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Estimated costs of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026325/00001
 Material Information
Title: Estimated costs of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: 3 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Department, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Creation Date: 1976
Publication Date: 1978-1980
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Transportation -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1976-77 season-1978-79 season.
General Note: Title from cover.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001546999
oclc - 21204094
notis - AHG0537
lccn - sn 90019997
System ID: UF00026325:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Estimated costs of picking and hauling Florida citrus fruits
Succeeded by: Estimated cost of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




R. Clegg Hooks

A. H. Sur ock

Richard L. Kilmer


P-- 70-
riJ~
' rf 'coL n.n"


KI1!r,


Economic nInformaftion


report 94


TI


01
~Ii II C


F' a


'" 7~
' *'Iv F '* ?~ '^'


.0
b(~v2 S


od and Resource Economics Department
ricultural Experiment Stations
titute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
diversity of Florida, Gainesville 32611


J un 1978


Cos16


i~ir~T~3~~s'j












ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1976-77
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected
from 20 citrus handling firms.
Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1976-77 season were
94 cents per box--an increase of about-10.6 percent from the figure
estimated for the 1975-76 season. Grapefruit and tangerine picking
and roadsiding costs were estimated to be 74 and 174 cents per box,
respectively. Also, for the 1976-77 season, 'data were available for an
estimated cost to pick and roadside tangelos. That cost was 113 cents
per box.
Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 17.2
cents per box, an increase of about 11.7 percent from 1975-76 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased slightly in
1975-77 and were higher than in any preceding season. Total picking
and hauling costs estimates for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
were higher by 10.4, 7.5 and 10.4 percent respectively from 1975-76
season estimates. Overall, picking and hauling cost for the 1976-77
season increased to .new highs.


Key lords: citrus picking, citrus hauling, picking costs,
hauling costs, citrus.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to express our appreciation to the participants for their
excellent cooperation, and to Ms. Earlene Lee for her clerical and
secretarial assistance.












ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1976-77
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected
from 20 citrus handling firms.
Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1976-77 season were
94 cents per box--an increase of about-10.6 percent from the figure
estimated for the 1975-76 season. Grapefruit and tangerine picking
and roadsiding costs were estimated to be 74 and 174 cents per box,
respectively. Also, for the 1976-77 season, 'data were available for an
estimated cost to pick and roadside tangelos. That cost was 113 cents
per box.
Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 17.2
cents per box, an increase of about 11.7 percent from 1975-76 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased slightly in
1975-77 and were higher than in any preceding season. Total picking
and hauling costs estimates for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
were higher by 10.4, 7.5 and 10.4 percent respectively from 1975-76
season estimates. Overall, picking and hauling cost for the 1976-77
season increased to .new highs.


Key lords: citrus picking, citrus hauling, picking costs,
hauling costs, citrus.




ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We wish to express our appreciation to the participants for their
excellent cooperation, and to Ms. Earlene Lee for her clerical and
secretarial assistance.














TABLE OF CONTENTS


LIST OF TABLES . . .

SU ARY . . . .

SAMPLE FIRMS . . .

DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION

PICKING'AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES

COST TRENDS . . .

SELECTED REFERENCES . .


Page

ii

1



2

4

6

12


PROCEDURES

. . *

. . *

. .


LIST OF TABLES


Table

1 Estimated average cost per box for picking and hauling
citrus fruits for fresh packing and processing, 1976-77
season . . . . . . .

2 Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits,
27 seasons, 1950-51 to 1976-77 . . . .

3 Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box
price of oranges used for concentrate, 18 seasons,
1960-1976 . . . . . .

4 Index of citrus picking and hauling cost, 1960-61
through 1976-77 seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100) . .

5 Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total
picking and hauling costs for oranges, 17 seasons,
1960-61 through 1976-77 (Index = 1960-61 to 1964-65
average) . . . ... . . .


Page


_













COST OF PICKING AND HAULING FLORIDA CITRUS, 1976-77 SEASON


R. Clegg Hooks, A. H. Spurlock and Richard L. Kilmer.


SUMMARY


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1976-77
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collec-
ted from 20 citrus handling firms.
Oran .e picking and roadsiding costs in the 1976-77 season were
94 cents per box--an increase of about 10.6 percent from the figure
estimated for the 1975-76 season. Grapefruit and tangerine picking and
roadsidinc costs were estimated to be 74 and 174 cents per box, respec-
tively. Also, for the 1976-77 season, data were available for an
estimated cost to pick and roadside tangelos. That cost was 113 cents
per box.
Haulinr costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be 17.2-
cents per box, an increase of about 11.7 percent from 1975-76 levels.
Total citrus picking and hauling costs increased slightly in
!976-77 and were higher than in any preceding season. Total picking
and hau;ing costs estimates for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines
were higher by 10.4, 7.5 and 10.4 percent respectively from 1975-76
season estimates. Overall, picking and hauling cost for the 1976-77
season increased to new highs.


SAMPLE FIRMS


Estimates of the cost of picking, roadsiding and hauling oranges,
grapefruit and tangerines were developed by summarizing accounting


R. CLEGG HOOKS is an assistant in Agricultural Economics
A. H. SPURLOCK is emeritus professor of food and resource economics
and RICHARD L. KILMER is an assistant professor in Food and
Resource Economics.








records available from 20 citrus handling firms. Of the 20 firms in the
sample, 19 were located in the Interior and one was located in the Indian
River area. Three of the-firms were independent citrus dealers and 17.
were packinghouses and/or processors. The larger firms in the sample
handled fruit from throughout the citrus-producing regions.
The five firms with the largest picking volume in the sample were
responsible for 41 percent of the total boxes of fruit represented in the
sample. The five firms with the largest hauling volume in the sample
accounted for 50 percent of the fruit represented in the sample and the
five firms with the lowest hauling volume accounted for only 8 percent
of the fruit represented in the sample.
Picking cost information was available on 33.4 million boxes of
fruit or approximately 13 percent of total Florida production [4, p. 7].
Hauling cost information was available on 44.8 million boxes of fruit or
approximately 18 percent of total Florida production [4, p. 7]. Picking
cost information was provided on an average of 2 million boxes per firm
and hauling cost information was provided on an average of 2.2 million
boxes per firq. Three firms provided data on less than 0.7 million
boxes while nine firms provided data on over 2 million boxes.
Most firns contracted with other operators to pick and haul some of
their total volume. The costs of contract crews, if data pertaining to
them could be separated, were not included because it was difficult to
determine the s-rvices performed, the kind of fruit and the number of
boxes hauisd. However, in many firms, costs for contracting were in-
separably mixed with the information on services performed by the firm's
ow;n crews; therefore, the averages include total costs for contract and
company crews and equipment.


DATA COLLECTED I/.L COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES2


The data supplied by most firms in the sample were accounting
information from their auditors' reports. Some auditors' reports


Some firms were responsible for picking and hauling more fruit
than was represented in the sample.

The procedures described are the same as those described by
Hooks [5].







provided cost information for picking and a separate series of costs
for hauling. Other auditors' reports included only the combined costs
.of picking and hauling. Only three firms in the sample provided infor-
mation by type of fruit. For those firms providing only total dollar
amounts for each expense item for picking, roadsiding and hauling oper-
ations, it was first necessary to determine how much of each expense
item should be allocated to picking and to hauling. Then it was neces-
sary to allocate picking expenses among types of fruit. It was assumed
that.hauling cost per box did not vary by type of fruit hauled.
In general, the allocations of expenses between picking and hauling
and among types of fruit are based on personal knowledge of a firm's
operation or on information provided by other firms in the sample.
Quite often it was also necessary to separate a total labor figure into
the five labor categories shown in the following tables. None of the
sample firms provided information in a form comparable with that shown
in Table 1. Therefore, the validity of the comparisons among types of
fruit depends on information provided by the firms that do provide
comparisons.
It has been documented that distance [2], hauling methods [1], truck
size [1] and other factors affect picking and hauling costs. The data
used to develop the averages presented in this report were not provided
in sufficient detail to analyze the effects of these factors on total
picking and hauling cost because the auditor's report for each firm
summarizes the cost results for a variety of distances, hauling methods
and truck sizes. Also, fruit delivered to processors is handled dif-
ferently than fruit delivered to packinghouses. It is not known if the
sample firms properly represent the industry distribution of type of
fruit by method or destination.
Picking costs include all amounts paid for direct labor for picking
and delivery to the roadside, field truck and tractor expense, and a
portion of overhead and administrative expenses. Picking labor costs,
when not available by type of fruit, were allocated to the various types
of fruit by estimated piece rates. Fuel and repairs were allocated
equally per box for all kinds of fruit picked. Certain other expenses,
which do not fluctuate directly with.changes in volume, were distributed
such that the per-box costs-would be in the ratio of 1.00 for grapefruit,








1.50 for oranges and 3.00 for tangerines. Expenses in this group
include licenses and taxes, depreciation, insurance, miscellaneous
items and administrative expense.


PICKING AND HAULING COST ESTIMATES


Picking and loading refers to all activities involved in getting
the fruit from the-tree to roadside. Itemized average picking costs
per box for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines and tangelos and hauling
costs are shown in Table 1. The numbers reported in the tables are
calculated by summing the total dollars spent for each item by the
sample firms and dividing by the total boxes of fruit harvested by
the sample firms (i.e., the averages are weighted averages where the
weights are the number of boxes picked by the firms).
Buyers salaries, commissions and expenses for fruit procurement
and sale are omitted. Costs such as telephone and auto expenses,
which are associated with selling as well as harvesting operations,
are difficult to assign to specific operations and may still be in-
cluded in the information obtained from a few firms.
The largest item in the cost of picking citrus is labor. All
labor including payroll taxes and workmen's compensation insurance
was 82 percent of the total cost of picking and loading oranges,
80 percent for grapefruit and 86 percent for tangerines. The amount
paid the fruit picker was approximately 70 percent of the labor cost.
The hauling operation refers to the transportation of fruit from
the roadside to the processing plant or fresh packinghouse. Labor,
including payroll taxes and workmen's compensation insurance accounted
for 31 percent of the total hauling cost. Other items of cost were
repairs 25 percent, depreciation 13 percent, fuel 13 percent and
administration 7 percent. Hauling cost for 1976-77 increased 11 per-
cent from the previous season.
The combined picking and hauling costs for 1976-77 (Table 1)
were obtained by adding the picking cost for each type of fruit to





Table I .--E;Li-, t d i vz- ; co,; t per hbox for pi ckinj a d haul in citrus -ri u', for fr'!, p.ckinU iii proc :, sing,
1916-77 se 'suon


Service performed and commodity


Picking


Hauling


to
0ran'i'; G Cropefruit Tangerines Tangelos plant

Number of operators 17 16 16 8 20
Average volume 1,446,128 39h,544 I cI ,398, 1'! ,3:5 2,242,13'


Total pick & haul

Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines Tangelos


--------------------------------------.Cnns per box --


Labor
a
Supervisory
Pickers
Loaders & Drivers
Semi -drivers
Other Labor
Subtotal
Payroll taxes
Total labor
Other Costs
Fuel & oil
Repairs & maintenance
Licenses & taxes
Depreciation
Insurance
Supplies
Equipment Rental
Migratory labor expense
Miscellaneous
Total other costs
Administrative
Total costs


6.63
54.96
4.35

1.43
67.37
9.92
77.29

2.58
5.44
.26
2.46
1.06
.58
.32
.20
.39
13.29
3.42
94.00


5.53
39.64
5.28

1.28
51.73
7.45
59.18

2.73
5.27
.25
2.13
.76
.34
.12
.07
.23
11.90
2.54
73.62


12.41
108.88
9.25

1.08
131.62
18.653
150.25-

2.78
5.15
.63
4.59
1.99
.79
.58
.11
.54
17.26
6.65
174.16


9.51
65.51
6.35

2.38
83.75
10.88
94.64

2.51
5.67
.32
3.03
1.44
.64
.00
.21
.52
14.34
3.72
112.70


4.05
.51
4.57
.70
5.27

2.29
4.23
.43
2.29
.78
.06
.31

.27
10.66
1.26
17.19


6.63
54.96
4.35
4.06
1.94
71.94
10.62
82.56

4.87
9.67
.69
4.75
1.84
.64
.63
.20
.66
23.95
4.68
11 .19


5.53
39.64
5.28
4.05
1.79
56.30
8.15
64.45

5.02
9.50
.68
4.42
1.54
.40
.43
.07
.50
22.56
3.80
90.81


12.41
108.88
9.25
4.06
1.59
135.10
19.33
155.52

5.07
9.38
1.06
6.98
2.77
.85
.89
.11
.81
27.92
7.91
191.35


9.51
65.51
6.35
4.05
2.89
88.33
11 .58
99.91

4.80
9.90
.75
5.32
2.22
.70
.31
.21
.79
25.00
4.98
129.89


Range in costs--low 79.31 57.90 105.72 99.55 10.89 92.62 71.21 123.98 112.86
--hich 105.00 83.82 224.20 129.81 29.85 127.91 106.73 247.11 151.24
Standard deviation- 8.15 7.64 27.16 11.15 4.37 10.93 10.67 28.09 13.20

aIncludes foremen.
Also includes workmen's compensation.
cIncludes management and office salaries, office supplies, auto travel and entertainment, interest paid, legal
and audit, advertising, dues and subscriptions, donations and telephone and telegraph.
A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually includes about two-thirds of the observations.
Ninety-five percent of the fi r,:5 are ,within the range of two standard deviations f-oc;: the ;';.an.


4








the hauling cost. Labor costs accounted for 74, 71, 81, and 77 percent
of total picking and hauling costs for oranges, grapefruit, tangerines,
and tangelos respectively.


COST TRENDS


Citrus picking and hauling costs increased significantly during
the 1976-77 season (Table 2). Total picking and hauling costs for
oranges, grapefruit, and tangerines increased 10.4, 7.5, and 10..4 per-
cent from the 1975-76 season. Some of the season-to-season variation
in cost for each service is due to change in the firms in the sample.
However the long-term trend shows that costs have increased steadily
over the past 21 seasons (Table 2).
Orange picking and hauling costs increased relative to the
delivered-in value of oranges for 1976-77 (Table 3). During the
first five seasons reported in Table 3, picking and hauling costs
average 16.4 percent of the per-box delivered-in price of oranges.
During the last five-year period, picking and hauling costs averaged
39.6 percent of the delivered-in price. In the 1976-77 season, pick-
ing and hauling costs represented 43 percent of the delivered-in
value of fruit.
Table 4 shows how total picking and hauling costs have changed
compared with the average reported figure for the 1960-61 through
1964-65 seasons--the base period. With few exceptions, the increases
for all types of fruit have been very steady. For the 1976-77 season,
orange and grapefruit picking and hauling costs are more than twice
the levels during the base period, while tangerine costs are esti-
mated to be 1.8 times the base period.
Table 5 shows how the components of total orange picking and
hauling costs have changed in absolute magnitude and relative to
their base-period levels. Note that picking labor, the largest
component, has shown the greatest increase relative to the base
period. While Table 4 sihws that total picking and hauling'costs








Table 2.--Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits,
27 seasons, 1950-51 to 1976-77a


Picking & loading Total picking,
Sample Haul- Pcigloading & hauling
Season
firms ing
Oranges Grape- Tanger- Grape- Tanger-
fruit ines Oranges fruit ines


No.


165H-51
195'-52
1952-53
1953-5d
1 .5,- 55

1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60

1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65

1965-65
1966-67
1957-68
1968-69
1969-70

1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1073-71
1974-75


------------------Cents per box-------


10.31
9.81
9.71
9.61
.9.38

9.47
9.27
11 .31
11 .46
11.23

11.17
10.41
12.94
13.73
11.65

11.96
10.74
13.32
11.98
13.18

13.04
13.61
14.70
15.66
15.36


28.36
28.42
29.12
28.87
28.93

30.52
31.36
33.30
33.30
34.17

34.96
33.79
39.57
43.04
43.43

46.12
46.25
54.09
57.77
61.12

64.86
70.86
82.16
91.08
84.16


18.62
19.51
21.98
20.58
20.91

21.73
23.46
24.09
24.16
25.16

26.69
25.75
28.32
31.47
33.08

37.77
37.65
41.45
42.99
46.98

48.61
52.41
59.11
69.37
67.94


56.93
61.93
59.62
60.86
64.72

66.39
73.96
75.35
74.90
83.68

83.53
81.66
95.97
100.71
102.63

107.47
113.47
118.46
120.55
129.82

134.51
140.46
147.15
158.09
158.23


38.67
38.23
38.83
38.48
38.31

39.99
40.63
44.61
44.76
45.40

46.13
44.20
52.51
56.77
55.09

58.08
56.99
78.41
69.75
74.30

77.90
84.47
98.86
106.74
99.52


28.93
29.32
31.69
30.19
30.29

31.20
32.73
35.40
35.62
36.39

37.86
36.16
41.26
45.20
44.74

49.73
48.39
54.77
54.97
60.16

61.65
66.02
73.81
85.03
83.30


67.24
71.74
69.33
70.47
74.10

75.86
83.23
86.84
86.36
94.91

94.70
92.07
108.97
114.44
114.29

119.43
124.21
131.78
132.53
143.00

147.55
145.07
161.85
173.75
173.59


1975-75 19
1976-77 20


15.45 85.26 69.05 157.82 100.71 84.50 173.27
17.19 94.00 73.62 174.16 111.19 90.81 191.35


aData for seasons prior to 1976-77 are from Hooks [5].





8


Table 3.--Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box price
of oranges used for concentrate, 18 seasons, 1960-1977


Delivered-in Estimated per Picking and
Season ending per box price box pick and hauling cost as
in July for oranges used haul cost for- .a percentage of
(col. 1) for concentrate orangesb delivered-in price
(col. 2) (col. 3) (col. 4)

-------Dollars per box---------- -----Percent-------
1960 2.54 .45 18
1961 3.47 .46 13
1962 2.26 .44 19
1963 2.71 .56 21
1964 5.25 .57 11

1965 3.37 .55 16
1966 2.28 .58 25
1967 1.29 .57 44
1968 2.76 .67 24
1969 2.70 .70 26

1970 1.94 .74 38
1971 2.07 .78 38
1972 2.91 .84 29
1973 2.36 .97 41
1974 2.58 1.07 41

1975 2.41 1.00 41
1976 3.11 1.01 32
1977 2.59 1.11 43


L3, p. 10A].

From Table 1.


CCol. 4 = (col 3 col. 2 ) X 100.









Table 4.--Index of citrus picking and hauling costs, 1960-61
through 1976-77 seasons (1960-61 1964-65 = 100)


Total picking, loading and hauling
Season index for

Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

-------------------Index-----------------

1960-61 91 92 90
1961-62 87 88 88
1962-63 103 101 104
1953-64 111 110 109
1954-55 108 109 109

1965-66 114 '121 114
1956-67 112 118 118
1967-68 132 133 126
1968-69 137 134 126
1969-70 146 147 136

1970-71 153 150 141
1971-72 166 161 147
1972-73 194 180 154
1973-74 210 207 166
1974-75 195 203 166

1975-75 198 206 165
1976-77 219 221 182






Table 5.--Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total picking and hauling costs for
oranges, 17 seasons, 1960-61 :through 1976-77 (Index = 1960--61 to 19%,-65 average)


Picking labor


Other labor


Fuel, oi I,
repair rs,
depreciation


Administrative
,and other


1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65

1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70

.1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75

1975-76
1976-77


c/box
18.90
19.64
22.50
24.24
26.38

28.54
29.53
33.42
37.51
38.54


38.70
40.92
52.60
57.86
51.87

50.61
54.96


Index
85
88
101
109
118

128
132
150
168
173

173
183
236
259
232

227
246


t/box
12.52
12.17
13.29
14.17
13.35

14.43
13.79
16.96
15.69
17.00

17.99
22.34
22.00
23.10
22.87

25.52
27.60


Index
96
93
101
108
102

110
105
129
120
130


137
171
168
176
175

195
211


t/box
8.37
7.56
9.98
10.33
9.72

9.88
8.42
10.88
10.82
12.32

12.75
13.38
15.06
16.57
16.53

17.38
19.29


Index
91
82
109
112
106

107.
92
118
118
134


139
146
164.
180
180

189
210


g/box
6.34
4.83
5.74
8.03
5.64

5.23
5.25
6.15
5.73
6.44


8.46
7.83
7.20
9.21
8.25

7.20
9.34


alncludes supervisory, loaders, drivers, semi-drivers, miscellaneous and payroll taxes
and workmen's compensation.

bIncludes licenses, taxes, insurance, supplies, equipment rental, migratory labor
expense and miscellaneous costs.


Season


Index
100
76
107
127
89

83
83
97
91
102


134
124
114
145
131

114
148


~__


I___ __ ___I~ _I _~~___I~





11


for oranges in 1976-77 were 219 percent of the base-period level,
picking labor has increased to 246 percent of the base period. From
the base period (1960-61 through 1964-65), total- picking and hauling
costs for oranges are estimated to have increased 60.3 cents and
picking labor costs have increased 32.6 cents; that is, 54 percent
of the increase is accounted for by picking labor cost increases.
Labor costs have increased relatively more than any other component-
and also account for a major share of the total absolute increase.










SELECTED REFERENCES


[1] Bowman, Earl K., A. H. Spurlock, Scott Hedden and William Grierson.
Modernizing Handling Systems for Florida Citrus from Picking
to Packing Line. USDA Marketing Research Report No. 914.
Washington: U.S. Government Printing.Office, December 1971,
pp. 54.

[2] Chern, Wen-Shyong. Determination of the Optimal Number, Size and
Location of Orange Packing and Processing Plants in Florida.
Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville,
1969.

[3] Florida Canners Association. Statistical Summay, 1976-77 Season.
SWinter Haven: 1978.


[4] Florida Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection.
Annual Report. Winter Haven: 1977.


1976-77 Season


[5] Hooks, R. Clegg and A. H. Spurlock. Estimated Costs of Picking
and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, 1975-76. Food and Resource
Economics Department Economic Information Report 79.
Gainesville: University of Florida, July 1977.




















This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of $714.00 or
$0.89 per copy to report citrus harvesting research results:.to country
agricultural directors and firms and agencies in the citrus industry.