readily as soon as ripe if
the soil is moist; and as peanuts have been used almost entirely
for hog feeding, allowing the hogs to pasture them, it is often
desirable that peanuts remain in the soil until late fall or winter.
For this reason Spanish peanuts are not so suitable for hog
pastures as the Florida Runner, which will lay in the soil without
sprouting until spring. With the manufacture of oil it is desir-








Florida Cooperative Extension


able to harvest the nuts as soon as ripe, and get the crop out of
the way early in the season. The Spanish variety has a long
planting season and can be planted after winter truck crops or
spring oats. While no records are available that would compare
the yields of the different varieties, reports indicate that the
yield per acre is from twenty to fifty bushels, and practically the
same with all varieties when grown under favorable conditions.
TABLE 1.-Analysis of Five Varieties of Peanuts Grown at Florence, S. C.
(Farmer's Bulletin 751)
Constituents of nuts and shell
Variety
Oil (percent) Protein (percent)

Spanish ...... .. .............. ..... 52.30 41.36
Valencia ...- -. .......... .............. .... 50.98 40.87
African ................... ........... .. ..... 48.36 37.90
Virginia Runner ... ...... .............. 47.31 34.67
Virginia Bunch ........ ........... ...... 49.26 36.77

BY-PRODUCTS OF THE PEANUT OIL FACTORY
In preparing peanuts for extracting the oil the nuts are
ground, usually by a system of corrugated rolls. For the higher
grade of oil the nuts are hulled before grinding. The most valu-
able by-product remaining is the peanut cake or meal containing
from 6 to 10 percent of oil, and from 24 to 28 percent protein,
which makes it a valuable stock feed, with about the same feed-
ing value as cottonseed meal. If the meal is ground without the
hulls the protein content will be from 27 to 30 percent and may
be as high as 47 percent. If ground with the hulls the average
protein content is about 24 percent. Peanut meal is one of the
best concentrates that can be made from southern grown crops,
and may be used extensively in the feeding of beef cattle, dairy
cattle, hogs, horses, mules or poultry. Actual experiments have
not been made to determine the relative value of peanut and cot-
tonseed meal for feeding beef cattle and hogs. Peanut meal is un-
questionably superior to cottonseed meal for hog feeding inas-
much as no detrimental results are obtained from feeding it.
Peanut meal is also preferable to the whole peanut for fattening
hogs, in that a much firmer meat and lard will be produced. The
meal is also satisfactory as a horse feed. It has been extensively
used in Europe for many years with good results, feeding at the
rate of 2 to 4 pounds a day, but because of its high protein con-
tent it should be mixed with corn or oats and should never be fed







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


as the only concentrate. It is especially valuable to add to corn to
improve the condition of run down horses or young colts. Peanut
meal is also valuable for feeding small calves and may be fed with
corn, or used as a partial substitute for skim milk. While no ex-
perimental data are available it is probable that peanut meal may
be used much the same as linseed meal since the analysis is simi-
lar, and it is relished by most stock. Linseed meal has given ex-
cellent results in calf feeding when fed mixed with ground grains
or boiled into the gruel and mixed with skim milk; after the
calves become accustomed to the gruel only a small amount of
milk is necessary to make them take it readily.
The following analysis will indicate the food value of peanut
meal when compared with the whole nut:
Protein C. H. Fat
Peanuts in the hull ..------------ ................ ............ ... 20.4 16.4 362
Peanut kernels .......................... ---------..--- .............. 26.8 17.5 44.9
Peanut cake or meal, from hulled nuts--.............................. 47.6 23.7 8.0
Peanut cake or meal, hulls included ---.................. ........... 28.4 27.0 11.1
Peanut hulls ............ -.. ...- ....... --. --- ...... --- ...... 7.3 18.9 2.6

PEANUT HAY
All varieties of peanuts produce a good quality of hay if prop-
erly cured. The Spanish and Valencia varieties make an upright
growth so that the vines are more easily cut and harvested, al-
tho the stems are larger and if mature are more woody than the
Runner varieties. Since the peanut is a leguminous crop, the hay
is more nourishing than timothy or crab grass and analyses show
it to compare favorably with alfalfa and cowpea hay. Also, it
has about two-thirds the value of wheat bran as shown by the
following analyses from Henry's Feeds and Feeding.
Protein C. H. Fat
Peanut hay* ....................... .. ....-.. --.-- .... .. ... 11.7 46.9 1.8
A lfalfa ..........-... .. ...... ...... .... .. .. 14.9 37.3 2.3
Cow pea hay ...............-- ...........- .. .... ... ...... .............. 16.6 42.2 2.2
Red clover hay .............................. ........ 12.8 38.7 3.1
Tim othy hay ..... .........- ..-.. ............ .. 6.2 45.0 2.5
W heat bran ..- ..... ..... ... .-......-...- ......... 16.0 53.7 4.4
The best peanut hay will be secured if the vines are cut before
the nuts are entirely matured. When the crop is grown for oil
production this is not advisable as the amount of oil will be less if
the nuts are not mature. The present retail price of peanut hay
is from $20 to $25 a ton, and with a yield of three-fourths of a
ton per acre it is a valuable by-product, worthy of being handled
in the best manner to make it palatable. Peanut hay is valuable
*From Duggar's Southern Field Crops.







Florida Cooperative Extension


for horses and cattle, and as it contains a high percentage of pro-
tein is especially valuable for dairy feeding. It is much more
nutritious than most of the hay shipped into Florida for it con-
tains more than twice as much protein as timothy hay, and
practically the same amount of carbohydrates.
Peanut hay may be ground into a meal and sold to compete
with alfalfa meal, as its analysis is similar. (Fig. 1.)

HARVESTING THE CROP
Spanish peanuts when grown for oil should not be harvested
until ripe, inasmuch as the nuts do not contain the maximum
amount of oil until mature. If the soil is loose the nuts can be
pulled out readily with the vines.. If the crop is allowed to re-
main in the ground until the vines are dry the nuts will pull off
the vines and many will be lost. The best method of harvest-
ing is to plow them out with a turning plow equipped with a
special point to run below the plant so that the roots will be
cut. This loosens the soil around the roots and the vines are
easily lifted and placed in rows where they can be stacked in the
proper way. A special peanut point attached to a light subsoiler
is a good implement to use, as it runs deep enough to get below
the nuts without tearing them off. By attaching a gauge wheel to
these machines so that they will work at the proper depth it is
possible to cut the main root just below where the peanuts are
attached, and leave the roots and nitrogen nodules in the soil.
Several devices have been constructed, usually on the plan of an
ordinary plow with a U-shaped blade, or a cutter arranged so that
it will run beneath the nuts.

STACKING THE CROP
The vines may be bunched as soon as loosened from the ground
and immediately put into small stacks. The usual method of
putting up peanut vines into large stacks to be used for feed is
not advisable because of the tendency to mold which would result
in a low-grade oil with a moldy flavor. These small stacks are
built around poles, 3 or 4 inches in diameter and about 8 feet
long, driven into the ground just deep enough to keep them from
blowing over. About 12 inches from the ground nail 2 cross-
pieces, about 15 inches long, to the stake at right angles and be-
gin the stack by laying a few bunches cross-wise until the base
for the stack is formed. Place the nuts to the pole lightly until
the stack is about half built, and then press the vines closely to-







Florida Cooperative Extension


for horses and cattle, and as it contains a high percentage of pro-
tein is especially valuable for dairy feeding. It is much more
nutritious than most of the hay shipped into Florida for it con-
tains more than twice as much protein as timothy hay, and
practically the same amount of carbohydrates.
Peanut hay may be ground into a meal and sold to compete
with alfalfa meal, as its analysis is similar. (Fig. 1.)

HARVESTING THE CROP
Spanish peanuts when grown for oil should not be harvested
until ripe, inasmuch as the nuts do not contain the maximum
amount of oil until mature. If the soil is loose the nuts can be
pulled out readily with the vines.. If the crop is allowed to re-
main in the ground until the vines are dry the nuts will pull off
the vines and many will be lost. The best method of harvest-
ing is to plow them out with a turning plow equipped with a
special point to run below the plant so that the roots will be
cut. This loosens the soil around the roots and the vines are
easily lifted and placed in rows where they can be stacked in the
proper way. A special peanut point attached to a light subsoiler
is a good implement to use, as it runs deep enough to get below
the nuts without tearing them off. By attaching a gauge wheel to
these machines so that they will work at the proper depth it is
possible to cut the main root just below where the peanuts are
attached, and leave the roots and nitrogen nodules in the soil.
Several devices have been constructed, usually on the plan of an
ordinary plow with a U-shaped blade, or a cutter arranged so that
it will run beneath the nuts.

STACKING THE CROP
The vines may be bunched as soon as loosened from the ground
and immediately put into small stacks. The usual method of
putting up peanut vines into large stacks to be used for feed is
not advisable because of the tendency to mold which would result
in a low-grade oil with a moldy flavor. These small stacks are
built around poles, 3 or 4 inches in diameter and about 8 feet
long, driven into the ground just deep enough to keep them from
blowing over. About 12 inches from the ground nail 2 cross-
pieces, about 15 inches long, to the stake at right angles and be-
gin the stack by laying a few bunches cross-wise until the base
for the stack is formed. Place the nuts to the pole lightly until
the stack is about half built, and then press the vines closely to-







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


FIG. 3.-Stacking peanut vines. The stacks are capped with hay.
(Photo by U. S. D. A.)

gether. This will give some elevation to the center so that when
the stack is finished the center will be higher than the outside,
causing it to shed rain. The stack is then capped with grass,
and if it stays in this condition will keep almost indefinitely.
(Fig. 3.)
As soon as the vines are thoroly cured, which usually takes
from three to four weeks in dry weather, they are ready for pick-
ing.
SOILS ADAPTED TO PEANUTS
Large areas of Florida soils are well adapted to peanuts.
Wherever they are grown as a main crop, peanuts rank in im-
portance with corn, and promise to be a better cash crop than
cotton. Peanuts are grown successfully on some lands considered
unprofitable for corn growing. Some fields produce much
better peanuts than others in the same neighborhood; altho the
methods used in growing them are largely responsible, the va-
riation in soils may be sufficient to make the difference in yields.
Much of the cotton-growing land that has been in cultivation
for many years will produce good crops of peanuts if it is im-







Florida Cooperative Extension


proved by turning under velvet beans and by proper rotation of
crops.
The most productive peanut soils in Florida are well drained,
medium fine, sandy loam, containing small gravel, and underlaid
with porous clay, eighteen inches to three feet below the surface.
Rolling high pineland or well drained, sandy hammock lands, the
original timber growth of which was oak and hickory with scat-
tering pines, is considered the best. Good crops are also pro-
duced on flatwoods pineland where drainage is provided, and the
soil is well cultivated and limed. Wherever a twenty-five bushel
crop of corn can be produced, a good crop of peanuts may be ex-
pected. Stiff clay soils may produce a good hay crop but be-
cause of the hard surface the bloom pegs cannot penetrate the
surface of the soil readily and the crop is more difficult to harvest.
New ground will produce fairly good crops of peanuts on suit-
able land if it is prepared long enough in advance of planting to
have all dead grass and weeds well rotted. However, the yield
is usually smaller than on well prepared land that has grown one
or more crops of corn, velvet beans, etc. About the only advan-
tage in planting new land is that weeds are not so abundant and
less hoeing will be required but more cultivation by machinery
may be necessary.
Without question there are larger acreages naturally well
adapted to peanut culture than are now growing the crop, and a
still larger acreage that could be improved and made suitable by
proper drainage and a liberal application of lime.
LIME NECESSARY FOR PEANUTS
Peanuts produce best on limestone or marl soils and even these
are frequently benefited by applications of lime. Soils that are
acid must be neutralized before a good crop of peanuts can be
grown. Some soils in Florida are so deficient in lime that fre-
quently peanuts will die or may make only a stunted growth. On
other soils a heavy top, very few nuts, and a large number of
pops are produced. The lack of lime in the soil is largely respon-
sible for this, altho poor drainage may have a similar effect.
An application of 2 or 3 tons of ground limestone per acre or
500 to 1000 pounds of hydrated lime applied two months before
planting, will have a beneficial effect. Part of this lime will be
taken up by the plant as fertilizer but the greatest benefits will
come from sweetening the soil and improving its mechanical con-
dition.







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


In case the lime is not applied in the fall, which is the best time,
hydrated lime, at the rate of 500 pounds per acre, just before
planting should be used in preference to ground limestone. The
hydrated form is more active than ground limestone and will be-
gin to neutralize the acidity in the soil at once, and the peanut
plants will get the benefit of the lime while they are small. Be-
cause of the active and soluble nature of hydrated lime it does not
remain in the soil as long as ground limestone, and on acid soil
its application may be necessary for each peanut crop. If the
soils are of a calcareous nature one application of ground lime-
stone every four or five years may be sufficient, but on the av-
erage flatwoods land of Florida or where the soil is normally de-
ficient in lime, the application should be made for each crop, al-
tho subsequent applications may be much lighter than the first
one.
An application of 300 to 400 pounds of gypsum given just be-
fore the bloom opens produces good results.

FERTILIZING
Fertilizers are not usually applied to peanuts in Florida altho
judicious applications are always beneficial. If the soil contains
a fair amount of humus supplied by leguminous crops or weeds,
it is not usually advisable to add any additional ammonia fer-
tilizer. An excess of ammonia will produce heavy tops, a large
proportion of pops and consequently a comparatively light crop
of solid nuts. The fertilizers most necessary are phosphates,
potash and lime. An application of 300 to 500 pounds of acid
phosphate and 100 to 150 pounds of a potash fertilizer per acre
will be sufficient for suitable soils that have been properly pre-
pared. The advisability of potash applications will be deter-
mined by the cost of the potash. At former prices it is always
advisable but at present prices, only under exceptional conditions.
In case the soil is deficient in organic ammonia and lacking in
humus, 100 to 200 pounds per acre of cottonseed meal or blood
and bone added to the mixture will be profitable.
The fertilizer should be applied before the crop is planted.
After the ground has been plowed, broadcast the fertilizer over
the surface and then work it into the soil with a harrow or
disk. If the application is delayed it may be drilled into the sides
of the rows when the plants are small. In such case a readily
available form of ammonia is preferable as the crop especially
needs the ammonia when the plants are small and before they







Florida Cooperative Extension


are able to gather nitrogen thru the tubercles on their roots. A
second application is not necessary since the peanut is a legumi-
nous crop and gathers nitrogen from the air by the tubercles.
Stable manure may be applied for peanuts only when well rot-
ted and then in limited quantities. Heavy applications of fresh
stable manure at planting time will produce heavy tops and usu-
ally a small yield of nuts. An application given to thin sandy
land long enough in advance of planting to insure thoro mixing
with the soil is beneficial and improves conditions by adding or-
ganic nitrogen and humus, both of which make soil conditions
more favorable for the nitrogen-gathering bacteria. Hardwood
ashes freshly burned, when pure and unleached, make good fer-
tilizer as they contain approximately two to three percent pot-
ash and twenty-five to thirty percent lime. The price charged for
Canadian ashes may make them too expensive for fertilizing
peanuts and farmers should purchase such goods only on a guar-
anteed analysis.
PREPARATION OF THE SOIL
The seed bed for peanuts should be thoroly broken six to ten
inches deep in November or December. All vegetable matter
should be turned under so that it may be well rotted before the
crop is planted. After plowing, the land should be harrowed to
make it smooth. A winter oat crop, which may be pastured or
allowed to ripen, may be grown on the land to advantage. Where
this is done, it will be necessary to rebreak the land just before
planting. If no winter crop is grown the land should be har-
rowed once every two weeks during the winter to retain the mois-


I --
--

S -r -r


FIG. 4.-Acme harrow, used for pulverizing the seed bed before planting







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


ture, then disked and harrowed just before planting to give a
good seed bed and to make it loose and open.
TIME TO PLANT
The Spanish peanut may be planted anytime between April 1
and July 15. Early planting will undoubtedly give the heaviest
yields of nuts, but if planted early the crop will mature in July
or August during the rainy season-a time difficult to harvest
them, and even more difficult to cure good hay. For oil produc-
tion it is preferable to plant during May, which will allow the
crop to mature in September. By planting late, Spanish pea-
nuts may follow oats or other spring crops.
The Florida Runner and Jumbo Runner make heavier yields if
planted in March or April, altho fair crops are often produced
when planted as late as June 15. Early plants bloom and peg
down during dry weather when they are more easily cultivated
and kept free from grass and weeds. Late crops may bloom dur-
ing the rainy season and the bloom spurs enter the ground when
it is saturated which causes them to rot instead of producing nuts.
When peanuts make a quick growth while still young the vines
grow upright so that many of the bloom pegs cannot enter the
soil.
Valencia peanuts are early maturing and may be planted any
time up to July 15. They are not so readily affected by wet
weather as the running varieties.
SEEDING
The amount of seed required per acre varies with the variety
of peanuts. The Florida Runner requires about one bushel of
seed in the pod or eight to ten quarts shelled. The Jumbo, Span-
ish and Valencia require about two bushels of seed in the pod or
ten to twelve quarts shelled.
The seeds should be shelled before planting to avoid the pos-
sibility of planting pops or shriveled seeds. Furthermore, va-
rieties having two or more seeds to the pod will often give more
than one plant to the hill which is usually not desirable, and in
case unshelled seed are planted in dry soil they will be slow to
germinate. It is also necessary to shell the seeds to sow them
with a planter. Shelling by hand is advisable since machines
split many of the nuts and injure their germination. However,
some farmers claim to get good germination from machine-
shelled nuts. The machines are inexpensive, costing less than
$10.







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


ture, then disked and harrowed just before planting to give a
good seed bed and to make it loose and open.
TIME TO PLANT
The Spanish peanut may be planted anytime between April 1
and July 15. Early planting will undoubtedly give the heaviest
yields of nuts, but if planted early the crop will mature in July
or August during the rainy season-a time difficult to harvest
them, and even more difficult to cure good hay. For oil produc-
tion it is preferable to plant during May, which will allow the
crop to mature in September. By planting late, Spanish pea-
nuts may follow oats or other spring crops.
The Florida Runner and Jumbo Runner make heavier yields if
planted in March or April, altho fair crops are often produced
when planted as late as June 15. Early plants bloom and peg
down during dry weather when they are more easily cultivated
and kept free from grass and weeds. Late crops may bloom dur-
ing the rainy season and the bloom spurs enter the ground when
it is saturated which causes them to rot instead of producing nuts.
When peanuts make a quick growth while still young the vines
grow upright so that many of the bloom pegs cannot enter the
soil.
Valencia peanuts are early maturing and may be planted any
time up to July 15. They are not so readily affected by wet
weather as the running varieties.
SEEDING
The amount of seed required per acre varies with the variety
of peanuts. The Florida Runner requires about one bushel of
seed in the pod or eight to ten quarts shelled. The Jumbo, Span-
ish and Valencia require about two bushels of seed in the pod or
ten to twelve quarts shelled.
The seeds should be shelled before planting to avoid the pos-
sibility of planting pops or shriveled seeds. Furthermore, va-
rieties having two or more seeds to the pod will often give more
than one plant to the hill which is usually not desirable, and in
case unshelled seed are planted in dry soil they will be slow to
germinate. It is also necessary to shell the seeds to sow them
with a planter. Shelling by hand is advisable since machines
split many of the nuts and injure their germination. However,
some farmers claim to get good germination from machine-
shelled nuts. The machines are inexpensive, costing less than
$10.







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Spanish variety, however, is usually planted in the pod
on account of the thin shell and small nuts, and because they
seldom have more than two kernels in the pod. Shelling this
variety is tedious and it is usually best to plant them without
shelling.
DISTANCE TO PLANT
The Spanish, Valencia and other varieties making an upright
growth should be planted in 30-inch rows, with one plant every
six to eight inches in the row.
The Florida Runner or North Carolina and Spreading Jumbo
should be planted in rows three and a half to four feet apart with
one seed every eighteen to twenty inches if planted early, and
fourteen to sixteen inches if planted late.
Except on very thin land peanuts do best when planted thick
as they cover the ground quicker and check the growth of weeds
and grass. However, they must be thoroly cultivated until the
crop is set; consequently, too close planting would interfere with
cultivation.
Peanuts should be planted on the level except where the land is
likely to become wet before the crop is ripe. A ridge four to
six inches high should give sufficient elevation. Land requiring
a higher ridge will not be suitable. After the surface is smoothed
the rows may be laid off with a marker, the seed dropped with a
planter and covered about two inches deep. Germination will
be hastened if the soil is well packed over the seed with the
press wheel of the planter. If the weather is favorable the plants
should be up in eight to ten days. Should there be any missing
plants after two weeks, it may be advisable to replant.

PEANUTS PLANTED WITH CORN
Peanuts may be planted in alternate rows with corn, particu-
larly on dry sandy land, but for oil production they should be
planted separately. Where corn must be planted wide the pea-
nuts may be planted with it or they may be planted in May or
June when the corn is well matured. Some plant in the same
rows with corn, but on account of the difficulty of cultivating
both crops when planted close together it is not the best prac-
tice.
When peanuts are planted in the middles, the corn rows should
be six feet apart. Otherwise the peanuts will be shaded. This
width will allow thoro cultivation of both peanuts and corn to
keep weeds in check. On land capable of producing twenty-







Florida Cooperative Extension


The Spanish variety, however, is usually planted in the pod
on account of the thin shell and small nuts, and because they
seldom have more than two kernels in the pod. Shelling this
variety is tedious and it is usually best to plant them without
shelling.
DISTANCE TO PLANT
The Spanish, Valencia and other varieties making an upright
growth should be planted in 30-inch rows, with one plant every
six to eight inches in the row.
The Florida Runner or North Carolina and Spreading Jumbo
should be planted in rows three and a half to four feet apart with
one seed every eighteen to twenty inches if planted early, and
fourteen to sixteen inches if planted late.
Except on very thin land peanuts do best when planted thick
as they cover the ground quicker and check the growth of weeds
and grass. However, they must be thoroly cultivated until the
crop is set; consequently, too close planting would interfere with
cultivation.
Peanuts should be planted on the level except where the land is
likely to become wet before the crop is ripe. A ridge four to
six inches high should give sufficient elevation. Land requiring
a higher ridge will not be suitable. After the surface is smoothed
the rows may be laid off with a marker, the seed dropped with a
planter and covered about two inches deep. Germination will
be hastened if the soil is well packed over the seed with the
press wheel of the planter. If the weather is favorable the plants
should be up in eight to ten days. Should there be any missing
plants after two weeks, it may be advisable to replant.

PEANUTS PLANTED WITH CORN
Peanuts may be planted in alternate rows with corn, particu-
larly on dry sandy land, but for oil production they should be
planted separately. Where corn must be planted wide the pea-
nuts may be planted with it or they may be planted in May or
June when the corn is well matured. Some plant in the same
rows with corn, but on account of the difficulty of cultivating
both crops when planted close together it is not the best prac-
tice.
When peanuts are planted in the middles, the corn rows should
be six feet apart. Otherwise the peanuts will be shaded. This
width will allow thoro cultivation of both peanuts and corn to
keep weeds in check. On land capable of producing twenty-







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


FIG. 5.-Adjustable weeder used for light cultivation when plants
are small

five bushels of corn per acre, better crops of both corn and pea-
nuts will be produced on a given acreage if they are planted
separately, but on sandy land where corn should be planted wide,
the addition of the peanuts will not reduce the yield of corn.

CULTIVATION SHOULD BE FREQUENT
Peanuts should be cultivated frequently to conserve soil mois-
ture and prevent weeds and grass from growing. Weeds and
grass are especially harmful as they prevent the bloom stems
from piercing the ground, and rob the crop of soil moisture and
fertility. The soil must be kept loose, otherwise the ovary of
the seed stem cannot pierce the soil readily and will be destroyed
before entering the ground and no nuts can be formed. For this
reason a clay soil that packs closely is not suitable for peanuts.
The practice of covering the bloom pegs with soil to insure
their pegging down is unnecessary, and is usually harmful as it
checks the growth of the plant by destroying its foliage.
Cultivation close to the plant should not be continued after the
plants have pegged down or the nuts will be torn up. Should
grass grow in the rows after the nuts are set it will be necessary
to work with hand tools, making cultivation expensive, hence the







Florida Cooperative Extension


necessity of thoro cultivation before the nuts are set. Any shal-
low-working cultivator may be used. A weeder (fig. 5 ) does
excellent work when the plants are small.

PICKING THE CROP
Where there is sufficient acreage to justify an oil mill it is
necessary to pick the crop by machinery. A peanut picker with
a capacity of twenty to forty bushels an hour, or 200 to 400 bush-
els a day, depending on the crop, will cost from $400 up. Such a
picker (fig. 6) will require a six to ten horsepower engine to op-
erate. It will require one picker for every 300 to 500 acres of
crop in order to handle it without loss and undue delay. A list of
manufacturers can be had by writing to the Extension Division,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Where the owner of a picker does custom picking for other
farmers the usual charge is fifteen to twenty cents a bushel.
The advantages of machine picking over hand picking are that
the machine separates the pops from the full nuts, leaving only
heavy, marketable nuts; the sand sifts out from the vines leaving
a much better quality of hay; the vines coming from the picker
are more or less torn in shreds, making a finer grade of hay in
much better condition to handle; and the crop may be handled
speedily.
PEANUTS GOOD SOIL IMPROVEMENT CROP
The peanut is a leguminous plant and may be used in rotation
with other crops for soil improvement. Under favorable condi-
tions it usually has numerous nitrogen-gathering nodules on its


FIG. 6.-Peanut picker







Florida Cooperative Extension


necessity of thoro cultivation before the nuts are set. Any shal-
low-working cultivator may be used. A weeder (fig. 5 ) does
excellent work when the plants are small.

PICKING THE CROP
Where there is sufficient acreage to justify an oil mill it is
necessary to pick the crop by machinery. A peanut picker with
a capacity of twenty to forty bushels an hour, or 200 to 400 bush-
els a day, depending on the crop, will cost from $400 up. Such a
picker (fig. 6) will require a six to ten horsepower engine to op-
erate. It will require one picker for every 300 to 500 acres of
crop in order to handle it without loss and undue delay. A list of
manufacturers can be had by writing to the Extension Division,
University of Florida, Gainesville.
Where the owner of a picker does custom picking for other
farmers the usual charge is fifteen to twenty cents a bushel.
The advantages of machine picking over hand picking are that
the machine separates the pops from the full nuts, leaving only
heavy, marketable nuts; the sand sifts out from the vines leaving
a much better quality of hay; the vines coming from the picker
are more or less torn in shreds, making a finer grade of hay in
much better condition to handle; and the crop may be handled
speedily.
PEANUTS GOOD SOIL IMPROVEMENT CROP
The peanut is a leguminous plant and may be used in rotation
with other crops for soil improvement. Under favorable condi-
tions it usually has numerous nitrogen-gathering nodules on its


FIG. 6.-Peanut picker







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production


roots. Wherever plants show a scarcity of these nodules it may
indicate an acid soil, lack of humus, or absence of the necessary
nitrifying bacteria in the soil.
These bacteria may be applied to the seed artificially at plant-
ing time at a slight cost per acre. Artificial inoculation is seldom
needed. Each crop will leave sufficient bacteria to inoculate the
succeeding crop provided the soil is well drained.
The amount of soil improvement resulting from a peanut crop
will depend on the amount of refuse left in the soil. If the entire
plant, with the roots, is removed from the farm, the peanut will
actually deplete instead of improve the soil. If the roots with
their nodules are left in the soil the effect on future crops will be
beneficial. To get the greatest benefits from the crop all by-prod-
ucts of the oil mill should be fed on the farm, the vines be
made into hay and fed to livestock, and the manure be returned
to the land. This returns from 65% to 80% of all nitrogen re-
moved by the crop, and the grower gets a profit from the stock.
Thus, when the oil is the cash crop and the refuse cake and vines
are fed to livestock, practically all the fertilizer taken by the
plant is returned to the soil, resulting in a profit not only from
the oil but from the livestock and the actual soil improvement.
"A crop of sixty bushels of peanuts per acre with one ton of hay has been
found to contain approximately 85 pounds of nitrogen, 15 pounds phosphoric
acid, 32 pounds of potash, and 46 pounds of lime. Most of the lime and
potash is contained in the hay, while the greater part of the phosphoric
acid and more than half of the nitrogen are found in the nuts."--Duggar's
Southern Field Crops.
The beneficial results from growing peanuts in a rotation with
cotton are shown in the following results obtained by the Ar-
kansas Experiment Station:
1452 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following peanuts;
1309 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following soy beans;
1090 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following chufas;
901 lbs. seed cotton were produced per acre following corn.

ROTATION INCREASES YIELDS
The peanut is one of the most suitable crops for new land pro-
vided the soil is naturally adapted and is thoroly prepared two
or three months before planting. However, the largest yields of
nuts are produced following a proper rotation of crops. It is
never advisable to grow more than two crops in successive years
on the same land, and a still better practice is to follow with
some other crops for two or three successive years.
A good rotation would be peanuts followed by corn and velvet







Florida Cooperative Extension


beans, the next year followed by corn and cowpeas, then by oats
or rye planted in October for a winter cover crop. In the cotton
growing areas peanuts can be grown in rotation with cotton and
oats and more successfully where crimson or bur clover can be in-
cluded as a winter legume.
A good four-year rotation with corn and cotton is:
1st year, corn and velvet bean pasture,
2nd year, cotton, winter cover crop for grazing,
3rd year, peanuts, oats as fall crop harvested for seed,
4th year, cowpeas, winter cover crop.
Peanuts are here recommended to follow cotton because the
clean cultivation given cotton reduces the amount of weeds in
the peanuts the following year, and less hoeing will be required.
A good three-year rotation is:
1st year, peanuts.
2nd year, cotton and cover crop.
3rd year, corn and velvet beans followed by winter oats.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The information regarding oil production has been largely
compiled from Farmers' Bulletin 751, United States Department
of Agriculture.

IMPORTANT FACTS
1. Peanuts require a well drained soil. They will not produce
a profitable crop where the water table stands within two feet
of the surface during the dry season.
2. Peanuts are a leguminous crop and thrive best on sandy
land that has a good supply of humus.
3. For oil production the white Spanish variety is preferred.
The mills pay from $6 to $10 per ton more than for other
varieties because of the higher oil content.
4. Frequent cultivation keeps the soil moist and loose and
favors the development of nuts.
5. Peanuts deplete the fertility of soils if the entire plant and
nuts are removed, but if the vines are fed to livestock and the
manure returned to the land and a proper rotation practiced,
peanuts improve the soil.
6. One acre of Spanish peanuts yielding 30 bushels will give







Florida Cooperative Extension


beans, the next year followed by corn and cowpeas, then by oats
or rye planted in October for a winter cover crop. In the cotton
growing areas peanuts can be grown in rotation with cotton and
oats and more successfully where crimson or bur clover can be in-
cluded as a winter legume.
A good four-year rotation with corn and cotton is:
1st year, corn and velvet bean pasture,
2nd year, cotton, winter cover crop for grazing,
3rd year, peanuts, oats as fall crop harvested for seed,
4th year, cowpeas, winter cover crop.
Peanuts are here recommended to follow cotton because the
clean cultivation given cotton reduces the amount of weeds in
the peanuts the following year, and less hoeing will be required.
A good three-year rotation is:
1st year, peanuts.
2nd year, cotton and cover crop.
3rd year, corn and velvet beans followed by winter oats.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The information regarding oil production has been largely
compiled from Farmers' Bulletin 751, United States Department
of Agriculture.

IMPORTANT FACTS
1. Peanuts require a well drained soil. They will not produce
a profitable crop where the water table stands within two feet
of the surface during the dry season.
2. Peanuts are a leguminous crop and thrive best on sandy
land that has a good supply of humus.
3. For oil production the white Spanish variety is preferred.
The mills pay from $6 to $10 per ton more than for other
varieties because of the higher oil content.
4. Frequent cultivation keeps the soil moist and loose and
favors the development of nuts.
5. Peanuts deplete the fertility of soils if the entire plant and
nuts are removed, but if the vines are fed to livestock and the
manure returned to the land and a proper rotation practiced,
peanuts improve the soil.
6. One acre of Spanish peanuts yielding 30 bushels will give







Bulletin 12, Peanuts for Oil Production 19

approximately: 30 gallons peanut oil, 400 pounds peanut meal,
1000 pounds peanut hay.
7. A fine sandy loam soil containing some gravel and under-
laid with porous clay, where the original growth was oak and
hickory with scattering pines is considered excellent for peanuts.
8. Florida climatic conditions are favorable for peanuts. The
season for planting extends from March to July. On suitable
soils crop failure is practically unknown.
9. An application of lime usually increases the yield and is
especially beneficial if the land is not well drained.
10. Fertilization is usually recommended especially on thin
sandy land but on good land with a fair supply of humus fer-
tilization is not as necessary as with corn.




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