• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Introduction
 Climatic restrictions
 Propagation
 Culture
 Species and varieties
 Index of plants














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 85
Title: Miscellaneous tropical and sub-tropical Florida fruits
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026330/00001
 Material Information
Title: Miscellaneous tropical and sub-tropical Florida fruits
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 91 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Toy, L. R
Wolfe, Herbert S ( Herbert Snow )
Publisher: Cooperative entension work in agriculture and home economics
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: <1936>
 Subjects
Subject: Tropical fruit -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by Harold Mowry and L.R. Toy revised by H.S. Wolfe.
General Note: "September, 1936."
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Division)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026330
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570817
oclc - 23659065
notis - AMT7131

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Climatic restrictions
        Page 5
    Propagation
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Culture
        Page 9
    Species and varieties
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
    Index of plants
        Page 90
        Page 91
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





k Ie -0A .


September, 1936


,CIkA'VE EXTENSION WORK IN
VMULWRE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30. 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE I
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL, Director


MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL AND

SUB-TROPICAL FLORIDA FRUITS

By
HAROLD MOWRY, Assistant Director, Administration,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
and
L. R. Toy, formerly Assistant Horticulturist,
Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Revised by
H. S. WOLFE, Horticulturist in Charge,
Sub-Tropical Experiment Station, Homestead, Florida


Fig. 1.-The ceriman in flower and fruit.
Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to the
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin


LIBRARY
L ISI~AL


ii J







BOARD OF CONTROL


GBO. H. BALDWIN, Chairman, Jacksonville
OLIVER J. SEMMES, Pensacola
HARRY C. DUNCAN, Tavares
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. P. TERRY, Miami
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor
CLYDE BEALE, A.B., Assistant Editor
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager

COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist2
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M. AGR., Poultryman2
D. F. SOWELL, M.S., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Agent in Animal Husbandry
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist2
FRANK W. BRUMLEY, PH.D., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
A. E. MEROKER, Field Agent, Cooperative Interstate Marketingi

COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1 In cooperation with U. S. D. A.
2 Part-time.









MISCELLANEOUS TROPICAL AND

SUB-TROPICAL FLORIDA FRUITS

By
HAROLD MOWRY and L. R. TOY
Revised by
H. S. WOLFE

Florida, in having a climate which is the nearest approach
to tropical in the continental United States, is peculiarly fitted
for the production of a wide variety of tropical and sub-tropical
fruits and plants. Its advantageous climatic conditions are due
not solely to its southerly location but in part to the warming
influence of the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico. The nar-
rowness of the peninsula increases the protection given by these
two bodies of water so that the intensity and duration of cold
periods are greatly lessened and in some areas in the south frosts
are of infrequent occurrence.
In those sections that rarely experience heavy frosts the mean
minimum temperatures are high enough that they do not retard
the growth of numerous plants that are tropical in requirements.
This is evidenced not only by the many native species, both
herbaceous and arboreal, that are closely allied to or identical
with the flora of the West Indies, but also by the thrifty growth
of numerous exotic plants from both the New and Old World
tropics.
Several of the fruits common to Northern states do not thrive
in Florida and no attempt is made to grow them in a commercial
way. Included among these are apples, cherries, gooseberries,
currants, raspberries, and others. This lack of adaptability in
some species possibly is due to the southerly latitude with its
fewer hours of daily sunlight during summer and differences in
light intensity and quality; the short winter season with the
consequent shortening or lack of the annual period of dormancy;
and a difference in soil conditions. Inability to grow some of
the fruits of colder climates can hardly be considered as a handi-
cap since so many tropical or sub-tropical varieties can be grown
in the state.
Wide competition in the production of many of the tender
species does not have to be met, owing to the restricted area
adapted to their culture, and the returns per unit for these fruits







Florida Cooperative Extension


should be greater than for the abundant, commonly-grown vari-
eties of more temperate regions. Strict grading, careful and
attractive packing, and intelligent marketing are necessary in
order that top prices may be secured. Many of the tropical or
sub-tropical fruits can be marketed wholly or in part as manu-
factured products in forms such as jellies, marmalades, etc.,
which partially removes the uncertainty connected with the
marketing of perishable products.
The general fruit-consuming public is ignorant of the qualities
of most tropical fruits. The banana and pineapple, of the trop-
ics, and the citrus fruits, of the sub-tropics, are now the best
known and are considered almost indispensable in the fruit
diet even though fruits of the temperate zone are available.
The avocado and mango are gaining in favor, as is demonstrated
by the increased consumption of these fruits. Several others,
as the papaya, cherimoya, lychee, sapote, guava, and eugenia,
are well known and highly prized in various parts of the tropical
world but are scarcely known in the United States except in
those restricted areas where they are grown.
Some fruits are not desirable for consumption in the fresh
state but they can be utilized to advantage in the making of
various products such as jellies, jams, marmalades, preserves,
and butters. Such products are not being prepared commercially
but the quantity could be materially increased, since undoubtedly
there is a wide market for them when properly prepared and
attractively packed.
Much information concerning the chemical composition of
tropical and sub-tropical fruits may be found in two publications
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station: Bulletins 237
and 2831.
Citrus fruits and strawberries-the state's two major fruit
crops-and some other fruits which are grown in greater or
lesser quantities, as pineapples, avocados, mangos, blueberries,
blackberries, grapes, figs, Japanese persimmons, papayas, and
pears, are not included in the fruits herein discussed, as bulle-
tins dealing with most of them are either now available or in
the process of preparation. The list of fruits dealt with is in-
tended to include those miscellaneous species which by actual
trial have shown their adaptability to the soils and climatic
1Abbott, Ouida D. General Properties of Some Tropical and Sub-
Tropical Fruits of Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 237. 1931.
Stahl, A. L. Composition of Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical
Florida Fruits. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 283. 1935.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 5

conditions obtaining in Florida, but most of which are not yet
grown in quantity.

CLIMATIC RESTRICTIONS
That portion of Florida south of Palm Beach on the East Coast
and Bradenton on the West Coast, exclusive of much of the
Everglades section lying between, is considered to be the most
tropical. There are localities outside this area that have the
benefit of higher altitudes or water protection, or both, and sel-
dom experience frosts. Some of these locations will support trop-
ical species as well as will areas much to the south. The periods
of cold in many places are of such light degree of intensity and
of such short duration that the injury sustained, if any, is
usually slight. There is no frost line in the state; all parts
of the peninsular portion have at some time experienced frost.
A record of minimum temperatures and other climatic data for
the various parts of the state is available in Bulletin 200 of
the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station2.
Tropical plants cannot be expected to thrive in locations which
are often subjected to temperatures below freezing. Many of
them can endure a few degrees of freezing if the cold is not of
sustained duration. Ordinarily there is no pronounced dormant
season with these plants which corresponds to that of plants of
the temperate zones. Some are deciduous, being without foliage
for short periods, but the time of leaf shedding may be induced
more by wet or dry seasons than by temperature alone.
Freedom from cold of an intensity that will cause material
damage, and amp'e soil moisture-coupled with drainage-are
basic requirements that must be met if tropical plants are to
be grown successfully. When the probable climatic requirements
of a plant are known its adaptability to a given area, insofar
as the temperature factor is concerned, can be determined in
a large measure by a knowledge of the past mean temperatures
of the location in question. While the sustained minimum tem-
peratures experienced usually decide whether a plant can with-
stand the cold of a given location, there are some very tender
species which seem to be permanently damaged by a chilling
at temperatures well above freezing. With most species, the
larger mature plants are less susceptible to cold injury than are

2Mitchell, A. J., and M. R. Ensign. The Climate of Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp: Sta. Bul. 200. 1928.






Florida Cooperative Extension


the younger, smaller ones. Several species, if given protection
for the first few years, can be grown without further attention
along this line other than during periods of severe cold that
may occur at rare intervals.
Many species that could not otherwise survive may be grown
to maturity and the range of many plants extended consider-
ably by heating during the few hours of dangerously low tem-
peratures. Natural protection should be chosen primarily;
artificial heating is to be considered only as a form of insurance.
It is not possible actually and definitely to outline the sections
where many species may be grown because of the divergence
of minimum temperatures in the various areas of the state.
Not only latitude, but nearness to large bodies of water, eleva-
tion, and other local topographical influences, as well as prox-
imity of buildings or other trees, exert a strong effect in the
matter of cold protection. Local environmental conditions in
many instances give protection to a location that causes it to
be much less subject to frost hazard than another situation
having a much more southerly latitude. The likelihood of frost
damage is usually lessened in locations closely adjacent to lakes,
rivers, or the coast, and also in locations having a greater eleva-
tion than the surrounding territory.
With the species listed, the numeral in parentheses following
the common name is intended to indicate roughly the hardiness
of the plant. Thus those marked (1) are the most susceptible
to cold injury and their planting should be restricted to the most
tropical portions. Plants which are somewhat hardier than those
in the above grouping but at the same time quite subject to
cold injury are indicated by (2). The ones designated by (3)
are considerably more cold-resistant than those in the preced-
ing classifications but not hardy enough for state-wide planting.
Species with the designation (4) are the least subject to cold
injury and may be planted anywhere in the state. Because of
a lack of plantings in widely differing locations it is probable
that errors in this classification will be found. On the whole,
however, a general indication of the temperature requirements
is shown.
PROPAGATION
Most of the plants bearing edible fruits produce viable seed
and can be propagated by this means. The variation in the fruit
of seedling plants is so great in many species, however, that






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 7

resort must be had to other methods of propagation if the de-
sired characteristics are to be perpetuated. These methods
(termed asexual) include budding, grafting, layering, and cut-
tings.
Practically all commercial plantings of fruits of the temperate
zone in America consist of plants asexually propagated. Under
such a system of propagation inferior sorts are discarded and
only superior varieties increased and disseminated. The fruit-
ing quality of seedling trees can be determined only after they
have produced fruit, while with asexually propagated plants
there is the assurance that each will produce fruit identical
with that from which the scion was taken. Most species come
into bearing earlier when budded or grafted than when grown
as seedlings.
Seeds. Seeds constitute the easiest means of plant propaga-
tion. Many of the seeds of tropical fruits remain viable but a
short time; to insure a fair percentage of germination they
should be planted as soon as the fruit has matured. Small seeds
are usually planted in flats (small, shallow boxes) where the
soil can easily be kept moist. By placing the flats in a semi-
shaded location less watering is required than when the seeds
are planted in an open seedbed. Flats should be so placed that
dashing rains or the drip from trees will not wash out or un-
cover the seeds.
After attaining a height of a few inches the seedlings are
transplanted to pots, plant boxes (usually about 6 by 6 by 16
inches), or the nursery row where they are kept until large
enough for permanent transplanting. Large seeds may be planted
directly in seedbeds, pots, or boxes. There are several species
that as yet are grown only as seedlings, many of them seem-
ingly varying but little from the parent tree.
Budding. Budding is commonly used when perpetuation of
desirable varieties is wanted. The shield bud is preferred over
other methods and is generally employed except on plants with
a thick bark. Budding is practiced only when the stock is in
active growth so that bark and wood separate easily. The best
season for budding depends largely on the species and must be
determined by trial. Greater success results from midsummer
budding with some, while with others the percentage of failures
at that season is so high as to require that they be worked dur-
ing the cooler and drier months.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Grafting. Grafting is generally done at a time when the stock
is in a dormant condition but dormancy is by no means an abso-
lute requisite to this operation in numerous species. Indeed,
in some species the period of most active growth is best for
grafting. The cleft, whip, side, and crown grafts are most com-
mon, the type of graft depending considerably on the size of
the stock being worked.
Cuttings. Many species may be grown from cuttings. This
is a desirable method unless for some reason a rootstock of an-
other species is wanted. Clean, coarse sand is an excellent root-
ing medium for most species. Flats, provided with several
drainage holes in the bottoms, are filled with damp sand to a
depth of about four inches. The cuttings are inserted to about
half their length and so spaced that they do not touch each other.
The sand is then firmly tamped about them. Watering is re-
quired about twice daily during warm weather as the sand in
the flats must not be allowed to become dry. Root growth in
many species is more easily induced if a portion of the foliage
near the apex of the cutting is left intact. Cuttings of many
tropical and sub-tropical fruit trees may be more readily rooted
if bottom heat is used in the cutting bed. This method should
be tried out on those species which are difficult to propagate
otherwise.
Layering. Layering consists in laying a branch, still attached
to the plant, horizontally on the ground or on soil in a box, and
partially covering it with the soil but leaving the tip portion
exposed. An oblique cut, partially through the stem on the
under side of the branch to be covered with soil, hastens forma-
tion of roots in some species. Chinese or gootee layering, also
termed marcottage, which is frequently used with the lychee,
is accomplished by cutting a branch partially through and wrap-
ping at that point with a large ball of sphagnum moss or other
water-retaining material. With both forms of layering, the soil
or moss must be kept in a moist condition. As soon as roots
of sufficient size and number have formed within the moisture-
holding medium the branch is severed below the newly formed
roots and the new plant is ready for planting.
Under the discussion of each species the common methods of
propagation are indicated. In the propagation of several species
the work of Wester3 has been followed.
sWester, P. J. Plant Propagation and Fruit Culture in the Tropics.
Bul. 32, Bur. of Agr., Govt. Phil. Is., Manila. 1920.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 9

CULTURE
It is not possible to outline specific cultural directions, based
on Florida experiments, for each of the species of fruits be-
cause of the lack of commercial plantings of most of them.
Although some are being grown on a commercial scale, the
majority of the species are being grown more or less as speci-
men plants, which has given little opportunity for comparative
methods of culture.
Some of the soils of the area suited to the growing of the
more tropical plants are of a rocky, calcareous formation. Cul-
tivation, as the term is generally understood, is not possible on
such soils. Mulches have proven their worth as a substitute
for cultivation on these soils and they are also of value on marls
and sandy types. Large amounts of decaying organic matter
will tend to correct the highly alkaline reaction of calcareous
soils and thus bring about a more favorable condition for the
growing of most fruit trees. A rather heavy mulch of any rough
vegetation, such as grasses, weeds, and leaves, will reduce soil
moisture losses, prevent excessive heating of the soil on the
warmer days of summer, tend to control weed and grass growth
and, as it decomposes, add much-needed organic matter. A
cover crop grown in the middles will furnish mulching materials
for the trees and will be the source of appreciable amounts of
nitrogen if a legume is planted. Cowpeas, velvet beans, Crota-
larias, Natal grass, and pigeon peas are among those planted.
Continued deep cultivation is not usually practiced, although
shallow tillage during dry seasons tends to conserve soil mois-
ture by destroying weed and grass growth.
All of the fruiting trees and shrubs that are later listed re-
quire some fertilization and either light cultivation or mulching
that the greatest growth and fruit yields may be attained. Or-
ganic fertilizers or those partially composed of organic materials
are generally preferred. Applications of a complete fertilizer
(one containing nitrogen, phosphorus, and potash) are made
after the plants are transferred to permanent locations. At
first the fertilizer applications contain a high percentage of nitro-
gen and little potash but when fruiting age is reached the potash
content is increased. Stable and poultry manures are of worth
both for their organic content and fertilizer value.
Drainage is essential with most of the species. Some trees
can thrive on soils having a higher water table than can others.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Few can survive water-logged soils or those with water stand-
ing over the surface for even relatively short periods. Higher
lands that do not suffer a deficiency of soil moisture are better
adapted for the majority.
Little pruning is practiced for an increase in fruit production.
Most of this work is mainly for the purpose of shaping up the
tree and for the removal of weak, interfering, or dead branches.
With an increase of plantings greater consideration will neces-
sarily have to be given to pruning practices.
In the warmer months, small plants when first set benefit
greatly by the erection of a shade of any sort that will partially
break the direct rays of the sun. The addition of some muck
and compost of decayed vegetation to the holes in planting will
aid plants in starting into a thrifty growth. Stable manures,
well rotted and thoroughly mixed with soil, are used with good
results.
Few parts of the state are immune from winds which to a
greater or lesser degree are detrimental to the growth of fruit
trees. Spring winds, coming during the driest season, may cause
injury by their desiccating effect. Winds of moderate intensity,
occurring when the trees are carrying a crop, may reduce the
yield appreciably as well as lower the grade of the fruit remain-
ing. These hazards may be materially reduced by windbreaks.
Natural hammock growth is the most satisfactory windbreak
but in the absence of heavy native growth resort must be had
to artificial plantings. Trees which are well adapted to this
use in the more tropical areas include the Australian pine
(Casuarina equisetifolia and C. lepidophloia), the Pongam (Pon-
gamia pinnata), the native black-olive (Bucida buceras), tam-
arind (Tamarindus indica), jambolan (Eugenia jambolana),
rose-apple (Eugenia jambos), and the woman's tongue tree (Al-
bizzia lebbek). The Australian silk-oak (Grevillea robusta)
and the bamboos (Bambusa spp.) are utilized for this purpose
in the central part of the state. The native cherry-laurel (Lau-
rocerasus caroliniana) is satisfactory in the northern area.

SPECIES AND VARIETIES
In the following listing will be found most of the fruits, with
exceptions as previously noted, which are being grown in the
state. None have been knowingly included that have not pro-
duced fruit in Florida and all photographs are of plants grow-
ing in Florida or of specimens taken from such plants.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 11

To facilitate the finding of a given fruit the arrangement is
alphabetical according to the botanical classification. Such an
arrangement of the common r-mes is not possible, owing to


Fig. 2.-The sapodilla tree, Achras sapota. (Photo by A. F. Camp.)

the multiplicity of these names for many plants. Synonyms are
given in parentheses with the common name or names following.
The family to which each species belongs is also included.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In gathering information incident to many species free refer-
ence was had to Wilson Popenoe's "Manual of Tropical and Sub-
Tropical Fruits" (Macmillan Company, New York, 1920) and
Dr. L. H. Bailey's "Manual of Cultivated Plants" (Macmillan,
1924), as well as publications referred to in footnotes. The
writers are also indebted to the many growers who so freely
furnished both information as to their plantings and materials
for photographic purposes.


Fig. 3.-Fruit and foli-
age of the sapodilla.


Achras sapota L. (Sapota Achras Mill.) Sapodilla. Dilly. (1).
SAPOTACEAE.
The sapodilla, a tropical American indigene, is grown only in
the extreme southern part of the state. The tree is a handsome,
slow-growing evergreen. Under favorable conditions it attains
an immense size in good soil, reaching a height of 50 to 60 feet,
and with its dense, rounded crown is of majestic appearance.
(Fig. 2.) Usually it is found in Florida as a tree of medium







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 13

size. Its glossy, dark green, leathery leaves are 2 to 5 inches
in length and clustered at the ends of the smaller branches. This
tree is one of the species yielding a white latex from which
chicle, the basic substance in the manufacture of chewing gum,
is obtained. The dense, hard wood of the sapodilla was used for
the lintels of Mayan temples, and has lasted for hundreds of
years in some cases under tropical jungle conditions. The tree
is so susceptible to cold injury, even when a large tree, that it
can withstand but a few degrees below freezing, and small seed-
lings are easily
killed by frost.
The season of
blossoming is ir-
regular in south-
ern Florida, result-
ing in a succession
of ripening fruit
throughout m o s t
of the year. These
fruits resemble an
apple in shape.
They are 2 to 4
inches in diameter,
and have a rus-
seted, scurfy, thin
skin and a yellow-
ish-brown, granu-
lar flesh. (Figs. 3 Fig. 4.-Cross-section of the sapodilla fruit.
and 4.) There are
one to several shiny black, smooth seeds. The flesh, when thor-
oughly ripe, is soft, spicy and very sweet. The sapodilla is eaten
as a fresh fruit, and is found in limited quantities on the south
Florida markets during nearly every month of the year. There
is considerable variation among fruits from seedling trees and
the better types should be perpetuated by asexual means of prop-
agation. Propagation is mainly by seeds, which germinate in
about a month, although shield budding, grafting and layering
are feasible. May seems to be the most satisfactory month
for budding.

Anacardium occidentale L. Cashew. (2). ANACARDIACEAE.
The cashew, a relative of the mango, is a tropical American







Florida Cooperative Extension


native. It is rarely found in Florida, but bearing trees show
that it can be grown in the more protected regions. The tree
is an evergreen, of somewhat straggling and spreading habit
of growth, and while usually small, may reach a height of 30
feet. The oblong or obovate leathery leaves are 4 to 8 inches
long and 2 to 4 inches broad. The fragrant, tiny, pink flowers
are in panicles at the end of young branches.
The fruit of the cashew is of unusual and striking appearance,
and is matured during the
early summer. (Fig. 5.) I
is composed mainly of a
fleshy portion (the enlarged
receptacle) which is bright
yellow or red, 2 to 3 inches
long and of equal diameter,
shaped like a Delicious apple.
T h e kidney-shaped s e e d
(really the true fruit) is at-
tached outside, to the distal
(larger) end of the recepta-
cle. The fleshy portion is
generally termed the cashew-
apple and the seed is called
the cashew-nut. Both are
edible. The apple is very
fragrant and may be eaten
fresh, but is more esteemed
when cooked as a jam or pre-
serve. The shell of the nut,
Fig. 5.-The cashew-apple and nut,
Anacardiumn occidental. and also the kernel, contains
a caustic principle, and the
nut may be eaten only after thorough roasting to dissipate this.
Propagation is by seed or budding, and the seeds germinate
in 3 or 4 weeks usually.

Annona cherimola Mill. Cherimoya. Cherimoyer. (2). AN-
NONACEAE.
The cherimoya, a native of the northern Andes, is found in
many places in the American tropics as well as other tropical
parts of the world. While it can endure little frost, it seems to
thrive best at relatively high altitudes. Plantings in the warmer
parts of Florida have made rather poor growth and have been






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 15

light bearers usually. It has been much more successful in Cali-
fornia. The spelling "cherimoyer" is used in British colonies.
The tree is deciduous during part of the year, and is small
and variable in growth habit. Generally the habit is scraggly.
The thin ovate leaves are pubescent on the under side and dull
or brownish green above. They vary from 3 to 6 inches in length.


Fig. 6.-Fruit and twig of the cherimoya, Annona cherimola.

The fruit matures in late summer and is variable in appear-
ance and shape. (Fig. 6.) The form is usually ovoid or heart-
shaped, and the size is from a few ounces to a pound. As with
all annonas, the fruit is compound (a syncarp), formed by the
fusion of the carpels and receptacle into a fleshy whole. The
carpels show on the surface of the fruit as aureoles which are
traced to a greater or less degree by ridges or indented lines.
The color is light green or yellowish when mature. The num-
erous dark brown seeds are about 3/1 inch in length and easily
separated from the pulp.
The cherimoya is eaten as a fresh fruit and is considered by
most persons to be of excellent quality. The pulp is white,
aromatic, and of a custard-like consistency. Chilling improves






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the flavor. A hybrid between the cherimoya and sugar-apple,
the atemoya, is of very good quality also.
Propagation is by seeds, shield budding or cleft grafting. The
seedling cherimoya is generally used as rootstock, although A.
squamosa, A. reticulata, and A. glabra, the native pond-apple,
have all been successfully worked. Asexual propagation of the
better varieties is desirable, as much variation is found in the
fruit of seedlings.
The ilama, Annona diversifolia Saff., native to the foothills
of western Mexico and Central America, has been introduced
into southern Florida at various times, although only a single
specimen is known to be growing in the state now. Often called
"the cherimoya of the lowlands", the ilama is reputed to be of
as good quality as the cherimoya, and should be much better
adapted to conditions in southern Florida. The trees are said
to endure light frost without injury, and to be prolific. The
heart-shaped fruits mature during the late summer and are up
to a pound in weight. Every possible effort should be made to
introduce this valuable species permanently.

Annona muricata L. Soursop. Guanabana. (1). ANNONA-
CEAE.
The soursop is also of tropical American origin, and is a small
evergreen tree of upright growth habit, reaching a height of
15 to 20 feet commonly and sometimes of 30 feet. (Fig. 7.)
The glossy, dark green, leathery leaves are 5 to 8 inches long,
and are further characterized by small pits in the axils of the
larger veins on the lower surface. This tree has done well on
the lower East Coast, but requires more protection from cold
than the other annonas.
The fruit is quite large, often weighing from one to several
pounds, and is shaped somewhat like a pineapple. It matures
during the summer and is dark green in color. The surface
is faintly outlined in rhomboidal areas, representing the num-
erous fused carpels, and in the center of each is a soft recurved
spine. The flesh is white, juicy, and rather too acid for eating
fresh, but is much esteemed for making ices and refreshing
drinks. The brown seeds are about /4 inch long and flattened.
Propagation is by seeds, budding or grafting.
The mountain soursop, Annona montana Macfad., of the West
Indies has made good growth in trials in both Dade and Lee
counties. The foliage closely resembles that of the soursop,







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 17

being distinguished chiefly by the larger size of the pockets in
the axils of the leaf veins and by the somewhat larger leaf size.
(Fig. 8.) The fruits are smaller and more nearly spherical than
the soursop fruits, and have short straight yellow prickles pro-
truding from the aureoles. The ripe pulp is yellowish in color,
and the seeds are light tan and plumper than those of the sour-
sop. While the quality of the flesh is not so good as that of
the soursop, it is used in the same manner and has been well
liked by some. It is probable that selection might improve
the quality.


AN.,.r.


Fig. 7.-The soursop tree, Annona muricata.






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Annona reticulata L. Custard-apple. Bullock's Heart. Jamaica-
apple. (2). ANNONACEAE.
Like the other annonas, the custard-apple is native to the
American tropics. It is next to the guanabana in tenderness,
and succeeds only in the extreme southern portion of
the state, where it is frequently found. In gen-
eral appearance the tree resembles the sugar-


Fig. 8.-Foliage of the mountain soursop, Annona montana.


apple and cherimoya, being of a spreading habit and rather
scraggly in growth. (Fig. 9.) It is the largest of these three,
reaching a height of 20 feet and an equal spread. The thin
glabrous leaves are from 6 to 10 inches long and one-fourth as
wide, with the veins showing prominently. The leaves are shed
in late winter and the tree is leafless for a short time.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 19

The fruit is matured during the late winter and early spring,
when no other annonas are in fruit, and is about a pound in
weight. (Fig. 10.) It is almost smooth on the surface, showing
the carpels only by faint lines, and is buff or reddish brown in
color at maturity. The quality of the fruit is rather poor, al-
though some people relish it apparently. As with all annonas,
chilling improves the flavor. Some confusion has arisen because
of the fact that in Cuba and some other countries in Central


Fig. 9.-The custard-apple tree, Annona reticulata, in fruit.


America this fruit is known as "cherimoya". The true cheri-
moya is a greatly superior fruit and resembles the custard-apple
very little.
Propagation is by seed, budding or grafting. This species
makes a vigorous stock for other annonas.
Annona squamosa L. Sugar-apple. Sweetsop. (2). ANNONA-
CEAE.
The sugar-apple, from tropical America, is grown to a limited
extent in the southern counties and is the most successful of the







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annonas in Florida. Its range is restricted mainly to the lower
East and West Coasts, but the tree has been fruited also in the
central part of the state. The tree is small, reaching only about
10 feet in height, and round-headed, with long slender branches.
The leaves, which are shed in late winter, are thin, narrow and
glaucous. They are 3 to 6 inches long and sparsely hairy when
young but smooth at maturity.
The fruit has a form somewhat resembling a shortened pine
cone with broad base, being heart-shaped. It is 2 to 4 inches in
diameter, yellow-
ish green in color
and usually cov-
ered with a white
or bluish bloom.
(Fig. 11.) The
fruit is composed,
as are all annona
fruits, of many
carpels, which in
the sugar apple
are quite distinct
and easily separ-
ated, instead of
being fused to-
gether as in the
other species. The
pulp is granular,
creamy yellow or
white, custard-
like, very sweet
Fig. 10.-Fruit and twig of the custard-apple. and of agreeable
flavor. Numerous
dark brown or black seeds about 1/2 inch long are imbedded in
the pulp. The season begins in mid-summer and lasts for about
2 months, the fruits ripening irregularly. They are used almost
wholly as a fresh fruit, and are chilled before eating. During
the season the fruit may be found on local markets in southern
Florida, but on account of softness when approaching maturity
it seldom reaches its destination in good condition when shipped
long distances.
Propagation is by seed, budding, or grafting. As with cherimoya,
it is highly desirable to select and propagate choice seedlings.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 21

Artocarpus integrifolia L. f. (A. integra Merr.) Jakfruit.
Jackfruit. (1). MORACEAE.
The jakfruit tree, native to southern India and Malaya, has
in a few instances been grown to large size in southern Florida.
Although quite subject to frost injury, it is still somewhat
hardier than the breadfruit (A. incisa).
The tree is of large size, reaching a height of 60 feet under
good conditions, erect growing and of decided ornamental value.
(Fig. 12.) Its leaves are firm and slightly leathery, deep green,
elliptic to obovate, blunt pointed and 5 to 8 inches in length.



















Fig. 11.-Fruit and twig of the sugar-apple, Annona squamosa.

The juice of the tree is milky. The staminate and pistillate
flowers are borne on separate spikes on the same tree (monoeci-
ous) in March and April.
The immense fruits, weight from 10 to 40 pounds, and matur-
ing in July and August, are borne only on the trunk or larger
limbs. (Fig. 13.) They are roughly oblong in shape and may
attain a length of two feet, although Florida grown specimens
have been from 8 to 12 inches long and of about three-fourths
that diameter. The outer surface is covered with hard pointed
projections like a coarse grater. Like the annonaceous fruits,
the jakfruit is technically a syncarp, composed of many united
carpels, which remain distinct on the surface. The pulp is yel-







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lowish, soft and quite juicy when the fruit is ripe. It contains
many large white seeds. There are several varieties, the degree
of sweetness as well as the size and shape being variable. The
pulp is eaten fresh, dried, or preserved. In some tropical coun-
tries the seeds are roasted and eaten.


Fig. 12.--The jakfruit tree, Artocarpus integrifolia.


Propagation is by seed or cuttings. Seedlings are rather dif-
ficult to transplant from the nursery row, but may be grown







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 23

in boxes for setting out. Success has also been had in trans-
planting seedlings from open ground to boxes and later setting
out in permanent location.
Averrhoa carambola L. Carambola. (1). OXALIDACEAE.
The carambola is of unknown origin, but has long been cul-
tivated in southeastern Asia. It is quite tropical in its require-
ments and is severely injured by temperatures below freezing.
The tree attains a height of 20 to 25 feet and is of upright and
symmetrical
habit of growth.
(Fig. 14.) Its
leaves are odd-
pinnate, with 4 to
9 leaflets which
increase in size
toward the leaf
tip and are from
1 to 2 inches long.
They are sensi-
tive to touch and
light, folding
when touched or
darkened. The
dainty pink flow-
ers are borne in
terminal clusters
in February and
March.
Of unique ap-
pearance, the
fruit is a light 4
golden ye 1low Fig. 13.-Fruit hanging from limb of jakfruit tree.
color, averaging
about 4 inches in length, ovoid, and with 3 to 5 prominent longi-
tudinal angles or ribs. A cross-section of the fruit is distinctly
star-shaped. (Fig. 15.) The skin is thin, smooth and translu-
cent. The watery pulp is acid to sweet and of a pleasant fra-
grance somewhat like the quince. There is great variation in
fruit quality, some strains being very sour while others are
sweet. The sweet ones may be eaten fresh when ripe, but the fruit
is mostly used for jellies and preserves. A refreshing drink
can also be made from the juice. The ripening season is mostly






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from March to July, but flowering and fruiting may take place
almost throughout the year.
Propagation is by seeds and by shield-budding.
Blighia sapida Koenig. (Cupania sapida Voigt.) Akee. (2).
SAPINDACEAE.
The akee, from the Guinea Coast of West Africa, is grown
in a limited way, the susceptibility to frost damage restricting


ai


Fig. 14.-The carambola tree, Averrhoa carambola.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 25

it to the warmer sections. The tree is upright growing but
broadly spreading in habit, reaching a height of 35 feet in
favorable locations but more often under 20 feet. (Fig. 16.)
Its large stiff leaves are pinnate, with usually 10 oblong, short-
petioled leaflets 4 to 6 inches long. Small greenish-white flowers
are borne in the axils of the leaves. Blossoming
usually occurs in early spring, but a light June
bloom sometimes is found.
The fruit, ripening in late summer, is
a 3-celled capsule, 3 to 4 inches in
length and yellow to red in color.
(Fig. 17.) The tree in full fruit is
a strikingly colorful sight. At matur-
ity the fruit splits longitudinally to
expose the round, shiny, black seeds
-one in each cell-to each of which
is attached the edible white aril.
(Fig. 18.) This aril is firm
and irregularly furrowed.
The Spanish name "seso
vegetal" (vegetable brain)
is probably derived from
the brain-like appearance
of the arils. The arils are
generally considered best
when fried in butter.
Considerable uncertainty
has existed regarding the
poisonous quality of over-
ripe akees, and some have
even held that the pink Fig. 15.-Leaf, whole fruit and cross-
even held that the pink section of fruit of the carambola.
portion lying between the
white aril lobes was poisonous. The careful tests of Dr. L. H.
Baekeland4 have shown that so long as the arils remain fairly
firm, without any softening or pastiness, the akee may be eaten
freely. Fruit picked ripe and shipped in midsummer in or-
dinary vent crates was received in good condition. Arils which
show softening should be discarded.
Propagation is by seeds or by shield budding.

4Baekeland, Dr. L. H. The Akee. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc.: 180-181.
1935.







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Calocarpum mammosum Pierre. (Lucuma mammosa Gaertn.
Vitellaria mammosa Radlk. Achradelpha mammosa Cook.)
Sapote. Mamey Sapote. Mamey Colorado. (1). SAPOTA-
CEAE.
The sapote, a Central American fruit, is definitely tropical


Fig. 16.-The akee tree, Blighia sapida.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 27


in its requirements, so that its culture is
restricted to only the most protected loca-
tions. The white-sapote, Casimiroa edulis,
is sometimes erroneously called "sapote"
also, giving rise to some confusion. The
tree is erect growing and may attain a
huge size, with a height of 40 to 50
feet and a spread of nearly as much.
The leaves, which are similar in out-
line and size to those of the loquat,
are up to 12 inches long and 4
inches broad. They are a shining
light green above, light brown
beneath, spatulate in shape, and
are clustered near the ends of
the rather thick branches. The
young leaves are finely pubes-
cent, and the buds are covered
with rusty brown tomentum.
Flowers are borne irregularly
in clusters from the axils of
fallen leaves on any growth
older than the current season.
(Fig. 19.)
The fruits, ovate to elliptic in Fig.
form and 3 to 6 inches in length,
are a russet brown color and
surface. (Fig. 20.) A thick
encloses a firm pulp which
color, rich, and somewhat
usually but one large seed,


17.-The akee fruit.

have a scurfy
and woody rind
is of a reddish
spicy. There is
which is ellipti-
cal in shape. It
is brown, hard,
smooth and shin-


Fig. 18.-Akee fruit opened
to show edible arils.






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ing, with a large "shirt front" of lighter color recessed on one side
the length of the seed. The ripening season is June and July. The
fruit is eaten fresh, used for sherbets, or made into marmalades.
Propagation is by seeds, which require about a month for
germination.


Fig. 19.-Leaf, flowers and immature fruit of the sapote, Calocarpum
mammosum.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 29

The green-sapote, Calocarpum viride Pittier, native to Central
America also, has been grown in very rare instances in the
extreme southern part of the peninsula, although no specimens


Fig. 20.-The sapote fruit.


are known there now. The tree resembles greatly the sapote
in foliage, seed and tenderness to cold. The oblong fruits are
3 to 5 inches in length, green in color and thin skinned. The
cinnamon colored pulp is sweet, juicy and melting. It is eaten
as a fresh fruit and highly esteemed.
Propagation is by seeds, which germinate in about a monthL






Florida Cooperative Extension


Carissa grandiflora A. DC. Carissa. Natal-plum. Amatun-
gula. (3). APOCYNACEAE.
The carissa, a native of South Africa, is quite at home on a
wide variety of Florida soils. It is used extensively in the south-
ern half of the state as an ornamental shrub for foundation,
specimen, and hedge planting. When planted as a hedge it forms
an almost impenetrable barrier.


Fig. 21.-The carissa shrub, Carissa grandiflora.


Shrubby and dense in habit of growth, the plant does not
develop a tree shape even though a height of 15 feet may be
attained. (Fig. 21.) The foliage is dark green and leathery
and the branches are heavily armed with strong two-pointed
spines. The fragrant flowers are in evidence several months
of the year. They are white, solitary, about two inches across
and very conspicuous against the background of dark green
foliage.
The dark red fruits, maturing in summer, are nearly ovoid
in' shape and 1 to 2 inches in length. (Fig. 22.) The skin is







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 31

very thin, enclosing a firm, reddish pulp in which numerous small
seeds are embedded. When bruised or cut, the pulp exudes
white droplets of a gummy juice. The fruits are eaten fresh,
in salads, and as a sauce. The flavor is vaguely suggestive of
the raspberry.
Carissa arduina Lam. is occasionally seen. In appearance the
plant is much like the above, but both fruit and flowers are
smaller. The dark purple fruits contain but 1 or 2 seeds instead
of many.


Fig. 22.-Foliage, flowers and fruit of the carissa.


The plant of another species, C. carandas L., the karanda,
resembles C. grandiflora strongly except that many of the spines
are not forked and the fruit is smaller, becoming almost black
at maturity.
Propagation may be effected by seeds, germinating in about
2 weeks, but the seedlings are slow growing while young. Layer-
ing of the branches near the ground is a very satisfactory method
of propagation, especially if the underside of the branch is
notched first. Marcottage is successful also. Cuttings may be
rooted with bottom heat, or if the young branches are cut half
through and allowed to hang thus until a callus is formed,
the cutting may be rooted without bottom heat.







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Casimiroa edulis Llave & Lex. White-sapote. Mexican-apple.
Matasano. (3). RUTACEAE.
The white-sapote, a native of Mexico and Central America,
has proven itself adapted to Florida's soils where frosts are


Fig. 23.-The white-sapote tree, Casimiroa edulis.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 33

not too severe. It is commonly grown in the more nearly frost-
free sections, but is not injured even when quite young by tem-
peratures of 260 F., and has matured fruit in a protected loca-
tion in Volusia County.
The tree as seen in Florida is usually of small or medium size,
although a few quite large specimens are found. (Fig. 23.) Its
leaves are digitate, having 3 to 7 leaflets, but usually 5. They


Fig. 24.-Leaf, fruits and seed of the white-sapote.






Florida Cooperative Extension


are 3 to 5 inches long, lanceolate to ovate in outline, shiny gr een
above and dull beneath. The inconspicuous flowers are greenish-
yellow and appear in late winter.
The fruit, which begins ripening in May, is gray to yellowish-
green in color and of sub-globose shape, resembling a small to-
mato in size and shape. (Fig. 24.) The skin is very thin and


Fig. 25.-The trumpet-tree, Cecropia palnata.


easily broken, and the yellowish flesh is soft and sweet in desir-
able varieties. The oblong seeds, from 1 to 5 in number but
usually 3, are large and hard. The fruit is eaten fresh. There
is a wide variation in the size and flavor of fruits from different
seedling trees, and most of them have a trace of bitterness. So
far the only named variety propagated in Florida commercially
is the "Golden Sapote", a seedling selected by H. W. Johnson
of Homestead as having outstanding merit. The flesh is unus-
ually yellow and more than usually free from bitterness. Further







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 35


selections may give varieties of
larger size, fewer seeds and bet-
ter quality. Fig.
the
Propagation is by seeds, ger-
minating in 3 to 4 weeks, or
by budding.

Cecropia palmata Willd. Trum-
pet-tree. Snakewood Tree.
(2). MORACEAE.
The trumpet-tree is another
native of the West Indies. It
cannot endure much frost, large
specimens having been killed to
the ground at 260 F. Specimens
of large size are to be seen in
the southern area of Florida,
and a few trees are growing in
a well protected location in
southeastern Polk County. The
tree, of striking and decidedly
tropical aspect, is tall glowing
and has a single, hollow, slender
stem-smooth and gray-that is
branchless except near its apex.
(Fig. 25.) The trunk resembles
that of the papaya but is much
more slender. A white felt cov-
ers the under surface of the
large peltate, palmately-lobed,
long-petioled leaves. Each leaf
is divided into 7 to 11 lobes.
The foliage is not evenly dis-
tributed but is clustered near
the branch ends. The juice of
the tree is milky.
The tree is dioecious, stamin-
ate and pistillate flowers being
borne on separate individuals.
The fruits are clustered slender
spikes, several inches in length, which
are composed of innumerable one-






Florida Cooperative Extension


seeded drupelets, like greatly elongated mulberries. (Fig. 26.)
When these compound fruits are ripe, the consistency of the
flesh is like that of the fig, and the flavor in some degree re-
sembles the fig also.
Propagation is by seeds or cuttings.

Chrysophyllum cainito L. Star-apple. Caimito. (1). SAPO-
TACEAE.
The star-apple, native to the American tropics, attains a height
of 20 to 30 feet or more, and is of value both as an ornamental


Fig. 27.-The star-apple tree, Chrysophyllum cainito.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 37

and for its fruit. (Fig. 27.) The leaves are of striking appear-
ance. They are lanceolate or oblong in shape, 3 to 5 inches in
length, deep green and glabrous above and covered beneath with
a lustrous satiny yellowish-brown pubescence. The wild satin-
leaf (C. olivaeforme L.) of the hammocks of the Lower East
Coast is a sister species but has even more brilliant golden-brown
or coppery underleaf color. The sapodilla and canistel belong
to the same family. The tree is quite subject to frost injury
and 'can be grown only in well protected locations.
The fruit, shaped like an apple, is 2 to 4 inches in diameter,
smooth, and has a soft whitish pulp that is quite sweet when
mature. The skin color may be either green or purple, as there
are two seedling races. The interior of a transverse section of
the fruit suggests a star in the appearance of the brown seeds
and carpel segments. The ripening season is in April and May.
Many large old trees in southern Florida have never fruited
for some unknown reason, and the fruit is almost unknown in
Florida as yet.
Propagation is by seeds, which require about 6 weeks for
germination. Budding is feasible, if superior varieties are ever
selected.

Dovyalis caffra Warb. (Aberia caffra Harv. & Sonder). Kei-
apple. Umkokolo. (3). FLACOURTIACEAE.
The kei-apple, of South Africa, is a dense, thorny shrub or
small tree that can be grown all over the south half of the state.
The plant makes a quick recovery if frozen back, and it is pos-
sible for it to fruit the next season after being severely cold-
injured.
At maturity the kei-apple reaches a height of 15 to 20 feet
but by pruning it can be grown as a hedge plant. The leaves
are shiny green, about 2 inches long, and usually clustered. They
are armed with a long, sharp spine in each of the axils. As the
staminate and pistillate blossoms are normally borne on separ-
ate plants it is necessary to plant those of both sexes to insure
fruiting. The blooming season is April to June.
The fruits, resembling a miniature apple in appearance, ripen
in late summer and autumn. They are golden yellow or greenish
in color, acid to the taste, and about an inch in diameter. The
flavor of the pulp is strongly suggestive of the cranberry. Its
use is mainly for the preparation of sauces or preserves.
Propagated by seeds, layers, and buds.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 28.-The ketembilla bush, Dovyalis hebecarpa.
Dovyalis hebecarpa Warb. (Aberia gardneri Clos.) Ketem-
billa. Ceylon-gooseberry. (2). FLACOURTIACEAE.
The ketembilla, an introduction from Ceylon, has grown very
satisfactorily both on the sandy soils of south central Florida
and on the limestone soil of the Lower East Coast. Although
more tender than the kei-apple, it possesses a degree of hardi-
ness which makes it possible to grow the plant as far north
as Polk County and possibly farther, in protected locations.
The plant is a shrub with upright spiny branches and reaches






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 39

a height of 15 feet. (Fig. 28.) Its foliage is light green, with
the individual leaves oval in shape and 3 to 4 inches long. Though
the plants are normally dioecious, with staminate and pistillate
flowers on separate plants, an occasional isolated plant is found
producing fruit, showing the presence of perfect flowers some-
times. If seedlings are planted, several of them should be set
out together, rather than only one or two, to assure fruiting.
Normally the plants are quite prolific.
The velvet-coated fruit is purple or lilac in color, inside and
out, and resembles the gooseberry in size, shape and flavor, al-
though it is less firm in flesh. It is sweet and juicy and is utilized
for jellies and preserves. Care must be taken to include some
unripe fruit for jellies.
Propagation is by seeds and budding. Buds should be taken
if possible from an isolated plant which is known to produce
fruit.
Elaeagnus philippensis Perr. Lingaro. (2). ELAEAGNA-
CEAE.
The lingaro, native to the Philippine Islands, is a climbing
or scandent evergreen shrub. It hag shown itself well adapted
to conditions in Dade County, both on sandy and limestone soils.
The plant develops a hemispherical shape, when grown as usual
without support, with a height of 10 feet and a diameter of
20 feet or more. The leaves are small, oblong, pointed, light
green above and silvery-scurfy beneath. The new growth and
buds are an attractive bronze or russet color. In appearance
the plant resembles the more common Elaeagnus pungens, which
is grown as an ornamental in many Southern states. The flow-
ers are borne in small clusters from the axils of the leaves on
the new growth from January until March. They are yellow
inside and silver-scurfy outside.
The fruits, pink or pale red, are about the size and shape of
a very small olive, and are capped by the persistent calyx tubes.
(Fig. 29.) They are smooth skinned and contain a single slen-
der seed surrounded by a firm but juicy flesh. The flavor is
rather tart, although sweet, and the fruit is of value chiefly for
making a highly-colored jelly, although not unattractive for
eating out of hand when fully ripe. The fruiting season lasts
all through the spring, as only a few weeks are needed for the
flowers to develop into fruit.
Propagation is by seeds, which germinate in 2 or 3 weeks,
or by cuttings.






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Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Photinia japonica Gray.) Loquat.
Japanese Medlar. Japan-plum. (4). ROSACEAE.
The loquat, native to China, is grown as an ornamental or
garden tree and being quite hardy is found in limited numbers
throughout the state. The fruit is seldom matured in the sec-
tions north of Ocala, as it is on the tree during the winter
months and is damaged by temperatures slightly below freez-
ing. The tree thrives on numerous soil types which demonstrates
that it is not exacting in soil requirements. Good drainage,


Fig. 29.-Fruit and foliage of the lingaro; Elaeagnus philippensis.

however, is essential. The chief obstacle in growing the loquat
is the tree's susceptibility to a blight which kills back whole
branches and even the entire tree.
The tree is a symmetrical evergreen, attains a height of about
25 feet and has a fairly dense crown. (Fig. 30.) Its large, stiff
leaves, 8 to 12 inches in length with sharply dentate margins,
are glossy on the upper surface and rusty-tomentose beneath.
The smaller branches, like the lower leaf surfaces, are covered
with a rusty tomentum. The dingy white flowers, quite fra-
grant, are borne in terminal panicles. They appear mainly in
late fall, or early winter, although a second blossoming is not
unusual.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 41

The fruit is firm-fleshed and juicy. It ripens in late winter
or early spring. The color varies from pale yellow to orange
and the form from spherical to pear-shaped. (Fig. 31.) The
size is small, an average length being about 11/2 inches. The
seeds, usually 2 or 3 to the fruit, are large, smooth, and brown,


Fig. 30.-The loquat tree, Eriobotrya japonica.


flat on the sides where more than one are in the same fruit.
The fruit is eaten fresh or may be utilized in the making of
jellies, preserves, etc. Loquat jelly is of superior quality.
There are many varieties, but no satisfactory classification
has been worked out for them. Most of the trees in Florida
are seedlings, but several varieties are grown also, among them
the Advance, Champagne, Early Red, Oliver, Pineapple, Premier,
Tanaka and Thales. The latter two are sometimes classified







Florida Cooperative Extension


as Chinese, and all the others as Japanese, but no clear-cut char-
acters distinguish these groups. In southern Florida the Oliver
variety, the result of crossing the Olivier on the Tanaka, has
proven the most satisfac-
tory one.
Propagation is by seeds,
budding, or grafting.
Seedling loquats are used
exclusively in Florida as
rootstocks for budding or
grafting. If budding is
practiced a long shield bud
inserted in late fall, as a
dormant bud, is used;























Fig. 31.-Loquat foliage and fruit.

growth being forced by lopping the stock early the next spring.
Grafting seemingly gives better results than budding. The cleft
and whip grafts are satisfactory, early spring being the pre-
ferred season for the work. Veneer grafts have been used
successfully also.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 43

Eugenia dombeyi Skeels. (E. brasiliensis Lam.) Grumichama.
(3). MYRTACEAE.
The grumichama, a Brazilian fruit, is little known in Florida
but is deserving of wider cultivation. The tree is attractive and
the fruit is a fair substitute for the cherry. Its hardiness is
probably comparable to that of the surinam-cherry.


Fig. 32.-Foliage and fruit of the grumichara, Eugenia dombeyi.
The tree is evergreen, small in size and compact in habit, with
large, leathery, glossy, oval to obovate-oblong leaves 4 to 5 inches
in length and 2 to 21/2 inches in breadth. The fruit, on slender
stems 11/2 to 2 inches long, is scarlet to black in color and has
4 laige persistent sepals at the apex. (Fig. 32.) It strongly
resembles the cherry in size, appearance and texture. The seeds,
1 to 3 in number, are nearly round. The ripening season is
in April and May at Miami, there being a lapse of but a few
weeks between the time of blossoming and of mature fruit.







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Propagation is by seeds, germinating in about a month. The
seeds are viable over a period of several weeks, but the young
seedlings are very difficult to grow during the first year.
Eugenia jambolana Lam. (Syzygium jambolanum DC. S. cum-
ini Skeels. E. cumini Merr.) Jambolan. Jambolan-plum.
Java-plum. (2). MYRTACEAE.
The jambolan, a native of southeastern Asia and the East
Indies, makes a vigorous growth in the warmer sections of the


Fig. 33.-The jambolan tree, Eugenia jambolana.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 45

state. The tree is of large size, reaching a height of 40 feet,
and rather compact habit. With its whitish branches and clean
foliage it is of attractive appearance and deserves much wider
cultivation than it has received. (Fig. 33.) The tree with-
stands wind quite well and may have merit for windbreak pur-
poses as well as for ornament and fruit. The leaves are 3 to 8
inches in length, broadly oval with broadly pointed apex, some-
what leathery, lighter green below than above. The midrib is
prominent with numerous closely spaced lateral veins. The
flowers appear in dense
clusters in February and
March from the axils of
fallen leaves on old wood,
and are small and white.
The fruit, ripening in
May and June, is the size
and shape of a medium-
sized olive or a damson
plum. (Fig. 34.) The
color is deep maroon or
purple, and the firm flesh
is similarly colored. The
fruit is somewhat tart
and has some tannin
content until fully ripe.
There is considerable
variation among seed-
lings in season of matur-
ity and quality of fruit, Fig. 34.-Fruit of the jambolan.
and some have fruit
which can be eaten fresh quite pleasantly. Superior varieties
should be selected and propagated.
Propagation is by seeds, which germinate in about 2 weeks,
or by budding.
Eugenia jambos L. Rose-apple. (2). MYRTACEAE.
The rose-apple is indigenous to India and Malaya. It is a
large, handsome, evergreen, spreading tree, reaching a height
of 30 feet or more and having a spread as great as its height.
(Fig. 35.) Its foliage is thick and shining, the leaves being
oblong-lanceolate in shape and up to 8 inches in length. The
new flush of growth is wine-colored, resembling like growth in
the mango. The large greenish white flowers appear from







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February until April, and consist mostly of numerous long
stamens so that they resemble pompons.
The fruit is nearly spherical, 11/2 to 2 inches in diameter, pale
yellow to pinkish white, with a crisp flesh having a sweetish
rose odor and flavor. (Fig. 36.) The period from flowering
to maturity is rather short, but fruits are maturing from April
to June. The large cavity is only partly filled by the 1 to 3 large
brown seeds. The fruit may be eaten fresh, but is almost taste-
less except for the rose-water flavor. It is much better as a
candied or preserved fruit, or used for jellies.


Fig. 35.-The rose-apple tree, Eugenia jambos, in flower.


The rose-apple can be grown only in the southern part of the
state, owing to its susceptibility to frost injury. Trees have been
observed there growing well and fruiting under conditions of
neglect which many other introduced species could not withstand.
Propagation is by seeds, which are polyembryonic, i. e., have
more than one embryo in a seed, so that two or more plants
may come from each seed.
Eugenia uniflora L. (E. micheli Lam.) Surinam-cherry. Pitanga.
(3). MYRTACEAE.
The surinam-cherry, a Brazilian indigene, is grown exten-
sively in the southern half of the state as an ornamental shrub






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 47

or hedging plant. It is well adapted to such use. Under
optimum growing conditions it has reached a height exceeding
20 feet. As usually found it is a very bushy shrub of less than
10 feet height. The foliage is evergreen, glossy and bright


Fig. 36.-Foliage and fruit of the rose-apple.


green in color. As in most species of this genus, the new growth
is wine-colored. The resistance of this species to cold makes it
possible to grow it successfully as far north as Orange County.
SOnly a few weeks intervene between flowering and maturing
of fruit. Flowering continues from early January until April,
and fruits are ripe from March through May. The main crop





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matures in March and April. There are two distinct varieties,
one having bright cherry-red fruits and the other having very
deep crimson or almost black fruits at maturity. The sub-
globose fruits, pendant in clusters on slender stems, are about
an inch in diameter, prominently 8-ribbed, and very thin-
skinned. (Fig. 37.) The pulp is soft and juicy, sweet, acid-


Fig. 37.-Fruit and foliage of the surinam-cherry, Eugenia uniflora.

ulous and aromatic. Imbedded in the pulp is one large, round
seed, or there may be two or three smaller seeds flattened on
their common sides so as to make a rounded whole. The color
of the pulp is the same as that of the skin. The black-fruited
variety is slightly more tart than the red-fruited. The surinam-
cherry is eaten as a fresh fruit, but is even more esteemed for
making jellies and sherbets. In season the fruit is found in
small quantities on the markets in the southern half of the
state.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 49

Propagation is by seed or cleft-grafting. The seeds germinate
in 3 or 4 weeks.

Feijoa sellowiana Berg. Feijoa. Pineapple-guava. (4). MYR-
TACEAE.
The feijoa, brought from the South American sub-tropics,
apparently is hardy throughout Florida. It has withstood tem-
peratures of 140 F. without injury. In Florida the plant is
valued as an ornamental. It lends itself admirably to this
use as the growth is slow and the plant exceptionally free of
injurious insects or diseases.


Fig; 38.-The feijoa shrub, Feijoa sellowiana.


The feijoa is a shrubby plant that attains a height of about
15 feet and does not assume a tree form but branches from
the ground. It usually has a spread which is as great as or
greater than the height. (Fig. 38.) The foliage and bark are
grayish-the leaves small, not over 21/ inches in length, light
shiny green on the surface and gray tomentose beneath. The
flowers, emerging in late April, are striking in appearance. The
white, thick petals, which are edible, have a purplish tinge on
the inner side and are in strong contrast to the numerous crim-
son stamens. (Fig. 39.)







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The fruit, oblong to round in shape and gray-green in color,.
ripens in August and September. (Fig. 40.) It falls to the
ground with maturity. A maximum size is about 3 inches in
length. The flavor is good, resembling to a degree that of a


Fig. 39.-Feijoa foliage and blossoms.


blend of strawberry and pineapple. Numerous very small seeds
are embedded in the white pulp. Like that of the common guava
the fruit is eaten fresh or utilized in jelly making.
There are some named varieties, as the Andre, Coolidge,
Choice, and Superba, but most grown are seedlings. In some
instances plants have failed to bear fruit despite profuse bloom-







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 51

ing. This may be due to a lack of pollination and seemingly
can be overcome by interplanting of varieties or of seedlings
from different sources.


Fig. 40.-Feijoa foliage and fruit.







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Propagation is mainly by seeds which germinate within two
to three weeks. Cuttings and layers can be used but both are
very slow. Grafting on seedling stock is the best method of
perpetuating varieties.
Flacourtia ramontchi L'Her. (F. indica Merr.) Governors-
plum. Ramontchi. (2). FLACOURTIACEAE.
The governors-plum, an indigene of Madagascar and southern
Asia, is well adapted to Florida locations experiencing little
frost. While it may attain a height of 25 feet under favorable
conditions, it is always shrubby in habit, and usually is seen
as a dense rounded shrub of 10 feet in height. By reason of


Fig. 41.-Foliage and fruit of the governors-plum, Flacourtia ramontchi.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 53

its fruitfulness and growth habits it may be utilized as a dual-
purpose plant-as a hedge and for the fruit. The branches are
sparsely armed with sharp axillary spines which are up to an
inch in length. The leaves are 2 to 3 inches long, oblong-obovate,
with dentate-serrate edges, glabrous, deep-green above and
slightly paler below, glossy and slightly leathery.
The fruits, resembling crabapples or small plums in shape,
are matured in mid-summer. They are a deep dull red to purple
in color when ripe and about an inch in diameter. (Fig. 41.)
The soft juicy flesh, firmer than the surinam-cherry, contains
several small, thin seeds. Considerable variation is apparent


Fig. 42.-The imbe tree, Garinia livingstonei.
Fig. 42.-The imbe tree, Garcinia livingstonei.






Florida Cooperative Extension


in the flavor of fruits from seedling plants, some being sweet
and others quite acid. An excellent jelly is made from the fruit.
The plant is dioecious, with male and female plants, so that
several seedlings must be planted together to insure fruitfulness.
Propagation is by seed or by cuttings of mature-wood.
Garcinia livingstonei Ander. Imbe. (2). GUTTIFERAE.
The imbe, native to Portuguese East Africa, has proven it-
self well adapted to conditions in Dade County, and will prob-
ably do well elsewhere in southern Florida. It is reported to
withstand as low as 200 F. when mature without serious injury.
The small, compact, slender tree reaches a height of 15 to 20
feet, but has a shrubby habit and is usually multiple stemmed.
(Fig. 42.) The branches are rather short and thick, and the
leaves are leathery, oblong in shape, from 4 to 6 inches long
and from 1 to 2 inches wide, dark green in color with the veins
showing white. Flowering occurs in February, the greenish-
yellow flowers being borne in clusters in the axils of fallen leaves.
The fruits mature in June, and the tree is very attractive
when loaded with ripe fruit. The fruit is the size of a small
plum, orange-red in color, with a rather large seed and a thin
layer of sweet, acidulous, firm flesh of very pleasant taste. It
should be possible to increase the thickness of the pulp by seed-
ling selection. This fruit seems worthy of much wider cultiva-
tion than it has received.
Propagation is by seed, but budding is probably feasible.
Hylocereus undatus Britt. & Rose. (H. tricostatus Britt. & Rose.
Cereus triangularis Hort.) Night-blooming Cereus. Pitaya.
Strawberry-pear. (1). CACTACEAE.
The night-blooming cereus, a Mexican native, is grown in the
warmer sections as a popular ornamental. It has extremely large
flowers, opening at night, and heavy, three-angled stems. (Fig.
43.) Because of its scrambling habit of growth it is well suited
for growing on low walls where ample room may be given. The
oval, red fruits, about 3 inches in diameter, contain an edible,
white, juicy flesh. (Fig. 44.)
Propagation is by cuttings.
Litchi chinensis Sonn. (Nephelium litchi Cambess.) Lychee.
Litchi. (2). SAPINDACEAE.
The lychee, native of southern China, is one of the most im-
portant and highly prized commercial fruits of that region.
Considerable quantities of the dried fruit are shipped from






































Fig. 43.-The pitaya fruit, Hylocereus undatus. (Photo by Turnage.)







Florida Cooperative Extension


China to the United States, the Chinese population of America
offering a ready market. A comparison of the mean tempera-
tures of points in southern Florida with those of Canton would
suggest that this tree should be able to endure the mean mini-
mal temperatures obtaining in the area south of Eustis. Culture
of the lychee has been successful, however, only in the warmer
sections of the state, except for locations in the Ridge section
where unusually good water protection from cold was had. It


Fig. 44.-The pitaya in blossom. (Photo by Turnage.)


is possible that the greater tenderness to cold displayed by this
tree in Florida than in China is due to the lack of dormancy
occasioned by the small percentage of cloudy or foggy days in
the winter months, coupled with relatively high mean minimal
temperatures. The tree under those conditions may then be
severely injured by a few hours of temperatures below freezing.
With protection by heating during the infrequent cold periods,
the lychee can probably be grown to maturity in many locations






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 57

in the southern half of Florida. In spite of having been intro-
duced to Florida in 1886 and repeatedly re-introduced since then,
the lychee is still rather rare. A small grove exists in southern
Polk County and there are a number of trees in Dade County,
besides occasional specimen trees in other sections.


Fig. 45.-The lychee tree, Litchi chinensis.
The lychee makes a handsome, round-headed, evergreen tree
which reaches a height of 20 to 30 feet in Florida. (Fig. 45.)
The foliage is a deep, glossy green, the new flushes of growth
being orange colored. The somewhat leathery leaves are 5 to
8 inches long, abruptly pinnate, with usually 5 or 7 leaflets.






Florida Cooperative Extension


It is usually considered that the lychee requires an acid soil,
especially in view of Coville's5 finding that plants in acid soil
develop root tubercles filled with a mycorrhizal fungus. How-
ever, very thrifty growth has been found on the limestone soils
of southern Dade County. The pale green flowers are borne
in long terminal
panicles in March
or April.
The fruit rip-
ens in June, and
is oval in shape,
about 11/2 inches
long and nearly
as broad. (Fig.
46.) The skin is
bright red, tough,
brittle, and cov-
ered with small
rough tubercles.
T h e glistening
white pulp, firm
and juicy like a
Tokay grape, en-
closes a single
large brown seed,
which sometimes
is much shrunken
by abortion. (Fig.
47.) The flavor
of the pulp is ex-
cellent. The Chin-
Fig. 46.-Fruit and foliage of the lychee. (Photo
by A. F. Camp.) ese dry the whole
fruit like raisins,
and they are then known as "lychee-nuts". There are numerous
varieties, Groff6 listing 49 as cultivated in China, and several
of the best have been introduced here at one time or another.
Propagation is by seed, marcottage, inarching or grafting,
with marcottage (Chinese air-layering) as most generally suc-
cessful. Seeds must be planted within a short time after being

5Coville, F. V. The Lychee-A Mycorhizal Plant. In the Lychee and
Lungan. G. W. Groff. Appendix VI. Orange Judd Co., New York. 1921.
6Groff, G. W. See Citation 5.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 59

taken from the fruit, as they lose their vitality quickly if allowed
to dry out, and require about a fortnight to germinate. Seedlings
are difficult to raise and probably have special need for acid
.soil conditions and plenty of humus. Seedling lychees or longans
(Euphoria longana) may be used as stocks. Goucher of the
U. S. Department of Agriculture has devised a method of grow-
ing from cuttings whereby the cuttings, with most of the foliage
intact, were tied to pot labels so that the base of the cutting
just came in contact with the rooting medium. The rooting
medium was composed of a sand and muck mixture, the whole
enclosed in a propagating case.


Fig. 47.-Lychee fruits cut to show arils and seeds.


Lucuma nervosa A. DC. (Lucuma rivicola var. angustifolia
Miq.) Canistel. Egg-fruit. Ti-es. (2). SAPOTACEAE.
The canistel, usually a small tree, is a native of the South and
Central American tropics and has become naturalized to a slight
extent on some of the Florida keys. (Fig. 48.) It is not very
hardy and probably cannot successfully be grown to fruiting
size in any but the well protected parts of the state. Many
fine specimens are found in Dade County, and occasional trees
on the West Coast as far north as St. Petersburg, where a large
one is growing well. It resists wind better than its close rela-






Florida Cooperative Extension


tive, the sapote. The leaves are bright green and shining,
from 5 to 8 inches in length and oblong to oblanceolate in
outline.
The fruit normally matures from November to February,
although occasionally an off-bloom matures fruit in June. The
fruits are round or ovoid in shape, orange-yellow in color, and
2 to 3 inches long. (Figs. 49 and 50.) The orange-yellow flesh
has the texture of hard-boiled egg or of cold-boiled sweet potato


Fig. 48.-The canistel tree, Lucuma nervosa.


of the mealy varieties, and is of a sweetish flavor with a trace
of muskiness. It is said that addition of butter improves the
taste of the fruit. There are from 1 to 3 seeds usually, dark
brown except for the ventral face, hard shelled, plump, and from
3/% to 1 inch in length. The fruit is relished by some for eating
fresh, and has little other use.
Propagation is by seeds, germinating slowly in 3 to 5 months.
There is considerable seedling variation, however, and the best
fruited seedlings should be budded on seedling stocks.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 61

Malpighia glabra L. Barbados-cherry. (2). MALPIGHIA-
CEAE
The barbados-cherry is a native of the West Indies and of
the area from northern South America to southern Texas. It
is grown in a limited way in the southern counties of Florida,
but is too tender for the northern section.
The plant is a spreading, slen-
der-branched shrub, reaching a
height of 6 to 10 feet. Its
leaves are shiny, ovate, and
1 to 3 inches in length.
(Fig. 51.) The small,
thin-skinned fruits ripen
from May to July, flow-
ering continuing from
April to June. The fruits
are much like the suri-
nam-cherry in aspect,
but have 3 lobes instead
of 8, and are similarly
red, soft and juicy. (Fig.
52.) They are too acid
for eating as a fresh
fruit, but have a taste
reminiscent of crab-apple
and are used for jams
Fig. 49.-A canistel fruit.


Fig. 50.-Canistel fruits in longitudinal and cross-section.






Florida Cooperative Extension


and preserves. There are usually 3 small seeds in a fruit, each
enclosed in a large prominently crested, parchment-like "stone"
Propagation is by seeds, which are often infertile, or by cut-
tings.

Mammea americana L. Mamey. Mammee-apple. (1). GUT-
TIFERAE.
The mamey, a native of the West Indies and northern South
America, is
grown to a very
limited extent in
the warmest
parts of the state.
The evergreen
tree is of value
as an ornamental
fully as much as
for its fruit. It
forms a compact
somewhat cylin-
drical head and
may reach a
height of 50 or
60 feet. The
branches are
heavy and the
crown of foliage
dense. The leaves
are a shining
deep green, leath-
ery, oblong obo-
vate, 4 to 8 inches
long and usually
blunt at the apex.
(Fig. 53.) The
white flowers are.
Fig. 51.-Foliage, flowers and fruit of the barbados- large and quite
cherry, Malpighia glabra. fragi ant.
The fruits, 4 to 7 inches in diameter, ripen in June and July.
They are almost round with a slight nipple at the tip and have
a skin that is thick, russet colored, and somewhat rough. A
yellow to reddish firm flesh surrounds from 1 to 4 large seeds.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 63

enclosed in stones quite like those of peaches but larger. The
flavor varies in fruits from different trees from sweet to sub-
acid, but the mamey is not a fruit for eating fresh. In the form
of preserves or jam, or simply as a stewed fruit, it is of good
quality, the taste being quite like that of the apricot. In Cuba




























Fig. 52.-Fruit and seeds of the barbados-cherry. (Twice natural size.)

the mamey is often known as Mamey de Santo Domingo to dis-
tinguish it from the Mamey sapote, as the sapote is often called.
Propagation is by seeds, which germinate in about 2 months.
Melicocca bijuga L. Spanish-lime. Mamoncillo. Genip. (1).
SAPINDACEAE.
The Spanish-lime, native to tropical America, thrives in the
warmer parts of Florida. Trees are growing at Fort Myers,
Palm Beach and other places on the mainland, but it seems to
fruit most prolifically at Key West.






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The tree is of large size, erect in habit of growth, and is said
to be slow-growing. Its shining green leaves are abruptly pin-
nate. Each leaf has two pairs of elliptic-oblong leaflets, the
lower pair being much reduced in size. (Fig. 54.) The fra-
grant, greenish-white, inconspicuous flowers are borne in ter-
minal panicles. The flowers are unisexual, though the tree
apparently is polygamous. In those which are bisexual the


Fig. 53.-Foliage of the mamey, Mammea americana.

anthers seem to be functionless. Some trees fail to set fruit,
possibly due to a preponderance of either staminate or pistillate
blossoms, in the latter instance through a lack of pollination.
The fruits, nearly round and about an inch in diameter, con-
tain one large round seed embedded in an agreeably flavored,
juicy, acid, whitish pulp. The skin is thick, green, and tough.
As a fresh fruit, it is held in high esteem in Key West. It ripens
during the summer months.
Propagated by seed.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 65


Monstera deliciosa
Liebm. Ceriman.
(1).ARACEAE.
This evergreen
Mexican aroid is
grown in the more
protected locations
not only as an unus-
ual ornamental vine
but also for its
fruit. The plants are
vigorous scrambling
climbers having im-
mense, broad, long-
petioled, perforated
and incised leathery
leaves that attain a
blade length of two
feet or more. (Fig.
55.) It clings to its
support (any rough
surface being satis-
factory) by heavy
aerial roots. Fre-
quently it is grown without any
support, forming dense mats
many feet in diameter.
The flowers are like huge calla
lilies, with a waxy white spathe
enclosing a green spadix. (Fig.
1.) They appear in June or July.
From the spadix develops a
large fruit the size and shape of
an ear of corn, which matures
in the late summer or fall of the
succeeding year, some 14 months
or more after blooming. (Fig.
56.) These fruits are edible, the
soft pulp having a delicate pine-
apple-banana odor and an agree-
able sweetish taste. Not every-
one likes them, however, as the


1
54.-Leaf of the Spanish-lime,
Melicocca bijuga.


Fig. 55.-The ceriman, Monstera
deliciosa. (Photo by A. F. Camp.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


spicules or crystals of calcium oxalate which are present cause
a burning sensation on the throat and tongue of some people.
Others are very fond of the fruit. Care must be taken that the
fruit is fully mature, which is indicated by a yellowing of the
green color of the fruit and by the loosening of the scales which


Fig. 56.-Fruit and leaf of the ceriman.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 67

cover the surface, so that they fall off easily. When cut, the
stem should be placed in a glass of water until the lower scales
drop, indicating that the fruit is ready to eat. It ripens from
the base upward and not all simultaneously. Fruits may be
kept for weeks in a refrigerator and eaten a little at a time.
They are occasionally seen on the local markets in season, and
are reported to bring fair prices.
Propagation is by stem cuttings, each having two or more
segments or buds, which may be planted where the vine is
wanted or in pots. Seeds are infrequently produced but may
be used for propagation also.

Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum Kuntz. (Musa sapientum L.)
Common Banana. (3). MUSACEAE.
Bananas, natives of India and China but now widely culti-
vated in the tropics, are grown mainly in the south half of
the peninsula but scattered plantings consisting of a few plants
are found as far as the northern border. The plant is seriously
damaged by temperatures of 250 F. but is not killed outright
unless the cold is of long duration. Sustained cold much below
freezing is fatal. When only the tops are frozen back a new
growth from the underground portion puts forth with the re-
turn of warmer weather. Fruiting is almost entirely prevented
if the foliage is severely damaged by cold. The presence of a
growing plant does not necessarily indicate that fruit can be
produced in that area.
The banana is a large herbaceous plant, the height varying
with variety and species but usually from 10 to 20 feet. Each
stalk produces fruit but once. New stalks, arising as suckers
from the base, give a succession of ripening fruit, although the
rapidity of production and time of ripening is dependent on
both soils and climatic conditions. The old stalks are cut to the
ground after fruiting and generally not more than 3 to 5 suckers
are allowed to grow from the base at one time. Porous, moist
but well drained soils containing considerable organic matter
are best suited. A heavy mulch, continually renewed as it de-
cays, is especially beneficial.
The Lady-Finger is a popular tall growing variety. Others
occasionally grown include the Orinoco (horse-banana) and the
Apple. The Cavendish or Chinese Dwarf banana (M. cavendishii
Lamb) is of Chinese origin. (Fig. 57.) It is a stout-stemmed,
dwarfed sort that reaches a height of but 5 to 7 feet at maturity.






Florida Cooperative Extension


This species is considered by some as being the hardiest and is
probably grown to greater extent in the state than any other.
There are numerous banana varieties in the tropics but the


Y,


Fig. 57.-The Cavendish banana, Musa cavendishii.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 69

above compose the larger portion of Florida plantings. The
Gros Michel, the chief commercial variety of the tropics, is grown
to little extent in the state.
Propagation is by sucker plants which may be planted entire
or their "bulbs" cut into wedge-shaped pieces, each having an
outer surface of 4 to 8 or 10 square inches.


Fig. 58.-Foliage and flowers of the purple granadilla, Passiflora edulis.

Passiflora edulis Sims. Purple Granadilla. Passion-fruit. (3).
PASSIFLORACEAE.
The purple granadilla is a vigorous vine which is rather tender
in its first year but hardy enough thereafter for culture through-
out the southern half of the state. It is cultivated on a com-
mercial scale in California and Australia. The dark green leaves
are serrate and usually 3-lobed, although the juvenile growth
is not lobed. (Fig. 58.) They are from 4 to 8 inches long,
with small glands at the base of the blade. The younger branches
are purplish and so are the tendrils which grow from the leaf
axils. Trellises should be provided, as for grapes, and on these
the vines grow rampantly. Unlike the grapes, the granadillas
are evergreen.
The flowers are quite ornamental, although less showy than
those of some other species of the genus. Blooming persists






Florida Cooperative Extension


over a long period, all during spring and summer, and fruit is
mature during summer and fall. The mature fruit is oval, about
2 inches long, with a hard shell which is characteristically
purple in color. However, there seems to be a seedling strain
in Florida of which the fruits are buff colored at maturity. The


Fig. 59.-The otaheite-gooseberry, Phyllanthus acidus.


interior of the fruit is filled with a sweet, aromatic, acidulous,
juicy pulp, within which are imbedded numerous small seeds.
This pulp is eaten fresh, usually with a little sugar added, or
used for making a refreshing drink. It is also considered a
valuable addition to fruit salads.
Propagation is by seeds, germinating in 2 or 3 weeks, or by
cuttings of mature wood.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 71

Phyllanthus acidus Skeels. (P. distichus Muell. Cicca disticha
L.) Otaheite-gooseberry. Iba. (2). EUPHORBIACEAE.
The otaheite-gooseberry, a native of Madagascar and India,
is reported to be found occasionally growing wild as an escape
in the southern part of Florida. The tree is small, usually from
15 to 20 feet in height,
erect growing and of de-
cided ornamental value.
(Fig. 59.) It is sometimes
attacked by small caterpil-
lars which strip the foliage
completely in a few days
if not promptly sprayed
with arsenates. The ovate,
acute leaves are 2 to 3
inches long, and are ar-
ranged in two rows on the
smaller lateral branches so
as to appear like long pin-
nately compound leaves.
This delusion is increased
by the shedding of the
small slender branches as
if they were indeed leaves.
The larger branches bear-
ing these leaf-bearing ones
are thick and stubby.
The fruit is round, prom-
inently 3-lobed and faintly
6-lobed, pale yellow-green
in color or nearly white,
and about 3/4 of an inch in
diameter. (Fig. 60.) The
firm, crisp flesh contains a
single large 3-angled stone, Fig. 60.-Fruiting twig of the otaheite-
within whose thick walls
are six small, flat, brown seeds. The fruit resembles the goose-
berry somewhat in flavor, being quite acid, and is used for
making pies and preserves.
Propagation is by seed or by greenwood cuttings. Budding
can be used also.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Phyllanthus emblica L., the myrobalan, is sometimes found in
the warmest sections of the state. Its foliage is very fine, and
the foliage-branches resemble a mimosa leaf. (Fig. 61.) The
fruit is similar to that of the otaheite-gooseberry, but smoothly
rounded and covered with a slightly roughened green skin. Usage
is similar.

Pleiogynium solandri Engl. Burdekin-plum. (2). ANACAR-
DIACEAE.
The burdekin-plum, native to northern Australia, has been
grown to a slight
extent on the
West Coast of
Florida. The tree
is evergreen and
of fairly large
size, with com-
pound leaves. The

usually, and are 3
to 4 inches long.
The flowers are

and female ones
being borne on
separate t r ee s.
The fruits, which
mature mainly
during the fall
Iand early winter,
are about 11/2
inches in diame-
ter, flattened like
small tomatoes,
with purple skin
Fig. 61.-Foliage, fruit and stone of the myrobalan, and firm white
Phyllanthus emblica.
flesh. (Fig. 62.)
A large and very hard stone is enclosed by the flesh. The fruit
is somewhat sweet and acidulous, and is used for making jellies
and jams.
Propagation is by seed or by cuttings.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 7&

Psidium cattleianum Sabine. Cattley Guava. Strawberry Guava.
(3). MYRTACEAE.
This species, from Brazil, is considerably more cold-resistant
than the common guava. Temperatures of short duration of
250 F. or even lower are withstood with little damage.
The plant bears little or no resemblance to the common guava.
It is shrubby in
habit of growth
but may reach a
height of 20 feet.
(Fig. 63.) Its
growth is rela-
tively slow. The
glossy, deep
green, leathery
leaves are obo-
vate to elliptic in
shape and usually
less than 4 inches
in length. Be-
cause of the at-
tractive foliage
the plant is used
to some extent in
ornamental plant-
ings. It is free of
scale-insects and
diseases. The
plants fruit quite
regularly in spite
of cultural neg-
lect.
The fruit, rip- '-ig. 62.-Foliage and fruit of the burdekin-plum,
ening in late July Pleiogynium solandri.
and for several weeks thereafter, is small-seldom over 11/2
inches long--of a red to reddish-purple color, and contains many,
small, hard seeds. (Fig. 64.) A yellow-fruited variety, lucidum,
commonly termed the Yellow Cattley guava, is somewhat sweeter
but differs mainly in the color of the mature fruit. The fruits
of both varieties are utilized for jelly making as well as fresh.
Neither sort is grown to anything like the extent of the common
guava.







Florida Cooperative Extension


In field plantings a spacing of about 10 by 10 feet is used.
Propagation is almost wholly by seeds, there being little varia-
tion evident in the seedling plants.


Fig. 63.-The cattley guava tree, Psidium cattleianum.

Psidium guajava L. Guava. (3). MYRTACEAE.
The guava is a native of tropical America that has become
naturalized through many parts of southern Florida. Unfortun-
ately, a large proportion of the wild stock bears fruit of an






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 75

inferior quality. The plant has shown itself to be adapted to
a wide range of soils as it thrives on high sands, marls, and on
the heavier types. It is quite subject to frost injury, a few
degrees below freezing usually causing serious damage, but even

I m m I


Fig. 64.-Cattley guava fruit and foliage.

if killed to the ground new growth appears with warmer weather
and within a couple of seasons a bearing size is again attained.
Ordinarily growing as a large shrub, the guava under favor-
able conditions can be grown in tree form. (Fig. 65.) It at-
tains a height of about 25 feet with an equal spread. The foliage







Florida Cooperative Extension


is a light green, the leaves oblong-elliptic to oval, 3 to 6 inches
in length, with the veins prominently impressed above and raised
below. The branchlets are four-angled. The white flowers,
borne singly or two and three together, appear intermittently,
beginning in late spring. The fruit, containing many small seeds


Fig. 65.-The common guava tree, Psidium guajava.
like grape stones, varies greatly in shape, size, and flesh colora-
tion, according to variety. (Fig. 66.) All varieties have the
characteristic guava odor. The season of fruit maturity begins
in late June and extends for several weeks.
Several unnamed varieties are grown. These are differen-
tiated mainly according to flesh color-white or pink-and
degree of acidity-sweet or sour. There are also differences in
the shape of the fruit which varies from globose to pyriform.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 77

The Brazilian guava, P. guineense Sw., has been noted as mak-
ing a thrifty growth in Polk County and on the Lower East
,Coast. This species differs from the former in having round
teretee) instead of four-angled branchlets, leaves without the


Fig. 66.-Fruit and foliage of the guava. (Photo by Turnage.)

impressed venation, and rather insipid fruits with large num-
bers of smaller seeds.
In planting, various spacing distances are used. These vary
from 10 by 15 feet to 25 by 25 feet. Any spacing closer than
15 by 15 feet will normally result in crowding of mature plants.





Florida Cooperative Extension


Complete commercial fertilizers are used with material benefit.
Both clean culture with cultivation and mulching systems are
successfully practiced, the type of culture giving the best results


\


Fig. 67.-Pomegranate fruit and foliage.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 79

depending to some extent on the soil type. Good drainage is
desirable but at the same time an ample supply of soil moisture
throughout the growing and fruiting season is required for
maximum growth and fruit yield.
Guavas are used extensively fresh and in the making of jellies,
marmalades, preserves, etc. Manufactured guava products are
being produced in a commercial way and it is probable that the
demand for these will continue to increase steadily.
Propagation is mainly by seeds, which germinate readily, root
cuttings, budding, or grafting. With seeds, only those from
large choice fruits should be planted. Root cuttings are made
of any except very large
or very small roots. They
are cut into lengths of 5
to 8 inches, laid flat in a
seedbed and covered with
soil to a depth of 2 to
4 inches. The soil is kept
moist but not wet. A
simple method of obtain-
ing plants from roots is
to sever roots from large
plants at a distance of 2
or 3 feet from the main
trunk. A sharp spade is
used so that the soil and
roots are disturbed as
little as possible. Sprouts
will spring up from the Fig. 68.-Pomegranate fruit in cross-
will spring up from the section.
severed roots and may be
transplanted when they have attained the desired size. Both
shield and patch budding are possible but it is difficult to get
a reasonable percentage to live. The work is done in winter
on small stock plants; budwood that is far enough advanced
to have lost the green color in the bark should be used. The
Morris slot graft has proved successful on guavas.
Punica granatum L. Pomegranate. (4). PUNICACEAE.
The pomegranate, originating in southern Asia, is now com-
mon in both the tropics and sub-tropics. It is well adapted to
diverse soil types and seemingly is unaffected by any extremes
of temperatures throughout Florida. It is grown as an orna-
mental and a home fruit but not in a commerical way in this state.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The plant, if unpruned, is a shrubby tree attaining a height
of 15 to 20 feet. It is deciduous. The leaves are a shining green
and seldom over 21/2 inches in length. Large blossoms, deep
orange-red in color, are in evidence for several weeks during
the spring. The plant is quite attractive when in foliage and
accompanied by either the red flowers or fruits.
The fruits are variable in size, ranging from 2 to 4 inches
in diameter, nearly round, with heavy tubular calyx persistent,
and yellowish to bright red in color. (Figs. 67 and 68.) The
edible portion consists of the juicy pulp contained in sacs about
each seed. It is eaten out of hand or the juice is used in the
preparation of drinks and sirups. The season of ripening begins
in July and August and extends over several weeks, often into
late fall. There are numerous varieties, the variation having
to do with the size of the plant as well as differences in char-
acteristics of the fruits.
Propagation is by seeds, cuttings, or layers.
Spondias cytherea Sonn. (S. dulcis Forst.) Ambarella. Ota-
heite-apple. Vi-apple. (1). ANACARDIACEAE.
A native of the Society Islands in the South Seas, the am-
barella is grown in a limited way in the most frost-free part
of Florida. Under optimum conditions the tree may grow to
a height of 60 feet, but as usually seen in Florida it is a small
tree of 20 to 30 feet. Its pinnate leaves, clustered near the ends
of the stout branches, are 8 to 15 inches in length. The leaflets,
11 to 13 in number, are oval-oblong and acuminate, and are
about 3 inches long. The small whitish flowers are borne in
long panicles during the spring.
The fruits, ripening from August through December, are oval
to oblong in outline, 2 to 3 inches long, and somewhat resemble
a large plum. (Fig. 69.) They are a deep yellow color when
ripe, and the firm juicy flesh is also yellow. The flavor varies
from acid to sweet in various seedlings, and has a slight resinous
tinge. The single seed is enclosed in a large, spiny stone which
occupies most of the fruit and makes difficult the removal of
the pulp. The fruit is usually of indifferent quality, but occa-
sional trees bear fruit which is pleasant to eat fresh. It is used
somewhat for making preserves.
Propagation is by seeds, and about a month is required for
germination. Superior seedlings should be selected and propa-
gated by shield-budding.







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 81


Spondias lutea L.
plum. Jobo.


(S. mombin Jacq.) Yellow Mombin. Hog-
(2). ANACARDIACEAE.


The yellow mombin, usually a tall, spreading tree but of
variable shape, is widely distributed in the tropics. Its leaves
are pinnate, up to 12 inches in length, with 7 to 17 leaflets


Fig. 69.-Fruit and foliage of the ambarella, Spondias cytherea.
Fig. 69.-Fruit and foliage of the ambarella, Spondias cythereG.







Florida Cooperative Extension


from 3 to 4 inches long. The flowers, tinged with yellow, are
borne in long panicles. The ovoid fruits are yellow, from 1
to 11/9 inches long, with the flavor varying from sweet to sub-
acid. The season of maturity is from August to November.
The red mombin or Spanish-plum, Spondias purpurea L. (S.
mombin L.) is found in both Key West and Coconut Grove, and
is probably suited to the same range as the yellow mombin. It


Fig. 70.-The tamarind tree, Tamarindus indica.


is of superior quality to the other two species of Spondias. The
fruiting season is from September to November. In Key West
it is known as "scarlet-plum".
Propagation is by seeds, which germinate very slowly, or by
Ibng cuttings of mature wood.
Tamarindus indica L. Tamarind. (1). LEGUMINOSAE.
The tamarind is believed to be indigenous to tropical Africa,
but has been cultivated from prehistoric times in India. It
thrives well on the soils of the southern part of the state, but
is confined to that region because of its tenderness to cold.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 83

The tree may attain an immense size under favorable condi-
tions, but is slow growing and is usually a tree of medium size
in southern Florida. (Fig. 70.) Its great spreading branches
and finely pinnate evergreen foliage give it a decided ornamental
value, and it is quite resistant to wind also. The leaves are
from 4 to 6 inches long and have 20 to 30 small leaflets. The
attractive flowers have yellow petals with red veins, and are
borne in small racemes in early spring.
























Fig. 71.-Tamarind fruits.

The fruit is a slightly curved, plump, brown pod, 3 to 5
inches long, with a brittle shell. (Fig. 71.) The fruit matures
in early summer, but may hang on the tree for months. The
large, flat, glossy seeds are imbedded in a firm brown pulp
which is the edible portion. This pulp is of pleasing acid flavor,
although the sugar content may exceed 20 percent. It is used
in preparing beverages, for flavoring preserves, in the manu-
facture of meat sauces, and, in the Orient, as a fish-preserving
brine.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Propagation is usually by seeds, germinating in a week or
less, but desirable fruited seedlings may be shield-budded on
small stock plants of the same species.
Triphasia trifolia P. Wils. Lime-berry. Limoncito. (2).
RUTACEAE.
The lime-berry, a citrus relative, is presumably a native of
southern China or of Malaya. It has but recently been grown


Fig. 72.-The lime-berry shrub, Triphasia trifolia.
in Florida to any extent and is now coming into favor as a low
hedging or border plant. Of slow growth, it is desirable for
this use. Its hardiness is uncertain but quite probably it is
suited only to the southern areas.
Shrubby and fairly dense in habit of growth, it is doubtful
that the plant at maturity will ever exceed a height of 10 or
12 feet. The deep green leaves, 1 to 2 inches long, glandular
dotted, are three-foliate, the terminal one being much the largest.
Small, slender, very sharp spines are borne in pairs in the leaf
axils. (Figs. 72 and 73.)






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 85

The fruit matures during the early summer months. It is
ovate in shape, about 1/2 inch in diameter, and dark red in color.
The pulp is sweetish and quite sticky, containing about 1 to 3
green seeds which are
quite large in compari-
.son to the size of the
fruit. The fruits are pre-
served or candied.
Propagated by seed or
by budding.
oZizyphus jujuba Mill.
(Z. vulgaris Lam.)
Common Jujube.
(4). RHAMMA-
CEAE.
Trees growing thrifti-
ly in Key West, Pensa-
cola, and Gainesville dem-
onstrate the adaptability
of the jujube to the vary-
ing soils and tempera-
ture extremes of widely
.separated points of Flor-
ida. Neither plants nor
blossoms are injured by
low temperatures experi-
enced anywhere in the
state. The limerock soils
of Dade County, how-
ever, do not seem at all
.suited to its culture.
The jujube is an Asi-
.atic fruit which has been
cultivated in China for
centuries and has long
been grown in southeast-
ern Asia and Europe. It Fig. 73.-A fruiting twig of the lime-berry.
has been in the southern
United States for probably 75 years, but has never been widely
cultivated. The lack of popularity has been due partly to a
lack of knowledge on the part of the grower or the potential
consumer as to the best methods of utilizing the fruit, and






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 74.-Foliage and immature fruit of the Li variety of jujube.






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 87

partly to the lack of desirable varieties. Introduction of fine
Chinese varieties has overcome this latter handicap.
The tree is usually upright in habit of growth, particularly
when young. It attains a height of 20 to 30 feet at maturity,
and with its shining, deep green foliage is of worth as an
ornamental. It is deciduous, shedding not only its leaves but
from one to ten of the small fruiting branches at each node.
Most of the trees are armed with sharp, slender spines at
the nodes also. The leaves are 1 to 3 inches long, ovate-
lanceolate in shape, and prominently 3-nerved from the base.


















Fig. 75.-Fruit of the Lang variety of jujube.

Ripening from July to September, the fruit is variable in
both shape and size, being from 1 to 2 inches in diameter
and from sub-globose to oblong or even pyriform in outline.
The large hard stone, like an olive pit, contains two small
seeds. It varies in size and shape in different varieties. Be-
fore maturity the fruit is a shining green, which on ripening
turns to a deep brown. The flesh is crisp, whitish in color,
and varies from sweet to sub-acid. They are eaten fresh, dried,
candied or preserved. When dried the fruits of superior Chinese
varieties greatly resemble dried dates, and the name "Chinese-
date" is sometimes used.
Many varieties have been introduced into the United States
by the Office of Foreign Plant Introduction of the United States






Florida Cooperative Extension


Department of Agriculture. Of these, C. C. Thomas of that
office has recommended four varieties especially: Mu Shing
Hong FPI No. 22684, Lang FPI No. 22686, Sui Men FPI No.
38245, and Li FPI No. 38249. (Figs. 74 and 75.)
Propagation is by seed, but superior varieties should be whip-
grafted on small seedling stocks.

Zizyphus mauritiana L. (Z. jujuba Lam.) Indian Jujube.
Malay Jujube. (1). RHAMMACEAE.
The Indian jujube is a vigorous-growing, small, evergreen
tree with wide-spreading, drooping branches bearing numerous


Fig. 76.-The Indian jujube tree, Zizyphus mauritiana.


small sharp thorns. (Fig. 76.) It is subject to frost injury
and thus is suited only to the warmer sections of the state.
The leaves are somewhat like those of the common jujube but
are covered on the under surface with a fine felty tomentum,
whereas those of the common jujube are glabrous below.
The fruits mature during February and March and are much
like those of the common jujube. They vary in shape from
round to oval and in color from greenish-yellow to reddish-
brown, while their size is from 1 to 2 inches in length and






Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 89

from 3/4 to 11/2
inches in diam- ,
eter. (Fig. 77.)
The stone ter-
minates in a very
sharp point. The
crisp, firm flesh
has much the tex-
ture of an apple,
but becomes mu-
cilaginous on cut-
ting a surface.
It is used for
jelly, preserves, f
etc., but is not
eaten fresh. The
species is usually
prolific in bear-
ing, and some-
times a tree may
bear two crops
in one year as
the result of an
off-season bloom.
Propagation is
Propaby seed, germin- is Fig. 77.-Fruit and foliage of the Indian jujube.
by seed, germin-
ating in 2 to 3 weeks if removed from the stone.








Florida Cooperative Extension


INDEX OF PLANTS


Aberia caffra .......................
Aberia gardneri ........................
Achradelpha mammosa ......
Achras sapota ......................
Akee .......................... ............
Albizzia lebbek ............................
Amatungula ........... .....-..
Ambarella ............. ...............
Anacardium occidental ............
Annona cherimola ......................
Annona diversifolia ................
Annona glabra .......:...................
Annona montana ..................
Annona muricata ............
Annona reticulata ....................
Annona squamosa ................... 1
Artocarpus incisa .................
Artocarpus integra ...............
Artocarpus integrifolia .....
Atemoya ..................... .....
Australian pine .....................
Australian silk-oak ..............
Averrhoa carambola .................


Bamboo ...... ........ ....
Bambusa spp. ..................
Banana .............. ....
Banana, Cavendish ........
Banana, Chinese Dwarf ..
Barbados-cherry ............
Black-olive .................
Blighia sapida .......-........
Breadfruit ..................
Bucida buceras .................
Bullock's-heart ................
Burdekin-plum ................


PAGE
... 37
... 38
.. 26
... 12
... 24
... 10
... 30
.. 80
.. 13
... 14
-- 16
. 16
... 16
... 16
6, 18
6, 19
.. 21
. 21
-. 21
.. 16
.. 10
.. 10
. 23


........ 10
........ 10
....... 67
........ 67
......... 67
......... 61
......... 10
......-... 24
.......... 21
.......... 10
........ 18
.......... 72


Caimito ... ....................... ......
Calocarpum mammosum .............
Calocarpum viride ......................
Canistel ...................... ......... ......
Caram bola ...... ...... ...-.........
Carissa ........ ........ .... ......
Carissa arduina ......................
Carissa carandas ..........................
Carissa grandiflora ..................
Cashew .................... ... ...........
Casimiroa edulis ....................... 27,
Casuarina equisetifolia ......-.......
Casuarina lepidophloia .............
Cecropia palmata ..........:...........
Cereus, night-blooming ..............
Cereus triangularis .................
Ceriman ............- .... --.
Ceylon-gooseberry ..................
Cherimoya ..............................
Cherim oyer .......... .. .................
Cherry-laurel ...............................
Chinese-date ................ ...........
Chrysophyllum cainito ................


Chrysophyllum olivaeforme
Cicca disticha ..........--.
Cupania sapida ...............
Custard-apple ...................

Dilly ............. -....... ........
Dovyalis caffra ................
Dovyalis hebecarpa .-..........

Egg-fruit ......................-.
Elaeagnus philippensis .......
Elaeagnus pungens .............
Eriobotrya japonica ............
Eugenia braziliensis ........
Eugenia cumini .. ........ ..
Eugenia dombeyi ..................
Eugenia jambolana .......
Eugenia jambos ...... -..--
Eugenia micheli .................
Eugenia uniflora ..............
Euphoria longana ...........


PAGF
.... 37
......... 71
......... 24
S18

..-..... 12
....... 37
......... 38

.......- 59
........ 39
39
..... 40
........ 43
..... 44
.-.-.- 43
. 10, 44
....10, 45
......... 46
......... 46
.....-.... 59


Feijoa ................ ............ .....-
Feijoa sellowiana .......................
Flacourtia indica ....................
Flacourtia ramontchi ................

Garcinia livingstonei ..................
Genip .....................- .....
Governors-plum ....... .......
Granadilla, purple ............ .....
Green sapote ............................
Grevillea robusta .... .............
Grumichama ............................
Guanabana .................................
Guava ....... .. ............
Guava, Brazilian ...................
Guava, Cattley .... ...........
Guava, Strawberry .................


Hog-plum .........................
Hylocereus tricostatus ....
Hylocereus undatus ...........


......... 81
........ 54
...-..... 54


Iba ..................... ......... ... ... ... 71
llama ......-........................ .... 16
Im be ....................... ...... .... .... 54

Jackfruit .......-.................... .... 21
Jakfruit .................... ... ........ 21
Jamaica-apple .......-................... 18
Jambolan ................................10, 44
Jambolan-plum ........................... 44
Japan-plum .................... ... ..... 40
Japanese Medlar ........................ 40
Java-plum ...............- ...-....... 44
Jobo ....................... -..-......... 81
Jujube ....................... ....--... .. 85
Jujube, Indian ....-..................... 88
Jujube, Malay ............................ 88







Miscellaneous Tropical and Sub-Tropical Florida Fruits 91


Karanda .----.......... .--.....--..-- .. 31
Kei-apple ...--........... ---.. .. 37
Ketembilla .-...... ----...... --........ .. 38

Laurocerasus caroliniana ...-......- 10
Lime-berry ...............--------............--- 84
Limoncito ....-----.......-...............-- ..... 84
Lingaro .-.. --........... ....--....-- 39
Litchi .-........ -----............ --..........------......- 54
Litchi chinensis .............................. 54
Longan .....---.-------------......-..................--.....--.... 59
Loquat --------------------.... ................ 40
Lucuma mammosa ......................... --- 26
Lucuma nervosa ............................ 59
Lucuma rivicola var. angustifolia 59
Lychee ...-- ---... ........-.---. .. 54

Malpighia glabra ............................ 61
Mamey .................--.....- -... --.. 62
Mamey colorado -.....-....---------- .. 26
Mamey sapote ..--------.............. 26
Mammea americana ..................... 62
Mammee-apple ........----. ....--- --_ 62
Mamoncillo .--.....-............................. 63
Matasano ..........--..................--......... 32
Melicocca bijuga ....................--...... 63
Mexican-apple ................................ 32
Mombin, red --.................................... 82
Mombin, yellow ....................-......... 81
Monstera deliciosa ...................----....... 65
Musa cavendishii ............................ 67
Musa paradisiaca var. sapientum 67
Musa sapientum ............................ 67

Natal-plum .-.........-...........-..... .. 30
Nephelium litchi ............................ 54

Otaheite-apple ................................ 80
Otaheite-gooseberry ...................... 71

Passiflora edulis ............................ 69
Passion-fruit .................................. 69
Photinia japonica .......................... 16
Phyllanthus acidus ........................ 71
Phyllanthus distichus .................... 71
Phyllanthus emblica ....-................. 72
Pineapple-guava ......--... ---............... 49
Pitanga ...........................-- .......... 46
Pitaya .-...--- ---... ........................... 54
Pleiogynium solandri .....----............. 72
Pomegranate ................ ....... ... 7 79
Pond-apple .--..---........................ ..... 16
Pongam ----...........-----............... --- 10


PAGE
Pongamia pinnata ....................... -10
Psidium cattleianum ....-............... 73
Psidium guajava .----......................... 74
Psidium guineense ......................... 77
Punica granatum --...-.................... 79

Ramontchi ...--.....-....-..................... 52
Rose-apple .-.....--.....................-- 10, 45

Sapodilla --.. --.... -------....--........--.. 12
Sapota achras ............................... 12
Sapote .---.................. .................. 26
Sapote, green .-.............-.............. --29
Sapote, mamey ..---............................. 26
Sapote, white ................................. -27
Satinleaf --..........-----.......--.. --.......... 37
Scarlet-plum .......-.....-- ..................... 82
Snakewood tree ............................. -35
Soursop ................-......................-.. 16
Soursop, mountain ....................... 16
Spanish-lime ........-.....-...............-.. 63
Spanish-plum ........-........................ 82
Spondias cytherea .......................... 80
Spondias dulcis ................-............. 80
Spondias lutea --............................... 81
Spondias mombin ............................ 81
Spondias purpurea ........................ 82
Star-apple --.................................. -- 36
Strawberry-pear ............................ 54
Sugar-apple .................................... 19
Surinam-cherry .............................. 46
Sw eetsop .-............... ....................... 19
Syzygium cumini ............................ 44
Syzygium jambolanum .................. 44
Tamarind ...................-...............-10, 82
Tamarindus indica ...--..............10, 82
Ti-es ... .----....... .....----.. ... ---59
Triphasia trifolia ......................... 84
Trumpet-tree .....-.......................-. 35

Umkokolo ...................................... 37

Vi-apple .-.........-........----................. 80
Vitellaria mammosa ...................... 26

White-sapote ....................-........27, 32
Woman's tongue tree .--.............. 10

Z3izyphus jujuba .............-.....85, 88
Zizyphus mauritiana ................... 88
Zizyphus vulgaris -........................ 85




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