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Estimated cost of picking and hauling Florida citrus
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026327/00004
 Material Information
Title: Estimated cost of picking and hauling Florida citrus
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1984
Publication Date: 1985-
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Transportation -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1981-82 season-
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001571339
oclc - 21204159
notis - AHJ5148
lccn - sn 90019992
System ID: UF00026327:00004
 Related Items
Preceded by: Estimated cost of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Historic note
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Main
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





~ Clegg
41


Hooks


Economic Information
Report 224


Estimated Cost of Picking and
Hauling Florida Citrus,
1984-85 Season


Food E Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations and
Cooperative Extension Service
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


July 1986










TABLES OF CONTENTS

Page


SUMMARY............................................................. 1

SAMPLE FIRMS ........................................................ 2

DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES................... 2

PICKING AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES..................................4

COST TRENDS..................................... .................... 6

SELECTED REFERENCES.................................................12





LIST OF TABLES


Table


Page


1 Estimated average cost per box for picking
and hauling citrus fruits for fresh packing
and processing, 1984-85 season...............



2 Average cost per box for picking and hauling
citrus fruit, 35 seasons, 1950-51 to 1984-85.


.... .............5




................7


3 Relationship of picking and hauling cost to
the per-box price of oranges used for concentrate,
26 seasons, 1960-1985..............................



4 Index of citrus picking and hauling cost,1960-61
through 1984-85 seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100)..


..........8




..........9


5 Changes in the cost items that make up estimated
total picking and hauling costs for oranges,
25 seasons 1960-61 through 1984-85
(Index = 1960-61 to 1964-65 average). ......................10
















ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1984-85
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were col-
lected from 15 citrus handling firms, representing 15.0 percent of
Florida's citrus production.

Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1984-85 season were
$1.53 per box, an increase of 4.9 percent from the figure estimated
for the 1983-84 season. Grapefruit, tangerine, and tangelo picking
and roadsiding costs were estimated to be $1.14, $2.37, and $2.05 per
box, respectively.

Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 32.6
cents per box, an increase of 4.5 percent from 1983-84 levels.

Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased for 1984-85 in
all varieties. Total picking and hauling costs estimates for oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos were higher by 4.8, 6.3, 2.5 and
5.7 percent from their 1983-84 levels respectively.






Key words: citrus picking, citrus hauling, picking costs, hauling
costs, citrus.











ESTIMATED COST OF PICKING AND HAULING FLORIDA CITRUS
1984-85 SEASON


R. Clegg Hooks


SUMMARY




Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1984-85

season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were col-
lected from 15 citrus handling firms, representing 15.0 percent of
Florida's citrus production.


Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the

$1.53 per box--an increase of 4.9 percent from
for the 1983-84 season. Grapefruit, tangerine,
and roadsiding costs were estimated to be $1.14,


1984-85 season were
the figure estimated
and tangelo picking
$2.37, and $2.05 per


box, respectively.

Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 32.6

cents per box, an increase of 4.5 percent from 1983-84 levels.

Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased in 1984-85 in
all varieties. Total picking and hauling cost estimates for oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos were higher by 4.8. 6.3, 2.5, and
5.7 percent, respectively, from 1983-84 season estimates.













R. Clegg Hooks is an Assistant in Food and Resource Economics.











SAMPLE FIRMS


Estimates of the cost of picking, roadsiding and hauling oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos were developed by summarizing
accounting records available from 15 citrus handling firms. Of the 15
firms in the sample, 13 were located in the Interior and two were
located in the Indian River area. Two of the firms were independent
citrus dealers and 13 were packinghouses and/or processors. The
larger firms in the sample handled fruit from throughout the citrus-
producing regions.

Picking cost information was available on 23.4 million boxes of
fruit or approximately 15.0 percent of total Florida production [4, p.
7]. Hauling cost information was available on 29.1 million boxes of
fruit or approximately 18.5 percent of total Florida production [4, p.

7]. Picking cost information was provided on an average of 1.60 mil-
lion boxes per firm and hauling cost information was provided on an
average of 1.93 million boxes per firm.

Most firms contracted with other operators to pick and haul some
of their total volume. The costs of contract crews, if data pertain-
ing to them could be separated, were not included because it was dif-
ficult to determine the services performed, the kind of fruit and the
number of boxes hauled. However, for many firms, costs for
contracting were inseparably mixed with the information on services
performed by the firm's own crews; therefore, the averages include
total costs for contract and company crews and equipment.




DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES


The data supplied by most firms in the sample were accounting
information from their auditors' reports. Some auditors reports pro-











vided cost information for picking and a separate series of costs for
hauling. Other auditors' reports included only the combined costs of
picking and hauling. Only four firms in the sample provided informa-
tion by type of fruit. For those firms providing only total dollar
amounts for each expense item for picking, roadsiding, and hauling
operations, it was first necessary to allocate picking expenses by
type of fruit. Hauling costs per box were assumed not to vary by type
of fruit hauled.

In general, the allocations of expenses between picking and haul-
ing among types of fruit are based on personal knowledge of a firm's
operation or on information provided by other firms in the sample.
Quite often it was also necessary to separate a total labor figure
into the five labor categories shown in Table 1. None of the sample
firms provided information in a form comparable with that shown in
Table 1. Therefore, the validity of the comparison among types of
fruit depends on information provided by the firms that do provide
comparisons.

Distance [2], hauling methods [I], truck size [1] and other
factors have been documented to affect picking and hauling costs. The
data used to develop the averages presented in this report were not
provided in sufficient detail to analyze the effects of these factors
on total picking and hauling costs because the auditor's report for
each firm summarizes the cost results for a variety of distances,
hauling methods and truck sizes. Also, fruit delivered to processors
is handled differently than fruit delivered to packinghouses. It is
not known if the sample firms properly represent the industry
distribution of type of fruit by method or destination.

Picking costs include all amounts paid for direct labor for pick-
ing and delivery to the roadside, field truck and tractor expense, and
a portion of overhead and administrative expenses. Picking labor
costs, when not available by type of fruit, were allocated to the












various types of fruit by estimated piece rates. Fuel and repairs
were allocated equally per box for all kinds of fruit picked. Certain
other expenses, which do not fluctuate directly with changes in volume
were distributed such that the per-box costs would be in the ratio of
1.00 for grapefruit, 1.50 for oranges, 2.50 for tangerines and 2.00
for tangelos. Expenses in this group include licenses and taxes,
depreciation, insurance, miscellaneous ite.is and administrative ex-
pense.


PICKING AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES


Picking and loading refers to all activities involved in getting
the fruit from the tree to roadside. Itemized average picking costs
per box for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos and hauling
costs are shown in Table 1. The numbers reported in the table are
calculated by summing the total dollars spent for each item by the
sample firms and dividing by the total boxes of fruit harvested by the
sample firms (i.e., the averages are weighted averages where the
weights are the share of total boxes harvested by the firm).

Buyers' salaries, commissions and expenses for fruit procurement

and sales are omitted. Costs such as telephone and auto expenses,
which are associated with selling as well as harvesting operations,
are difficult to assign to specific operations and may still be in-
cluded in the information obtained from a few firms.

The largest item in the cost of picking citrus is labor. All
labor costs including payroll taxes ard workmen's compensation
insurance constituted 76.8 percent of the total cost of picking and
loading oranges, 80.2 percent for grapefruit, 83.0 percent for
tangerines and 78.1 percent for tangelos. The amount paid the fruit
picker was approximately 61.9 percent of the labor cost.






Table 1. Estimated average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits for fresh packing
and processing, 1984-85 season.

Service Performed and Commodity

Picking and Roadsiding Haullng Total Pick and Haul
to
Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Tangelos Plant or Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Tangelos
Packinghouse

Number of Operators 15 15 14 10 15
Average Volume 1,004,303 411,773 80.049 105,926 1,925.753
(1 3/5 bu. boxes)

- - - - - Dollars per box- - - -

Labor
Supervisorsa 0.1269 0.0898 0.1772 0.2523 0.0068 0.1337 0.0966 0.1840 0.2591
Pickers 0.7499 0.5142 1.3301 0.9822 0.0000 0.7499 0.5142 1.3301 0.9822
Loaders & Drivers 0.0684 0.1868 0.1625 0.0708 0.0000 0.0684 0.1868 0.1625 0.0708
Semi-drivers 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0744 0.0744 0.0744 0.0744 0.0744
Other labor 0.0218 0.0099 0.0209 0.0329 0.0094 0.0312 0.0193 0.0303 0.0423
SRbtotal 0.9670 0.8007 1.6907 1.3382 0.0906 1.0576 (.R914 1.7813 1.4289
Payroll taxPes 0.2117 0.1166 0.2799 0.2651 0.0165 0.2282 0.1331 0.2964 0.2817
Total ,abor 1.1786 0.9174 1.9705 1.6034 0.1072 1.2858 1.0245 2.0777 1.7105
Other Costs
Fuel & oil 0.0451 0.0356 0.0439 0.0512 0.0625 0.1076 (.0980 0.1064 0.1137
1n Repairs & maIntonance 0.0883 0.0671 0.0774 0.1049 0.0833 0.1716 0.1504 0.1607 0.1882
Licenses & taxes 0.0036 0.0020 0.0067 0.0062 0.0071 0.0107 0.0092 0.0139 0.0133
Depreciation 0.0369 0.0197 0.0616 0.0464 0.0226 0.0595 0.0422 0.0842 0.0690
Insurance 0.0146 0.0084 0.0373 0.0172 0.0080 0.0226 0.0165 0.0453 0.0252
Supplies 0.0082 0.0072 0.0082 0.0078 0.0066 0.0147 0.0138 0.0148 0.0143
Equilpment rental 0.0367 0.0159 0.0259 0.0664 0.0025 0.0392 0.0185 0.0285 0.0689
Mipna-tory i bhor 1:-. 0.01.4 0.0018 0.0029 0.0074 0.0000 0.0149 Po.1 0.0029 0.0074
MSiscel laneolus 0.0158 0.0096 0.0291 0.0253 0.0056 0.0214 0.0152 0.0346 0.0308
Total Other Costs 0.2641 0.1673 0.2930 0.3327 0.1982 0.4623 0.3655 0.4913 0.5309
Administrative( 0.0918 0.0592 0.1104 0.1170 0.0208 0.1126 0.0800 0.1312 0.1377
Total Costs 1.5346 1.1439 2.3740 2.0530 0.3262 1.8607 1.4700 2.7001 2.3792

Range in costs--low 1.0940 0.7803 2.1160 1.5091 0.1747 1.3462 0.9739 2.2975 1.6866
--high 1.9152 1.3537 3.2603 2.4628 0.'095 2.2458 1.7588 3.5909 2.7934
Standard deviation 0.2743 0.2124 0.3937 0.3762 0.0976 0.3252 0.2904 0.4251 0.4162

"Includes foremen.

bAlso includes workmen's compensation and fringe benefits.

concludes inanagemlnot aind office salaries, office supplies, auto travel and entertalInmeit, Interest paid, Ioeal and audit,
advertising, dues and subscriptions, donations and telephone and telegraph.

A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean uIsually includes about two-thirds of the observations. Ninety-five
percent of the firms are within the range of two standard deviations from the mann.












The hauling operation refers to the transportation of fruit from
the roadside to the processing plant or fresh packinghouses. Labor,
including payroll taxes and workmen's compensation insurance,
accounted for 32.8 percent of the total hauling cost. Other items of
cost were repairs 25.5 percent, depreciation 6.9 percent, fuel 19.2
percent and administration 6.4 percent. Hauling cost for 1984-85
increased 4.5 percent from the previous season.

The combined picking and hauling costs for 1984-85 (Table 1) were
obtained by adding the picking cost for each type of fruit to the
hauling cost. Labor costs accounted for 69.1, 69.7, 76.9, and 71.9
percent of the total picking and hauling costs for oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos, respectively.




COST TRENDS


Citrus picking and hauling costs increased during the 1984-85
season (Table 2). Total picking and hauling costs for oranges, grape-
fruit, tangerines and tangelos increased 4.3, 6.3, 2.5, and 5.7 per-
cent respectively from the 1983-84 season. Some of the season-to-
season variation in the cost for each service is due to changes in the
firms in the sample. However, the longterm trend shows that costs
have increased steadily over the past 35 seasons (Table 2).

Orange picking and hauling costs decreased relative to the deliv-
ered-in value of oranges for 1984-85 (Table 3). During the first five
seasons reported in Table 3, picking and hauling costs average 16.4
percent of the per-box delivered-in price of oranges. During the last
five-year period, picking and hauling costs averaged 24.8 percent of
the delivered-in price. In 1984-85 season, picking and hauling costs
represent 20 percent of the delivered-in value of the fruit.






Table 2. Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits, 34 seasons, 1950-5
to 1983-84.a


Picking & Loading
Season Hauling Oranges Grape- Tanger- Tangelosb
fruit ines


Total Picking,
Loading & Hauling
Oranges Grape- Tanger- Tangelos
fruit ines


- - - - Cents


1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85

aData for
prior to


10.31
9.81
9.71
9.61
9.38
9.47
9.27
11.31
11.46
11.23
11.17
10.41
12.90
13.73
11.66
11.96
10.74
13.32
11.98
13.18
13.04
13.61
14.70
15.66
15.36
15.45
17.19
18.18
19.79
21.80
24.01
27.59
25.96
31.21
32.62


28.36
38.42
29.12
28.87
28.93
30.52
31.36
33.30
33.30
34.17
34.96
33.79
39.57
43.04
43.43
46.12
46.25
54.09
57.77
61.12
64.86
70.86
82.16
91.08
84.16
85.36
94.00
105.50
120.77
123.41
133.91
139.44
130.65
146.36
153.46


18.62
19.51
21.98
20.58
20.91
21.73
23.46
24.09
24.16
25.16
26.69
25.75
28.32
31.47
33.08
37.77
37.65
41.45
42.99
46.98
48.61
52.41
59.11
69.37
67.94
69.05
73.62
82.07
90.63
93.17
102.54
99.93
101.05
107.10
114.39


56.93
61.93
59.62
60.86
64.72
66.39
73.96
75.35
74.90
83.68
83.53
81.66
95.97
100.71
102.63
107.47
113.47
118.46
120.55
129.82
124.51
140.46
147.15
158.09
158.23
157.82
174.16
185.65
188.66
218.45
208.80
217.33
217.20
232.32
237.40


112.70
130.07
137.70
147.26
166.65
171.49
168.51
193.85
205.30


per box - -
38.67 28.93
38.23 29.32
38.83 31.69
38.48 30.19
38.31 30.29
39.99 31.20
40.63 32.73
44.61 35.40
44.76 35.62
45.40 36.39
46.13 37.86
44.20 36.16
52.51 41.26
56.77 45.20
55.09 44.74
58.08 49.73
56.99 48.39
67.41 54.77
69.75 54.97
74.30 60.16
77.90 61.65
84.47 66.02
98.86 73.81
106.74 85.03
99.52 83.30
100.71 84.50
111.19 90.81
123.68 100.25
140.47 110.33
145.21 114.97
157.92 126.55
167.03 127.52
156.61 127.01
177.57 138.31
186.07 147.00


67.24
71.74
69.33
70.47
74.10
75.86
83.23
86.84
86.36
94.91
94.70
92.07
108.91
114.44
114.29
119.43
124.21
131.78
132.53
143.00
147.55
154.07
161.85
173.75
173.59
173.27
191.35
203.83
208.36
240.25
232.81
244.92
243.16
263.53
270.01


129.89
148.25
157.40
169.06
190.66
199.08
189.47
225.06
237.92


the seasons prior to 1981-82 are from Hooks 15].
1976-77 pick, load and haul costs were not calculated for tangelos.






Table 3. Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box
for concentrate, 25 seasons, 1960-84


Season ending
in July
(column 1)


Delivered-in per box
price for oranges used
for concentrate
(column 2)


Estimated per box pick
and haul cost for
oranges
(column 3)


price of oranges used


Picking and hauling cost
as a percentage of
delivered-in price
(column 4)


- - Dollars per box - -


1960
1961
1962
1963
1964

1965
1966
1967
1968
1969

1970
1971
1972
1973
1974

1975
1976
1977
1978
1979

1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985


2.54
3.47
2.26
2.71
5.25

3.37
2.28
1.29
2.76
2.70

1.94
2.07
2.91
2.36
2.58

2.41
3.11
2.59
5.42
6.42

5.16
5.55
6.49
6.96
6.62
9.51


- Percent -

18
13
19
21
11

16
25
44
24
26

38
38
29
41
41


a[3, p. 10A]

bFrom Table 1.

CCol. 4 = (col.3/col.2) X 100.


0.45
0.46
0.44
0.56
0.57

0.55
0.58
0.57
0.67
0.70

0.74
0.78
0.84
0.97
1.07

1.00
1.01
1.11
1.24
1.40

1.45
1.58
1.67
1.57
1.78
1.86


I






Table 4. Index of citrus picking and hauling costs, 1960-61 through 1983-84
seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100)

Total picking, loading ard hauling index for
Season Oranges Grapefruit Tangerine

- - Index - - - -

1960-61 91 92 90
1961-62 87 88 88
1962-63 103 101 104
1963-64 111 110 109
1964-65 108 109 109

1965-66 114 121 114
1966-67 112 118 118
1967-68 132 133 126
1968-69 137 134 126
1969-70 146 147 136

1970-71 153 150 141
1971-72 166 161 147
1972-73 194 180 154
1973-74 210 207 166
1974-75 195 203 166

1975-76 198 206 165
1976-77 218 221 182
1977-78 243 244 194
1978-79 276 269 197
1979-80 285 280 227

1980-81 310 308 222
1981-82 328 312 234
1982-83 307 310 232
1983-84 349 338 251
1984-85 365 359 257












Table 4 shows how total picking and hauling costs have changed
compared with the average reported figure for the 1960-61 through
1964-65 seasons--the base year. With few exceptions, the increases
for all types of fruit have been very steady. For the 1984-85 season,
orange and grapefruit picking and hauling costs are 3.65 and 3.59
times the levels during the base period, while tangerine costs are
estimated to be 2.57 times the base period.

Table 5 shows how the components of total orange picking and
hauling costs have changed in absolute magnitude and relative to their
base-period levels. Note that labor, the largest component, has shown
the greatest increase relative to the base period. While Table 4
shows that total picking and hauling costs for oranges in 1984-85 were
365 percent of the base-period (1960-1961 through 1964-65) total
picking and hauling costs for oranges are estimated to have increased
135.1 cents and picking labor costs have increased 52.7 cents; that
is, 39.0 percent of the increase is accounted for by picking labor
cost increases. Labor costs have increased relatively more than any
other component and also account for a major share of the total
absolute increase.








bible 5. Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total picking and hauling
costs for oranges, 24 seasons, 1960-61 through 1983-84 (Index = 1960-61 to
1964-65 average)


Picking Labor


c/box Index


)60-61
)61-62
)62-63
)63-64
)64-65

)65-66
366--67
67 -68
368-69
)69-70

970-71
)71--72
)72-73
473-74
)74-75

)75-76
576-77
977-78
378-79
)79-80

380-81
)81-82
382-83

-j p -


18.90
19.64
22,50
24.24
26.38

28.54
29.53
33.42
37.51
38.54

- ,70
40.91
52.60
57.86
51.87

50.61
54.96
58.96
65.76
67.82

72.92
73.64
68.72
72.17
74.99


Other Labora


c/box Index


85
88
101
109
118

128
132
150
168
173

173
183
236
259
232

227
246
264
294
304

327
330
308
323
336


12.52
12.17
13.29
14.17
13.35

14.43
13.79
16.96
15.69
17.00

17.99
22.34
22.00
23.10
22.87

25.52
27.60
33.46
40.31
39.60

44.37
46.56
44.14
50.07
53.59


Fuel, Oil, Repairs,
Depreciation


c/box Index


96
93
101
108
102

110
105
129
120
130

137
171
168
176
175

195
211
255
308
302

339
355
337
382
409


8.37
7.56
9.98
10.33
9.72

9.86
8.42
10.88
10.82
12.32

12.75
13.38
15.06
16.5:
16.53

17.38
19.29
20.34
23.32
25.47

26.83
28.43
26.31
32.86
33.87


Administrative
and other


c/box Index
6.34 100
4.83 76
6.74 107
8.03 127
5.64 89

5.23 83
5.25 83
6.15 97
5.73 91
6.44 102

8.46 134
7.83 124
7.20 114
9.21 146
8.25 131

7.20 114
9.34 148
10.92 173
11.08 175
12.32 195


91
82
109
112
106

107
92
118
118
134

139
146
164
180
180

189
210
221
254
277

292
309
286
357
368


includes supervisory, loa
workmen's compensation.


ders, drivers, semi-drivers, miscellaneous and payroll


Includes licenses, taxes, insurance, supplies, equipment rental, migratory labor expense
and miscellaneous costs.


iason


13.80
18.40
17.43
22.47
23.62


taxes and


1___9_ ____~ _II__


~-----li- LII--------~III I-


~II












SELECTED REFERENCES


[1] Bowman, Earl K., A. H. Spurlock, Scott Hedden and William
Grierson. Modernizing Handling Systems for Florida Citrus
from Picking to Packing Line. USDA Marketing Research
Report No. 914. Washington: U.S. Government Printing
Office, December 1971, pp.54



[21 Chern, Wen-Shyong. Determination or the Optimal Number. Size
and Location of Orange Packing and Processing Plants in
Florida. Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Florida,
Gainesville, 1969.



[31 Florida Citrus Processors Association. Statistical Sum.nary,
1984-85 Season. Winter Haven: 1985.



[4] Florida Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection. 1984-85
Season Annual Report. Winter Haven: 1985.



[5] Hooks, R. Clegg, A. H. Spurlock and Richard L. Kilmer.
Estimated Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus
Fruits, 1983-84. Food and Resource Economics Department
Economic Information Report 188. Gainesville: University
of Florida, July 1986.