• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Historic note
 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Fig. 2
 Introduction
 Native trees
 Climatic limitations
 Culture
 Pruning
 Varietal list
 Conifers
 Flowering trees
 Trees with unusual or ornamental...
 Trees for coastal planting
 Trees for windbreaks
 Trees with foliage color chang...
 Check list of the native trees...
 Index of common names
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service ; no. 95
Title: Ornamental trees
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026329/00001
 Material Information
Title: Ornamental trees
Series Title: Bulletin
Physical Description: 126 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Mowry, Harold
Publisher: Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Ornamental trees -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Trees -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Harold Mowry.
General Note: "April, 1938".
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Extension Service)
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00026329
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002570896
oclc - 12355216
notis - AMT7210

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Fig. 2
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Native trees
        Page 7
    Climatic limitations
        Page 8
    Culture
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Pruning
        Page 12
    Varietal list
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
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        Page 88
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        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
    Conifers
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
        Page 107
    Flowering trees
        Page 108
    Trees with unusual or ornamental fruits
        Page 108
    Trees for coastal planting
        Page 109
    Trees for windbreaks
        Page 109
    Trees with foliage color change
        Page 110
    Check list of the native trees of Florida
        Page 111
        Page 112
        Page 113
        Page 114
        Page 115
        Page 116
        Page 117
        Page 118
        Page 119
        Page 120
        Page 121
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Index of common names
        Page 125
        Page 126
    Back Cover
        Page 127
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







(Revised July, 1946)


ORNAMENTAL TREES

By HAROLD MOWRY


Fig. 1.-Tropical almond, Terminalia catappa.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 95


April, 1938










BOARD OF CONTROL

J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee


STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager1
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent.
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B. A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairy Husbandman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultry Husbandman'
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test, Chipley
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing 2
ZACH SAVAGE, M.S., Economist'
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer
T. K. MCCLANE, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY McDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent

SPart-time.
2 On leave.















CONTENTS


PAGE

INTRODUCTION ...............--....... -------...-------.... 5


NATIVE TREES ....................-....--..----------- ----- --.-- ------ 7


CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS .............. ......----------...---.. ------- 8


CULTURE .. ...............-------- ...... ------- ------------- ------------ 9


PRUNING .....-- ...----- ------..-..... ...........------... ---------- 12


VARIETAL LIST .................- --------....-- ---- ---- --------------- 13

Broadleaved Evergreens and Deciduous Trees ................................. -----14

Conifers ........--........... --------- -------- ----------- 100

Flowering Trees ...............------.................. ---- -------. 108

Trees with Unusual or Ornamental Fruits ...........-...- ...........---...-- 108

Trees for Coastal Planting .................-- ......................... ... 109

Trees for Windbreaks .............-....... ----.....--- ---------. 109

Trees with Foliage Color Change ........-. ~.-..-.........---......---..... 110


APPENDIX: CHECK LIST OF THE NATIVE TREES OF FLORIDA ..................--.... 111


INDEX OF COMMON NAMES ................. ... ...-.. .------.-------------------.. 125


































































Fig. 2.-The fruits of the cannonball tree are borne only on the trunks and
larger limbs. Inset: Blossom of the cannonball tree.


/-









ORNAMENTAL TREES
By HAROLD MOWRY
Director, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Most landscapes are in large measure dependent on tree effects
for dimension, profile and perfection and trees may well be con-
sidered as an indispensable element in landscape composition.
Other plants, of course, are required for completeness but theirs
is the minor role. Without its complement of trees, it is seldom
that a scheme of planting, whether it be a street, roadside,
urban home or farmstead, has achieved its fullest objective.
Through the influence of trees, a residence, street, or other
site is set apart and given an individuality and, since trees are
in themselves the most permanent of plants, they impart to their
immediate surroundings a sense of permanence and stability.
Numerous and varied advantages are derived from ornamental
tree plantings but they are so obvious and so well known that
their further listing is needless. It is mainly a question of
variety and adaptability, for in Florida the number of available
varieties is so great that the choice is not a simple one. The
adaptability of a species for use in a specified location is of para-
mount importance and must be given consideration, for climate
and soils vary so that a tree wholly adapted to one location may
be entirely unsuited to another.
Tender varieties planted in an area subject to low tempera-
tures can but ultimately prove a disappointment as will many
species from colder regions when planted in the most tropical
sections. Soil type, and particularly soil moisture, also has an
important role, since many species naturally adapted to high,
dry lands do not find low, undrained soils conducive to sustained
vigor of growth. Neither can all varieties that in nature are
found on moist soils be expected to thrive in dry sandy locations,
even with regular fertilization and irrigation. However, as a
general rule, plants may be transplanted from moist to drier
locations with much better success than can dry-land plants be
moved to poorly drained areas. For seashore planting the num-
ber of adapted varieties is limited; few species can withstand
the combination of dune sands and exposure to salt spray.
The writer acknowledges his indebtedness to Drs. A. F. Camp and A. S.
Rhoads of the Experiment Station staff for several of the photographs;
to Mr. Erdman West, also of the Station staff, for aid in the identification
of many species; and to Mr. W. M. Buswell for the photographs in Figures
2, 32, 57, and 78, as well as for notes on many trees of the southern area.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Much will depend on the local situation where trees are wanted
as to which of the numerous species is best suited. The great
variation in mature size, habit of growth, and foliage and flower
characters make some especially well suited to street or roadside
planting, some to grouping, and others to specimen planting.
Thick foliaged, spreading types usually are preferred for shade
but because of the difficulty of growing lawn grasses and many
shrubs in densely shaded situations, there are conditions to which
those with more open tops may be better fitted. If planted about
a building, its size and style of architecture will have a bearing
on the kinds chosen. Palms seem to be ideally suited to Spanish
types but not so well to the English, while the reverse is true
with the oaks; tall-growing, narrow-headed trees may be used
to enhance the beauty and perspective of many types of larger
buildings but usually are not so appropriate to small, low cot-
tages or bungalows. There is a wide variety of suitable species
of trees available for most requirements. The range of both
native and exotic species includes palms, conifers, broadleaved
evergreens and deciduous sorts, with an extreme diversity in
size, shape and coloration of foliage, flowers and fruits.
It is difficult if not impossible to differentiate between orna-
mental trees and those of other classes or to choose any select
group and designate its members as ornamentals with the impli-
cation that those not chosen are without beauty or value for land-
scape planting. Differing as they do in size, shape, foliage and
flower, some may have a greater attraction or be better fitted
for specific locations, but there is no tree species that does not
have an individuality and some degree of beauty. Under some
classifications those that do not produce edible fruits or are of
little or no economic worth are termed ornamentals to the ex-
clusion of most fruit and many forest trees. Perhaps the bet-
ter use of the term ornamental would be the broader one that
would include any tree which, because of some character it may
possess, is desirable for inclusion in an ornamental planting.
Another source of some controversy is the indistinct and vaguely
defined dividing line between trees and shrubs, since many
small trees might well be called large shrubs and many large
shrubs appropriately termed small trees. In the list of trees
that follows are included those grown for ornamental effect
regardless of other uses or values. Plants attaining a height
of 12 to 15 feet or more and normally having a single stem are







Ornamental Trees


considered as trees, although in some instances the plant serves
both as a large shrub and a small tree.
The number of native tree species is exceptionally large but
the number of introduced ones quite probably is greater. Many
of the latter are so well adapted that they are now growing
wild in many places as escapes from cultivation. Trees from
all continents have found a congenial environment and there
are doubtless hundreds more of the world's tree species that
would thrive in some parts of Florida were they to be introduced.

NATIVE TREES
SFlorida's varied landscapes owe much of their variety to the
widely divergent types of native trees. It would be anticipated
that with an elevation factor of but slightly over 300 feet, there
would be a monotonous similarity of tree growth throughout the
state. This condition, however, is far from true, as is evidenced
by the panoramic diversity offered by the hardwood hammocks,
open pine forests, cypress, titi and gum swamplands, palmetto-
dotted prairies, mangrove-, seagrape-, and palm-fringed keys
and seashores, oak-clad ridges, and stream banks lined with
numerous varieties of both hard- and soft-wood trees.
Among the native trees of Florida are some indigenous to the
New England, the Appalachian, and the South Atlantic and Gulf
Coastal Plains areas while others are found whose habitat in-
cludes the West Indian and Caribbean islands. Here the plant
life of the temperate zone merges with that of the tropics. Of
marine origin, Florida is both geologically and ecologically
young and of necessity had to draw the most of its plant life
from other regions. In northern Florida the trees are predom-
inantly those of the southern Appalachian region, while in the
southern peninsular portion, where congenial climatic condi-
tions prevail, they are identical or closely allied to those of the
neighboring Indian islands. Through the agencies of the sea
and southerly-coursing rivers, aided in part by birds and ani-
mals, Florida has drawn in past ages on a vast area for its now
native plant life. This situation, together with the probability
of the development of new species within the region, diversity
of soil types, obtaining climatic conditions, and slight difference
in elevation, has given to Florida a greater variety of native
tree species than any like-sized area of the North American
continent north of Mexico. About one-fourth of the species
native to the United States are found in Florida as indigenes.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Throughout the northern sections of the state trees of the
temperate zone are in greatest numbers, there being 50 or more
species in that area that are also native to the Northern and
Northeastern states and some 90 species that grow as natives
in other Southern states. Over half of the latter extend their
range well into the central parts of the state. Tropical trees
are in greatest abundance in favored locations of the extreme
south.
There is appended a list of Florida's native trees, as well as
those from other regions growing as escapes from cultivation,
with notations as to those utilized for ornamental planting and
the general areas in which they grow.

CLIMATIC LIMITATIONS
Due to considerable variation in hardiness among tree species
as well as failure of some from colder regions to adapt them-
selves to warmer climates and because of differences in winter
temperature minimums between the northern and southern sec-
tions of Florida, comparatively few are wholly adapted to state-
wide planting. Differences in low temperature extremes within
the state are not great but within that range is a critical point
for many tropical plants that suffer more or less severe damage,
or death, when exposed for several hours to temperatures be-
low freezing. On the other hand, many trees of more temperate
climates apparently require a period of dormancy that is induced
by or coincident with low temperatures and short day length
and consequently do not find congenial environment in the warm
winters of the sub-tropics. Thus, in the choice of trees for a
given locality, climatic adaptability is of first importance.
Normal prevailing winter temperatures have brought about a
definition of regions within the state, designated as northern,
central and southern, to which certain plants are climatically
adapted. These areas are not separated by any distinct or regu-
lar lines of demarcation but have quite irregular boundaries
because of the influence on temperature exerted by elevation,
presence of large lakes, or proximity to the ocean and the Gulf
Stream. Any delineation of the areas according to a specified
temperature minimum would fluctuate from year to year with
seasonal variations so that their boundaries are necessarily
vague and broad rather than sharply defined. As the names
would indicate, the northern area includes generally that part
of the state lying north of a line through Marion County and







Ornamental Trees


subject to the heaviest frosts; the southern, that of the extreme
south having the warmest winter temperatures and extending
northward along the coasts approximately to Palm Beach and
Punta Gorda; and the central, that lying between the northern
and southern sections. In each area some parts have greater
protection on account of local factors and less hardy plants, not
adapted to the region as a whole, may be successfully grown.
The classification of the numerous species according to their
climatic restriction has not been wholly an arbitrary one but is
based on observation of trees growing in the different regions.
It is highly probable that with many, the range has been shown
to be too greatly restricted while with some, too broad a range
may have been indicated. This is due to the few trees of some
species planted, the limited number giving only a very general
idea of their climatic range.

CULTURE
Only vigorous, thrifty specimens, free of destructive parasites,
with attractive qualities unimpaired, can fulfill the exacting
requirements of those chosen for purposes of beautification. For
the most part their thrift can be insured by fertilization, regular
watering when rainfall is inadequate, correct and timely pruning,
and, if needed, control of insect pests and diseases. If a plant is
not worth some cultural attention it is not worth planting.
Because of their permanent character, trees are seldom re-
placed. Most of them, if at all adapted to the location, thrive
with little care; they require and receive less cultural attention,
as a group, than any other type of ornamental plant. In their
native habitat trees grow and thrive in spite of over-crowding,
extended droughts and other adverse conditions. Nevertheless,
the majority of them make a more vigorous growth and assume
a more natural symmetry if given adequate room for full de-
velopment and a regular supply of moisture and plant nutrient
materials. Tree growth is relatively slow and a long period of
time is required for mature development but by supplying the
needed cultural attentions their growth may be materially has-
tened.
Often the loss or slow establishment of a newly planted tree
is directly traceable to a lack of proper care in transplanting.
No particular skill or complex methods are required in the re-
moval of small trees from one location to another but too often







Florida Cooperative Extension


the operation is carried out in a manner better fitted to fence
posts than living plants. Since ornamental trees are seldom
planted in large numbers, the extra labor involved in careful
transplanting amounts to little. Adapted trees planted in large
holes with roots well spread and covered with fertile soil and
supplied with ample water rarely fail to grow satisfactorily
provided they are dug with a good root system which has not
been allowed to become dry in transit and the work is done in
a suitable season.
Nursery-grown trees, because their root systems are better
developed and more compact, are generally given preference over
those taken from the woods. In digging many of the wild plants,
it is impossible to secure other than a small proportion of the
root system which may result in a heavy percentage of loss in
transplanting or a slow start into thrifty growth. Since varia-
tion exists in leaf and other growth characters within the same
species of native trees, careful and intelligent selection and
propagation of only the most desirable types enhances the orna-
mental value of numerous species. Nurserymen handling this
type of material are the logical ones to make such selections and
by propagation of none other than the most desirable forms
they can add materially to the use and value of native plants
for ornamental planting.
Soil for filling in about the roots in planting may be enriched
by the incorporation of well-decayed leaf mold, manures or other
litter, and in addition to these, small quantities of muck on light
sands. Tarkage or steamed bone meal also may be added but
complete commercial fertilizers are seldom used until later.
Whether or not any such additions are made, all subsoils from
the holes should be discarded and only topsoil used in planting.
Trees are set at approximately the same depth as they stood
in the nursery row. The soil about the roots should be well
watered at time of planting. Thorough watering tends to com-
pact the soil and to bring the particles in close contact with the
root by elimination of air pockets. A basin-like depression left
about the tree is much better than a mound of soil, as the former
will collect rain or irrigation water while the latter will aid in
its run-off. A mulch of any coarse organic material helps to
conserve soil moisture and on decaying increases soil fertility.
Loss in transplanting many kinds of large trees may be re-
duced by covering the trunk and larger limbs at time of removal
with a 1- to 2-inch layer of sphagnum moss tied in place with







Ornamental Trees


suitable cord. The moss is kept damp for several weeks. Span-
ish moss may be substituted but it does not hold moisture so well
as the sphagnum.
Most deciduous trees are transplanted when bare of foliage
or during the cooler winter months. From early December
through February is generally the most satisfactory season
for transplanting, although some of the more tropical species
are moved at any season but preferably not during dry periods
unless irrigation is available. In summer, losses in small, newly-
set plants may be reduced by partial shading for a few weeks.
Conifers of all kinds, after they have attained some size, are
difficult to transplant with bare roots and are therefore dug and
transported with a ball of soil about their roots or are grown in
boxes or pots. Many broadleaved evergreens are handled in the
same manner, which makes possible their transplanting at nearly
any season and without severe pruning. In planting these "balled
and burlapped" plants it is not necessary to remove the burlap
holding the ball of soil; that part about the stem of the plant
is loosened and turned back so that all of the burlap is covered
with soil in filling the hole.
In many instances cultivated ornamental trees are under a
greater handicap in securing the required plant foods than are
trees growing in the forest. This is due in part to the close
proximity of pavements and to the common practice of remov-
ing from about the trees all fallen leaves or other litter which
would later have a fertilizing value. Scores of exotic as well as
many native trees are transplanted to situations very different
from their natural environments and often on much less fertile
soils. That they may make the wanted vigorous growth, it is
necessary to supply as far as possible those soil constituents
which may be lacking in the new environment.
Both bulky and concentrated forms of fertilizers are used to
advantage, particularly during the early life of the tree. Those
derived from organic sources are favored because of the longer
time required for all of their nitrogen to become available but
the ones made up of inorganic forms are by no means unsuited.
Complete fertilizers, derived from both organic and inorganic
materials, containing 3 to 5 percent nitrogen, 6 to 8 percent phos-
phoric acid, and 4 to 6 percent potash, are perhaps the most
widely used. The number of applications varies from 1 to 3
or more annually, the first being made in early spring and the
others at intervals until late fall. From 1 pound to as high as







Florida Cooperative Extension


50 pounds or more are applied per year, depending on the size
of the tree and the nature of the soil. As the tree increases in
size the area over which the fertilizer is distributed should in-
crease accordingly, the belt extending well beyond the spread
of the branches. Only with very young trees should fertilizers
be placed close to the trunk, since the bulk of the feeding roots
are not there but spread throughout the soil to distances usually
greater than the width of the top.
Trees growing on lawns may be heavily fertilized by making
holes with a crowbar or like tool at some distance from the
trunks and as far out as the spread of the branches. The holes
may be a foot or more in depth, about 2 inches in diameter, and
spaced 2 to 4 feet apart. They are filled with bone meal, tank-
age, dried blood or other not-too-concentrated fertilizer and
then closed with the heel or a small amount of soil. Manures
may be applied to large trees without injury to the grass by re-
moving sections of sod and taking out the soil underneath to a
depth of 10 to 12 inches; the hole is then filled with old stable
manure, firmly packed, and the sod replaced.

PRUNING
Some pruning, judicious in kind and amount, is required in
most trees that they may develop into the general shape wanted.
Nearly all species have a distinctive habit of growth and the
effort should be made to direct the growth to the end that a
natural symmetry will be effected and maintained. By pruning,
branching may in large measure be controlled as to height, the
symmetry of the head initiated, and crowding of main branches
as well as development of weak crotches eliminated. It is pos-
sible in many trees to change materially the growth habits by
severe and continued pruning which ordinarily is not practiced
unless for some unusual and specific reason. There is nothing
exceptionally difficult nor complicated in the pruning of young
trees and a limited amount of pruning will exert a strong in-
fluence on the trend of growth and ultimate shape.
The heavy cutting back common at time of transplanting
often results in the development of a bushy head that later
requires thinning to allow only a limited number of heavy main
branches to develop. Branches left should be fairly equally
distributed about the trunk and leave it at varying heights
rather than in whorls. However, when trees, as Terminalia







Ornamental Trees


catappa, have a distinctive natural tendency to whorl branching
no effort should be made to change it.
It may be necessary occasionally to remove 1 or more larger
branches from older trees. Such trees are more often "butch-
ered" than rationally pruned. If thinning of the head is required
the removal of branches should be so distributed that the shape-
liness of the tree is undisturbed and large limbs as well as smaller
branches are removed close to the trunk so that no protruding
stubs are left. Splitting, which often accompanies the removal
of large branches, may be avoided by first cutting the limb par-
tially through from the under side or, with very large ones,
making 2 separate cuts. In the latter instance the limb is first
cut off 2 to 4 feet from the trunk to remove most of the weight
and the final cut is then made close to the stem.
Protruding stubs often die back to the main trunk and serve
as a mode of entrance for decay organisms which may ultimately
weaken the tree or cause its premature destruction. All prun-
ing should be done with sharp tools so that as smooth a surface
as possible be left and the cut surface then covered with a pro-
tective wound dressing. Several kinds of wound dressings are
available and lead paint alone is quite satisfactory.
Time of pruning will vary with different species but, as a
general rule, the work should not be done when the trees are in
an active flush of growth. Deciduous trees may be pruned late
in their dormant season and evergreens at nearly any time ex-
cept when actively growing. Callous tissue develops slowly
on some dormant deciduous species and for that reason pruning
is deferred with them until just prior to their resumption of
active growth. Ornamental trees are not pruned as severely
as shrubs, so that ordinarily any pruning done will have little
effect on the blossoming of the so-called flowering sorts.

VARIETAL LIST
In the following list will be found a majority of those trees,
other than palms and most of those bearing edible fruit, planted
in Florida as ornamentals. A short description of most species
is given, with photographs of many, that will be of some aid
in identification and the choice of varieties suitable for different
parts of the state. Technical botanical descriptions are not
included as they are available from many sources. Owing to
the size of the area covered and the few trees of some species






Florida Cooperative Extension


planted, there is no doubt that many introduced species have
been unintentionally omitted.
Because of the multiplicity of common names and their vari-
able use, arrangement is alphabetical according to botanical
name. Throughout, for each, the genus and species is given
first, followed in order by the family to which it belongs, the
common name, the sections to which apparently best adapted,
and lastly, its native habitat. In some instances, the botanical
synonym is included, it being placed in parentheses directly after
the scientific name. The common names are indexed.

BROADLEAVED EVERGREENS AND DECIDUOUS TREES
Acacia auriculiformis A. Cunn. Leguminosae. Southern area.
Australia. This species, but recently introduced, shows promise
as an ornamental and windbreak tree in the southern areas. It
is of medium size, symmetrical and thick-foliaged, the leaves
(phyllodia) nearly falcate in shape, 3 to 6 inches long and 11/
to 2 inches broad. The branchlets have 2 or 3 acute or almost
winged angles. Its pods, 2 to 4 inches long, are usually curved
when mature. The tree apparently has few pests and has been
planted considerably in the southeastern area.
Acacia longifolia Willd. Sydney Golden Wattle. Southern and
Central area. Australia. An erect shrub that in some specimens
attains the size of a small tree. Its leaves (phyllodia) are ob-
long-lanceolate or linear and 5 or 6 inches in length. It is seem-
ingly well adapted to dry and exposed locations.
Acacia macrantha, a small tree from Mexico, is found occas-
ionally in the peninsular section. It is low and spreading with
very fine, bipinnate foliage of a somewhat bluish or steely color.
Acer rubrum L. Aceraceae. Red, Scarlet or Swamp Maple.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Native. Found as a
native almost to the extreme southern parts of Florida, the red
maple is utilized to some extent for ornamental planting but
mainly in the more northern areas. It is not fast growing and
usually does not attain a large size. The tree is upright in
growth habit, forms a rather narrow head and will grow well
in partial shade. Its deciduous foliage is typically 3- or occa-
sionally 5-lobed and turns to bright scarlet and yellow in late fall.
Acer saccharinum L. Aceraceae. Silver or Soft Maple. North-
ern area. Native. The silver maple, found in the Apalachicola
valley, is a large deciduous tree with a heavy, branched head and









5-lobed leaves to 5 inches i
across that are pale green
above and silvery white be-
neath. In combination with
other trees, it is quite striking
when wind exposes the white
undersurface of the foliage.
The chief handicap to its use
in exposed locations is the
brittleness of the branches
which break easily in ordi-
nary windstorms.
Acer floridanum Chapm., Ia
the Florida or Southern sugar
maple, is found as a native in Fig. 3.-Baobab tree, Adanson
the richer soils of the central
and western parts of Florida. It is of decided ornamental worth
and is planted to some extent in the northern sections.
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae. Baobab. Southern area.
Central Africa. Though grown but sparingly in Florida, the
baobab tree is of interest because of the immense diameter of
the trunk in old specimens. Some of the trees in their native
habitat a, said to be among
the oldest living plants and to Fig. 4.-Leaf and flower bud;
Baobab tree.
have attained a trunk dia-
meter of nearly 30 feet. The
digitately compound leaves
are usually with 5 leaflets, but
some have only 3. For a time
in late spring or early sum-
mer, the tree is without fo-
liage. The flowering season
is in mid-summer, the indi-
vidual blossoms pendant on
heavy peduncles, white, 5 to 6
inches across and lasting but
a very short time. The white
fruits have a hard shell and
contain a mealy or spongy,
acid pulp that is said to be
edible. (Figs. 3 and 4.)


ia digitate


s of the






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Fig. 5.-Red sandalwood, Adenanthera pavonina


Adenanthera pavonina L. Leguminosae. Red Sandalwood.
Bead Tree. Circassian Bean. Southern area. Africa and
Southern Asia. A moderate-sized, evergreen, quick-growing,
upright tree with small feathery, pinnate foliage. The pods
are 6 to 8 inches long, curling up as they mature and exposing
the hard, brilliant-red seeds which are sometimes used as beads.
The general shape is quite symmetrical and the tree is of de-
cided worth as an ornamental. Its flowers are yellowish in color
and borne in spike-like racemes but are not sufficiently striking
to place among the flowering trees. (Fig. 5.)
Agyneja impubes L. Euphorbiaceae. Southern, Central, and
Northern areas. China. This is a small, deciduous tree excep-
tionally upright in growth habit. It reaches a mature height of
some 25 feet and seems well adapted to sandy soils. Annual
branchlets are produced and may easily be mistaken for pinnate
leaves. The leaves and the very small flowers and fruits are
all borne on these deciduous branches. It is bare of foliage






Ornamental Trees


from about mid-December until March but because of the au-
tumnal coloring of the leaves and its upright growth the tree
is well-fitted for many situations. (Fig. 6.)
Ailanthus glandulosus L. (A. altissima Sw.) Simaroubaceae.
Tree-of-Heaven. Northern
area. China. In adapted
situations this deciduous tree
is large, spreading and of
fairly rapid growth. It is
sparingly planted but in a
few instances is said to have
become naturalized. Its un-
evenly pinnate leaves are
very large, occasionally
nearly 2 feet in length, with
numerous oblong lanceolate
leaflets 4 to 5 inches long.
The leaflets have entire mar-
gins except for the base
which has 1 to 4 pairs of
coarse teeth that are glandu-
lar on the lower surface. The
odor of both the crushed
foliage and the male flowers
is objectionable to most per-
sons. The tree is planted to
some extent in cities of other
states because of its resist-
ance to smoke.
Albizzia Lebbek Benth.
Leguminosae. Lebbek. Wo-
man's Tongue Tree. South-
ern and Central areas. Trop-
ical Asia and Africa. A
large broad-topped tree with
spreading limbs that is very
spreading limbs that is very Fig. 6.-Foliage and blossoms of
fast growing and adapted to Agyneja impubes.
a wide range of soils. In
some areas it is becoming locally naturalized. Its chief use has
been as a dooryard shade tree but it probably has advantages
for windbreak use. In late spring, for a few weeks, the tree
assumes a dead appearance when defoliating. The leaves are






Florida Cooperative Extension


about 10 inches long, with 4 to 8 pinnae, each divided into 6 to
18 leaflets 1 to 11/2 inches long. The pods, quite conspicuous
when the foliage is shedding, are straw-colored, leathery, flat,
thin and shiny, 5 to 8 inches long. The greenish-yellow flowers,
borne in globular heads, are not so attractive as those of A.
Julibrissin. (Fig. 7.)


Fig. 7.-Woman's tongue tree, Albizzia Lebbek.


Albizzia Julibrissin Durazz. Silk-tree. Mimosa. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Asia. A smaller tree than Lebbek
with more fern-like foliage, the leaves being longer and more
finely divided. They may also be distinguished by the small
gland at the base of the rachis in this species. The numerous
globular flower heads are pink with noticeably long stamens
and place the tree in the "flowering" class. In the northern
sections of the state the species is quite common, both as a
dooryard tree and in the wild. (Fig. 8.)







Ornamental Trees


Ir-


~-


Fig. 8.-Leaf and flowers of Albizzia Julibrissin.

Albizzia odoratissima Benth., a tree in general appearance
much resembling Lebbek, has been introduced into the south-
ern area.
Aleurites. Euphorbiaceae. The 5 species of Aleurites are
grown in Florida. They are:
A. fordi Hemsl. Tung-oil tree. Native of China.
A. montana (Lour.) Wils. Mu-oil tree. Native of China.
(Fig. 9.)
A. moluccana Willd. Candlenut. Native of Malaya but now
wide spread in the tropics.
A. cordata R. Br. Japan wood-oil tree. Native of Japan and
Formosa.
A. trisperma Blanco. Banucalag. Native of the Philippines.







Florida Cooperative Extension


4-


Fig. 9.-Aleurites montana, the mu-oil tree.

The species are hardy in approximately the order named,
fordi being the only one grown in the northern area. Montana
has reached a mature size in Alachua County but small plants
are injured by ordinary winter temperatures. Both fordi and
montana produce seeds that are a source of the widely used
tung oil or wood oil of the paint and varnish industries, the
former being grown in a commercial way in Florida.
All are of value as ornamental trees. They produce large







Ornamental Trees


flowers in profusion and their foliage is large and abundant.
Other than moluccana, they are deciduous. Fordi's blossoms
usually precede the leaves in spring, while those of other species
appear later. Montana and moluccana often have 2 seasons of
blossoming in 1 year, the second occurring in late summer. Most
of the trees attain a height of about 30 feet and are spreading
in habit, with the exception of montana, which is more upright
in growth. On suitable soils, all are of rapid growth.
Bauhinia spp. Le-
guminosae. Mountain
Ebony. Orchid Tree.
Southern and Central
areas. India, Burma.
The genus includes
several species of
small trees the flowers
of which are orchid-
like in appearance,
quite large, and borne


Fig. 10.-Left: Moun-
tain ebony; below: Foliage
and flowers of Bauhinia
ppurpurea.







Florida Cooperative Extension


freely during winter and spring months. Of species in Florida,
the leaves are leathery, broad and 2-lobed. B. purpurea L. bears
reddish or purplish flowers 3 to 4 inches across; its variety alba
has white flowers. A variety termed Simpson's Pink is early
blooming, the flower pink and somewhat smaller than those of
other varieties. According to late classification it is possible
that many trees that are supposedly purpurea should be placed
under the species variegata. All are partially without foliage
during a part of the late winter. (Fig. 10.)
Bischofia javanica Blume. (B. trifoliata Hook.). Euphor-
biaceae. Southern and Central areas. Asia. A tall, fast-grow-
ing tree with quite distinctive, bronze-appearing foliage. The
leaves are alternate and trifoliate with variable crenate-serrate
leaflets 3 to 5 inches long. The flowers are small and inconspic-
uous; the fruits black and fleshy, about 1/4-inch in diameter.
Rarely seen in Florida but has made a vigorous growth on the
high lands of the central section.
Bixa Orellana L. Bixaceae. Anatto. Southern and Central
areas. Tropical America. A small tree, seldom reaching a
height of 25 feet, best known as the source of a dye, the anatto
of commerce. The large leaves are deciduous, broadly ovate
and long-petioled. Its rose-colored blossoms are borne in term-
inal panicles and are quite attractive. The fruits are globose
spiny capsules, bearing a resemblance to the chestnut bur, and
contain an orange-red pulp about the seeds. From this pulp
is obtained the yellow or orange dye extensively used in coloring
butter, cheese, soups, rice and other foods. In Florida the tree
is grown solely as an ornamental.
Bombax malabaricum DC. (B. Ceiba Burme). Bombacaceae.
Red Cotton-Tree. Southern area and warmer parts of Central
area. India. The red cotton-tree is a large, heavily buttressed
tree, often confused with Ceiba. The digitate leaves are 5- or
7-parted, usually 5, and the blossoms are red. For a short time
in late winter the tree is leafless and during this time it blooms.
Broussonetia papyrifera Vent. (Papyrius papyrifera (L)
Kuntze). Moraceae. Paper Mulberry. Central and Northern
areas. China. The paper mulberry, found growing as an escape
in the northern half of the state, is planted as a shade tree in
that area. The tree is deciduous, to about 40 feet in height, and
on well-grown specimens has a broad, round-headed crown. The
leaves are ovate, 3 to 8 inches long, coarsely toothed, often deeply
3- or 5-lobed, rough and dull-green on the upper surface. Its.






Ornamental Trees


small globular, orange-red fruits ripening in early summer are
attractive to birds but have an insipid flavor.
In China the bark is used for paper making but the tree is of
no economic importance in America.
Bucida buceras L. Combretaceae. Black Olive. Bucida.
Jucaro. Southern area. Native. Recently the black olive has
gained much favor because of its high degree of resistance to
wind damage and its potential value for street and windbreak
use. In nature it may have a single straight trunk or several
heavy stems and it reaches a mature height of about 40 feet.
Heavy and spreading branches form a broad head. The leathery
leaves, crowded at the ends of short branchlets, are variable in
shape and size, ranging from spatulate to obovate or oblong-
lanceolate and from 2 to 3 inches in length. Most of the branch-
lets terminate in a short spine. Neither flowers nor fruits are
of particular ornamental value.
Calodendrum capensis Thunb. Rutaceae. Cape Chestnut.
Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Africa. A
large, evergreen tree, seemingly well adapted but rarely planted
in Florida. The ovate leaves are deep green, parallel-nerved, and
to 5 inches long. Its large lavender-colored flowers are borne
in profusion in large panicles in early spring.
Calophyllum inophyllum L. Clusiaceae. Alexandrian Lau-
rel. Southern area. Tropics.
Widely distributed through the Fig. 11.-Artabotrys uncinatus
tropics, this species is growing
as an exotic in Key West. Its
native habitat is near the coast
and it probably could be in-
cluded to advantage among the
few ornamental trees adapted
to such situations.
The tree is of medium size
with large, oval, shining and
leathery leaves, 3 to 4 inches
wide and about twice as long.
The leaf venation is character-
ized by numerous fine parallel
veins that are at right angles
to the heavy mid-rib. The new
growth of foliage is reddish in
color for a time like that of









the camphor and mango. The
flowers, borne in racemes, are
Small, white and fragrant; the
S fruits are round, nearly an
inch in diameter, and yellow
in color.
Cananga odorata Hook. An-
nonaceae. Ylang-Ylang. South-
mrn area. Philippines and Java.
The ylang-ylang, whose flowers
are the source of the perfume
of that name, is a large tree of
fast growth occasionally seen
in southern area. The leaves
are simple, deep, ovate-oblong
and to 8 inches in length. The
flowers, appearing in early fall,
i--s-n-. S .rr are about 2 inches long, green-
ish-yellow, borne in profusion
and strongly scented. Fra-
Fig. 12.-Golden shower, Cassia fistula, ant tailgrape, Artabotrys
in flower. gran tailgrape, Artabotrys
uncinatus (Lam.) Safford, a
close relative, also has very fragrant flowers. (Fig. 11.)
Cassia spp. Leguminosae. Senna. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Of the many species of Cassia, only a
limited few are grown in Florida, among them fistula, nodosa,
grandis, siamea and Beariana. All are small trees with pin-
nate leaves and are prized because of their flowers which are
so freely produced in large masses. Most are quite tropical in
requirement and should be planted only in protected locations.
C. fistula, the pudding pipe or golden shower, has large leaves
and in spring bears long, loose racemes of yellow flowers in
profusion. (Fig. 12.) The flowers of siamea are pale yellow
and in evidence most of the year.
C. nodosa, pink cassia, is also free-flowering, its blossoms
rose-scented, pink in color. The flowers of grandis are a paler
pink and those of Beariana an attractive yellow.
Castanospermum australe Cunn. Leguminosae. Moreton Bay
Chestnut. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.
Australia. A tall, evergreen, glabrous tree with large pinnate
leaves and producing large yellow flowers in loose racemes. The
leaves are to 18 inches long with 11 to 15 broadly oblong thick






Ornamental Trees


leaflets. Large pods, 7 or 8 inches long and 2 inches broad,
contain the large chestnut-like seeds which are said to be edible
if roasted. The flowering period is in spring and the size and
number of the blossoms places the tree among the truly "flow-
ering" sorts. (Fig. 13.)


Fig. 13.-Leaf and flowers of the Moreton Bay chestnut,
Castanospermum australe.


Casuarina spp. Casuarinaceae. Australian Pine. Beefwood.
She-Oak. Southern and Central areas. Australia and Tropical
Asia. The Casuarinas are adapted to perhaps the widest range
of ornamental uses of any tree in Florida and about the only
factor limiting their growth is low temperature. They are







Florida Cooperative Extension


utilized extensively for closely clipped hedges, for trimmed and
untrimmed specimens, for windbreaks, and for street and high-
way planting. They thrive on both acid and alkaline soils, mak-
ing a vigorous growth on dune sands, calcareous rocky soils,
the muck of the Everglades and the many other soil types of
the lower peninsula. One species in particular, equisetifolia,
withstands brackish soils and salt spray with no apparent
injury and is planted extensively on the seacoast. In many
places the tree is becoming naturalized through self-seeding
and is able to compete successfully with the native vegetation.
(Fig. 14.)



















Fig. 14.-Seashore planting of Australian pine, Casuarina equisetifolia.
The hedge, formally pruned trees, and trees in the background all are of
this species.

There are numerous species but the ones most widely planted
in the state are equisetifolia, Cunninghamiana and lepidophloia,
with glauca, strict and others grown in lesser numbers. All
are tall trees and of exceptionally rapid growth. Cunningham-
iana is considered to be the most resistant to injury by low
temperatures.
The trees of this genus differ materially from others in that
they are leafless except for very minute scales at the nodes of
the branchlets. In appearance the trees resemble the pines to
some extent, the numerous wiry, pendulous branchlets commonly
being assumed to be needle-like leaves. The flowers are uni-






Ornamental Trees


sexual and the fruit is a cone containing numerous transparently
winged seeds. In different species the length and diameter of
the branchlets differ materially, as does the growth habit of
the trees. In equisetifolia the branches are at nearly right
angles to the trunk for the most part and are not closely spaced
on the stem, which gives a quite open top in large specimens.
Lepidophloia has branches which are more upright and a much
thicker "foliage" which probably makes it more desirable for
many ornamental uses as well as windbreak purposes. This
latter species has not been known to seed in Florida and is
propagated by root suckers which sprout freely under the trees,
particularly on rocky soils.
Trees of the genus Casuarina, although non-leguminous, have
nodules on their roots in which fixation of atmospheric nitrogen
occurs. This is worth consideration in the choice of varieties
for economic plantings.
In some localized areas quite serious losses have been experi-
enced in Australian pine plantings due to a disease affecting
the roots. Dr. A. S. Rhoads has isolated the causal organism
of this disease, commonly termed mushroom root rot. A de-
scription of the disease with suggestions for control are con-
tained in Florida Station Bulletin 229, Diseases of Citrus in
Florida.
Catalpa bignonioides Walt. Bignoniaceae. (C. Catalpa Karst.),
Catalpa. Indian Bean. Central and Northern areas. Native.
The catalpa is a round-headed, spreading tree that may attain a
height of 40 to 50 feet if given adequate room for development.
It is not considered as one of the most desirable ornamental
trees, being deciduous and, with many specimens, unsymmetrical.
The leaves are ovate, occasionally lobed, to 8 inches in length
and have an unpleasant odor. The flowers are white with 2
stripes of yellow within, and purplish-brown splotches in the
throat and on the lower lobes. They are borne in large, com-
pact panicles, the flowering season being in early summer.
Catesbaea spinosa L. Rubiaceae. Southern area. West Indies.
An evergreen, spiny, shrublike tree reaching a height of about
15 feet. The numerous wiry branchlets are armed with sharp
spines about an inch in length which slightly exceeds that of the
small-ovate leaves. It is a profuse bloomer, the creamy white
flowers, with slender funnel-shaped corollas several inches long,
being in evidence for several weeks during the late sum-
mer. The small, ovoid, yellowish fruits are produced in great






Florida Cooperative Extension


numbers and are considered by some to be edible. (Fig. 15.)
Ceiba pentandra Gaert. (Eriodendron anfractuosum DC.
C. Casearia Medic.). Bombacaceae. Kapok. Silk-Cotton Tree.
Southern and warmer parts of Central areas. Tropics. The
kapok, huge, massively buttressed and with its branches in
whorls extending horizontally at nearly right angles to the stem,
is one of the most distinctive trees growing in southern Florida.


Fig. 15.-Catesbaea spinosa.


In youth, the trunk is spiny. The deciduous leaves are digitately
compound, with 5-9 leaflets, usually 7, 4 to 6 inches long. Flow-
ering in summer, the great numbers of mallow-like, greenish-
white or pinkish blossoms are very attractive. Some 2 months
after flowering, the leathery, capsular, cucumber-shaped fruits
ripen, these containing about the seeds a silky, lustrous floss,
the kapok of commerce. This floss is soft, brittle and quite in-






Fig. 16.-Kapok tree, Ceiba pen-
tandra, below. Kapok leaf, right.


Buttressed base of a kapok tree
is shown below.


44


1^









flammable and is used extensively
as a stuffing for cushions on ships
because of its buoyancy.
This species and Bombax, the
red-cotton tree, are sometimes
confused. The flowers of the lat-
ter are red or crimson, the leaves
with 5 or 7 leaflets, usually 5, and
the trunk and branches spiny.
sBoth are highly ornamental be-
cause of their unusual size and
appearance during the flowering
period. (Fig. 16.)
Celtis laevigata Willd. (C. mis-
sissipiensis Spach.) Ulmaceae.
Hackberry. Sugarberry. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas.
Native. The hackberry is a
Fig. 17.-Foliage and fruit of the spreading, broad-headed, decid-
hackberry, Celtis laevigata. uous tree reaching 75 feet or
more under suitable soil con-
ditions. The leaves are small, 2 to 5 inches, ovate to oblong-
lanceolate, oblique at the base, thin, light green in color. The
fruits are small, sweet, globose drupes borne on rather long
pedicels. The tree is planted but sparingly as an ornamental
but in value for such purposes ranks high among the available
native deciduous sorts. (Fig. 17.)
Ceratonia siliqua L. Leguminosae. Carob. St. Johns-Bread.
Algaroba. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts of
Northern area. E. Mediterranean region. Rarely seen 'in
Florida, but apparently adapted to well drained soils, the Carob
is of peculiar interest because of its edible pods and its part in
Bible history. The tree is of slow growth and medium size with
evergreen, leathery, pinnate leaves. Usually monoecious, it is
necessary that both pistillate and staminate flowering trees be
planted that fruit may be produced. (Fig. 18.)
Cercis canadensis L. Leguminosae. Redbud. Judas Tree.
Central and Northern areas. Native. Among the first of the
native trees to burst into Spring bloom, the redbud is a favorite
native flowering tree. The clusters of small, rosy pink flowers
are produced in profusion on both old and new wood before
the leaves appear and with a suitable background of green,







Ornamental Trees


as is furnished by the native hammock growth, the effect is
strikingly beautiful. The leaves are broadly ovate, wider than
long, and palmately veined. The tree is usually of small size.
A white flowered variety, alba, is also available.
Cercis chinensis Bunge, a Chinese species, has been introduced
and reported as making a satisfactory growth in the central
peninsular section.
Chilopsis linearis Don. Bignoniaceae. Desert Willow. North-
ern area. Southwestern United States. Although a native of
arid regions, the desert willow thrives in northern Florida and
is not uncommon as an ornamental plant in that area. The
plant is a small, shrubby, deciduous tree with willow-like foliage,
from which it derives its common name, and is valued for its
flowers and extended flowering season. Appearing first in
early summer, the trumpet-shaped flowers, which are white
to pale purple with yellow splotches in the throat, continue to
give a succession of bloom for several months.
Chionanthus virginica L. Oleaceae. Fringe tree. Old Man's
Beard. Central and Northern areas. Native. Quite often
classed as a shrub, the fringe tree in Florida reaches a height
of 25 to 30 feet. It is not widely planted, perhaps because
of its slow growth and deciduous character. The greenish-
white flowers are borne in loose panicles 5 to 8 inches long in
early spring at about the same time the leaves appear. The
oblate to oblong leaves are deep green, leathery, and from 4
to 8 inches long. Loose clusters of .
Fig. 18.-Leaf of the carob tr<
oblong, blue or purple fruits, about Ceratonia siliqua.
an inch long, ripen in early fall.
(Fig. 19.)
Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. Bom-
bacaceae. Floss Silk Tree. South-
ern area. Brazil. In foliage and
appearance this species does not
differ greatly from Ceiba or Bom-
bax but is a smaller tree in maturity
and is heavily armed on trunk and
branch with heavy sharp spines
that much resemble those of the
prickly ash. The leaves are digitate
with usually five serrate-edged leaf-
lets. The flowers are pink and ap-







Florida Cooperative Extension


pear in early winter when the tree is defoliated. (Fig. 20.)
Cinnamomum camphora L. (Camphora officinarum Nees.).
Lauraceae. Camphor Tree. Southern, Central and Northern


Fig. 19.-Fringe tree or old man's beard, Chionanthus virginica,
in blossom.

areas. China and Japan. The camphor tree is common in the
northern parts of the state, where it seems best adapted, but is
by no means restricted to that area. On adapted soil types, it
is a large, spreading, round-headed tree, reaching a height of
50 feet or more. At best, however, it is slow-growing. Being
an evergreen, the foliage is attractive throughout the greater






Ornamental Trees


part of the year except early spring. The flowers are incon-
spicuous; the fruits black, pea-sized drupes, produced in great
numbers and persistent for several weeks after coloring. The
tree may be adapted to parkway planting but pruning is re-
quired to overcome the low-branching growth habit.
This species is the natural source of camphor, which is dis-
tilled from the wood and leaves. The leaves when crushed
give off the distinct
camphor odor. The
discovery of a meth-
od for the manu-
facture of a syn-
thetic substitute for
this material has
reduced the demand
for the natural cam-
phor which is pro-
duced mainly in
Formosa and is
used chiefly for
medicinal purposes.
(Fig. 21.)
Cinnamomum
cassia Blume. Lau-
raceae. Ca s si a-
Bark Tree. South-
ern and Central
areas. China. Small-
er than the cam-
phor, t h e cassia- Fig. 20.-Leaf of Chorisia speciosa.
bark tree is best adapted to the peninsular areas. The foliage
is similar to that of the camphor but is distinctly 3-nerved
from the base. The tree is pleasantly aromatic, the bark
being used as a cinnamon-bark substitute, and the fruits as
the "cassia buds" of commerce. Its use in Florida is restricted
to ornamental planting but it might be used to advantage as
a windbreak tree. (Fig. 22.)
Citrus spp. Rutaceae. Most of the many citrus species and
varieties, when properly cared for, have a distinct ornamental
value. In the central and southern sections the majority of the
species may be grown in nearly all locations but in the northern






Florida Cooperative Extension


areas the number is restricted to hardy types like the Satsuma
orange, calamondin and some of the trifoliata hybrids. Those
available include the orange, both sweet and sour, grapefruit
shaddock, tangerine, lemon, lime, citron, kumquat and hybrids,
most of them in wide variety. In addition to the Citrus species


Fig. 21.-Camphor tree, Cinnamomum camphora.

there are several trees closely allied botanically that have re-
rently been introduced, as Balsamocitrus Dawei, Aeglopsis
Chevalieri, Citropsis Schweinfurthi, Atalantia citrioides, Chae-
tospermum glutinosa, Feroniella oblata and others, which have
worth for ornamental planting.
Chrysophyllum oliviforme Lam. Sapotaceae. Satinleaf. South-
ern and warmer parts of Central area. Native. The glisten-
ing, coppery undersurface of the leaves of this tree gives it an
appearance that always arrests attention and makes it a desir-
able species for inclusion as an unusual subject. It is a small


-'






Ornamental Trees


tree with a compact but not broad head. The leaves are oval
or elliptic, 2 to 31/2 inches long, leathery, deep green on the
upper surface and lustrous brown beneath. Oval fruits, deep
purple in color and about %/4 inch long, are on the trees for an
extended period due to the irregular flowering habit.


Fig. 22.-Cassia-bark tree, Cinnamomum cassia.


Clusia rosea L. Clusiaceae. Monkey-Apple. Fat Pork Tree.
Southern area. West Indies. A glabrous, spreading tree with
large, thick leaves, cuneate-obovate in shape, that are from 5
to 9 inches long and nearly as broad. They may start as epi-
phytes on other trees, as is common with the native Ficus spe-
cies, and on some specimens numerous aerial roots hang from
the branches. The flowers have fleshy petals and the fruit is
a globular capsule 2 to 3 inches in diameter which on dehiscing
exposes the brownish, arillate seeds. (Fig. 23.)
Coccolobis uvifera Jacq. Polygonaceae. Seagrape. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area. Native. A stout
branched, broadly spreading and usually small tree that nat-







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urally grows in coastal locations and is utilized to considerable
extent in beach plantings. The thick, leathery leaves are
broadly ovate to nearly circular in outline, lighter green on the
under side, 4 to 5 inches long, and usually of greater width


Fig. 23.-The monkey-apple tree, Clusia rosea, and (insets) its fruits.

than length. Greenish, ovoid fruits, about % inch long and
borne in drooping clusters, are produced in abundance. (Fig. 24.)
Colvillea racemosa Bojer. Leguminosae. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central area. Madagascar. A tree as yet
rare in Florida but promising to rival some of the better known
and best of the flowering species. Its leaves are quite large,
bi-pinnate and somewhat fern-like in appearance; there are
some 20 or more pairs of primary leaflets, each further divided
into as many as 28 pairs of secondary ones. The flowers are
borne in great numbers in long, loose racemes, the color bright
scarlet with showy yellow stamens. Those growers who have
flowering trees of the species are very enthusiastic over the
richness of the bloom and its value as a flowering tree. In
its native habitat, it attains a height of 50 feet.
Cordia Sebestena L. (Sebesten Sebestena Adans.). Boragi-
naceae. Geiger Tree. Southern area. Native of Keys. The







Ornamental Trees 37


























Fig. 24.-The seagrape, Coccolobis uvifera.



























Fig. 25.-Foliage, flowers and fruit of the Geiger tree,
Cordia Sebestena.







Florida Cooperative Extension


geiger tree is small, slender-trunked, round-topped, with stout
branches and large, deep green leaves. Not widely planted
but of ornamental value for the large, orange colored flowers
borne in large clusters and in evidence most of the year. Sus-
ceptibility to cold restricts its use to the warmest areas.
(Fig. 25.)
Cornus florida L. Cornaceae. Flowering Dogwood. Central
and Northern areas. Native. Throughout the hammocks of the
northern sections, the flowering dogwood when in blossom in
early spring is a tree of rare beauty. The true flower is in itself
inconspicuous but is subtended by 4 involucral bracts or scales
that turn white and appear like petals to form a corolla-like cup
3 to 4 inches across. The tree is deciduous, rarely over 30 feet
high, usually much less, and its branches are more or less in
whorls and extend at right angles from the trunk. Small scar-
let fruits in tight clusters and the color change of the foliage
add to its ornamental value during the fall months. (Fig. 26.)
Couroupita guianensis Aubl. Lecythidaceae. Cannonball
Tree. Southern area. Guiana. This large, erect tree, rare
in Florida, is of interest because of its unusual flowers and
fruits as well as its close relationship with the tree producing
the Brazil-nut of commerce. The flowers are borne on heavy,
woody racemes several feet in length, attached to the trunk or
larger branches. They are large, of an unusual semi-folded


Fig. 26.-"Flowers" of the flowering dogwood.






Ornamental Trees


shape, fleshy, reddish-yellow on the outside and crimson within.
Huge, brown, hard, globular fruits, 7 or 8 inches in diameter
and filled with a malodorous pulp, are produced in large num-
bers. (Figs. 2 and 27.)
Crescentia Cujete L. Bignoniaceae. Calabash Tree. South-
ern area. Tropical America. The tree is small to medium-
sized with a low crown and wide-spreading horizontal to droop-
ing branches. The leaves are persistent, fascicled, oblanceolate
to spatulate, dark glossy green, 5 to 6 inches in length. Its
flowers develop from buds on the older wood of the trunk and
branches; they are usually solitary, pendulous, dark brownish
purple in color and from 2 to 3 inches in length. The heavy,
hard, indehiscent, gourd-like fruits are quite variable in size
and shape, ranging from ovoid to sub-globose and from 3 to
12 inches in diameter. The shell is smooth and thin but ex-
ceptionally hard and is filled with pulp containing the numerous
thin seeds. In areas where the tree is native, shells of the fruits
are utilized as cups or other vessels and for ornament, the
shell taking a high polish.
Crescentia alata H. B. K. Fig. 27.-The cannonball tree,
Couroupita guianensis.
much resembles the above but
has smaller fruits and some
trifoliate leaves. The leaves
are usually borne in threes
with the central one 3-foliate
and having a broadly-winged
petiole while the others are
simple. (Figs. 28 and 29.)
Cudrania tricuspidata Bu-
reau. Moraceae. Central and
Northern areas. China and
Japan. A small tree to 20 or
25 feet with pale gray bark
and slender, thorny branches.
The deciduous leaves are quite
variable in shape with those
lower on the branches shal-
lowly 3-lobed. Fruits are red,
globose, about an inch in di-
ameter and said to be edible. fJ
In Florida the tree is rarely
seen. (Fig. 30.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


Dalbergia Sisso Roxbg. Leguminosae. Southern and Cen-
tral sections. India. This species is well adapted in Lake,
Pinellas and Lee counties; in the last named it has escaped
and is growing wild in a limited area. General appearance
of the tree and foliage is somewhat like the poplar, although
close inspection shows the leaves to be alternately pinnate with
4 or 5 obovate, abruptly acuminate leaflets. The flowers are
white, borne in cymes or panicles, but are too small to be of
much ornamental value. The tree is upright in growth habit
and is said to reach over 75 feet in maturity in its native
habitat and to withstand both severe droughts and flooding
for considerable periods without damage. (Fig. 31.)



















Fig. 28.-Blossoms and leaves of the calabash tree, Crescentia alata.

Dillenia indica L. Dillenaceae. Southern area. Southeastern
Asia. Although of real value as an ornamental, this species
is seldom seen. The tree is symmetrical and of medium height
with shiny, oblong, serrate leaves 8 to 12 inches in length.
The flowers are pure white, 6 to 8 inches across, and the fruits
round and green, about 4 inches in diameter. The latter are
very juicy and considered edible although quite acid. Their
use is confined to the making of jellies and ades. (Fig. 32.)
Dombeya Wallichi B. & H. Sterculiaceae. Southern and Cen-
tral areas. Madagascar. Generally known as a shrub, the Dom-
beya attains a tree size of 25 to 30 feet. It is particularly







Ornamental Trees


valuable because of its large foliage and mid-winter season of
blossoming. The flowers are pink, about 2 inches across and
freely borne in quite large, very compact, pendant umbels.
The leaves are usually 3-lobed, palmately nerved, cordate, 9
to 12 inches long and of about the same breadth, with a petiole
as long as the blade. Growth is very rapid.


Fig. 29.-Fruit of the calabash tree.


Ehretia acuminata R. Br. Boraginaceae. Heliotrope Tree:
Central and Northern areas. China. The heliotrope tree, de-
riving its name from the odor of the flowers, is rare but has
shown its adaptability to the north-central parts of the state.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Trees perhaps 15 years old have attained a height of about
30 feet, are quite symmetrically topped and heavily foliaged.
The leaves are deciduous, oblong or elliptic, acuminate, coarsely
serrate, and from 4 to 6 inches long. Its small, white flowers
are not particularly at-
Stractive but are followed in
early summer by the num-
erous large, loose clusters
of small, orange-colored
fruits that hang for sev-
eral weeks. (Fig. 33.)
Elaeocarpus dentata Sm.
Elaeocarpaceae. Hinau
Tree. Southern area and
warmer parts of Central
area. New Zealand. Very
rare in Florida but consid-
ered as one of the most
beautiful flowering trees of
New Zealand. It is a fairly
large, somewhat unsym-
metrically headed tree in
maturity, with oblong-ovate
leathery leaves about 4
inches in length. When in
blossom the tree is a mass
of creamy-white, saucer-
shaped flowers, each about
half an inch across, the
racemes resembling a spray
of lily-of-the-valley. The
fruits resemble an olive in
appearance and the wood
is said to be strongly fire-
resistant. (Fig. 34.)
Enallagma cucurbitina
Fig. 30.-Foliage of Cudrania (L.) Baill. Bignoniaceae.
tricuspidata. Black Calabash. Southern
area. Native. The black
calabash is a small tree bearing large, lustrous, leathery leaves,
which unlike those of the calabash tree, Crescentia, are solitary
and alternate. The flowers are 11/ to 2 inches in length






Ornamental Trees


and of a greenish color. The fruits, nearly globose, gourd-like,
and seldom exceeding 4 inches in diameter, are filled with a pulp
that contains numerous thick seeds. (Fig. 35.)
Enterolobium cyclocarpum Griseb. Leguminosae. Ear-Tree.
Southern area. West Indies and Tropical America. A huge,
wide-spreading tree, with graceful, fern-like foliage, that is
quite tender and seldom seen in Florida. The leaves are bi-
pinnate with numerous small pinnae. Small, whitish-green
flowers form globose heads. The broad, flat, leathery pods are
bent or twisted in such a way as to resemble the human ear,
this giving the tree its common name as above. (Fig. 36.)


Fig. 31.-Dalbergia Sissoo.


Erythrina Poeppigiana Cook. (E. umbrosa Kth?). Legum-
inosae. Coral tree. Bucare. Southern and Central areas.
South America. The coral tree reaches a height of 30 to 40
feet, usually has a crooked trunk and is armed with short, sharp
prickles. The leaves are pinnately 3-foliate, the leaflets thin,







Florida Cooperative Extension


ovate and with basal nectaries. Large, showy racemes of
bright red papilionaceous flowers appear in late winter when
few other trees are in blossom. The chief handicap to grow-
ing the tree is a borer which enters the twig ends, causing a
dying back and loss of bloom.
E. indica Lam., of Asiatic origin, is adapted to the warmer
sections. It blooms in mid-winter, having the peculiar habit
of losing its foliage and shortly thereafter bursting into full
flower. Some of the trees are armed with sharp black prickles.


Fig. 32.-Flower and foliage of Dillenica indica.


Eucalyptus spp. Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus. Gum. Southern
and Central areas. Australia. Several species of Eucalyptus
are found in the southern half of the state but the tree has
never been as popular there as in some of the more arid west-
ern regions of the United States. It is not used to any extent
for avenue plantings as it has been difficult to get uniform
growth in many localities. Being gross feeders with wide-
spread root systems, the trees are seldom planted immediately
adjacent to citrus fruit groves or other fruit trees. However,
they are used in a limited way for windbreak purposes and
more generally as specimen shade trees. A large number of
species have been introduced but of these the following are







Ornamental Trees


perhaps the most popular: E. robusta, swamp mahogany; rudis,
desert gum; tereticornis, gray gum; globulus, blue gum; ros-
trata, red gum; and resinifera, red mahogany.
Eugenia spp. Myrtaceae. Of the hundreds of species of
this genus throughout the world 8 native to Florida attain tree
size. All 8 bear the common name of stopper, with some de-
scriptive adjective to differentiate species, as Spanish stopper,
naked stopper, red stopper, etc., and are found in the extreme
southern part of
the peninsula and
on the Keys. Some
are occasionally
used in orna-
mental plantings.
Three intro-
duced ones, jam-
bolana, jambos
and dombeyi, are
grown in the low- A ,
er peninsular sec-
tion for their
fruit as well as
ornamental value. i'
The species euca-
lyptoides, anoth- V
er introduction,
is also well adapt- ..
ed.
Ficus spp. Mo-
raceae. Fig Tree. .....
Rubber Tree.
Southern and
Central areas.
Tropics. The gen-
us Ficus, in which
there are several Fig. 33.-Heliotrope tree, Ehretia acuminata.
hundred species, is well represented among the ornamentals
of Florida. Two species, area and brevifolia, are native.
Nearly all are vigorous growers with handsome foliage. A
typical characteristic of most is the great number of aerial
roots hanging from the branches, many of which ultimately
reach the ground and thus form a tree with numerous trunks.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Among the many species there is a wide variation in size, shape
and texture of the leaves. The fruits, too, vary widely; they
are typical figs ranging in size from that of a pea to that of
the cultivated fig and in color from yellow and purplish to a
bright red, and of most species are inedible.


Fig. 34.-Hinau tree, Elaeocarpus dentata.


Most of the species are tropical or sub-tropical in climatic
requirement and cannot be grown in the cooler portions of the
state, some of the vines and the cultivated fig excepted. Good
soils do not seem essential to a thrifty growth although, with
many, well-drained locations appear better suited.
No attempt is being made to list all of the species in Florida,
since many are present in only small numbers. However, for
those who are interested in the genus, there is a wide field for
trial as the greater majority of the world's species have yet to
be introduced. F. altissima Blume, the lofty fig, is a native of
India and one of the taller growing species. It has thick, shin-
ing, large leathery leaves and comparatively few aerial roots.







Ornamental Trees


The main trunk is quite heavy and the tree is well suited to
street or parkway planting. (Figs. 37 and 43.) F. area
Nutt., the native Florida strangler fig, is a rapid-growing tree
of the hammocks in southern areas. Seeds dropped by birds
in crotches or crevices of other trees sprout there and the roots,
reaching the ground, are entwined about the trunk of the tree
on which they grow. These roots, as well as the tree top, grad-
ually increase in size with the result that the supporting tree is
finally killed. When planted in the open, the tree has numerous
trunks like the banyan and covers a large area. The leaves are
3 to 4 inches long, leathery and dark green; the fruit small, ses-
sile and reddish purple. The tree is not well suited for orna-
mental planting unless ample room is available. (Fig. 38.)


Fig. 35.-Leaf and fruit of the
black calabash,
Enallagma cucurbitina.







Florida Cooperative Extension


F. benghalensis L., another Indian native, is the banyan
tree which is noted particularly for its size and numerous sec-
ondary trunks. The ovate leaves are to 8 inches long and the
small, crimson fruit are produced in great numbers.
F. benjamin L., commonly called the Java fig, weeping laurel
and Java willow, is a native of Malaya. It is a large spreading
tree with drooping branches and small, shining, ovate or oval
leaves. Well adapted to street or park planting. (Fig. 42.)
F. brevifolia Nutt. (F.
populnea Sarg.) is the
wild fig native to the
Keys and extreme south-
ern Florida. Its broadly
pointed leaves are thin
and firm in texture, 3 to
5 inches long and dark
green in color. Small,
red fruits are produced
on drooping stalks. Like
the other native species,
area, the tree is epi-
phytal, being seen grow-
ing on other trees. (Fig.
42.)
F. elastica Roxbg., the
India rubber tree, is a
very lar g e, vigorous
growing, 'heavily but-
tressed tree with shin-
ing, smooth, large, leath-
ery, oval leaves. This is
the "rubber plant" com-
monly grown indoors by
Fig. 36.-Leaf of the ear-tree,
Enterolobium cyclocarpum. florists as a tub plant.
Owing to the nature of
its root system, it is not entirely suited to street planting or
small areas. A variegated form, variegata, has a yellowish or
creamy white irregularly colored leaf margin. (Figs. 39 and 41.)
F. glomerata Roxbg., the cluster fig from southeastern Asia,
is a vigorous growing, medium-sized tree having rather long
and narrow leaves that are thin and papery in texture. The
upper surface of the leaf has a gray, metallic luster.






Ornamental Trees


F. indica, a native of Malaya and sometimes termed the In-
dian fig, is a large, spreading tree with shining foliage. The
leaves are oblong, pointed, to about 7 inches long, the younger
ones with a reddish coloration. (Fig. 41.)
F. infectoria Roxbg., the Indian Dotted fig, is a fairly dense
growing tree, probably best suited for specimen planting. It
is deciduous, being without foliage for a short time. Leaves
are thin and small, seldom attaining a length of over 5 inches.
(Fig. 42.)


Fig. 37.-Lofty fig, Ficus altissima.


F. macrophylla Desf., from Australia, is commonly known
as the Moreton Bay fig. A large and spreading tree, it is quite
satisfactory for street planting. The large, leathery foliage,
brownish beneath, resembles that of elastica in size and shape.
(Fig. 41.)
F. pandurata Hance (F. lyrata?), the fiddle-leaf fig, derives
its common name from the large, leathery, deep green, fiddle-
shaped leaves. The tree is large, usually with a well rounded
head. (Figs. 40 and 41.)
F. religiosa L., is the Peepul or Bo-Tree of India, venerated
by the Buddhists who will not personally disturb nor use any






Florida Cooperative Extension


part of the tree. It is a handsome, medium to large tree with
quite distinct foliage. The long-petioled leaves are thin, light-
green and shining, somewhat heart-shaped, tapering to a long,
tail-like appendage. The trunk and branches are smooth and
quite free from the aerial roots so common to the genus. It is
very satisfactory for specimen or street planting. Probably
the world's oldest transplanted tree is 1 of this species grow-
ing in Ceylon, it having been brought there from India in
288 B.C. (Fig. 43.)
F. retusa L. (F. nitida Thunb.), Indian laurel or laurel rub-
ber from southeastern Asia, is very popular as a street or lawn
tree. It is upright-growing, with dense foliage. The laurel-like
leaves are ovate, small and a deep, glossy green color. (Fig. 42.)
F. rubiginosa Desf., the rusty fig of Australia, is of compact
growth habit and 1 of the smaller trees of the genus. The
leaves are small, roundish to oblong in shape, leathery, glossy
green above and rusty beneath. An abundance of aerial roots
is produced on the branches. (Fig. 42.)


Fig. 38.-Florida strangler fig, Ficus area.







Ornamental Trees


Fig. 39.-India rubber tree, Ficus elastica.


Fig. 40.-Fiddle-leaf fig, Ficus pandurata.





Florida Cooperative Extension


F. sycamorus L., a native of Syria and Egypt, is quite prob-
ably the sycamore tree of Biblical reference. It is a large
deciduous tree with a heavy, rounded top and light-colored bark.


NNi


r


Fig. 41.-Leaves of various Ficus species. Upper left, Indian fig,
Ficus indica; right, fiddle-leaf fig, Ficus pandurata; lower left, Moreton
Bay fig, Ficus macrophylla; center, India rubber tree, Ficus elastica;
right, Ficus glabella.






Ornamental Trees


The leaves are quite large, attaining a length of 10 inches in
some instances. Unfortunately in Florida the tree has proved
to be a favored host to many insects.
F. utilis Sim. (F. nekbudu), an East African species, is com-
monly known as the Zulu or Kaffir fig. It is a medium-sized,
single-stemmed, round-topped tree with very large leathery
leaves to 15 inches long and 7 or 8 inches broad. (Fig. 43.)
Firmiana simplex Wgt. (Sterculia plc',ani olia L.) Sterculi-
aceae. Parasol-tree. Phoenix-tree. Japanese Varnish-tree.
Central and Northern areas. China and Japan. The parasol-
tree is grown mainly in the northern area. It is upright in
habit of growth, attaining a height of 35 to 40 feet. The heart-
shaped leaves, with 3 or 5 deep lobes, are 8 to 12 inches across.




t






1 Z










Fig. 42.-Leaves of Ficus species. Left to right: Ficus brevifolia,
rubiginosa, benjamin, retusa, and infectoria.

The bark of both trunk and branches is smooth and differs
from most trees in its green coloration. Terminally borne in
large panicles, the flowers themselves are small and unattractive.
The fruits, however, differ materially from the ordinary in that
the follicles containing the seeds split long before maturity into
4 carpels, of leathery, leaf-like appearance, to the edges of
which are attached the small, round seeds. (Fig. 43.)








































Fig. 43.-Left: leaf and fruit of the parasol tree, Firmiana simplex; center: leaf of the Zulu fig,
lofty fig, Ficus altissima, and sacred fig, Ficus religiosa.


Fic's utilis; right: leaves of






Ornamental Trees


This species could be listed as an escape in Florida, since
numerous seedlings spring up in the area around older trees
if they are not destroyed by cultivation.
Ginkgo biloba L. Ginkgoaceae. Ginkgo. Maidenhair Tree.
Northern area. China. A tall, slender, pyramidal tree planted
extensively in some Northern states but rare in Florida. It


Fig. 44.-Ginkgo or maidenhair tree, Ginkgo biloba.






Florida Cooperative Extension


is deciduous, the fan-shaped leaves, 2 to 31/2 inches across,
being in clusters of 3 to 5, on spurs and divided or incised at
the apex, turning yellow or golden in the late fall. The plants
are dioecious and because of the foul odor of the fruits, it is
best to plant only those bearing staminate flowers. (Fig. 44.)
Gleditsia delavayi Franchet. Leguminosae. Locust. Central
and Northern areas. China. In addition to honey locust (G.
triacanthos) and water locust (G. aquatica), the former prob-
ably introduced and the latter native, the Chinese species dela-
vayi is adapted to the northern sections. The first 2 are little
grown as ornamentals and as the last has not long been intro-
duced it is rarely seen. It, however, is thriving in the north-
central section and where a tree of the type is desired is pos-
sibly the best suited. The tree is large, round-topped and
heavily foliaged. The leaves are deciduous and differ from
other species in the oblique leaflets of which the lower ones are
the smaller. Large strap-like pods, 12 to 20 inches long and
about 2 inches wide, are produced in great numbers. As an
ornamental the tree would be undesirable in many situations
because of the numerous long, branched, sharp spines on the
trunk and branches.
Gliiicidia sepium Steud. (G. maculata HBK.) Leguminosae.
Madre de Cacao. Southern area. Central America. Rarely
seen in Florida, this species is commonly planted in the tropics
as a shade for coffee and cacao. It is normally a small tree,
its leaves with 7 to 15 odd-pinnate leaflets, each with a blotch
of purple underneath. The flowers are pink, about % inch long,
and freely borne in large racemes in the spring when the tree
is partially or wholly without leaves. The fruit is a shiny, com-
pressed pod 4 to 6 inches long and about 1/. inch wide.
Gordonia lasianthus Ell. Theaceae. Loblolly Bay. Central
and Northern areas. Native. Preferring moist soils, the
loblolly bay is valued because of its foliage and its large white
fragrant blossoms that appear successively for 2 or 3 months
in summer. Its lanceolate to oblong leaves are leathery, lus-
trous, 4 to 5 inches long. They drop irregularly, turning to
deep scarlet color some time prior to shedding. The tree is tall
and has a somewhat narrow, compact head.
Grevillea robusta Cunn. Proteaceae. Silk-Oak. Southern
and Central areas. Australia. A tall, vigorous, evergreen tree
of upright habit, well adapted to specimen, street or roadside






Ornamental Trees


planting. It is especially well adapted to the higher lands of
central Florida. The leaves are feathery in appearance, being
twice-pinnatified with 11 to 21 pinnae, the secondary lobes
usually about an inch long, entire or again lobed. The whole leaf
is 6 to 8 inches long and almost as broad; white silky on the
lower surface and deep green above. Large golden yellow or
orange colored trusses of flowers are borne in profusion for
several weeks, beginning usually in April. (Figs. 45 and 46.)
G. Banksii R. Br., also from Australia, is a small, slender
tree reaching a height of about 20 feet and having foliage much


Fig. 45.-Roadside planting of Australian silk oak,
Grevillea robusta.






Florida Cooperative Extension


like the above species. Its flowers, however, are a striking red
and are produced in profusion even while the tree is quite young.
Gymnocladus dioica Koch. Leguminosae. Kentucky Coffee
Tree. Central and Northern areas. Eastern North America.
The Kentucky coffee tree is seldom seen in Florida but cul-
tivated trees have demonstrated its adaptability when planted in








Fig. 46.-Below: leaf and
flowers of the Australian
silk oak; lower right: leaf
of Kentucky coffee tree,
Gymnocladus dioica; right; 4
flower and foliage of the
mahoe, Hibiscus elatus.


fertile soils. It is a large tree, requiring much room for maxi-
mum development and is quite attractive due to its unusually
large, bi-pinnate foliage and ridged, flaky bark. The seeds,
once used as a coffee substitute, are borne in thick, fleshy, brown
pods that persist long after the foliage has shed. (Fig. 46.)
Hibiscus tiliaceus L. (Paritium tiliaceum Juss.) Malvaceae.







Ornamental Trees


Mahoe. Southern area. Old World Tropics. The mahoe grows
as a native or an escape on the Keys and in the extreme southern
peninsular portion of Florida. It thrives near the seacoast and
evidently has no aversion to brackish water. The tree attains
a height of about 30 feet and is striking because of its large
leaves and flowers. The leaves are rounded and leathery, 4 to
7 inches wide, and the hibiscus-like flowers -are pale yellow with
petals 2 to 21/2 inches long. Blooms in summer.
In some Pacific islands the inner bark is used for cordage,
mats and coarse cloth. The wood is durable and flexible.
H. elatus, Swtz. (Paritium elatum Don.), the mountain
mahoe, is a species with red flowers that appear in profusion
in winter, as well as sparingly in the summer. It is more erect
in growing habit than the above and is also found in the southern
area. (Fig. 46.)
Hicoria spp. Raf. Juglandaceae. Hickory. Southern, Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Native. Two hickories, alba, the
mocker-nut, and glabra, the pig-nut, are utilized extensively in
the northern sections as deciduous shade trees about houses,
outbuildings and barnyards, but it is seldom that they are
planted for such purpose, most having been left when the lands
were cleared of native timber. Both are large trees in maturity
and are well worth preserving in clearing for new building sites.
Hicoria pecan Brit. (Carya pecan Engl. and Graebn.), the
pecan, a native of the lower Mississippi valley, is widely planted
in the northern area as a shade tree and in some instances is
used for street planting. In the central and southern sections
an occasional specimen is seen but there the trees cannot be
depended upon for regular fruiting. The large trees are ideal
for summer shade and if of the right varieties, of which there
are many, they will furnish, in addition, the winter's supply
of nuts. There are situations where shade is wanted in sum-
mer but not during the winter months and for such places the
pecan, where soils are suitable, is ideally adapted. Full informa-
tion relative to pecan culture and varieties in Florida has been
made available in other publications.
Hura crepitans L. Euphorbiaceae. Sandbox. Southern area.
American Tropics. The sandbox is a large, upright, deciduous
tree grown in only extreme south Florida. Its trunk is closely
covered with short, sharp spines, and the leaves with long stems
are something like those of the poplar. The milky sap is poison-
ous. The fruits, about 3 inches across and shaped like an onion,







Florida Cooperative Extension


are capsules divided into 12 to 15 sections, each containing a
single seed and exploding violently when mature. Prior to
the advent of ink blotters and when sand was used for drying
ink on paper, dried fruits of this tree are said to have been
used as sand containers, thus giving the tree its common name.
The tree is of value both as an ornamental shade tree and as
a novelty. Its reddish flowers are too small to place it in the
class of flowering trees. (Fig. 47.)




















Fig. 47.-The sandbox tree, Hura crepitans, and its fruit.

Ilex spp. Aquifoliaceae. Holly. Central and Northern areas.
Among Florida's 13 native Ilex species 6 attain sufficient size
to rank as trees. Of the 6 only 3-opaca, the American holly,
Cassine, the dahoon, and vomitoria, the yaupon-are used to
any extent in ornamental plantings. These species, as well as
the Chinese holly, cornuta, seem best adapted to the northern
sections although the dahoon and 1 other native, Krugiana, are
found in the extreme south. (Fig. 48.)
Holly has long had a significant part at the Anglo-Saxon
Christmas-tide and in America the use of the native American
holly, opaca, for decoration has threatened the destruction of
that species in some areas. So great is the demand that some
small cultivated acreages have been planted for commercial cut-
ting.





Ornamental Trees


I. opaca Ait. is the largest species, reaching a height of 50
or more feet. The leaves are leathery, a deep green on the
upper surface, vary from elliptic to obovate-oblong in shape,
and have spiny margins. The fruits, dull red in color and about
1/4-inch in diameter, are borne freely on the pistillate-flowering
trees and are persistent for a long period. On rare occasions
a tree is seen having yellow instead of red fruits.
I. Cassine L., the dahoon, is a small tree commonly found in
rich, moist soils. Its leaves are leathery, oblong to oblanceolate,


0%
0^^


Fig. 48.-Upper left: leaf and fruit of Jatropha ourcas; right: Jaca-
randa foliage and flowers; lower: foliage and fruit of the American, yaupon
and Chinese hollies, Ilex opaca, vomitoria and cornuta.


I`







Florida Cooperative Extension


and without spines. The red fruits, mostly in 3's, are produced
in profusion.
I. vomitoria Ait., the yaupon, is at best a small tree and is com-
monly used as a hedge plant. The leaves are small, seldom over
2 inches long and ordinarily much less, oblong, and with serrate
margins. Small, shiny red fruits are produced in great pro-
fusion.
I. cornuta Lindl., Chinese holly, is a large shrub or small
bushy tree with exceptional foliage. The leaves are 3 to 4
inches long, rectangular-oblong with 3 to 7 strong, sharp spines,
and very deep glossy green in color. The fruits are larger than
those of opaca but on specimens seen are not so freely borne.
Jacaranda acutifolia Humb. and Bonpl. (J. ovalifolia R. Br.
J. mimosaefolia D. Don.) Bignoniaceae. Jacaranda. Southern
and warmer parts of Central areas. South America. Because
of its profusion of bloom and delicate, fern-like foliage, the
Jacaranda is 1 of the favorite flowering trees of Florida. It
is a large, spreading tree, attaining a height of 40 to 50 feet.
The leaves are bi-pinnate, each having 16 or more pairs of
pinnae, each of which is again usually further divided into 16
or more pairs of leaflets. Long, loose panicles of large lavender-
blue flowers borne in profusion are in evidence from April
until June. For a short time prior to the blooming period the
tree is partially or wholly without foliage. The fruits are flat,
discoid pods about 11/2 inches in diameter; the seeds small
and broadly winged. (Fig. 48.)
Jatropha curcas L. Euphorbiaceae. Physic-Nut. Purging-Nut.
Southern and Central areas. Tropical America. The physic-
nut is a small tree much used in parts of the tropics as a live
fencing material about small areas. Large cuttings root rapidly
and livestock will not eat the foliage. Its large leaves are 3-
or 5-lobed and the greenish flowers are borne in cymes. Fruits
are olive-shaped, 1 to 11/ inches in length, and contain usually
2 oblong, black seeds each about 3-inch long. These seeds,
agreeable to the taste, are purgative in small amounts but poi-
sonous in large quantities. The kernels contain over 50 percent
oil which may be utilized in making soaps. The tree thrives
in the southern areas. (Fig. 48.)
Kigelia pinnata DC. (K. africana (Lam.) Benth.) Bignoni-
aceae. Sausage Tree. Fetish Tree. Southern area and warmer
parts of Central area. Tropical Africa. The sausage-tree is of
peculiar interest because of its status as a sacred tree in parts







Ornamental Trees


of Africa and is planted as an ornamental novelty mainly for
its odd fruits which, in appearance, strongly resemble sausages
suspended by long cords. The tree is not large, rather unsym-
metrical in growth habit, and has large, odd-pinnate leaves, each


Fig. 49.-The sausage-tree, Kigelia pinnata.


with 7 or 9 leaflets which are 4 to 6 inches in length. Its dull,
brownish-red, tubular flowers-21/2 to 3 inches long-are borne
in large panicles at the ends of long stems. (Figs. 49 and 51.)
Koelreuteria formosana Hayata. Sapindaceae. Southern,
Central and Northern areas. Japan. This deciduous tree from







Florida Cooperative Extension


Formosa is yet quite rare in Florida but may be planted in the
cooler portions as a "flowering" tree. Its small yellow flowers
appear in early October in great terminal panicles and are
shortly followed by the bright red, bladder-like, papery cap-
sules containing the black, shot-like seeds. The capsules bear a
striking resemblance to the bracts of the Bougainvillea and
give the tree the appearance of producing a crown of red flow-
ers. The leaves are up to 18 inches long, bi-pinnate, with
numerous small, serrate leaflets. When given proper cultural
attention, the tree is
fast-growing. In its
native habitat it
reaches a height of
60 feet. (Fig. 50.)
Lagerstroemia spe-
ciosa Pers. (L. Flos-
Reginae Retz.). Ly-
R thraceae. Queen's
IF lowe r. Queen's
Crape Myrtle. South-
ern area and warmer
Parts of Central area.
Australia, India. The
Queen's crape myrtle
is exceptionally free-
i flowering, whether
the plant is yet the
Size of a shrub or has
attained its maxi-
Smum height as a
fairly large tree. The
Fig. 50.-Leaf of Koelreuteria formosana. flowers appear in
early summer and
are similar to those of the more common crape myrtle but are
much larger, from 2 to 3 inches across. They are pink to mauve
in color and borne in large terminal panicles. The trees are
deciduous for a short time.
The common deciduous crape myrtle, L. indica L., while gen-
erally considered as a shrub, reaches the size of a small tree.
It is grown throughout the state and is available in pink, pur-
ple, red and white flowering varieties.
Ligustrum lucidum Ait. Oleaceae. Glossy Privet. Central






Ornamental Trees


and Northern areas. China. Through an error of some sort,
it seems that the 2 species lucidum and japonicum were confused
at some time in the past, and the correct names transposed;
each now being commonly known by the name of the other.
Japonicum is quite probably the 1 known as the wax privet
so widely planted as a large shrub.
The glossy privet is utilized as both a shrub and a small
tree, it attaining a height of about 25 feet. The leaves are
evergreen, ovate to ovate lanceolate, pointed and to 6 inches long.
Small, white flowers are produced in compact terminal panicles
in spring. Although grown occasionally in the central sections,
it seemingly is best adapted to the northern area. (Fig. 51.)




















Fig. 51.-Left: leaf of the sausage tree, Kigelia pinnata; right: foliage
and fruit cluster of glossy privet, Ligustrum lucidum.

Liquidambar styraciflua L. Hamamelidaceae. Sweet Gum.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Native. The native
sweet gum is found throughout nearly the whole of the state
except the extreme southern part. It is a vigorous grower,
pyramidal in general shape, very tall in maturity, and well
suited for avenue or shade where a deciduous subject is wanted.
The foliage is dense, the leaves are palmately 5-lobed and maple-
like in appearance, and turn to beautiful reds and yellows in
the late fall months. A winged, corky growth is conspicuous
on the branches. (Fig. 52.)






Florida Cooperative Extension


Liquidambar formosana Hance, a native of China, is a tall
species with 3-lobed, maple-like leaves that has shown adapt-
ability to northern parts of the state and would probably be
as well adapted as far south, at least, as the central area.
Liriodendron tulipifera L. Magnoliaceae. Tulip-tree. Yellow
Poplar. Central and Northern area. Native. This species is
among the largest of American trees and in maturity has a
broad spreading head with the straight trunk devoid of branches
to great heights. In youth the tree is pyramidal in shape. The
leaf blades are 4-lobed, 3 to 7 inches wide and about the same
length. The flowers are tulip-shaped with greenish-white petals,
nearly 2 inches in length and orange colored at the base. Occur-
ring naturally along streams, it prefers a moist soil but thrives
on drier lands. (Fig. 53.)
Macadamia ternifolia F. v. Muell. Proteaceae. Queensland
Nut. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area. Aus-
tralia. A glabrous, dense foliaged, tall tree, as seen in Florida
usually low branching or with more than 1 stem. The deep
green, brittle leaves, in whorls of 3 or 4, are oblong or lanceo-
late, from a few inches to a
Fig. 52.-Sweet gum, Liquidambar styraciflua. foot long, and with most, ser-
rate with prickly teeth. They,
in a measure, have the ap-
pearance of elongated holly
leaves. The small flowers are
borne in racemes about as
long as the leaves. The edible
seeds, termed nuts, are globu-
lar, about an inch in diameter,
and very hard-shelled. The
tree is relatively slow grow-
ing and does not fruit in its
early years. (Fig. 54.)
Magnolia spp. Magnolia-
ceae. Three native magnolias,
the Southern magnolia (M.
grandiflora L.), the sweet bay
(M. virginiana L.), and the
large-leaved cucumber tree
(M. macrophylla Michx.) are
grown as ornamental trees in
Florida. The Southern mag-






Ornamental Trees


nolia, justly famous throughout the South, is a magnificent ever-
green tree of great size. It thrives under a wide range of soil
conditions and occurs naturally in nearly all parts of the state
except on poorly drained lands and in the extreme south. The
stiff, leathery leaves are oval-oblong, 5 to 8 inches long, deep
shining green above and rusty brown beneath. The new foliage
appears in early spring, coincidental with the shedding of the
old. In April, May, and into June there is a succession of the
large, creamy white, strongly scented flowers. The scarlet seeds
are borne in cone-like receptacles and mature in early fall. Al-
though slow growing, the tree is long-lived and once established
requires little or no cultural care. (Fig. 55.)
The sweet bay, also called swamp bay, grows in wet soils and
in transplanting its moisture requirements should be kept in
mind. It is a slender but tall growing tree with attractive
foliage and flowers. The leaves are bright green and lustrous
above but light gray beneath, which gives a silvery appearance
to the foliage when disturbed by
winds. There is a succession of Fig. 53.-The tulip tree, Liriodendrot
tulipifera.
flowers during the spring and ulipiera.
early summer months, the indivi-
dual blossoms being white, 2 to 3
inches across and quite fragrant.
The deciduous large-leaved cu-
cumber tree is noted for its im-
mense leaves which may attain a
length of 30 inches and a width
of 10. Its white, cup-shaped, fra-
grant flowers are also quite large,
having an extreme width of about
12 inches. The tree attains a height
of about 50 feet and has a heavy,
straight trunk and a symmetrical, .
somewhat rounded head. It is
planted only in the northern areas
where it occurs naturally.
Some of the introduced mag-
nolias, as M. Soulangeana Soul.
from China and Japan, and M.
stellata Maxim. from China, are
planted in the northern areas and
are of rare ornamental value be-







Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 54.-Foliage and fruit of the Queensland nut,
Macadamia ternifolia.


Fig. 55.-Flower of the Southern magnolia, Magnolia grandiflora.







Ornamental Trees


cause of their large showy blossoms. They are both shrubby
trees and free-blooming even in the juvenile stages. The
flowers of the former are purplish in color and the latter white;
both are fragrant.
Malus angustifolia Michx. Rosaceae. Crabapple. Northern
area. Native. This crabapple, native to northwestern Florida,
is of value for situations where a free-blooming deciduous tree
is desired. Its pink blossoms, appearing in early spring before
the leaves, are about an inch across, quite fragrant, and borne
in profusion. The tree attains a maximum height of about
25 feet and is wide spreading.
Mangifera indica L. Anacardiaceae. Fig. 56The cajeput tree
Mango. Southern area and warmer part Melaleuca leucadendron.
of Central area. Tropical Asia. Although
mainly planted for its fruit, the mango
tree has a distinct ornamental value. It
grows to a large size and if given room
for development usually has a spread of
top equalling or exceeding its height. It
is an evergreen with deep green, stiff,
lanceolate leaves that may reach a length
of a foot or more. In the new flushes of
growth, the foliage is wine-colored. There
are numerous varieties which give con-
siderable variation in general tree shape
as well as in foliage. In a limited way
the tree has been used for street planting.
Melaleuca leucadendron L. Myrtaceae.
Cajeput Tree. Punk Tree. Southern
area and warmer parts of Central area.
Australia. The cajeput tree is of medium
height with slender, sometimes pendulous
branches, narrow leaves, and a conspicu-
ous, gray, thick, soft bark that peels off
in thin layers. The. flowers with protrud-
ing stamens that give the flower cluster
a bottle-brush shape, are white to yellow-
ish and favored by honey bees.
In a few areas the tree has spread
naturally from cultivation, this showing
conclusively its adaptability. It is little
injured by grass fires and in low areas
suffers little or none from poor drainage.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fast growing and resistant to the effects of salt water, the tree
lends itself to a wide variety of uses and location. (Figs. 56,
57 and 58.)
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae. Chinaberry. Pride of India.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Eastern Asia. An


Fig. 57.-The cajeput tree growing as an escape from cultivation in
Southern Florida.







Ornamental Trees


introduced tree, the chinaberry now grows as an escape in most
parts of Florida. It is most popular in the northern and west-
ern areas and is there commonly planted as a shade tree. In
the citrus belt it is seldom tolerated as it is a favored host of
citrus whitefly. Attaining a height of 30 to 40 feet, with a
thick, spreading, round-topped head, the tree is attractive and
produces a dense shade. The variety umbraculifera Sargent,
Texas umbrella-tree, is more symmetrical than the ordinary




























Fig. 58.-Foliage and seed capsules of the cajeput tree,
Melaleuca leucadendron.

sort, having a low, umbrella-like crown. (Fig. 59.) Leaves
are deciduous, 2- or 3-pinnate; lilac flowers borne in large,
showy panicles in late spring; and fruits smooth, yellow drupes,
1/2 to 3/4 inch in diameter. The seeds are often used as beads.
The tree is seemingly adapted to most soils and is of very
rapid growth.
Moringa Moringa (L.) Millsp. (M. oleifera Lam. M. pterygos-






Florida Cooperative Extension


perma Gaert.) Moringaceae. Horseradish Tree. Southern area.
East Indies and India. A small tree, growing as an escape in
the southern area. The leaves are di- or tri-pinnately com-
pound with 4 to 6 pairs of pinnae, each with 6 to 9 pairs of
small leaflets. The flowers, 1 to 11/2 inches wide, are yellowish-
white and sweet-scented, borne in panicles. The pendant, 3-
angled, 9-ribbed, slender pods, to 16 inches long, contain the
winged seeds which are the source of "ben oil" used for watch
lubrication. The fleshy roots have the flavor and odor of horse-
radish for which they have been substituted.


Fig. 59.-The Texas umbrella tree, Melia azedarach var. umbraculifera.

Morus spp. L. Moraceae. Mulberry. Southern, Central and
Northern areas. Florida has 1 native mulberry, the red (M. ru-
bra L.), and 2 introduced species, the white, (M. alba L.) and the
black (M. nigra L.), growing as escapes from cultivation. None
of the species can be considered as having much ornamental
value, their use being restricted for the most part to shade trees
about poultry yards and animal pens. They make rapid growth
and seemingly are adapted to nearly all sections.







Ornamental Trees


Olea europaea L. Oleaceae. Olive. Southern and Central
areas and warmer parts of northern area. Mediterranean
region. The cultivated olive makes satisfactory growth in most
well drained soils and is hardy throughout most of the state.
Trees of various ages are found here and there but it is a rare
exception that one produces any fruit whatever. Before the
trees attain much size, they are quite ornamental, the light
grayish foliage differing in appearance from that of most other
trees. A height of about 25 feet is the maximum reached and
by that time the trees have generally developed a somewhat
open head and unsymmetrical shape.
Pachira aquatica Aubl. Bombacaceae. Southern area. West
Indies. The few trees, presumably of this species, noted grow-
ing in southern Florida are more spreading than upright in
growth habit and are of peculiar ornamental value because of
their very showy flowers. The leaves resemble those of the
kapok tree-they are digitately compound, usually with 5 to 7
leaflets. Appearing in late winter or early spring, the very
large, tubular flowers with numerous scarlet stamens are very
unusual and attractive. The terminally borne flower buds, be-
fore opening, have the appearance of large, smooth acorns.'
Parkinsonia aculeata L. Leguminosae. Jerusalem Thorn.
Southern, Central and Northern areas. Tropical America. Of
drooping growth habit, the Parkinsonias with their thin, wiry,
pendulous foliage and green bark are quite unlike the usual tree
planted for ornament. They attain a maximum height of about
30 feet and are armed with short, sharp spines. Numerous
small bright yellow flowers, in loose racemes, appear in early
spring and are in evidence in lesser 'numbers for several months.
The leaves, pinnate with numerous very small leaflets, are us-
ually over a foot in length. Because of the nature of its foliage,
the tree has little value for shade but is valuable as an orna-
mental because of its free-flowering habit and unusual leafage.
(Fig. 60.)
Parmentiera cereifera Seem. Bignoniaceae. Candletree.
Southern area. Tropical America. The candletree, although
rare in Florida, thrives in the warmer sections. The tree is
of medium size and has small, thin, glabrous trifoliate leaves.
Its white flowers are about 2 inches long and have a large
brown calyx. The smooth, fleshy, cylindrical fruits, which con-
stitute its chief attraction, hang from larger limbs and trunk
and resemble long yellow candles. They are about an inch in


73







Florida Cooperative Extension


diameter and of varying lengths, although a maximum of nearly
4 feet may be attained.


Fig. 60.-Foliage of Jerusalem thorn, Parkinsonia aculeata.

Paulownia tomentosa Koch. Scrophulariaceae. Empress Tree.
Royal Paulownia. Northern area. China. A rapid-growing
tree of spreading habit, reaching a height of about 45 feet,
having quite ornamental foliage and long panicles of violet flow-
ers that appear in spring before the leaves. It is said to be
growing as an escape in limited numbers in parts of the west-
ern section. The leaves are ovate, occasionally 3-lobed, from
5 to 7 inches long, darker green above, and with long petioles.
The tubular flowers are about 2 inches in length, pale violet
colored, with lower lobes marked by 2 yellow bands, fragrant,
and produced in terminal panicles to 10 inches in length. The
tree is rarely planted.
Peltophorum ferrugineum Benth. (P. inerme Naves.).
Leguminosae. Southern area. Southeastern Asia. A large,
fast-growing tree, rarely planted, that in foliage is somewhat
similar to the royal poinciana. The leaves are bi-pinnate with
16 to 20 oblong leaflets, each about half an inch in length. The
shoots and the under side of the younger leaves are covered







Ornamental Trees


with a rusty velvety tomentum. Its showy, scented flowers are
borne in large terminal panicles and are a rusty yellow in
color. In general appearance the tree is quite attractive with
its feathery foliage and masses of yellow bloom.
P. dubium Taub., of the Philippines, is also grown in the
southern area but is rare.
Pimenta officinalis Berg. Myrtaceae. Allspice. Southern
area. West Indies and Tropical America. This tree, also rare,
is the source of allspice which is the dried immature berry.
Apparently no commercial possibilities are offered in growing
this tree but it does have an ornamental value. It reaches a


Fig. 61.-The Chinese pistache, Pistacia chinensis.







Florida Cooperative Extension


height of 25 to 30 feet and has shiny, leathery, oblong leaves 5
to 6 inches long.
Pistacia chinensis Bunge. Anacardiaceae. Chinese Pistache.
Central and Northern areas. China. The Chinese pistache
is a broad round-topped tree with short main trunk and heavy
branches. The deciduous leaves are odd-pinnate with 11 to 13
ovate-lanceolate leaflets that are oblique at the base and to 3
inches long. Pistillate and staminate blossoms are borne on
separate trees
Sand those with
the male flowers
are usually more
heavily foliaged.
Small compress-

are produced in
large clusters and
turn a deep red
on maturity. In
late fall the
leaves turn scar-
let and orange
and this with red
fruits makes the
tree quite attrac-
tive over several
.s weeks. (Figs. 61
and 62.)
It is said that
in China the
young shoots and
leaves are utiliz-
ed as a vegetable.
Growth is slow
Fig. 62.-Leaf and fruit of the Chinese pistache. but the tree is ex-
ceptionally f r e e
of diseases or insect pests. This species is used as rootstock for
Pistacia vera, which produces the edible pistachio nuts of com-
merce (but is not known to be growing in Florida).
Pithecellobium dulce Benth. Leguminosae. Madras Thorn.
Manila Tamarind. Southern and Central areas. Central Amer-
ica, Mexico and the Philippines.







Ornamental Trees


A medium to fairly large, spreading, thorny tree now exten-
sively used as an avenue tree in the southeastern section. It is
rapid-growing and often the trunk is unsymmetrical unless
properly staked for a time after planting. The leaves are quite
small, having but a single pair of pinnae each with 2 obovate,
oblique leaflets about an inch long. Fruit pods are narrow,
much twisted, 4 to 6 inches long, and constricted between the
seeds. Because of its adaptability, quick growth and freedom
from pests, it is gaining in popularity. (Fig. 63.)


q,


Fig. 63.-Pithecellobium dulce.


Pittosporum ,.,, rlift,, ",, Sims. Pittosporaceae. Cape Pit-
tosporum. Central and Northern areas. South Africa. Usually
more or less shrubby, the cape pittosporum attains a height of
about 25 feet and due to its deep green, leathery foliage, is an
attractive small tree. The foliage is somewhat like that of the







Florida Cooperative Extension


common shrubby tobira but larger. Growth is fairly rapid. It
is rarely planted in Florida.
Pittosporum undulatum Vent., the Victorian box from Aus-
tralia, is adapted to Central and Southern areas. It attains
some 30 feet in height and has attractive deep green and shin-
ing foliage; the leaves are 4 or 5 inches long and about 1/2
inch wide.


Fig. 64.-Frangipani, Plumeria emarginata.


Platanus occidentalis L. Platanaceae. Plane tree. Sycamore.
Buttonwood. Southern, Central and Northern areas. Native.
This tree thrives in all sections of the state but attains its great-
est size in the northwestern area. It reaches heights well over
a hundred feet and is among America's tallest trees. The
branches are heavy and spreading and form a broad, irregular
head. The leaves are 3- to 5-lobed, broadly ovate, and the fruit
is a solitary pendant head about an inch in diameter. In spite
of its deciduous foliage, the tree is planted extensively as an
ornamental. Because of its common name-sycamore-this
tree should not be confused with Ficus sycamorus which is
grown in the southern area and which, no doubt, is the syca-
more tree of the Scriptures.







Ornamental Trees


Plumeria spp. Apocynaceae. Frangipani. Temple Tree.
Southern area. Tropical America. The Plumerias are short,
spreading, stocky trees with thick branches, milky sap and very
fragrant flowers. P. rubra has very long, broad leaves and red
or purplish flowers; as has also acuminata but with yellow in
the base and more pointed leaves. Alba has white flowers and
very narrow leaves. The flowers are in evidence for several
months in the year
which makes the tree
very desirable as a ,
flowering species. -. -
(Figs. 64 and 65.) f
Poinciana regia
Bojer. (Delonix regia
Raf.) Leguminosae.
Ro ya 1 Poinciana.
Flamboyant. South-
ern area and warmer
parts of Central area.
Madagascar. The
royal poinciana is
conceded by nearly
everyone to be Flor-
ida's most popular
flowering tree. It
blooms during the
early summer
months, a mass of
scarlet overtopping
the broad crown of
deep green, finely-cut Fig. 65.-Flowers and foliage of the frangipani.
deep green, finely-cut
foliage. The individual flowers are 2 to 3 inches across, the
petals scarlet except for the upper 1 which is tinged with yel-
low, and borne in large racemes. The bi-pinnate leaves are
fern-like, attaining a maximum length of nearly 2 feet. For a
time in spring the tree is without foliage. The fruits are large,
heavy, strap-like pods, nearly 2 inches in width and to 24
inches long.
The tree attains a height of about 30 feet, the spread of its
branches usually equalling or exceeding the height. It is rapid
growing and adapted to a wide range of soil conditions. (Fig. 66.)







Florida Cooperative Extension


Pongamia pinnata Wight. (P. glabra Vent.) Leguminosae.
Pongam. Poonga Oil Tree. Southern area. Tropical Asia and
Australia. A quick-growing tree of medium size and thick
foliage that is well adapted for South Florida planting. It is
quite resistant to damage from heavy winds and is well suited
to street or windbreak planting. The glossy green leaves are
odd-pinnate with either 5 or 7 broadly ovate leaflets that are
about 3 inches long. The fruits are short, flat, thick pods with
an incurving point and containing but a single seed. (Figs.
67 and 68.)
Populus spp. Salicaceae. Poplar. Central and Northern
areas. Three poplars, the native cottonwood or necklace poplar,
P. deltoides Marsh., the lombardy, P. nigra var. italica DuRoi.,
and the Carolina, supposedly a hybrid, are planted in limited
numbers in the extreme northern and northwestern areas with
an occasional tree seen as far south as the mid-peninsular region.
Most of them seem to prefer moist soils but all make good
growth on a wide range of soil types. The well known lombardy
with its typical very upright growth seems to vary in thrift
so that rows of them present an uneven appearance and it pos-
sibly is not as well adapted as the others. P. simonii Carr.,
a Chinese native of recent introduction, is a rapid-growing,
upright pyramidal tree apparently adapted to the northern
area as well as or better than some of the better known species.


Fig. 66.-The royal poinciana, Poinciana regia.







Ornamental Trees


Posoqueria latifolia Roem. and Schult. Rubiaceae. Southern
area. Central America. This species is a small tree, 18 to 20
feet high, with leathery, deep green, oval or oblong leaves and
decidedly distinctive blossoms. The pure white flowers are borne
in terminal corymbs; they have very slender tubular corollas


Fig. 67.-The pongam tree, Pongamia pinnata.


some 5 to 6 inches long; 5-lobed, each about half an inch in
length. The blossoming season is in spring. The fruits, some-
what resembling the guava in appearance, are about 2 inches
in diameter.
Poupartia axillaris (Roxbg.) King and Prain. Anacardia-
ceae. Southern, Central and Northern areas. China. A large
round-topped, deciduous tree with massive branches that is very
rare in Florida but is well adapted to the north-central section
and probably would thrive in the other sections. In general







Florida Cooperative Extension


shape, it is somewhat like the chinaberry but not quite so heav-
ily foliaged. The leaves, to 15 inches in length, are odd-pinnate,
with 9 to 13 lanceolate, sinuate margined, oblique leaflets to
41/2 inches long. The fruit is oval, light transluscent yellow
when ripe, and about an inch long. The flavor is abominable,
although it is classed among the edible Chinese fruits.


Fig. 68.-Upper left: leaf and fruit of the pongam; right: leaf and
fruit of Poupartia axillaris; lower: foliage, blossoms and fruit of cherry
laurel, Prunus caroliniana.






Ornamental Trees


Because of its rapid growth and apparent freedom from
serious insect or disease attack, this species ranks high among
deciduous sorts for ornamental planting. (Fig. 68.)
Prunus caroliniana Ait. (Laurocerasus caroliniana Reichenb.)
Rosaceae. Cherry Laurel. Mock Orange. Central and Northern
areas. Native. This native evergreen reaches a maximum


Fig. 69.-Wild black cherry, Prunus seroina.
Fi"6-W chery Pruns se tina'._'.". -

Fig. 69.--Wild black cherry, Prunus serotina.







Florida Cooperative Extension


height of about 35 feet and thrives on well drained fertile soils.
It is used extensively as a hedge plant, withstanding severe
clipping or shearing without injury, and is quite free of insects
and diseases. The foliage is a deep, lustrous green, and the
tree at a distance appears somewhat like an orange tree. The
leaves are oblong-lanceolate, 2 to 4 inches long, usually with
entire margins but occasionally remotely serrate. Very small
white flowers in racemes 1 to 3 inches long appear in early
spring and are followed by the small oblong black fruits which
ripen in late fall. (Fig. 68.)
Prunus serotina Ehrh. (Padus virginiana (L.) Mill.). Rosa-
ceae. Wild Black Cherry. Central and Northern areas. Native.
The native black cherry, thriving on sandy soils, is a fast-grow-
ing tree and is planted to some extent as an ornamental. It
attains a huge size under favorable conditions but as the wood
is brittle, it is severely broken up by storms. The foliage is a
shining green and, until the midsummer months, is quite at-
tractive. After that time, however, a disease causing leaf spot-
ting ordinarily occurs which imparts a more or less ragged
appearance until the time of leaf fall in late autumn. (Fig. 69.)
Pterospermum acerifolium Willd. Sterculiaceae. Southern
and Central areas. Southeastern Asia. A large tree, quite rare
in Florida, that is of interest because of its very large and
peculiarly-shaped leaves, many of which are over a foot long
and nearly as broad. They are leathery, oblong to oval, many
irregularly lobed, palmately nerved and white or grayish under-
neath. Its flowers are fragrant, white to yellowish, and quite
large. (Fig. 70.)
Quercus spp. Fagaceae. Oak. Southern, Central and North-
ern areas. The native oaks are quite properly utilized to a
greater extent for specimen, park, avenue and roadside plant-
ings than any other native or introduced tree. They are thor-
oughly adapted to both climate and soils, as proved by their
long residence; they are relatively free of attack by insects or
diseases; and, because of their size and growth habit, are ad-
mirably suited for permanent ornamental planting. Botanists
credit Florida with 30 native species of oaks, this number in-
cluding some of the natural hybrids. Within this range of
species are found both evergreen and deciduous sorts as well
as a wide diversity in mature size which ranges from small,
shrubby specimens to immense trees.
Foi general planting the evergreen specimens are chosen







Ornamental Trees


almost without exception. Those most widely planted are the
live oak, Q. virginiana, the twin live oak, geminata, the water
or laurel oak, laurifolia, and the black or water oak, nigra. The
first 2 named are much longer-lived than the last and for this
reason are given preference. The first 3 are found in nearly
all areas other than the extreme south, so they may be properly
selected for planting anywhere except on the Keys. The largest
size, however, is attained by the trees in the northern areas.
(Figs. 71 and 72.)

I "-


Fig. 70.-Leaf of Pterospermum acerifolium.






Florida Cooperative Extension


The Spanish cork oak, suber, recently has been introduced and
is making a thrifty, although somewhat slow, growth.
Ravenala madagascariensis J. F. Gmel. Musaceae. Traveler's
Tree. Southern area. Madagascar. Closely related to the
banana, the traveler's tree, also sometimes called traveler's
"palm", attains a height of 30 feet and its appearance gives
the impression of a huge open fan. It derives its common name
from the storage of a watery fluid in the base of the leaf-stalks


Fig. 71.-Laurel oak, Quercus laurifolia.


which is supposedly a palatable substitute for water. The
leaves, attaining a length of 15 feet, are easily frayed by winds
but this seemingly has little effect on the ornamental value of







Ornamental Trees


the tree. Differing materially in shape and appearance from
other trees, this species can be advantageously included where
an uncommon plant is wanted. (Fig. 73.)
Salix babylonica L. Salicaceae. Weeping Willow. Northern
area. China. Only an occasional specimen of weeping willow


Fig. 72.-Roadside planting of native oaks, principally the laurel oak.

is found but when planted along stream banks or pond margins,
the tree makes a thrifty growth but perhaps does not attain
the size as farther northward. In its native habitat the tree
reaches a height of 30 to 40 feet and has a short trunk, a
spreading head and long, pendulous branchlets. Leaves are
3 to 6 inches long, linear lanceolate, and taper to a narrow point.
Samanea Saman Merrill. (Pithecolobium Saman (Jacq.)
Benth.) Leguminosae. Rain Tree. Southern area. Central
America. The species much resembles the Pithecolobium that is
planted in the extreme south in both foliage and growth habit.
It attains an immense size in its native habitat and in many
tropical countries is used for roadside planting. The leaves are
numerously divided, usually bi-pinnate, with the leaflets 2- to
8-pinnate. Unlike the above Pithecolobium, its indehiscent seed
pods are seldom curved and the leaflets tend to fold together
in darkness or cloudy weather. The tree is yet rare.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Sapindus marginatus Willd. Sapindaceae. Soapberry. South-
ern, Central and Northern areas. Native. The soapberry tree,
reaching a maximum height of 30 feet, is planted more as a
novelty than an ornamental shade tree, although it is quite


Fig. 73.-Traveler's tree, Ravenala madagascariensis.


satisfactory for the latter use during the summer months. Its
growth habit is variable in different specimens, some being quite
upright and others spreading. Its foliage is dense, the pinnate
leaves attaining a maximum length of about 11 inches and with
7 to 13 leaflets that are 4 or 5 inches long. The fruits, ripening






Ornamental Trees


in late fall, are produced in quantity, usually in clusters. They
are light yellow, about an inch in length, obovoid, are keeled
on the back, and have a thin layer of mucilaginous, almost trans-
parent flesh about the large black seed. The pulp of the fruit,
said to contain some 30 percent saponin, will form a lather in
water and has been used as a soap substitute. The seeds are
exceptionally hard
and have been uti-
lized as buttons and
beads. (Fig. 74.)
Another native
species, S. sapona-
ria, the leaves of
which have a broad-
ly winged rachis, is
found in the ex-
treme south.
Sapium sebiferum
R o x b. (Stillingia
sebifera Michx. Tri-
adica sebifera Sm.)
Euphorbiaceae.
Chinese Tallow-
Tree. Tallow-Tree.
Southern, Central
and Northern areas.
China. In Florida
and some other
most southern
states, the tallow-
tree has proved its
Fig. 74.-Leaf and fruits of the soapberry tree,
adaptability, as it Sapindus marginatus.
occasionally is
found growing as an escape. Its habit of growth is spreading;
the trunk usually unsymmetrical and divided into several large
branches. Thirty feet is about its maximum height. The
poplar-like leaves change in color in late autumn from a light,
shiny green to deep reds and yellows. Milk-white seed, 3 to the
capsule, are borne in profusion and adhere to the central column
of the capsule for weeks after opening. It is said that in China
the waxy coating of the seeds is used for candle and soap mak-
ing. Cultural requirements to insure thrifty growth are few,







Florida Cooperative Extension


and the tree is singuarly free of diseases and insect pests.
(Fig. 75.)







































Fig. 75.-Upper left: leaf of the kaffir bean tree, Schotia latifolia;
right: foliage and fruit of the Chinese tallow-tree, Sapium sebiferum;
lower left: leaf of the fountain tree, Spathodea campanulata; right: leaf
and fruit cluster of Brazilian pepper, Schinus terebinthefolius.

Sapium glandulosum (L.) Morong., the milk-tree, a native
of South America, is grown in Escambia County and reported
to have become sparingly naturalized in that region.







Ornamental Trees


Schinus terebinthefolius Radd. Anacardiaceae. Brazilian
Pepper Tree. Southern and Central areas and warmer parts
of Northern area. Brazil. A small, evergreen tree, often used
as a large shrub, that has very attractive foliage and for an
extended period in the winter months, numerous clusters of
small, bright red fruits. The leaves are 4 to 8 inches long, odd-
pinnate, with 5 to 9 leaflets. (Fig. 75.) Unlike the California
pepper tree, S. molle, it seems to be adapted to all but the
coldest areas and makes a very rapid growth.


Fig. 76.-Yellow elder, Stenolobium stands.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Schotia latifolia Jacq. Leguminosae. Kaffir-Bean Tree. South-
ern area and warmer parts of Central area. South Africa. A
small tree, not over 30 feet, with pinnate foliage and bearing
much-branched clusters of rose-colored flowers in early spring.
The leaves are leathery, each with 4 to 8 ovate-oblong leaflets
1 to 21/2 inches long. (Fig. 75.)
S. brachypetala Sond., also from South Africa, is grown
sparingly in the same area as the above species. It is a small
tree with leaves having 8 to 10 leaflets and crimson flowers
borne in rather large panicles.
Sideroxylum foetidissimum Jacq. Sapotaceae. Mastic. Wild-
Olive. Southern area. Native. The native mastic is utilized to
a limited extent in the extreme south as a shade tree. It is very
large, having a heavy trunk and stout branches and reaching a
height of 60 or 70 feet. The leaves are bright green, lighter
beneath, thin but firm, oval to oblong, and 3 to 6 inches in
length. The fruit is olive-shaped, about an inch long, yellow
when ripe, and may be eaten.
Spathodea campanulata Beauv. Bignoniaceae. Fountain tree.
Tulip tree. Southern area and warmer parts of Central area.












Fig. 77.-
Sterculia
foetida.
















Fig. 78.-
Leaf of
Sterculia
foetida.


















Tropical Africa. This species is a tall, erect-growing evergreen
tree attaining a height of 60 to 70 feet. Its blossoms are among
the most showy of the flowering trees, they being large, scarlet,
and produced in immense numbers in short terminal racemes
which crown the tree with vivid color during the flowering
season. The large, odd-pinnate leaves are borne oppositely and
may attain a length of nearly 2 feet; the leaflets, variable in
number but usually about 15, are acuminate and to 4 or 5 inches
long. The broadly winged seeds are borne in long, flattened
capsules. Because of its rapid growth, adaptability and orna-
mental value of its flowers, the tree is gaining in popularity in
those areas not subjected to severe frosts. (Fig. 75.)
Stenolobium stans Seem. (Tecoma stains Juss.). Bignonia-
ceae. Yellow-Elder. Southern and Central areas. Native. Al-
though largely shrubby in growth, the yellow-elder attains in
some specimens a height of 20 or more feet and becomes more
of a tree. The foliage is odd-pinnate, the leaf length from 4 to







Florida Cooperative Extension


10 inches, with 7 to 13 lanceolate, acuminate, serrate leaflets
that are to 4 inches long. The flowers, appearing in late fall,
are funnelform, bright yellow, nearly 2 inches long, and borne
in profusion in large clusters. The plant is fast growing and
very desirable as a fall flowering specimen. (Fig. 76.)
Sterculia foetida L. Sterculiaceae. Southern area. Asia,
Africa. The general appearance of this tree is similar in many
respects to the kapok tree but it is not as large in maturity.
It is clean-limbed, with a smooth bark and branches somewhat
whorled. The deciduous leaves are digitately compound, each
with 5 to 9 oblong-lanceolate, acuminate leaflets that are 4 to
9 inches long. Appearing with the leaves, the flowers are a
purplish red and have a bad odor. The fruit, suspended singly
or in clusters on heavy stalks, is a large, smooth follicle, green
outside and bright red within, about 4 inches long, and con-
tains several large, hard, black seeds. The tree is yet quite
rare in the state but merits wider distribution. (Figs. 77
and 78.)
Swietenia mahagoni Jacq. Euphorbiaceae. Mahogany. Ma-
deira Redwood. Southern area. Native. The native mahogany
is gaining in favor as a shade and street tree in the warmest
sections. The Florida species ordinarily does not exceed a height











Fig. 79.-
Leaf and
flowers of
Tabebuia
argentia.
I x














Fig. 80.-
Terminalia
arjuna.













of 40 to 50 feet but with adequate room for development has a
well rounded top. It may be considered as an evergreen but
does lose its foliage in late spring and is partially bare of leaves
for a short time. The rather thick, pinnate leaves, with 3 or 4
pairs of ovate-lanceolate leaflets, are 4 to 6 inches long. The
tree does not make a dense shade.
Tabebuia pentaphylla (L.) Hemsl. Bignoniaceae. Southern
area. Central American Tropics. Although this species is said
to attain a height of some 60 feet in its native habitat, it is
doubtful that any in Florida have yet reached half that height.
The long-petioled leaves are digitately compound, with 3 or 5
leaflets which may be to 6 inches long. The pink flowers, 21/2
to 3 inches long, are borne in large terminal panicles in the
late winter or early spring months, a short time after the leaves
fall. The fruits are long, cylindrical pods containing numerous
winged seeds.
While young the trees (in many instances) seem unable to
maintain an upright position without support, although this
apparent weakness is overcome with age. The bark is light-
colored and irregularly furrowed. Tabebuia argentia, a native
of Paraguay, is a smaller tree with leaves having 5 to 7 leaflets,
silvery on both surfaces. Its flowers are yellow. (Fig. 79.)
Tamarindus indica L. Leguminosae. Tamarind. Southern







Florida Cooperative Extension


area. Asia and Northern Africa. Grown mainly for its fruit
in Asia and Africa, the tamarind in Florida is not considered
in a commercial way and is planted only as an ornamental.
It is large, round-topped and spreading, usually low branching
and with a heavy trunk. The leaves are pinnate with numerous
leaflets and there is no season when the tree is entirely without
foliage. The fruits are pods with a hard, brittle shell that con-
tain a pulp about the seeds that is acid but of pleasing flavor.
Throughout the extreme south, the tamarind thrives in fertile
soils and is desirable where a large tree is wanted.
Terminalia Catappa L. Combretaceae. Tropical Almond.
Southern area. Southeastern Asia. Growing in a limited way
as an escape in the southern area, the tropical almond is adapted
to planting either inland or near the coast. It is grown on both
coasts-on the eastern as far north as Wabasso. The tree is
large and tall-growing with its whorled branches extending at
right angles from the trunk. The leathery leaves are obovate
in shape, some being nearly a foot in length. They are de-
ciduous, turning red before dropping, but the tree is seldom
entirely bare of foliage. Almond-like fruits about 2 inches long,
considered edible by some, are borne in quantity. (Fig. 1.)










Fig. 81.-
Foliage and
flowers
of the
seaside
mahoe,
Thespesia
populnea.









Terminalia arjuna Bedd., a na-
tive of India, is a large tree with
much smaller leaves and fruits
than Catappa. Introduced and
planted by the Division of Foreign
Plant Introduction, U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture, at Miami, the
tree has shown not only its adapt-
ability to that area but also its
ability to withstand strong winds
with minimum damage. (Fig. 80.)
Other species have been intro-
duced and it is probable that some
of them will be as well adapted
as the 2 above.
Thespesia populnea (L.) Soland.
Seaside Mahoe. Southern area. Na-
tive. The seaside mahoe is a tree
of moderate size with spreading Fig. 82.-The Chinese elm, Ulmus pumila
branches, poplar-like foliage, and
showy yellow flowers that turn purplish with age. It occurs
naturally quite close to the coasts and is well suited for seaside
planting. The leaves are 21 to 412 inches long, prominently
veined, heart-shaped, acuminate, and long petioled. The large
bell-shaped flowers, 21/ to 3 inches across, are freely produced
in late spring or early summer. (Fig. 81.)
Thespesia grandiflora DC., of Porto Rico, is adapted to the
same area and uses as populnea, which it resembles, except for
larger leaves that attain a length of 7 to 8 inches, and large
flowers that are purplish red in color and 4 or 5 inches across.
Tilia floridana Sm. Tiliaceae. Linden. Basswood. North-
ern area. Native. The native linden is utilized as a deciduous
shade tree mainly in the northwestern section of the state.
Its foliage is typical ,of the group, the leaves broad-ovate and
coarsely serrate. The tree is upright with a fairly broad head
and fast growing. Neither the fruit nor the flowers have much
to recommend them from an ornamental viewpoint, although
honey produced from the flowers is said to be of exceptional
quality.
Ulmus americana L. Ulmaceae. American, Water or White
Elm. Central and Northern areas. Native. The American
elm is grown to little extent as an ornamental in Florida, its use







Florida Cooperative Extension


for such purpose being restricted mainly to the northwestern
section. It grows naturally on fertile soils in bottom lands and
along stream banks, attaining a huge size. The growth is slow
but the tree is long-lived.
Ulmus pumila L. Ulmaceae. Dwarf Elm. Central and North-
ern areas. China. Another recent in-
troduction, this elm has proved to
be well adapted and exceptionally fast
growing. It attains a height of about
45 feet and has a spreading or round-
ed top at maturity. It does not give
a dense shade and holds its foliage
well into the winter. The thin leaves
are ovate to ovate-lanceolate, regu-
larly and simply toothed, and mostly
sharp pointed. (Figs. 82 and 83.)
Vitex Agnus-castus L. Verbena-
ceae. Chaste Tree. Hemp Tree. Cen-
tral and Northern areas. Southern
Europe. The chaste tree is common
in dooryards in the north-central and
northern sections as a shrub or small
tree. It attains a height of about 20
feet and is spreading in growth habit.
The digitate leaves have 5 to 7 lan-
ceolate leaflets, green on the upper
surface and grayish beneath, 3 to 4
inches in length. They have a strong
aromatic odor. The small fragrant
flowers, appearing in summer, are
lilac in color and produced in term-
inal, panicled spikes. The plant is
without foliage for about 3 months
in winter. (Fig. 84.)
Vitex quinata (Lour.) F. N.
Wilms. Central and Northern areas.
China. Recently introduced, this spe-
cies appears to be well adapted to
the central section and probably would
thrive in the others. Its foliage is
a deep glossy green with much broader
Chinese elm. the leaflets than the above species. The






Ornamental Trees


plant in maturity reaches a height of 30 feet and has a fairly
dense top. Its flowers are purple or lavender, fragrant and
produced in loose upright clusters in late summer. (Fig. 84.)
Zelkova serrata Makino (Z. sinica Schn.). Ulmaceae. North-
ern area. Japan and China. Another recent introduction, this
species is showing its adaptability to the northern area. It is
a huge tree in maturity with slender branches, heavy trunk,

A


Fig. 84.-Left: foliage of Zelkova serrata; upper right, leaf of Vitex
quinata; lower right: foliage and flowers of the chaste tree, Vitex agnus-
castus.




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