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Estimated costs of picking and hauling Florida citrus fruits
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026324/00001
 Material Information
Title: Estimated costs of picking and hauling Florida citrus fruits
Series Title: Economic information report
Physical Description: 3 v. : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1973
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruits -- Transportation -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruit industry -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Harvesting -- Costs -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
statistics   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
Dates or Sequential Designation: 1973-74 season-1975-76 season.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001546951
oclc - 06286195
notis - AHG0489
lccn - 77646973 //r892
System ID: UF00026324:00001
 Related Items
Preceded by: Costs of picking and hauling Florida citrus fruits
Succeeded by: Estimated costs of picking and hauling fresh Florida citrus

Table of Contents
    Historic note
        Unnumbered ( 1 )
    Title Page
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Reference
        Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




iJ~Mlt=7~1/
V Ll
CCL--~


Report 27


Estimated


Costs


of Picki


Hauling Florida

1973-74 i


Citrus Fruits,


Se


ason


,od and Resource Economics Department
agricultural Experiment Stations
;titute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
fersity of Florido, Gainesville 32611


May 1975


ng


and


Economic Informatio


)aniel S. Tilley











ABSTRACT


Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the
season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were
from 25 citrus handling firms.


1973-74
c6l1ected


Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1973-74 season were
found to have increased to 91 cents per box--an increase of nearly 11
percent over the figure reported for the 1972-73 season. Grapefruit
and tangerine picking and roadsiding costs were estimated to be 69
and 158 cents per box--increases of 17 and 7 percent, respectively,
over the 1972-73.

Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be almost
16 cents per box, a 6.5 percent increase over 1972-73 levels.

Total citrus picking and hauling costs were higher in 1973-74
season than in any preceding season. Total picking and hauling cost
estimates for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines rose 10, 15 and 7
percent, respectively, over 1972-73 season estimates. Picking labor
cost increases accounted for the largest share of the total increase.


Key words: Citrus picking costs, hauling costs,
labor costs, citrus harvesting.


cost trends,


?


*. .












TABLE OF CONTENTS


SUMMARY . . . . ... ..

SAMPLE FIRMS . . . . .

DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES .

PICKING AND LOADING COST ESTIMATES . .


Oranges . . . .
Grapefruit . . . .
Tangerines . . . .

HAULING COSTS . . . .

COMBINED PICKING AND HAULING COSTS . .

COST TRENDS . . . . .

SELECTED REFERENCES . . . .


* ......


o

oo


Page

1

2

3

5

5
5
8

8

11



18


. .





* *


LIST OF TABLES


Table
I Estimated average cost per box for picking oranges
for fresh packing and processing, 1973-74 season
with comparisons to 1972-73 levels . . .

2 Estimated average cost'per box for picking grapefruit
for fresh packing and processing, 1973-74 season with
comparisons to 1972-73 levels . . . .

3 Estimated cost per box for picking tangerines for
fresh packing and processing, 1973-74 season with
comparisons to 1972-73 levels . . . .

4 Average cost per box for hauling citrus fruits for fresh
packing and processing, 1973-74 season with comparisons
to 1972-73 . . . . . . .

5 Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus
fruits for fresh packing and processing, 1973-74
season . . . . . . .


Page


6



7



9



10





LIST OF TABLES (Continued)


Table Page

6 Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus
fruits, 24 seasons, 1950-51 to 1973-74 . . 13

7 Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box
price of oranges used for concentrate, 15 seasons,-
960-74 . . . . . 14

8 Index of citrus picking and hauling costs 1960-61 through
1973-74 seasons (1960-65 = 100) . . . .. 15

9 Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total
picking and hauling costs for oranges, 14 seasons,
1960-61 through 1973-74 (Index = 1960-61 to 1964-65
average) .. . . . . ...... 17












ESTIMATED COSTS OF PICKING AND HAULING FLORIDA CITRUS, 1973-74 SEASON


Daniel S. Tilley


SUMMARY

Florida citrus picking and hauling cost estimates for the 1973-74

season are presented. Data used to develop the estimates were collected

from 25 citrus handling firms.

Orange picking and roadsiding costs in the 1973-74 season were

found to have increased to 91 cents per box--an increase of nearly 11 per-

cent over the figure reported by Sherrod, Ward and Spurlock (5] for

the 1972-73 season. Grapefruit and tangerine picking and roadsiding

costs were estimated to be 69 and 158 cents per box--increases of 17 and

7 percent, respectively, over the 1972-73 season [5].

Hauling costs for all types of fruit were estimated to be almost 16

cents per box, a 6.5 percent increase over 1972-73 levels.

Total citrus picking and hauling costs were higher in the 1973-74

season than in any preceding season. Total picking and hauling cost

estimates for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines rose 10, 15 and 7 per-

cent, respectively, over 1972-73 season estimates. Picking labor cost

increases accounted for the largest share of the total increase.




DANIEL S. TILLEY is assistant professor of food and resource
economics.




2

SAMPLE FIRMS


Estimates of the cost of picking, roadsiding and hauling oranges,

grapefruit and tangerines were developed by summarizing accounting records

available from 25 citrus handling firms. Of the 25 firms in the sample,

21 were located in the interior and four were located in the Indian River

area. Four of the firms were independent citrus haulers and 21 were

packinghouses and/or processors. The larger firms in the sample handled

fruit from throughout the citrus producing regions.

The five firms with the largest picking volume in the sample were

responsible for 55 percent of the total boxes of fruit represented in

the sample. The five firms with the largest hauling volume in the sample

accounted for 42 percent of the fruit represented in the sample. On

the other hand, the five firms with the lowest picking volume accounted

for only 5 percent of the fruit represented in the sample, and the five

firms with the lowest hauling volume accounted for only 5 percent of the

fruit represented in the sample.

Picking cost information was available on over 38 million boxes of

fruit, or approximately 17 percent of total Florida shipments [4, p. 6].

Hauling cost information was available on over 50 million boxes of fruit,

or approximately 22 percent of total Florida shipments [4, p. 6]. Picking

cost information was provided on 1.6 million boxes per firm and hauling

cost information was provided on 2.0 million boxes per firm. Five firms

provided data on less than 0.5 million boxes while six firms provided

data on over 2 million boxes.


Some firms were responsible for picking and hauling more fruit than
was represented in the sample.






Most firms contracted with other operators to pick and haul some

of their total volume. The costs of contract crews, if data pertaining

to them could be separated, were not included because it was difficult

to determine the services performed, the kind of fruit and the number

of boxes hauled. However, in many firms, costs for contracting were

inseparably mixed with the information on services performed by firms'

own crews; hence the averages represent total costs for all labor and

equipment.

DATA COLLECTED AND COST DISTRIBUTION PROCEDURES2


The data supplied by most firms in the sample were accounting infor-

mation from their auditors' reports. Some auditors' reports provided

cost information for picking and a separate series of costs for hauling.

Other auditors' reports included only the combined costs of picking and

hauling. Only three firms in the sample provided information by type

of fruit. For those firms providing only total dollar amounts for each

expense item for picking, roadsiding and hauling operations, it was first

necessary to determine how much of each expense item should be allocated

to picking and to hauling. Then it was necessary to allocate picking

expenses between types of fruit. It was assumed that hauling cost does

not vary by type of fruit hauled.

In general, the allocations of expenses between picking and hauling

and between types of fruit are based on personal knowledge of a firm's

operation or on information provided by other firms in the sample.

Quite often it was also necessary to separate a total labor figure into



The procedures described are the same as those followed by Sherrod,
Ward and Spurlock (5].




4

the five labor categories shown in the following tables. None of the

sample firms provided information in a form comparable with that shown

in Tables 1-4. Therefore, the validity of the comparisons between types

of fruit depends on information provided by the firms that do provide

comparisons.

It-has been documented that distance [2], hauling method [1],

truck size [1] and other factors affect picking and hauling costs. The

data used to develop the averages presented in this report were not pro-

vided in sufficient detail to analyze the effects of these factors on

total picking and hauling cost because the auditor's report for each

firm summarizes the cost results for a variety of distances, hauling

methods and truck sizes. Also, fruit delivered to processors is handled

differently than fruit delivered to packinghouses. It is not known

if the sample firms properly represent the industry distribution of

type of fruit by method or destination.

Picking costs includes all amounts paid for direct labor for picking

and delivery to the roadside, field truck and tractor expense, and a

portion of overhead and administrative expenses. Picking labor costs,

when not available by type of fruit, were allocated to the various types

of fruit by estimated piece rates. Fuel and repairs were allocated

equally per-box for all kinds of fruit picked. Certain other expenses,

which do not fluctuate directly with changes in volume, were distributed

such that the per box costs would be in the ratio of 1.00 for grapefruit,

1.50 for oranges and 3.00 for tangerines. Expenses in this group include

licenses and taxes, depreciation, insurance, miscellaneous items and

administrative expense.






PICKING AND LOADING COST ESTIMATES


Picking and loading refers to all activities involved in getting

the fruit from the tree to roadside. Itemized average picking costs

per box for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines are shown in Tables 1,

2 and 3 along with comparisons with similar averages reported for the

1972-73 season [5]. The numbers reported in the tables are calculated

by summing the total dollars spent for each item by the sample firms

and dividing by the total boxes of fruit harvested by the sample firms

(i.e., the averages are weighted averages where the weights are the

number of boxes picked by the firms).

Buyers' salaries, commissions and expenses for fruit procurement

and sale are omitted. Costs such as telephone and auto expenses, which

are associated with selling as well as harvesting operations, are dif-

ficult to assign to specific operations and may still be included in

the information obtained from a few firms.

Oranges


Table 1 shows that orange picking and loading costs were estimated

to have increased 10.9 percent to 91.08 cents per box. Total labor

increased 8.9 percent and other costs increased 25.5 percent. Although

some of the individual smaller items were estimated to have decreased,

the overall increase largely results from increased picker costs, payroll

taxes, repairs, maintenance and administrative expenses.

Grapefruit


Table 2 shows that estimated grapefruit picking and loading costs

increased from 59.11 to 69.37 cents per box, a 17.4 percent increase.






Table 1.--Estimated average cost per box for picking oranges for fresh
packing and processing, 1973-74 season with comparisons to
1972-73 levels

Season
Change from
1972-73 1973-74 1972-73
to 1973-74
Number of operators 22 24
Average volume 1,047,415 1,109,469

Cost items Cents per box Percent

Labor
Supervisory 4.85 4.72 -2.7
Pickers 52.60 57.86 10.0
Loaders & drivers 5.08 4.32 -15.0
Other labor .76 1.23 61.8
Subtotal 63.29 68.13 7.6
Payroll taxes 6.33 7.69 21.5
Total 69.62 75.82 8.9

Other costs
Fuel & oil 1.50 1.80 20.0
Repairs & maintenance 3.86 4.54 17.6
Licenses & taxes .34 .28 -17.6
Depreciation 2.49 2.74 10.0
Insurance .64 .47 -26.6

Supplies .52 .48 -7.7
Equipment rental .16 .36 225.0
Migratory labor expense .62 .65 4.8
Miscellaneous .22 .20 -9.1
Administrative 2.19 3.74 70.8
Total other costs 12.54 15.26 21.7

Total costs 82.16 91.08 10.9

Range in total costs -- low 70.09 74.80
d -- high 107.35 110.52
Standard deviation 9.10 10.41

alncludes foremen.
includes workmen compensation.
Includes workmen's compensation.


CIncludes management
travel and entertainment,
subscriptions, donations


and office salaries, office supplies, auto,
interest paid, legal, audit, advertising, dues,
and telephone.


A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually
includes about two-thirds of the observations.







Table 2.--Estimated average cost per box for picking grapefruit for
fresh packing and processing, 1973-74 season with comparisons
to 1972-73 levels

Season

1972-73 1973-74 Change from
1972-73
Number of operators 22 23 to 1973-74
Average volume 287,946 360,979

Cost items Cents per box Percent

Labor
Supervisory 4.87 6.06 24.4
Pickers 33.86 38.75 14.4
Loaders & drivers 5.41 5.07 -6.3
Other labor .65 1.06 63.1
Subtotal b 44.79 50.94 13.7
Payroll taxes 4.31 5.69 32.0
Total 49.10 56763 T573

Other costs
Fuel & oil 1.54 1.79 16.2
Repairs & maintenance 3.61 3.87 7.2
Licenses & taxes .25 .18 -28.0
Depreciation 1.92 2.39 24.5
Insurance .47 .38 -19.9

Supplies .37 .34 -8.1
Equipment rental .08 .49 612.5
Migratory labor expense .38 .38 0
Miscellaneous .15 .16 -6.7
Administrative 1.24 2.76 22.6
Total other costs 10.01 12.74 27.3

Total costs 59.11 69.37 17.4

Range in total costs -- low 48.22 53.85
d -- high 69.12 86.06
Standard deviation 6.37 8.67

aIncludes foremen.

includes workmen's compensation.


cIncludes management
travel and entertainment,
subscriptions, donations


and office salaries, office supplies, auto
interest paid, legal, audit, advertising, dues,
and telephone.


A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually
includes about two-thirds of the observations.





Total labor increased by 15.3 percent and total other costs increased

by 27.3 percent. Again, although it is difficult to make comparisons

between individual items, note that the only large decreases were for

items that make up only a small portion of the total cost. Note that

increased picking labor costs accounted for 4.89 cents of the 10.26

cents increase.

Tangerines


Table 3 shows the estimated cost of picking and loading tangerines

was 158.09 cents per box, a 7.4 percent increase over 1972-73 season

levels. Total labor costs increased 6.8 percent and other costs

increased 7.4 percent.

HAULING COSTS


The hauling operation refers to the transportation of fruit from

the roadside to the processing plant or fresh fruit packinghouse. Citrus

hauling costs estimates are shown in Table 4. Hauling costs increased

6.5 percent from 14.70 cents per box to 15.66 cents per box.

Labor, including payroll taxes, accounted for 32 percent of total

hauling costs, repairs and maintenance accounted for 22 percent, and

depreciation and administrative costs accounted for 15 and 9 percent of

the total.

The distance the fruit was hauled by each of the firms is not

known. Also the distribution of fruit hauled by destination or

hauling method is not known.







Table 3.--Estimated cost per box for picking tangerines for fresh packing
and processing, 1973-74 season with comparisons to 1972-73
levels

Season

1972-73 1973-74 Change from
1972-73
Number of operators 18 20 to 197374
Average volume 73,997 67,882

Cost items Cents per box Percent

Labor
Supervisory 10.69 12.40 16.0
Pickers 96.22 100.38 4.3
Loaders & drivers 9.41 10.16 8.0
Other labor .78 1.05 34.6
Subtotal 117.10 123.99 5.9
Payroll taxes 11.63 13.44 15.6
Total 128.73 137.43 6.8

Other costs
Fuel & oil 1.45 1.77 22.1
Repairs & maintenance 3.48 4.02 15.5
Licenses & taxes .55 .41 -25.5
Depreciation 5.25 5.57 6.1
Insurance 1.00 .89 -11.0

Supplies .95 .86 9.5
Equipment rental .28 .79 282.1
Migratory labor expense 1.57 .81 -48.4
Miscellaneous .34 .39 14.7
Administrative 3.55 5.15 45.1
Total other costs 18.42 20.66 12.2

Total costs 147.15 158.09 7.4

Range in total costs -- low 115.21 131.11
d -- high 177.45 195.55
Standard deviation 14.23 16.49

aIncludes foremen.

Includes workmen's compensation.

CIncludes management and office salaries, office supplies, auto,
travel and entertainment, interest paid, legal, audit, advertising, dues,
subscriptions, donations and telephone.
dA range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually
includes about two-thirds of the observations.






Table 4.--Average cost per box for hauling citrus fruits for fresh
packing and processing, 1973-74 season with comparisons to
1972-73

Season
Change from
1972-73 19,73-74 Change from
1972-73
Number of operators 24 25 to 1973-74
Average volume hauled 1,859,641 2,004,044

Cost items -Cents per box Percent

Labor
Supervisorya .08 .11 37.5
Semi-drivers 3.92 3.89 -0.1
Other labor .42 .61 45.2
Subtotal 4.42 4.61 4.3
Payroll taxes .56 .53 -5.4
Total 4.98 5.14 3.2

Other costs
Fuel & oil 1.70 1.77 4.1
Repairs & maintenance 3.49 3.40 -2.6
Licenses & taxes .76 .67 11.8
Depreciation 2.02 2.32 14.9
Insurance .52 .49 -5.8

Supplies .06 .11 83.3
Equipment rental .19 .31 63.2
Miscellaneous .15 .17 13.3
Administrative .83 1.28 54.2
Total other costs 9.72 10.52 8.2

Total costs 14.70 15.66 6.5

Range in total costs -- low 9.83 12.61
d -- high 22.48 24.84
Standard deviation 3.13 3.61

alncludes foremen.

blncludes workmen's compensation.


CIncludes management
travel and entertainment,
subscriptions, donations


and office salaries, office supplies, auto
interest paid, legal, audit, advertising, dues,
and telephone.


dA range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually
includes about two-thirds of the observations.






COMBINED PICKING AND HAULING COSTS


Combined picking and hauling costs for the 1973-74 season are shown

in Table 5. Table 5 was constructed by adding 1973-74 hauling costs to

1973-74 picking costs. Labor costs accounted for 76, 73 and 82 percent

of total picking and hauling costs for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines,

respectively.

COST TRENDS


Citrus picking and hauling costs were higher in the 1973-74 season

than in any preceding season for which data are available. Total picking

and hauling costs for oranges, grapefruit and tangerines increased 10.2,

15.2 and 7.4 percent, respectively, over the 1l72-73 season costs.

The 10.2 percent increase for oranges was the fourth largest percent-

age increase reported, while the 15.2 percent increase in grapefruit costs

was the largest percentage increase reported. The 7.4 percent increase

in tangerine costs was the fifth largest percentage increase reported.

Some of the season-to-season variation in cost for each service is

due to change in the firms in the sample. However, as shown in Table 6,

the long term trend shows that costs have increased steadily over the

past 18 seasons.

Also, orange picking and hauling costs have increased relative to

the delivered-in value of oranges. Table 7 shows the relationship

between picking and hauling cost and the per-box delivered-in price of

oranges reported by the Florida Canner's Association. During the first five

seasons reported in Table 7, picking and hauling costs averaged 16.2

percent of the per box delivered-in price of oranges. During the

last-five year period, picking and hauling costs averaged 37.5 percent of





Table 5.--Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits for
fresh packing and processing, 1973-74 season


Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

Number of operators 24 23 20
Average volume 1,109,469 360,979 67,822

Cost items - Cents per box - -

Labor
Supervisory 4.83 6.17 12.51
Pickers 57.86 38.75 100.38
Loaders & drivers 4.32 5.07 10.16
Semi-drivers 3.89 3.89 3.89
Other labor 1.84 1.67 1.66
Subtotal b 72.74 55.55 128.60
Payroll taxes 8.22 6.22 13.97
Total 80.96 -~5T77 142.57

Other costs
Fuel & oil 3.57 3.56 3.54
Repairs & maintenance 7.94 7.27 7.42
Licenses & taxes .95 .85 1.08
Depreciation 5.06 4.71 7.89
Insurance .96 .87 1.38

Supplies .59 .45 .97
Equipment rental .67 .80 1.10
Migratory labor expense .65 .38 .81
Miscellaneous .37 .33 .56
Administrative 5.02 4.04 6.43
Total other costs 25.78 23.26 31.18

Total costs 106.74 85.03 173.75

Range in total costs -- low 90.40 67.63 147.97
d -- high 123.73 100.25 214.76
Standard deviation 11.26 9.50 17.71

aIncludes foremen.

Includes workmen's compensation.


CIncludes management
travel and entertainment,
subscriptions, donations


and office salaries, office supplies, auto,
interest paid, legal, audit, advertising, dues,
and telephone.


A range of one standard deviation above and below the mean usually
includes about two-thirds of the observations.






Table 6.--Average cost per box for picking and hauling citrus fruits,
24 seasons, 1950-51 to 1973-74a

Total picking,
Picking & loading loading hauling
Season ample Hauling
firms Grape- Tanger- Oranges Grape- Tanger-
Oranges fruit ines fruit ines


No.
9
26
29
37
36

36
34
34
32
33

37
33
32
30
29

27
29
29
29
26

29
25
23
25


- Cents per box -


10.31
9.81
9.71
9.61
9.38

9.47
9.27
11.31
11.46
11.23

11.17
10.41
12.94
13.73
11.66

11.96
10.74
13.32
11.98
13.18

13.04
13.61
14.70
15.66


28.36
28. 42
29.12
28.87
28.93

30.52
31.36
33.30
33.30
34.17

34.96
33.79
39.57
43.04
43.43

46.12
46.25
54.09
57.77
61.12

64.86
70.86
82.16
91.08


18.62
19.i1
21.98
20.58
20.91

21.73
23.46
24.09
24.16
25.16

26.69
25.75
28.32
31.47
33.08

37.77
37.65
41.45
42.99
46.98

48.61
52.41
59.11
69.37


56.93
oi .9
59.62
60.86
64.72.

66.39
73.96
75.53
74.90
83.68

83.53
81.66
95.97
100.71
102.63

107.47
113.47
118.46
120.55
129.82

134.51
140.46
147.15
158.09


38.67
38.23
38.83
38.48
38.31

39.99
40.63
44.61
44.76
45.40

46.13
44.20
52.51
56.77
55.09

58.08
56.99
67.41
69.75
74.30

77.90
84.47
98.86
106.74


28.93
29.32
31.69
30.19
30.29

31.20
32.73
35.40
35.72
36.39

37.86
36.16
41.26
45.20
44.74

49.73
48.39
54.77
54.97
60.16

61.65
66.02
73.81
85.03


67.24
71.74
69.33
70.47
74.10

75.86
83.23
86.84
86.36
94.91

94.70
92.07
108.91
114.44
114.29

119.43
124.21
131.78
132.53
143.00

147.55
154.07
161.85
173.75


Ward and Spurlock


1950-51
1951-52
1952-53
1953-54
1954-55

1955-56
1956-57
1957-58
1958-59
1959-60

1960-61
1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65

1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70

1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74


aData for seasons prior to 1973-74 are from Sherrod,
[5, p. 9].






Table 7.--Relationship of picking and hauling cost to the per-box price
of oranges used for concentrate, 15 seasons, 1960-74

Delivered-in Estimated per Picking and
Season ending per box price box pick and hauling cost as
in July for oranges used haul cost for a percentage of
(col. 1) for concentrate oranges delivered-in price
(col. 2) (col. 3) (col. 4)

Dollars per box - Percent -

1960 2.54 .45 18
1961 3.47 .46 13
1962 2.26 .44 20
1963 2.71 .56 19
1964 5.25 .57 11

1965 3.37 .55 16
1966 2.28 .58 25
1967 1.29 .57 44
1968 2.76 .67 24
1969 2.70 .70 26

1970 1.94 .74 38
1971 2.07 .78 38
1972 2.91 .84 29
1973 2.36 .97 41
1974 2.58 1.07 41

a[3, p. 10A].

From Table 6.


CCol. 4 = (col. 3 z col. 2) X 100






the delivered-in price for a box of oranges used in concentrate. In

the 1973-74 season picking and hauling costs represented 41 percent

of the delivered-in value of fruit.

Table 8 shows how total picking and hauling costs have changed

compared with the average reported figure for the 1960-61 through 1964-65

seasons--the base period. With few exceptions, the increases for all

types of fruit have been very steady. Orange and grapefruit picking

and hauling costs are estimated to be over two times as great as the

average for the base period. For the 1973-74 season, orange and grape-

fruit picking and hauling costs are over twice the levels during the

base period, while tangerine costs are estimated to be 1.7 times the

average level reported during the base period.


Table 8.--Index of citrus picking and hauling costs, 1960-61 through
1973-74 seasons (1960-65 = 100)

Total picking, loading and hauling cost index for
Season
Oranges Grapefruit Tangerines

Index Index Index

1960-61 91 92 90
1961-62 87 88 88
1962-63 103 101 104
1963-64 111 110 109
1964-65 108 109 109

1965-66 114 121 114
1966-67 112 118 118
1967-68 132 133 126
1968-69 137 134 126
1969-70 146 147 136

1970-71 153 150 141
1971-72 166 161 147
1972-73 190 180 154
1973-74 210 207 166






Table 9 shows how the components of total orange picking and

hauling costs have changed in absolute magnitude and relative to their

base period levels. Note that picking labor, the largest component, has

shown the greatest increase relative to the base period. While Table 8

shows that total picking and hauling costs for oranges are 210 percent

of the base period level, picking labor has increased to 259 percent of

the average in the base period. From the 1960-61 period total picking

and hauling costs are estimated to have increased. 60.61 cents and picking

labor costs have increased 38.96 cents; that is, nearly two-thirds of

the increase is accounted for by picking labor cost increases. Labor

costs have increased relatively more than any other component and also

account for a major share of the total absolute increase.






Table 9.--Changes in the cost items that make up estimated total picking and hauling
14 seasons, 1960-61 through 1973-74 (Index = 1960-61 to 1964-65 average)


costs for oranges,


SeasoPOther labor Fuel, oil,repairs, Administrative
Season Picking labor depreciation and other

Cents/box Index Cents/box Index Cents/box Index Cents/box Index

1960-61 18.90 85 12.52 96 8.37 91 6.34 100
1961-62 19.64 88 12.17 93 7.56 82 4.83 76
1962-63 22.50 101 13.29 101 9.98 109 6.74 107
1963-64 24.24 109 14.17 108 10.33 112 8.03 127
1964-65 26.38 118 13.35 102 9.72 106 5.64 89

1965-66 28.54 128 14.43 110 9.88 107 5.23 83
1966-67 29.53 132 13.79 105 8.42 92 5.25 83
1967-68 33.42 150 16.96 129 10.88 118 6.15 97
1968-69 37.51 168 15.69 120 10.82 118 5.73 91
1969-70 38.54 173 17.00 130 12.32 134 6.44 102

1970-71 38.70 173 17.99 137 12.75 139 8.46 134
1971-72 40.92 183 22.34 171 13.38 146 7.83 124
1972-73 52.60 236 22.00 168 15.06 164 7.20 114
1973-74 57.86 259 23.10 176 16.57 '80 9.21 146

alncludes supervisory, loaders, drivers, semi-drivers, miscellaneous and payroll taxes and workmen's
compensation.
blncludes licenses, taxes, insurance, supplies, equipment rental, migratory labor expense and miscel-
laneous costs.











SELECTED REFERENCES


[1] Bowman, Earl K., A. H. Spurlock, Scott Hedden and William Grierson.
iModerizing Handling Systems for Florida Citrus from Picking
to Packing Line. USDA Marketing Research Report No. 914.
Washington: U.S. Government Printing 0-fice, December 1971,
pp. 54.

[2] Chern, Wen-Shyong. "Determination of the Optimal Number, Size and
Location of Orange Packing and Processing Plants in Florida."
Unpublished M.S. thesis, University of Florida, Gainesville,
1969.

[3] Florida Canner's Association. Statistical Summary, 1973-74 Season.
Winter Haven: 1975.

[4] Florida Division of Fruit and Vegetable Inspection. 1973-74 Season.
Annual Report. Winter Haven: 1974.

[5] Sherrod, W. H., Jr., A. Lewis Ward, Jr., and A. H. Spurlock. Costs
of Picking and Hauling Florida Citrus Fruits, 1972-73 Season.
Food and Resource Economics Department Economics Report 60.
Gainesville: University of Florida, April 1974.








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