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Estimated cost of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus
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 Material Information
Title: Estimated cost of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: 2 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1980
Publication Date: 1981-1983
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Costs -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Transportation -- Costs -- Periodicals   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1979-80 season-1980-81 season.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001571100
oclc - 22870158
notis - AHJ4905
lccn - sn 90019989
System ID: UF00026326:00002
 Related Items
Preceded by: Estimated costs of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus
Succeeded by: Estimated cost of picking and hauling Florida citrus

Table of Contents
    Main
        Main
    Main
        Main
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Reference
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




R. Clegg Hooks


Economic Information


Report 188




Estimated Cost of Picking and Hauling
Fresh Florida Citrus, 1980-81 Season


Food and Resource Economics Department
Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611


June 1983
















ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1980-81
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected
from 14 citrus handling firms, representing 11.0 percent of Florida's
citrus production.
Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1980-81 season were 134
cents per box--an increase of 8.9 percent from the figure estimated for
the 1979-80 season. Grapefruit, tangerine and tangelo picking and
roadsiding costs were estimated to be 103, 209, and 167 cents per box,
respectively. I
Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 24.0
cents per box, an increase of 10.1 percent from 1979-80 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased in 1980-81 in all
but one variety. Total picking and hauling cost estimates for oranges,
grapefruit, and tangelos were higher by 8.8, 10.1, and 12.8 percent
respectively from 1979-80 season estimates. While the total picking
and hauling cost estimate for tangerines decreased by 3.1 percent from
its 1979-80 level.


Key words: citrus picking, citrus hauling, picking costs, hauling
costs, citrus.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We wish to express our appreciation to the participants for their
excellent cooperation, and to Mrs. Theresa Zerr for her clerical and
secretarial assistance.
















ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1980-81
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected
from 14 citrus handling firms, representing 11.0 percent of Florida's
citrus production.
Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1980-81 season were 134
cents per box--an increase of 8.9 percent from the figure estimated for
the 1979-80 season. Grapefruit, tangerine and tangelo picking and
roadsiding costs were estimated to be 103, 209, and 167 cents per box,
respectively. I
Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 24.0
cents per box, an increase of 10.1 percent from 1979-80 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased in 1980-81 in all
but one variety. Total picking and hauling cost estimates for oranges,
grapefruit, and tangelos were higher by 8.8, 10.1, and 12.8 percent
respectively from 1979-80 season estimates. While the total picking
and hauling cost estimate for tangerines decreased by 3.1 percent from
its 1979-80 level.


Key words: citrus picking, citrus hauling, picking costs, hauling
costs, citrus.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We wish to express our appreciation to the participants for their
excellent cooperation, and to Mrs. Theresa Zerr for her clerical and
secretarial assistance.





















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES. . . . . .ii

SUMMARY . . ... . . . 1

SAMPLE FIRMS. . . . . . .. 1

DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES . . 2

PICKING AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES. . . . 4

COST TRENDS . .... ...... . . .. 6

SELECTED REFERENCES . . . .. .. .12

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Estimated average cost per box for picking and hauling
citrus fruits for fresh packing and processing,
1980-81 season . . . . 5

2 Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus
fruit, 31 seasons, 1950-51 to 1980-81 . .. 7

3 Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-
box price of oranges used for concentrate, 22 seasons
1960-1981 . . . . . 8

4 Index of citrus picking and hauling cost, 1960-61
through 1980-81 seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100) 9

5 Changes in the cost items that make up estimated
total picking and hauling costs for oranges,
21 seasons, 1960-61 through 1980-81 (Index = 1960-61
to 1964-65 average) . . . .10















COST OF PICKING AND HAULING FLORIDA CITRUS, 1980-81 SEASON
R. Clegg Hooks


SUMMARY


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1980-81
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected
from 14 citrus handling firms, representing 11.0 percent of Florida's
citrus production.
Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1980-81 season were 134
cents per box--an increase of 8.9 percent from the figure estimated for
the 1979-80 season. Grapefruit, tangerine and tangelo picking and
roadsiding costs were estimated to be 103, 209, and 167 cents per box,
respectively.
Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 24.0
cents per box, an increase of 10.1 percent from 1979-80 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased in 1980-81 in all
but one variety. Total picking and hauling cost estimates for oranges,
grapefruit, and tangelos were higher by 8.8, 10.1, and 12.8 percent
respectively from 1979-80 season estimates. While the total picking
and hauling cost estimate for tangerines decreased by 3.1 percent from
its 1979-80 level.


SAMPLE FIRMS


Estimates of the cost of picking, roadsiding and hauling oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines were developed by summarizing accounting




R. CLEGG HOOKS is an assistant in Agricultural Economics.










records available from 14 citrus handling firms. Of the 14 firms in the
sample, 13 were located in the Interior and one was located in the
Indian River area. Two of the firms were independent citrus dealers and
12 were packinghouses and/or processors. The larger firms in the sample
handled fruit from throughout the citrus-producing regions.
The five firms with the largest picking volume in the sample were
responsible for 58.3 percent of the total boxes of fruit represented in
the sample. The five firms with the largest hauling volume in the
sample accounted for 66.9 percent of the fruit represented in the sample
and the five firms with the lowest hauling volume accounted for only
13.2 percent of the fruit represented in the sample.
Picking cost information was available on 25.7 million boxes of
fruit or approximately 11.0 percent of total Florida production [4,
p.7]. Hauling cost information was available on 32.1 million boxes of
fruit or approximately 13.6 percent of total Florida production [4,
p. 7]. Picking cost information was provided on an average of 1.87
million boxes per firm and hauling cost information was provided on an
average of 2.3 million boxes per firm. Three firms provided data on
less than one million boxes while five firms provided data on over
2 million boxes.
Most firms contracted with other operators to pick and haul some of
their total volume. The costs of contract crews, if data pertaining to
them could be separated, were not included because it was difficult to
determine the services performed, the kind of fruit and the number of
boxes hauled. However, in many firms, costs for contracting were
inseparably mixed with the information on services performed by the
firm's own crews; therefore, the averages include total costs for
contract and company crews and equipment.


DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES



The data supplied by most firms in the sample were accounting
information from their auditors' reports. Some auditors reports









provided cost information for picking and a separate series of costs for
hauling. Other auditors' reports included only the combined costs of
picking and hauling. Only three firms in the sample provided information
by type of fruit. For those firms providing only total dollar amounts
for each expense item for picking, roadsiding and hauling operation,
it was first necessary to determine how much of each expense item
should be allocated to picking and to hauling. Then it was necessary
to allocate picking expenses among type of fruit. It was assumed that
hauling costs per box did not vary by type of fruit hauled.
In general, the allocations of expenses between picking and hauling
among types of fruit are based on personal knowledge of a firm's opera-
tion or on information provided by other firms in the sample. Quite
often it was also necessary to separate a total labor figure into the
five labor categories shown in the following tables. None of the sample
firms provided information in a form comparable with that shown in Table
1. Therefore, the validity of the comparison among types of fruit
depends on information provided by the firms that do provide comparisons.
It has been documented that distance [2], hauling methods [1],
truck size [1] and other factors affect picking and hauling costs. The
data used to develop the averages presented in this report were not
provided in sufficient detail to analyze the effects of these factors on
total picking and hauling cost because the auditor's report for each
firm summarizes the cost results for a variety of distances, hauling
methods and truck sizes. Also, fruit delivered to processors is handled
differently than fruit delivered to packinghouses. It is not known if
the sample firms properly represent the industry distribution of type of
fruit by method or destination.
Picking costs include all amounts paid for direct labor for picking
and delivery to the roadside, field truck and tractor expense, and a
portion of overhead and administrative expenses. Picking labor costs,
when not available by type of fruit, were allocated to the various types
of fruit by estimated piece rates. Fuel and repairs were allocated










equally per box for all kinds of fruit picked. Certain other expenses,
which do not fluctuate directly with changes in volume were distributed
such that the per-box costs would be in the ratio of 1.00 for grape-
fruit, 1.50 for oranges and 3.00 for tangerines. Expenses in this group
include licenses and taxes, depreciation, insurance, miscellaneous items
and administrative expense. ,


PICKING AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES


Picking and loading refers to all activities involved in getting
the fruit from the tree to roadside. Itemized average picking costs per
box for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos and hauling costs
are shown in Table 1. The numbers reported in the tables are calculated
by summing the total dollars spent for each item by the sample firms and
dividing by the total boxes of fruit harvested by the sample firms
(i.e., the averages are weighted averages where the weights are the
number of boxes picked by the firms).
Buyers salaries, commissions and expenses for fruit procurement and
sales are omitted. Costs such as telephone and auto expenses, which are
associated with selling as well as harvesting operation, are difficult
to assign to specific operations and may still by included in the infor-
mation obtained from a few firms.
The largest item in the cost of picking citrus is labor. All labor
including payroll taxes and workmen's compensation insurance was 82.1
percent of the total cost of picking and loading oranges, 82.1 percent
for grapefruit, 85.4 percent for tangerines and 85.0 percent for
tangelos. The amount paid the fruit picker was approximately 60.2
percent of the labor cost.
The hauling operation refers to the transportation of fruit from
the roadside to the processing plant or fresh packinghouse. Labor,
including payroll taxes and workmen's compensation insurance, accounted
for 30.9 percent of the total hauling cost. Other items of cost were
repairs 25.3 percent, depreciation 11.1 percent, fuel 20.0 percent and











Table 1.-Estimated average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits for fresh packing and processing, 1980-81 season.


Service Performed and Commodity

Picking and Roadsiding Hauling Total Pick and Haul
to
Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Tangelos plant Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Tangelos

Number of operators 14 14 14 8 14
Average volume 1,361,788 331,619 101,953 70,773 2,290,551
------------ --- ------------ --Cents per box---------------------------------- -----------
Labor
Supervisorya 9.68 7.76 13.40 13.34 .08 9.76 7.84 13.48 13.42
Pickers 72.92 45.10 123.17 91.24 72.92 45.10 123.17 91.24
Loaders & Drivers 7.40 15.18 13.43 15.64 7.40 15.18 13.43 15.64
Semi-drivers -- -- 5.20 5.20 5.20 5.20 5.20
Other Labor 2.47 3.93 2.27 1.27 .69 3.16 4.62 2.96 1.96
Subtotal 92.47 71.97 152.27 121.49 5.97 98.44 77.94 158.24 127.46
Payroll taxes 17.41 12.23 26.03 20.10 1.44 18.85 13.67 27.47 21.54
Total labor 109.88 84.20 178.30 141.59 7.41 117.29 91.61 185.71 149.00
Other Costs
Fuel & Oil 3.94 3.54 3.70 3.53 4.81 8.75 8.35 8.51 8.34
Repairs & maintenance 6.60 5.38 5.14 7.13 6.08 12.68 11.46 11.22 13.21
Licenses & taxes .32 .20 .61 .27 .41 .73 .61 1.02 ..68
Depreciation 2.74 1.84 7.73 3.04 2.66 5.40 4.50 10.39 5.70
Insurance .95 .62 1.69 1.10 .58 1.53 1.20 2.27 1.68
Supplies 1.11 .52 .92 .71 .23 1.34 .75 1.15 .94
Equipment Rental .50 .25 .61 .41 .21 .71 .46 .82 .62
Migratory Labor expense .68 .26 .30 .73 .68 .26 .30 .73
Miscellaneous .48 .36 .45 .81 .37 .85 .73 .82 1.18
Total other costs 17.32 12.97 21.15 17.73 15.35 32.67 28.32 36.50 33.08
Administrative 6.71 5.37 9.35 7.73 1.25 7.96 6.62 10.60 8.98
Total costs 133.91 102.54 208.80 166.65 24.01 157.92 126.55 232.81 190.66

Range in costs--low 96.37 73.07 179.50 124.35 12.81 109.18 85.88 192.31 137.16
--high 161.35 132.21 314.49 206.40 29.27 185.22 157.45 343.76 231.64
Standard deviation 19.78 17.78 42.74 26.03 5.22 21.86 19.68 44.92 29.30

aIncludes foremen.
Also includes workmen's compensation.
cIncludes management and office salaries, office supplies, auto travel and entertainment, interest paid, legal and audit,
advertising, dues and subscriptions, donations and telephone and telegraph.
d
A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually includes about two-thirds of the observations. Ninety-five
percent of the firms are within the range of two standard deviations from the mean.










administration 5.2 percent. Hauling cost for 1980-81 increased 10.1
percent from the previous season.
The combined picking and hauling costs for 1980-81 (Table 1) were
obtained by adding the picking cost for each type of fruit to the
hauling cost. Labor costs accounted for 74.3, 72.4, 79.8 and 78.1
percent of total picking and hauling costs for oranges, grapefruit,
tangerines and tangelos, respectively.


COST TRENDS


Citrus picking and hauling costs mostly increased during the
1980-81 season (Table 2). Total picking and hauling costs for oranges,
grapefruit, and tangelos increased 8.8, 10.1, and 12.8 percent from
the 1979-80 season, while cost to pick and haul tangerines decreased 3.1
percent. Some of the season-to-season variation in the cost for each
service is due to changes in the firms in the sample. However, the long-
term trend shows that costs have increased steadily over the past
30 seasons (Table 2).
Orange picking and hauling costs remained constant relative to the
delivered-in value of oranges for 1980-81 (Table 3). During the first
five seasons reported in Table 3, picking and hauling costs average 16.4
percent of the per-box delivered-in price of oranges. During the last
five-year period, picking and hauling costs averaged 29 percent of the
delivered-in price. In the 1980-81 season, picking and hauling costs
represented 28 percent. of the delivered-in value of the fruit.
Table 4 shows how total picking and hauling costs have changed
compared with the average reported figure for the 1960-61 through
1964-65 seasons-the base year. With few exceptions, the increases for
all types of fruit have been very steady. For the 1980-81 season,
orange and grapefruit picking and hauling costs are 3.10 and 3,08 times
the levels during the base period, while tangerine costs are estimated
to be 2.2 times the base .period.
Table 5 shows how the components of total orange picking and










Table 2.--Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits, 31
seasons, 1950-51 to 1980-81

Total picking
Season Sample Haul- Picking & Loading loadg auiing
firms ing loading & hauling
firms ing Grape- Tanger- Grape- Tanger-
Oranges fruit ines Oranges fruit ines
No -- ------------------ents eboxhn--- --------------


1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55
1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60
1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80


10.31
9.81
9.71
9.61
9.38
9.47
9.27
11.31
11.46
11.23
11.17
10.41
12.90
13.73
11.66
11.96
10.74
13.32
11.98
13.18
13.04
13.61
14.70
15.66
15.36
15.45
17.19
18.18
19.79
21.80


28.36
38.42
29.12
28.87
28.93
30.52
31.36
33.30
33.30
34.17
34.96
33.79
39.57
43.04
43.43
46.12
46.25
54.09
57.77
61.12
64.86
70.86
82.16
91.08
84.16
85.36
94.00
105.50
120.77
123.41


18.62
19.51
21.98
20.58
20.91
21.73
23.46
24.09
24.16
25.16
26.69
25.75
28.32
31.47
33.08
37.77
37.65
4.145
42.99
46.98
48.61
52.41
59.11
69.37
67.94
69.05
73.62
82.07
90.63
93.17


56.93
61.93
59.62
60.86
64.72
66.39
73.96
75.35
74.90
83.68
83.53
81.66
95.97
100.71
102.63
107.47
113.47
118.46
120.55
129.82
124.51
140.46
147.15
158.09
158.23
157.82
174.16
185.65
188.66
218.45


38.67
38.23
38.83
38.48
38.31
39.99
40.63
44.61
44.76
45.40
46.13
44.20
52.51
56.77
55.09
58.08
56.99
67.41
69.75
74.30
77.90
84.47
98.86
106.74
99.52
100.71
111.19
123.68
140.47
145.21


28.93
29.32
31.69
30.19
30.29
31.20
32.73
35.40
35.62
36.39
37.86
36.16
41.26
45.20
44.74
49.73
48.39
54.77
54.97
60.16
61.65
66.02
73.81
85.03
83.30
84.50
90.81
100.25
110.33
114.97


67.24
71.74
69.33
70.47
74.10
75.86
83.23
86.84
86.36
94.91
94.70
92.07
108.91
114.44
114.29
119.43
124.21
131.78
132.53
143.00
147.55
154.07
161.85
173.75
173.59
173.27
191.35
203.83
208.36
240.25


1980-81 14 24.01 133.91 102.54 208.80. .157.92 126.55 232.81

aData for seasons prior to 1980-81 are from Hooks [5].


.


rpLL Vk











Table 3.--Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box price
of oranges used for concentrate, 22 seasons, 1960-81


Delivered-in Estimated per Picking and
Season ending per box price box pick and hauling cost as
in July for oranges used haul cost for a percentage of
(col. 1) for concentrate oranges delivered-in price
(col. 2) (col. 3) (col. 4)

-----------Dollars per box--------- ------Percent---

1960 2.54 .45 18
1961 3.47 .46 13
1962 2.26 .44 19
1963 2.71 ; .56 21
1964 5.25 .57 11
1965 3.37 .55 16
1966 2.28 .58 25
1967 1.29 .57 44
1968 2.76 .67 24
1969 2.70 .70 26
1970 1.94 .74 38
1971 2.07 .78 38
1972 2.91 .84 29
1973 2.36 .97 41
1974 2.58 1.07 41
1975 2.41 1.00 41
1976 3.11 1.01 32
1977 2.59 1.11 43
1978 5.42 1.24 23
1979 6.42 1.40 22
1980 .5.16 1.45 28
1981 5.55 1.58 28


a[3, p. 10A]
bFrom Table 1.
CCol. 4 = (col. 3 4 col. 2) X 100.











Table 4.--Index of citrus picking and hauling costs, 1960-61 through
1980-81 seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100)


Total picking, loading and hauling
Season index for

Oranges Grapefruit Tangerine

---------------- -- -Index----------------

1960-61 91 92 90
1961-62 87 88 88
1962-63 103 101 104
1963-64 111 110 109
1964-65 108 109 109
1965-66 114 121 114
1966-67 117 118 118
1967-68 132 133 126
1968-69 137 134 126
1969-70 146 147 136
1970-71 153 150 141
1971-72 166 161 147
1972-73 194 180 154
1973-74 210 207 166
1974-75 195 203 166
1975-76 198 206 165
1976-77 218 221 182
1977-78 243 244 194
1978-79 276 269 197
1979-80 285 280 227
1980-81 310 308 222







Table 5.--Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total picking and hauling
21 seasons, 1960-61 through 1980-81 (Index = 1960-61 to 1964-65 average)


costs for oranges,


Fuel, oil
Season Picking Labor Other Labora repairs, Administrative
depreciation and other


C/box Index C/box Index ?/box Index C/box Index
1960-61 18.90 85 12.52 96 8.37 91 6.34 100
1961-62 19.64 88 12.17 93 7.56 82 4.83 76
1962-63 22.50 101 13.29 101 9.98 109 6.74 107
1963-64 24.24 109 14.17 108 10.33 112 8.03 127
1964-65 26.38 118 13.35 102 9'.72 106 5.64 89
1965-66 28.54 128 14.43 110 9.88 107 5.23 83
1966-67 29.53 132 13.79 105 8.42 92 5.25 83
1967-68 33.42 150 16.96 129 10.88 118 6.15 97
1968-69 37.51 168 15.69 120 10.82 118 5.73 91
1969-70 38.54 173 17.00 130 12.32 134 6.44 102
1970-71 38.70 173 17.99 137 12.75 139 8.46 134
1971-72 40.91 183 22.34 171 13.38 145 7.83 124
1972-73 52.60 236 22.00 168 15.06 164 7.20 114
1973-74 57.86 259 23.10 176 16.57 180 9.21 146
1974-75 51.87 232 22.87 175 16.53 180 8.25 131
1975-76 50.61 227 25.52 195 17.38 189 7.20 114
1976-77 54.96 246 27.60 211 19.29 210 9.34 148
1977-78 58.96 264 33.46 255 20.34 221 10.92 173
1978-79 65.76 294 40.31 308 23.32 254 11.08 175
1979-80 67.82 304 39.60 302 25.47 277 12.32 195
1980-81 72.92 326 44.37 338 26,83 292 13.80 218


aIncludes supervisory, loaders, drivers, semi-drivers, miscellaneous and payroll taxes and workmen's

compensation.
bIncludes licenses, taxes, insurance, supplies, equipment rental, migratory labor expense and

miscellaneous costs.










hauling costs have changed in absolute magnitude and relative to their
base-period levels. Note that labor, the largest component, has shown
the greatest increase relative to the base period. While Table 4 shows
that total picking and hauling costs for oranges in 1980-81 were 310
percent of the base-period levels, labor has increased to 326 percent of
the base period. From the base period (1960-61 through 1964-65), total
picking and hauling costs for oranges are estimated to have increased
107.0 cents and picking labor costs have increased 50.6 cents; that is,
47.3 percent of the increase is accounted for by picking labor cost
increases. Labor costs have increased relatively more than any other
component and also account for a major share of the total absolute
increase.



p










SELECTED REFERENCES


[1] Bowman, Earl K., A. H. Spurlock, Scott Hedden and William Grierson.
Modernizing Handling Systems for Florida Citrus from Picking to
Packing Line. USDA Marketing Research Report No. 914.
Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, December 1971,
ppo54

[2] Chern, Wen-Shyong. Determination of the Optimal Number, Size and
Location of Orange Packing and Processing Plants in Florida.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville,
1969.

[3] Florida Citrus Processors Association. Statistical Summary, 1980-81
Season. Winter Haven: 1982.

[4] Florida Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection. 1980-81 Season
Annual Report. Winter Haven: 1981.

[5] Hooks, R. Clegg, A. H. Spurlock and Richard L. Kilmer. Estimated
Costs of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, 1979-80.
Food and Resource Economics Department Economic Information
Report 151. Gainesville: University of Florida, November 1981.



















This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $1,108.00 or
$1.11 per copy to report citrus harvesting research results to county
agricultural directors and firms and agencies in the citrus industry.