The boy makes the man

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Material Information

Title:
The boy makes the man a book of example and encouragement for the young
Physical Description:
192 p., 2 leaves of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 17 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Adams, W. H. Davenport ( William Henry Davenport ), 1828-1891
Paterson, Robert, fl. 1860-1899 ( Engraver )
Thomas Nelson & Sons ( Publisher )
Publisher:
T. Nelson and Sons
Place of Publication:
London ;
Edinburgh ;
New York
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Boys -- Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Success -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Role models -- Biography -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Ability -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Boys -- Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Conduct of life -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Biographies -- 1872   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1872
Genre:
Biographies   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
England -- London
Scotland -- Edinburgh
United States -- New York -- New York

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by the author of "Sunshine of domestic life," "Records of noble lives," etc.
General Note:
Added title page and frontispiece printed in colors, and some illustrations engraved by Paterson.
General Note:
Includes index.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 002220943
notis - ALG1159
oclc - 58796208
System ID:
UF00026287:00001


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Full Text
IQI


SThe Baldwin LibraryUniversityofB


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THE BOY MAKES THE MAN


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THE BOY M KES TiL NI i l la l ik1 2 II IE1 71 1 W ik 1 T 7i V I


1THE BOY MAKES THE MANA BOOK OFEXAMPLE AND ENCOURAGEMENT FORTHE YOUNGBY THE A UTHOR OFS UNSHINE OF DOMEST1C LIFE RECORDS OF NOBLE LIVES ETCChildhood shows the manAs morning shows the dayMILTONLONDONT NELSON AND SONS PATERNOSTER ROWEDINBURGH AND NEW YORK1872


0HE Child is father of the Man So saysthe poet and it is the object of theseI unpretending pages to prove the truth ofthe thesis and by examples borrowed frommodern biography to show the importance of cultivating the mind and disciplining the heart in youth witha view to a noble generous and truthful manhoodThe Boy makes the Man If this be true and theexceptions to the rule are neither numerous nor important how incumbent it is upon both parents andinstructors to watch every movement of the youngwith gentle but vigilant eyes and carefully withoutover strictness but with all needful firmness to trainthem up to habits of thought devotion and manlyrectitude In accomplishing such an object it is hopedthis little volume may prove of some assistance fromthe wise maxims it collects and the inspiring examplesit brings together The dignity of work the valueof perseverance the excellence of truthfulness thepleasures of knowledge the benefits of prayer andscriptural study these are the topics enforced andillustrated chiefly by anecdote and quotation in thefollowing pages


v i PREFACEA recent essayist speaking of what are called BoysBooks justly condemns the prevalent tendency to overrate and exalt mere worldly success I trust that nosuch error will be found to pervade my teaching Ihave sought to place before my young readers a purerideal and to raise for their guidance a higher standardMy maxim has been throughout that all true virtueliesIn the struggle not the prizeand that the refinement of mind the elevation ofthought the inexhaustible store of pleasant fanciesthe tenacity of purpose the strength of will whichresult from a life of energetic and well directed labourare in themselves the best and most satisfactoryrewards of that labour I have also endeavoured toenforce the truth of the old monkish adage Laborareest orare Work is prayer and to show that he mosttruly and devoutly does the will of God who honestlyand with all his capacity fulfils the duties of hisparticular vocation In this I believe there is a truemorality and a wise religionThus do I cast my bread upon the waters in thehope it will be found by some young and inquiringspirit after many daysW H D A


i GUJITEDTS0CHAPTER IEXAMPLES OF PERSEVERANCE IN YOUTH AND ITS RESULTSAnecdote of Richard Burke and his brother the great oratorDifference in their careers To what cause attributablePerseverance as the handmaid of talent The secret ofsuccess is thoroughness Illustrations For every man thereis a vocation All work honourable Sebastian Gomez TheZombi in the studio The Calculating Boy Direct results ofunflinching energy Illustration from the career of DavidRoberts How he bided his time and how his time came atlast Early struggles of heroic souls Lord Lytton on thevalue of energy Professor Forbes in his youth Hans Christian Andersen A succession of disappointments The cagedbird beats against the bars A silver lining to the cloudLatin versus ditching Work while it is yet day An oldpoet s counsel Illustrations of the potency of knowledgeChristian Gottlieb Heyne Moving in advance A ray ofhope Sorrows come in battalions Strength comes out ofsuffering A lesson for learners Put your shoulder to thewheel What youth may accomplish shown by the life ofGaston de Foix Further examples from biography Importance of acquiring virtuous habits 11


Vlii CONTENTSPageCHAPTER IIEXAMPLES OF AN OVER MASTERING TASTE IIFLUENCING ANINDIVIDUAL S CAREERThe bias of youthful Genius As the boy so the man Earlycareer of artists proving the potency of a love of artJuvenile studies of Blaise Pascal Once a painter always apainter William Etty George Stephinson a colliery boyChantrey a wood carver s apprentice An example fromabroad The forest astronomer Duval Leonardo da VinciYoung Davie Wilkie What he studied how he struggledand why he succeeded Sir Joshua Reynolds The childhoodof Goethe On the true value of a small talent Story ofJuan de Pareja A noble purpose nobly won Kupetzki theweaver s son Mixing one s colours with one s brains Opiethe Cornish artist The struggles of James Barry Picturesfrom poets The soul of art The shepherd artist Giotto scircle John Leech Thackeray 46CHAPTER IIIEXAMPLES OF STUDIOUS APPLICATIONLord Bacon on Studies The value and manifold uses of knowledge Its power as a mental stimulant Heroism of poorschelars Schaeffer Dr Johnson Luther A marvel of industry One s heart in one s ork Story of the Rev WilliamDavy Macaulay s prodigious industry On prizing knowledge for knowledge s sake The ends of life The moral ofBernard Palissy s life romance Knox and his work Growwiser in order to grow better Coleridge on the value ofmethod Archbishop Tillotson on being diligent in one scalling The hill of difficulty Laborare est orare Soar totruth s great star One s work may be ennobled by one saspirations The first Sir Robert Peel A calico spinner anda gentleman The second Sir Robert A word of counselfrom Carlyle The true importance of Biography The in


CONTENTS ixPagecentive afforded by the record of a noble life Quotationfroim Sir John Davies The lessons which we learn Quotation from Shakspeare John Leyden an example of studiousapplication His eagerness to acquire knowledge How andwhere he studied Quotation from Spenser Success of hisunremitting industry Quotation from Sir John MalcolmThe value of such an exam ple Quotation from Ben JonsonGalileo and his labours The connection between theone and the many Michael Faraday Moral advantages ofstudious application Quotation from Robertson A DivineExemplar Quotation from Dr Vaughan Adelaide AnneProctor Her studious youth The objects she set beforeherself Work and health Hard workers have been longlivers Examples General summary Quotation fromM atthew Arnold 81CHAPTER IVEXAMPLES OF COURAGE ENTERPRISE AND THE MANLY VIRTUESOn the meaning of the word Courage The true courage of truetalent Sidney Smith on the want of moral resolutionNelson s heroic boyhood Fixedness of purpose illustratedby the life of Warren Hastings Force of will a distinctivequality of genius Physical versus moral courage Singularintrepidity of Charles James Napier the hero of ScindeHis childhood The eagle A school boy corps The capacity of command An heroic spirit Leaves from a scholar slife Ne te qusesiveris extra Napier at Corunna A narrow escape Twice saved The battle of Meeanee EmaunGhur Another hero Dr Arnold of Rugby His boyhooddescribed by Dean Stanley His manhood by Justice Coleridge Through doubt to faith Tennyson on Arthur HenryHallam A fine character Anecdote of Lord ExmouthLord Clive s daring A leaf from Neil s history The gallantNicholson Jock Malcolm and Hyder Ali Eldred Pottinger A son of the sea Dr Scoresby Measuring the Atlantic waves Lesson of a life Bacchanten and Schutzena page from the past Rienzi the last of the Romans Chris


X CONTENTSPagetopher North and his early years Lost on the moorlandThe lost one found Muckle Mou d Meg Influences whichsurrounded his boyhood Coleridge s description of the Hillof Knowledge Canning the statesman Finis coronat opusCamden the Lord Chancellor Seizing fortune by theforelock William Smith the father of English geology Anold sea king How Sir Humphrey Gilbert met his deathWise laws and modern instances The blade and the fullcorn in the ear 122CHAPTER VEXAMPLES OF EARLY PIETYThe Culture of the Mind and the Discipline of the Heart Whatis needed for a devout manhood Cultivate your conscienceNever palter with the truth The Duke of Wellington ontruth speaking Sir Philip Sidney Infinite value of truthfulness Be generous That is Be a gentleman A grandold name What John Sterling counsels us Keep goodcompany A man is known by his friends A faithful friendis the medicine of life The Book of books Locke s sayingThe book of Nature How it should be read Is it sosmall a thing to have enjoyed the sun Cultivate the habitof earnest Prayer Examples of Doddridge Luther andothers Golden words from Jeremy Taylor George Herbert s counsel Lessons of heroic lives Last Words 178


THE BOY MAKES THE MANImteles of t in gauanb its J u itsA divine benediction is always invisibly breathed on painful andlawful diligence THOMAS FULLERT is related of Richard Burke that whenfound in a deep meditation after listeningto one of his brother s splendid haranguesin Parliament he excused himself by saying Ihave been wondering how Ned has contrived tomonopolize all the talents of the family but now Iremember when we were at play he was always atwork The natural talents of Richard Burke werescarcely inferior to those of the great statesman butwhile the one sleeps in Westminster Abbey and isheld in grateful remembrance by his country thei


12 GENIUS VERSUS TALENTother never attained to eminence and is wholly forgotten And why Because he lacked perseverance that power of application which develops themental faculties and trains them to the successfulperformance of their allotted task When thenatural genius is of an inferior order perseverancewill frequently supply the deficiency and the boyridiculed for his slowness if constant in applicationand earnest in his work will outstrip more brilliantbut less industrious competitors It is pleasant tosee this want of ready talent compensated by vigorous and well directed labour It was surely a greaterachievement for the Egyptian bondsmen to raise thePyramids than for our English artisans with all theappliances of modern machinery to throw a tubularbridge across the Straits of Menai If there beone thing on earth says Dr Arnold which istruly admirable it is to see God s wisdom blessingan inferiority of natural powers where they havebeen honestly zealously and truly cultivated Werejoice w hen the weak win in their struggle with thestrong and in the race between the tortoise and thehare our sympathies are with the tortoiseBen Jonson says in one of his plays When I takethe humour of a thing once I am like your tailor sneedle I go through This should be the maximof every brave English youth like that of Straffordthe great minister Thorough Until a thing isdone keep doing Let no obstacles daunt you andlet repeated failure spur you to repeated effort


TRY TRY TRY AGAIN 13It is in such a spirit as this that the workmanshould address himself to his work should refuseto flinch before any the greatest disaster shouldlearn by persistent labour to grow into strengthand completenessSee first that the design is wise and justThat ascertained pursue it resolutelyDo not for one repulse forego the purposeThat you resolved to effectFerguson the boy astronomer calculating thepositions of the stars by the help of a string ofbeads Murray afterwards the great Oriental scholarteaching himself to write with a charred brand on awhitened wall these are examples which the youngshould ever keep before their eyes The entire secretof success in life at school in the study or in thebusy world is comprised in the burden of the oldsong Try try try againA distinguished Italian author has started thetheory that all men may become poets and oratorsas if the only difference between genius and mediocrity lies in the power of application To such atheory we are not disposed to subscribe No amountof labour however persistent or however welldirected can convert a Stephen Duck into a Miltonor a Shakspeare But the fallacy lies in this thatthe world does not require of all of us that we shouldbe Miltons and Shakspeares only that we shoulddo our best in whatsoever position the will of Providence shall have placed us and by so doing contri


14 A PLACE FOR EVERYBODYbute to swell the sum of human happiness andhuman good To take a familiar illustration fromthe playground At cricket it is not needful thatevery player should be a brilliant batsman or a firstrate bowler we want good long stops cautiouswicket keepers and dexterous cover points Foreach man on this beautiful earth of ours God hasindubitably provided a vocation if he will but earnestly seek to discover it and afterwards to labourin it with diligence and devoutness as in the sightof HeavenThey also serve who only stand and waitand God s blessing rests on the rank and file assurely as on the leaders of the host if rank and filedo but fulfil their dutyWhen Giardini was asked how long it would taketo learn the violin he replied Twelve hours a dayfor twenty years together Alas too many of usthink to play our fiddles by a species of inspiration II knew a brilliant pianiste who assured me that foryears she had practised seven hours daily TheseBlondins and Leotards whose gymnastic achievements attract admiring crowds what labour theymust have undergone what perseverance they musthave displayed an energy and a purpose thatdirected into better channels might have made thembenefactors of mankind Inquire of Grisi or Marioof Charles Kean or Macready of Hunt Millais orSir Edwin Landseer how they have risen into fame


SEBASTIAN GOMEZ 15and theyr will tell you by hard work by unflaggingresolutionDr Young used to say that any man can dowhat any other man has done a maxim notwholly true yet resting on a basis of probabilityHe endeavoured to prove its truth however by hisown example The following story is told of himThe first time he mounted a horse he was accompanied by the grandson of Mr Barclay of Urya distinguished equestrian His companion havingleaped a high fence Young proceeded to follow hisexample but in the attempt was thrown off hishorse He immediately remounted made a secondeffort and was again unsuccessful Most men wouldhave been deterred from another venture but not soDr Young and at the third trial he had the satisfaction of clearing the fenceThe early career of the great Spanish painterSebastian Gomez affords an extraordinary exampleof successful application He was a mulatto and aslave of Murillo s employed to wait upon the pupilsof that illustrious master Heaven had gifted himwith a passionate love of art but none of the youngSpaniards who amused their idle hours by laughingat his dark complexion and uncouth features suspected how daring a soul that ungainly form enshrined He received no lessons from none did heever gain a hint or suggestion but he watchedoh how vigorously every movement of the students and scrutinized the daily progress of their


16 THE ZOMBI IN THE STUDIOlabours At length he attempted to imitate whathe saw devoting to his secret toil the hours of thesilent night until growing bolder and more confident he ventured to correct the errors of outlineand colouring which his keen eye observed in thedrawings of Murillo s pupils So when the youngSpaniards came in the morning they saw withsurprise that an arm had been added here a legthere that inharmonious proportions had beenadjusted that woolly and fleecy skies had beentoned and softened into summer lighted heavensand patches of ultramarine converted into sweetwoodland lakes With the superstitious feeling ofthe age they accredited these improvements to somemysterious nocturnal visitor and Gomez to escapesuspicion confirmed their folly by declaring it mustbe the Zombi a spirit of whom the negroes aretremblingly afraid But a finely painted head ofthe Virgin having attracted Murillo s attention thegreat master convinced that Zombis would not paintMadonnas instituted a rigid investigation and discovered with surprise and admiration that it was thework of his mulatto boy He summoned Gomez tothe studio and when the poor slave flung himselfon his knees and confessed the secret of his nightlyvigils he raised him up with words of encouragement promised him his liberty and adopted him ashis pupil and successorGomez rose to a high position as a painter andfinished many admirable works remarkable for their355


MURILLO S MULATTO 17IttTtruth and depth of expression their warmth and softness of colouring He is best known in art historyas Murillo s mulatto and only survived his illustriousmaster a few years dying about 1689 or 16903 51 4


18 A CALCULATING BOYBidder the eminent civil engineer well known inhis youth as the Calculating Boy has publiclyattributed his successful career to his early habit ofpersevering application Just as Luther s maximwhen translating the Psalms into German wasNulla dies sine lineaNo day without a line so Bidder s seems to havebeen No day without something done Hisfather was a working mason at Moreton Hampsteadin Devonshire and he received his first lessons inarithmetic from his brother who was of the samecalling He taught him to count up to one hundredwhich he did by counting the tens almost incessantlyuntil every numeral became like a playmate and oldfamiliar companion He then addressed himself tothe Multiplication Table that bete noir and bugbearof young students and mastered its intricacies in avery ingenious manner Having obtained a small bagof shot he arranged them into squares each line containing an equal number and by reckoning their sideshe learned to multiply up to ten times ten Thus0 0 00 6 0 0 6 0S 4 times 3 12 4 times 4 160 0 0 0 0Opposite his father s cottage lived a blacksmith aworthy old bachelor who had taken a nephew intoapprenticeship and with this excellent graybeardBidder became a favourite was allowed to blow thebellows and seated on the hearth to listen to his


A FORTUNE WROUGHT 19tstories of old times and old friends On one of theseoccasions a village gossip chanced to propose a sumsay nine times eleven which young Bidder answered correctly His readiness excited the surpriseof the village circle and he was tested by otherquestions while the blacksmith s nephew workedout the answers with chalk on a board to see if hissolutions were accurate The boy was soon talkedof as a prodigy and as gifts of halfpence rewardedhis exertions he became more warmly attached tohis arithmetical studies arriving at such reallywonderful results that the Extraordinary Calculating Boy was eventually regarded as one ofthe phenomena of the day He was then receivedas a clerk into a respectable assurance office whichhe left to study as an articled pupil under Palmerthe engineer In his new pursuits he found thehabits of perseverance which he had gained in hisyouth of invaluable service and rapidly rose into aposition of honour and influence At the blacksmith s forge he had learned the lesson which according to the poet it is well adapted to teachThus at the flaming forge of lifeOur fortunes must be wroughtThus on its sounding anvil shapedEach burning deed and thoughtOne can hardly fail to derive encouragement fromthe remarkable career of David Roberts There isan inspiration in his life as in the glowing canvaswhich he covered with such forms of beauty Art


20 OUR LADDIE DAVIDis universal she denies her favours to none perhaps she is most liberal to those who stand in greatest need of them At all events Roberts in hisearly years was not surrounded by an atmospherecalculated to foster a love of art In him it wasinnate and the artistic bias developed itself underthe most unfavourable circumstances The son of apoor shoemaker he was born at Stockbridge asuburb of Edinburgh in 1796 His first educationwas received at a dame s school who charged threepence per week for her instructions and it may bevalued them at their just rate He was next placedunder a rough dominie whose great weapon was athick cane and who by his cruel treatment gaveRoberts an antipathy to book learning for the remainder of his lifeMeanwhile he amused his leisure moments bydrawing rude figures of lions and snakes copiedfrom the sketches which he had seen exhibited outside certain travelling menageries For canvas heused the white washed kitchen wall and for brushand colours a lump of red chalk These gruesomethings however were touched with so much vigourthat a gentleman who called on some errand connected with his father s trade inquired the name oftheir artistHoot said Mrs Roberts with true maternalpride it s just our laddie David He s been upthe Mound seeing a wild beast show and he scaulked them there to let me see them


BIDING IIS TIME 21The visitor thought well enough of the caulkingsto advise the apprenticeship of our laddie Davidto an ornamental house painter who employed himin grinding colours for twelve hours a day at themunificent wage of two shillings weekly raised inthe following year to half a crownHe was harshly treated by his passionate masterand his energies were taxed to the uttermost yet hecontinued to cultivate his artistic genius devotingmany an hour of the night to his lonely laboursWhen his apprenticeship was concluded he joineda travelling circus as scene painter at a weeklysalary of twenty five shillings but the proprietorfailed and Roberts again turned house painter Hewas conscious of powers which only required development to secure renown but he was too wise to museover useless ambition and turning to the work thatlay nearest his hand he did it with all his mightcontented to bide his timeTo some the time never comes at least in thisworld but to our persevering patient young Scotchman it came after a weary trial At Edinburgh heobtained an engagement as theatrical scene painterand formed an acquaintance which ripened into afriendship with Clarkson Stanfield the great marinepainter From him he learned many useful artlessons and at his instigation began to paint somesmall landscape pictures for exhibition devotinghalf the night to this fearful joy after his hardday s work at the theatre


22 A ROYAL ACADEMICIANPassing rapidly as I must do over his eventfulcareer I find him in 1822 scene painter at DruryLane Theatre London with an income which hasrisen to 250 per annum Here his bold and faithiul efforts secured the applause of the public whilehis pictures at the exhibitions attracted the admiration of connoisseurs Year by year they grew ingreater demand Year by year he painted withgreater force and faithfulness He was able in duetime to devote himself entirely to the higherbranches of his art and travelling in France andSpain in Egypt Syria and the Holy Land transferred his impressions of their wondrous beauty tocanvas which has surely become imperishable Itmatters not with what materials genius works itinfuses into them something of its own immortalspirit You may grind a block of marble into dustbut give it into the sculptor s hands and let himfashion out of it a Venus de Medicis Thenceforthit is indestructibleRoberts in 1854 was elected a Royal AcademicianHe had thus attained to the foremost rank of hisprofession he the shoemaker s son the housepainter s apprentice the scene painter to a travellingtcircus Such a career seems to me replete withcounsel and encouragement for the young Notthat all possess the genius of David Roberts butthat all may imitate his steady devotion to workhis courageous patience his unflinching persistencyNot every lad who daubs his fingers with sepia and


MODESTY AND MERIT 23carmine or experiments in colouring on his sister sdoll can become a Royal Academician howevergreat his energy or untiring his toil but sure Iam that he may do good service in his generationniay accomplish much honourable and useful labourand earn the crown of a contented conscience If hiswork wins no brilliant recompense from the outsideworld it will prove its own exceeding great rewardby the happy thoughts and pleasant fancies whichall honest work cannot fail to suggestIt is pleasant to know that Roberts was not spoiledby prosperity but retained to the last a loyal andgenerous soul On one occasion a poor artist waitedon him with some of his sketches He wantedencouragement advice employment Perhaps hebetrayed too much of the self pride of youth forRoberts received him with scant cordiality andexclaimedYou intend to set the Thames a fire I supposelike most young fellows from the North Not soeasy there are clever young men here too andyou ll find it hard work to keep abreast of themIt s the old story but you will not find Londonstreets paved with goldThe poor artist astonished and wounded andwith tearful eyes stammered out an apology liftedup his portfolio and prepared to withdraw Robertsnoticed his distress immediately dropped his maskbade the young man be seated and taking uphis sketches examined them carefully At the


24 AN UNEXPECTED JOY4same time he plied him with cunning inquiries asto his wishes hopes prospects ascertained that hewas without resources that he could neither pay therent of his mean lodgings nor earn enough to keepthe wolf from the door So after showing him oneof his own pictures and letting drop some valuableadvice he handed him a letter to an eminent firm ofpicture dealers Then the young man went his wayrejoicing The firm purchased all his sketches andcommissioned him to execute some more Withmoney ringing in his pocket and glad hopes throbbing on his brain he left the shop To walk wasimpossible He ran he ran rapidly lightCamilla never skimmed the plain more swiftlythan he the hard London pavement he paid hisdebts and entered at once on a career which hasled to more than ordinary distinctionI could not refrain from repeating this anecdotethough it is a digression from my text Let usreturn to the early struggles of heroic souls andprofit by what we read of themOne difference says Lord Lytton betweeni boy and boy or man and man no doubt is energybut for great achievements or fame there must bealso application namely every energy concentratedI on one definite point and disciplined to straintowards it by patient habitThis I take to be the true secret of success themagician s spell which converts lead into gold Itwas the spell with which Edward Forbes wrought


THE YOUNG NATURALIST 25that fine delicate rich and brilliant spirit Hewas afflicted in early childhood with a serious pulmonary disorder which debarred him from sharingin the sports and pastimes common to boys of hisage He found however an ample compensationin his love of natural history He was but eightyears old when at his urgent prompting his fatherbuilt for him a small museum He set to work toarrange it on a scientific system of classification andappointed his sister to act as its curator Everyflower or weed or strange pebble or unusual shellthat his playmates brought to amuse the invalid onhis sick couch was duly examined named and consigned to its proper shelf As he grew older hegrew stronger but his passion for the natural sciencesgrew with his growth His parents would fain have


26 THE MAN AND HIS WORKhad him enter the Church but he felt it was nothis vocation and he dared not minister at God saltar unless his whole heart was in the holy worklie tried a medical career but with just as littlesatisfaction Then he essayed the study of art butwas unable to obtain admission into the school ofthe Royal Academy Circumstances as well as inclination combined in his case to force him into theprofession for which he was best adapted and Forbesbecame a naturalist In this capacity he was eminently fitted to excel by his quick powers of observation and his rare faculty of analysis no less than bythe measureless love he felt for the wonders andglories of nature Heart and soul he was a naturalist No scholar poring over the corrupted text ofa Greek author and alighting upon some happyemendation felt so keen a joy as Forbes when hediscovered a new Chemnitzia rufescens or a finespecimen of a Holothuria squamata Thus thenhis industry his enthusiasm his natural and acquiredgifts raised him in a few years to a foremost positionamong men of science and though he died at theearly age of thirty nine he had achieved a reputationwhich will transmit his name to the latest posterityWhat boy or girl but has hung enraptured overthe exquisite fairy tales so wise so kindly sohumorous of Hans Christian Andersen Denmark has not produced his equal as a poet norEurope I think as a fairy story teller His fanciesare as pure as they are sparkling his lightest


A F AI RY STORY TELLER 27touches have a peculiar refinement and gracefulnesswhile he conveys a sage counsel or a word of truthwith so much wealth of illustration and delicacy ofcolouting that one feels charmed and delighted bythe form while insensibly bettered by the meaningMy readers may not know his higher efforts suchas The Improvisatore with its glowing picturesof Italy and his Only a Fiddler with its vividsketches of northern manners but assuredly theyhave sympathized with the sorrows of The UglyDuckling and laughed at the fun and frolic ofSoup on a Sausage Peg Never was career bettercalculated than Andersen s to inspire and encourageindustrious youth His life is a record of triumphover apparently insuperable difficulties He wasthe son of a poor shoemaker whose earnings barelysufficed to provide his family with bread WhileHans was yet a child his father died and left himto the charge of a sorrow stricken mother Surrounded by penury by wretchedness by want theflame of his genius nevertheless burned bright andclear and the poetry of his soul clothed his meancondition with a certain splendour as a torch lightkindles up the gloom and noisomeness of a mineHe made verses at twelve years of age and in hisnative town of Odense acquired quite a reputationAll his leisure hours he spent in reading or in thosesolitary musings which are the poet s happinessBut neither verse making nor dreaming can keepthe wolf from the door It was requisite that Hans


28 AN IGNOBLE OCCUPATIONChristian should earn a livelihood and his motherhad no means of starting him in any career adaptedto develop his rare mental powers He was therefore placed in a manufactory but his health couldnot endure the labour Then he was apprenticedto a tailor but his soul loathed the ignoble occupation His genius like a bird in a cage was restlessly beating against the bars and longing for airand freedom What was to be done with the uselessincorrigible lad Well he had once seen a theatrical exhibition and to his poetic spirit the glories ottinsel and colour and fine dresses had seemed sodazzling when contrasted with the mean poverty ofhis daily life that he had ever since felt within hima keen desire to be an actor to live in the idealworld of the stage His mother had long opposedthe desire having the old Puritanic and not altogether baseless prejudice against theatrical life butdeeming further opposition useless she consented tohis departure from Odense With scarcely a coinin his pocket he made his way to Copenhagen andpresented himself before the manager of the RoyalTheatre A lank pallid careworn youth he foundno favour in that potentate s eyes and was pronounced unfit for sock or buskinThe disappointment was severe and Andersen sheart almost gave way He possessed howeverthe gift of a sweet voice and some of the musicianstaking pity upon his forlorn destitute condition encouraged him to hope he might be successful as a


BLIGHTED PROSPECTS 29singer and gave him a few lessons in music Heobtained an introduction to Siboni an Italian maestrothan director of the Royal Musical Conservatoryand the boy he was not yet fifteen years old sointerested him and his friends by his artless mannersevident genius and soaring aspirations that theysubscribed a small sum to support him during hiscourse of education as a singer Alas before hehad enjoyed his improved prospects for many monthshis voice broke owing to a sudden illness and itsmusical qualities disappearedSiboni would fain have had the dispirited youthreturn to his humble home and learn a trade but hefound other and warmer patrons especially Guld


30 THE SILVER LINING OF THE CLOUDberg the poet and Weyse the composer who perceiving the defectiveness of his education gave himor procured him lessons in Latin Danish andGerman Another subscription was started on hisbehalf though the sum realized barely kept himfrom starvation Yet the dependent feeble andforlorn lad worked on steadily devoting himself byday and night to the acquisition of knowledge andfinding a sweet consolation in the radiant visionswhich illuminated his wretched solitudeHe now contrived to obtain the publication of afew poems whose fresh and vigorous inspirationattracted the attention of the eminent poets Ehlenschlager and Ingemann and they in conjunction withthe councillor Collin interceded with the king onhis behalf Frederick VI was moved by the tale ofthe young man s sufferings he allowed him a yearlystipend for his maintenance and ordered him to beadmitted into the Gymnasium or College of SlagelseThenceforth his career was one of moderate prosperity and he repaid the bounty of his friendsand the munificence of his sovereign by the production of those exquisite poems and fablesEventyr as he styles them which have madehis name a household word in every EuropeancountryJohn Adams one of the ablest of the presidentsof the United States was accustomed to relate thefollowing storyWhen I was a boy he said I had to study


LATIN AND DITCHING 31the Latin grammar but it was dull and I hated itMy father was anxious to send me to college andtherefore I studied the grammar till I could bear itno longer and going to my father I told him Idid not like study and asked for some other employment It was opposing his wishes and he was quickin his answer Well John if Latin grammar doesnot suit you you may try ditching perhaps thatwill my meadow yonder needs a ditch and youmay put by Latin and try thatThis seemed a delightful change and to themeadow I went But I soon found ditching harderthan Latin and the first forenoon was the longest Iever experienced That day I ate the bread oflabour and glad was I when night came on Thatnight I made some comparison between Latingrammar and ditching but said not a word aboutit I dug next forenoon and wanted to return toLatin at dinner but it was humiliating and Iwould not do it At night toil conquered prideand though it was one of the severest trials I everhad in my life I told my father that if he chose Iwould go back to Latin grammar He was glad ofit and if I have since gained any distinction it hasbeen owing to the twodays labour in that abominable ditchJohn Adams found that perseverance in an honourable pursuit brings with it its own reward It isby slow stages that we raise heavenwardsM onumentunm ere perennins


32 WORK WHILE IT IS YET DAYthe massive pyramid or stately column The constant dropping of water says the proverb hollowsout the stone or to use an Italian adage Che vapiano va longano e va lontano Who goes slowlygoes long and goes far We must train ourselvesfor continuous labour like the athlete accustomingthe mind to systematic exertion No work is welldone that is done by fits and starts The irregularities of genius on which some writers enlargeare not its necessary concomitants but its blemishesits imperfections and while the world may wonderat and pity an Edgar Allan Poe it will bless andreverence a Walter ScottThe faculties we possess were given us for cultivation Whoever suffers one of them to lie dormantor but partly developed sins against Him who gaveWe must work while it is yet day for the nightcometh when no man can work and life is not longenough for idleness The old poet finely saysThe chiefest action for a man of spiritIs never to be out of action we should thinkThe soul was never put into the bodyWhich has so many rare and curious piecesOf mathematical motion to stand stillVirtue is ever sowing of her seedsIn the trenches for the soldier in the wakeful studyFor the scholar in the furrows of the seaFor men of that profession of all whichArise and spring up honour WEBSTERWhen Demosthenes was asked the three greatqualities that were needful to a successful orator hereplied firstly Action secondly Action thirdly


THE POTENCY OF KNOWLEDGE 33Action In like manner if we were called upon toexpress the three principal requisites for an honourable and successful career we should say firstlyPerseverance secondly Perseverance thirdly Perseverance It is the magic gift that utilizes everyother gift Or as Clarendon quaintly says It is thephilosopher s stone that turns all metals and evenstones into gold and suffers no want to break intoits dwelling It is the north west passage thatbrings the merchant s ships as soon to him as he candesire In a word it conquers all enemies andmakes fortune itself pay contribution Was it notReynolds who said If you have great talentsindustry will improve them if you have but moderate abilities industry will supply their deficiencyNothing is denied to well directed labour nothingis to be obtained without it And the youthfulreader cannot be too often reminded that on theformation of industrious and persevering habits inhis early years depends his well being in late lifeAs the twig is bent the tree is inclined We havenever yet known an idle boy become a hard workingman we have never seen a boy of industrious habitsdeteriorate into idleness and sluggish indifferencewhen arrived at manhood Lord Palmerston workedas hard at eighty as he had done in the flush of hisyoung career Scott the laborious lawyer s clerkwas not less laborious as Eldon the Lord ChancellorIt is said of Henry Bickersteth afterwards LordLangdale and Master of the Rolls that when a355 3


34 THE BEGINNING OF A CAREERstudent at Edinburgh he was distinguished for hisassiduity energy and diligence and when in largepractice as a successful lawyer he evinced the samegrand qualities of character qualities which eventually secured him a foremost position among his contemporariesAn instructive lesson may be derived from the lifeof the great German scholar Christian GottliebHeyne He was born and educated to use his ownpathetic language in the deepest poverty Wantwas the handmaid of his infancy Distress the companion of his childish years His earliest impressionswere sorrowful ones for they were received from thetears of his mother who knew not where to findbread for her children Often did he see her on aSaturday with streaming eyes wringing her handswhen she had failed in disposing of the produce ofher husband s labourNevertheless his parents appreciated the value ofknowledge and did what they could to provide himwith the elements of education by sending him to asmall school in the suburbs Here he acquired areputation for quickness and evinced great pleasurein learning So early as his tenth year in order topay for his own schooling he instructed a neighbour schild in reading and writing He speedily masteredall that could be acquired in the ordinary routine ofthe school and Latin was taught only in privatelessons for which a whole groschen about threehalfpence was the weekly charge a sum beyond his


TRIAL UPON TRIAL 35parents capabilities to afford But Heyne had agodfather a baker in good circumstances to whomone Saturday he was sent for a loaf He enteredthe shop his face bathed in tears His godfatherinquired the cause of his distress and ascertainingthat it was the inability to pay for the Latin lessonspromised to furnish the weekly groschen if Heynewould visit him every Sunday and repeat all that hehad learned by heart out of the BibleIntoxicated with joyHeyne ran off with hisloaf and leaping as hewent and tossing hisloaf to and fro into theair unhappily tumbledit into a puddle Thismisfortune sobered himHis mother rejoiced atthe good news whichhe brought though his Vfather was less pleasedprobably thinking thatLatin was not so profitable as manual labourfor the son of a linen 7weaver Two yearspassed away and hisschoolmaster was constrained to acknowledge he hadtaught him all he knewThe time was now come for him to leave school


36 MOVING IN ADVANCEand adopt the calling of his progenitors It was notunnatural that his father should wish for an assistantin his toilsome occupation and that Heyne s aversionto it should excite his displeasure The boy conscious of more than ordinary powers and inspiredwith a passiohate love of learning was anxious tocontinue his studies at a grammar school but themeans were totally wantingHeyne s second godfather was a minister in thesuburbs and hearing a glowing account of the lad scapacity and perseverance he sent for him and aftera close examination decided to place him in thegrammar school at his own expense Words couldnot express Heyne s ecstasy of delight He wasreferred to the second master examined and placedwith commendation in the second class Of a weaklyframe oppressed with want and misery cut off fromall the sports and enjoyments of childhood he wasvery small for his age and his schoolfellows conceivedan unfavourable opinion of him from his diminutiveappearanceThough placed at school Heyne had found noroyal road to learning His godfather paid for hisinstruction grudgingly and refused to provide thenecessary books so that he was compelled to borrowthem as best he could from the other boys Theinstruction imparted moreover was of a very inferiorclass and even Heyne s perseverance might havegiven way before so many obstacles had he not beenencouraged by a curious incident One of the super


A RAY OF HOPE 37intendents at an examination of the pupils suddenlydemanded what anagram could be formed out of theword Austria None of them knew what an anagram was but as soon as the necessary explanationhad been given Heyne produced the word VastariThe superintendent s surprise at so appropriate arendering was increased when he found that it wasthe work of a little urchin on the lowest form of thesecond class and he overwhelmed him with commendations Heyne after relating what he calls thispedantic adventure continues It gave howeverthe first impulse to my powers I began to feel agreater confidence in myself and to raise my head inspite of all the contempt and hardship under whichI languished He complains not the less thaton leaving school he was a perfect novice in classicalliterature having read but a few chapters of Livyand knowing nothing of chronology history or geographyDuring the last year the star of hope had indeedpartly risen above the horizon A better master tookthe management of the school and had Heyne scircumstances permitted him to avail himself of someprivate lessons he felt he might have accomplishedmuch But the murmurs of his father the niggardliness of his pseudo patron the chilling want andcarking misery that surrounded him overwhelmedhis young spirit and shrouded the future with unutterable darkness But for that innate desire oftruth and beauty which is ever the companion of


38 ETUDIANT NEGLIGEANTgenius and which still animated him to heroic effortsof perseverance Heyne in this dreary stage of hiscareer would have broken downJust at this crisis he obtained a situation as tutorin a family where he was kindly treated and thoughthe remuneration was small it enabled him with theaid of what he obtained from private lessons to increase his parents scanty resourcesHeyne was now destined to taste all the miseriesof a poor scholar s life Ill clad wholly destitute ofbooks with five shillings in his purse he foundhimself planted in the University of Leipzig and onthe threshold of the temple of Knowledge At firsthis spirits shrunk from a prospect apparently so hopeless and he sank into a sore illness from which herecovered only to fall into conditions of life where hebecame the prey of desperation How he contrivedto live much more to study is scarcely apparentfrom his own narrative At length his godfatherold Sebastian Seydel sent him a paltry pittance andat infrequent intervals doled out a little moneythough not until after unspeakable solicitationsin quantities that were consumed by inextinguishabledebt and coupled with disagreeable admonitionsnay on one occasion addressed externally A MrHeyne Etudiant Negligeant Idle Scholar Forhalf a year says Carlyle he would leave himwithout all help then promise to come and see whathe was doing came accordingly and return withoutleaving him a penny neither could the destitute


SORROWS COME IN BATTALIONS 39youth ever obtain any public furtherance for theGerman universities unlike Oxford and Cambridgehave few exhibitions or bursaries for the assistanceof poor scholars Many times Heyne had no regularmeal often not three halfpence for a loaf at midday He longed for death for the dove s wingswhich should bear him to endless rest One goodheart alone says he I found and that in theservant girl of the house where I lodged She laidout money for my most pressing necessities andrisked almost all she had seeing nie in such frightfulwant Could I but find thee in the world even nowthou good pious soul that I might repay thee whatthou then didst for meHeyne in his curious autobiography declares it tobe a mystery to him how he bore so much Whatcarried me forward continues he was not ambition any youthful dream of one day taking a placeor aiming to take one among the learned It istrue the bitter feeling of debasement of deficiencyin education and external polish the consciousness ofawkwardness in social life incessantly accompaniedme But my chief strength lay in a certain defianceof Fate This gave me courage not to yield everywhere to try to the uttermost whether I was doomedwithout remedy never to rise from this degradationFrom his teachers he derived but little assistancefor they were men of very inferior capacity andwholly unable to satisfy an intellect so craving andeager as that of Heyne s He was compelled to trust


40 FOR HIM WHO ENDURESto himself and he flung his whole soul into hisstudies with an enthusiasm that threatened to devourhim No pressure of poverty or hunger no want ofbooks or lack of advisers could daunt his heroic perseverance What books he could aim at he borrowedand he read with such excessive ardour that for awhole half year he allowed himself only two nightsof sleep in a week till compelled to moderation by asevere fever His diligence says an acute Englishcritic might have been undirected or ill directedbut it never rested never paused and must atlength prevail Fortune had cast him into acavern and he was groping darkly round but theprisoner was a giant and would at length burstforth as a giant into the light of day Heyne without any clear aim almost without any hope had sethis heart on attaining knowledge a force as of instinct drove him on and no promise and no threatcould turn him back It was at the very depth ofhis destitution when he had not three groschen fora loaf to dine on that he refused a tutorship withhandsome enough appointments but which was tohave removed him from the university One of theprofessors sent for him one morning and made himthe proposal There arose a violent strugglewithin me he says which drove me to and fro forseveral days to this hour it is incomprehensible tome where I found resolution to determine on renouncing the offer and pursuing my object in LeipzigA man of unsteady purpose goes backwards and for


IS THE CROWN OF LAUREL 41wards and really makes no progress on the smoothestroad a man of steady will advances on the roughestin spite of rock and pitfall and will gain his end ifit have but a little wisdom in itThus passed the months the man Heyne like theboy Heyne unconquerable resolute hopeful Bygood fortune or rather through that Providencewhich smiles on the industrious he procured someemployment in private teaching to help him throughthe winter but when this ceased he was again without resources He tried working for the booksellersand translated a French romance and a Greek oneChariton s Loves of Chareas and Callirhoe howeverthe recompense was scarcely sufficient to find himwith salt not to speak of victuals He sold his fewbooks A licentiate in divinity one Sonntag tookpity on his homelessness and shared a garret withhim where as there was no unoccupied bed Heyneslept on the floor with a few folios for his pillowSuch was his lodging in regard to board he gatheredempty pease cods and had them boiled this was notunfrequently his only mealThrough such privations Heyne neverthelesspressed forward gaining eventually not only aposition of competence and comfort but the reputation of being one of the soundest scholars whichGermany has ever producedThis is another of the proofs says Carlylewhich minds like his are from time to time senti ther to give that the man is not the product of


42 PUT YOUR SHOULDER TO THE WHEELhis circumstances but that in a far higher degreethe circumstances are the product of the manWhile beneficed clerks and other sleek philosophers reclining on their cushions of velvet aredemonstrating that to make a scholar and man oftaste there must be co operation of the upperclasses society of gentlemen commoners and anincome of four hundred a year arises the son ofa Chemnitz weaver and with the very wind ofhis stroke sweeps them from the scene Let noman doubt the omnipotence of Nature doubt themajesty of man s soul let no lonely unfriendedson of genius despair Let him not despair ifhe have the will the right will then the poweralso has not been denied him It is but the artichoke that will not grow except in gardens Theacorn is cast carelessly abroad into the wildernessyet it rises to be an oak on the wild soil it nourishes itself it defies the tempest and lives for athousand yearsAy the Way is always open to the determinedWill For every treasure cave there is an OpenSesame if you will only persevere but boy or manyou must put your own shoulder to the wheel beforeyou can expect any assistance from celestial Jove IThe ancient maxim that the gods help those whohelp themselves has a fine truth in it for all menand at all times it is only bySelf reverence self knowledge self control


THE HERO BOY 43that we can conquer circumstance and wrest theprize from the hands of unwilling FortuneFrom the stirring records of chivalry we mightborrow many illustrations of our theme for itsheroes were men of muscle decision and steadfastwill Such an one was Gaston de Foix named forhis successes in war the Thunderbolt of Italyand who though he perished prematurely on thefatal field of Ravenna is ranked by all competentjudges among the most illustrious European captainsHis memory says Roscoe has seldom been advertedto even by the Italians themselves without thehighest admiration and applause Byron speaks ofhim asThe hero boyWho lived too long for men but died too soonFor human vanityIn his last fight it was Easter day April 111512 this Hero Boy comported himself like aveteran warrior and when overborne by press ofnumbers he was smitten from his horse and flungto the earth dead his body was pierced with fulltwenty wounds He had led the charge against thehosts of the Spaniard shouting He that loves mefollow me and his plumed helm shone like a starin the thickest of the battle an encouragement anda rallying point to his soldiers He was onlytwenty three when he thus met with a hero s deathbut in his brief career he had never attempted aughtin which he had not succeeded No obstacle could


44 A BEVY OF EXAMPLESwithstand his persevering resolute spirit No labourcould tire out his unconquerable energy His manhood like his youth displayed the most signalpowers of endurance and showed him possessed ofall those qualities which make up the successfulcommander A soldier he was from his childhoodupwards He breathed of arms while yet a boy asa stripling mounted the fierce war steed and clothedhis limbs in glittering mail and as a soldier hefell in battle harness to be the theme of many apoet s songBiography is full of examples of what may beaccomplished by a resolute will Most great menhave risen to greatness under peculiarly unfavourable conditions Thus Columbus who opened tocommerce and civilization a New World was inearly life a weaver Niebuhr the Roman historianwas a peasant Sextus V commenced his career asa swine herd 2Esop was a slave HomerThe blind old man of Scio s rocky islea beggar and Demosthenes the son of a swordmaker Take some instances from our Britishhagiology Daniel Defoe was apprenticed to ahosier Gay to a silk mercer Rare Ben Jonsonhandled the bricklayer s trowel and Prideaux wasemployed to sweep Exeter College Burns whowalked In glory and in joyBehind his plough upon the mountain sidewas a poor cotter s son Gifford the critic a cobblerRichard Arkwright a barber and Halley the astro


IMPORTANCE OF HABTTS 45nomer the son of a soap boiler Poverty obscurebirth lack of the appliances of knowledge hungerwant of friends such are the obstacles which perseverance overcomes when the trained and disciplinedmind of the boy is developed into the resolute andsagacious man Hence may the youthful reader infer the vast importance of acquiring in his early timethose habits of application and diligence which alonecan ensure the success of his after career Habitsbe it remembered are like iron fetters which thecaptive seldom succeeds in shaking off They creepupon us unawares and if not on the watch we mayfind ourselves thralls and slaves when boasting mostof our freedom As Dryden saysAll habits gather by unseen degreesAs brooks make rivers rivers run to seasLet us take care that the masters to which asboys we surrender ourselves are not masters whichas men we shall be ashamed of As the snow accumulates says Jeremy Bentham so are our habitsformed No single flake that is added to the pileproduces a sensible change no single action createshowever it may exhibit a man s character but asthe tempest hurls the avalanche down the mountainand overwhelms the inhabitant and his habitation sopassion acting upon the elements of mischief whichpernicious habits have brought together by imperceptible accumulation may overthrow the edifice oftruth and virtue Remember the Boy for evil aswell as for good makes the Man


IIE amnps of an bter mastring Castelnflxatning an c nbibrtual s armIn every man there is a magnet in that thing which the mancan do best there is a loadstoneThis above all To thine own self be trueAnd it must follow as the night the dayThou canst not then be false to any manSHAKSPEAREN no sense perhaps is it more true that theBoy makes the Man than in the bias ofhis youthful genius The future MozartLandseer or Faraday shows himself reveals histalents and inclination in his earliest years andThorvaldsen carving figure heads in a ship builder syard foreshadows the future sculptor of Jasonand other poems in marble Few artists for instance have been born in circumstances favourableto the development of the artistic faculty theirgenius has struggled to the light in spite of everydifficulty poverty sickness parental disapproval


BLAISE PASCAL 47Through the clay and the rock the fountain bubblesup into a sunshine Thus Gainsborough and Baconwere the sons of cloth workers Ingr6s was a coachpainter and our own Maclise a banker s apprenticeat Cork Opie and Romney like Inigo Jones werecarpenters Clarkson Stanfield painted theatricalscenes for a few shillings weekly Northcote wasa watchmaker Jackson a tailor and Etty a printerReynolds Wilson and Wilkie were the sons ofclergymen Lawrence was the son of a publican andTurner of a barberOur readers will have heard of Blaise Pascal theeminent French mathematician and author of thosefamous Lettres Provinciales which so powerfully exposed the corruptions of the Jesuit order He wasborn at Clermont in the province of Auvergne inFrance on the 19th of June 1623 His fatherStephen Pascal held an important official appointment as President of the Court of Aids in AuvergneWhen he was only three years of age he lost hismother and his father then resolved to retire frompublic life and wholly devote himself to his son seducation But he neglected the heart while cultivating the mind and being himself addicted toscientific pursuits rejoiced in the proofs which youngPascal gave of precocious talent Having surrenderedhis office in Auvergne to a brother he removed toParis when Blaise was in his eighth year and continuing his sole teacher fostered with the utmostcare his nascent genius He carefully kept back


48 A JUVENILE GEOMETRICIANhowever every indication of his partiality for mathematical studies and directed his attention rather tothe general discipline of his mind than to the fostering of any particular tendency But genius will notbe denied and though all mathematical books wererigidly excluded from his studies the peculiar biasof Pascal s mind speedily developed itself He implored his father to teach him mathematics hedreamed of circles triangles and parallelogramsand when his father persisted in his opposition heresolved to master the science by his own unaidedlabours Shutting himself up in his play room hebegan a series of rude but marvellous experimentsi4I i iNijto assist him in his investigations He covered thefloor with figures drawn in charcoal squares circlestriangles cubes cones and other mathematicalforms He did not know even the name for acircle but called it a round or of a line butcalled it a bar Yet in this state of ignorance


A JUVENILE GEOM ETRICIAN 4911i i tiSand with such imperfect appliances his acute intellect contrived to analyze and comprehend the purportof one of Euclid s propositions355 4


50 THE END PROVES THE WORKBy accident Stephen Pascal entered his son splayroom When he discovered what had been theoccupation of his leisure hours his admiration wasequal to his surprise and he burst into tears of joyful emotion The prohibition was immediately removed and Pascal left to follow the bent of hisnatural genius He soon gained a distinguishedposition among the mathematicians of the ageWhen scarcely sixteen years old he was admitted amember of a Parisian society for the cultivation ofmathematics And his after life in all things fulfilledhis youthful promise so that a great authority haspronounced upon him the following eulogy Theorator admires in him a model of eloquence thecritic confesses him the most elegant of writers andthe man of science the profoundest of mathematicians In Blaise Pascal then the child was fatherof the man and the genius that budded in his youthcrowned his manhood with a wreath of imperishablegloryWilliam Etty furnishes another example of theinfluence which an over mastering love of a particular pursuit invariably exercises upon a man s lifeand character His father was a ginger bread andspice maker at York and his mother a clever andnoble hearted woman the daughter of a rope makerYoung Etty evinced a strong and fervent love ofdrawing at an early age With a lump of chalk ora charred stick he covered all the available space onhis father s floors walls and ceilings with drawings


ALWAYS A PAINTER 51of men and animals of imaginary landscapes Hismother necessarily ignorant of art but perceivingthat her son s talents surpassed those of ordinaryboys did what she conceived to be the best for himand apprenticed him to a printer But you may aswell seek to divert the mountain torrent into aleaden water spout as to crib cabin and confine thenatural enthusiasm of genius You cannot make apack horse out of the high mettled Arabian racerAll Etty s leisure moments were devoted to thestudy of drawing and as soon as he was free fromhis apprenticeship he resolved to be an artist andnothing but an artist In this new vocation he wasgenerously assisted by his uncle and elder brotherwho supplied him with the means of entering as apupil at the Royal Academy Thenceforward hispath was comparatively smooth his progress rapidand he realized his youthful dream by becoming agreat painterWhat shall we say of George Stephenson whofrom a colliery boy rose to the position of leadingengineer in this land of great engineers In hiscase as in so many others did not the Boy makethe Man Or shall we tell the tale of Chantrey searly struggles of the famous sculptor whosemonument of the Sleeping Children in LichfieldCathedral is verily a poem in marble He was theson of a poor man and born at Norton near Sheffield His youthful occupation was an ignoble onethat of driving an ass laden with milk cans into the


52 CHANTREY THE SCULPTORneighbouring town of Sheffield to serve his mother scustomers with milk When he grew older he wasplaced in the shop of a Sheffield grocer but manifested an invincible repugnance to the trade Asyet he had not discovered the secret of his ownpowers but happening to pass a carver s shop oneday he was attracted by the graceful handiwork exposed for sale and implored his friends to apprenticehim to a carver He was accordingly bound forseven years His genius now developed itself Hedevoted all his spare hours to carving modellingdrawing and soon acquired a mastery over paintingin oils Betaking himself to London he hired aroom over a stable as a studio and there modelledhis first original work for exhibition It was agigantic head of Satan Flaxman saw it admiredit and recommended its sculptor to execute four bustsof admirals for the Greenwich Hospital This commission led to others and the brave strong man sawhimself on the highway to fortuneIn the Place de St Izaak at St Petersburgstands an equestrian statue of the famous founderof the city Peter the Great which never fails torivet the attention of the stranger from its air ofmajesty and grandeur Its sculptor was EtienneFalconet a native of Paris and the son of indigentparents who could afford him no other educationthan the mere rudiments of reading and writingEre he had half spent his childhood he was apprenticed to a carver in wood who se principal occupation


AN EXAMPLE FROM ABROAD 53seems to have been making wig blocks YoungEtienne could not content himself with this for hislife work He felt within him the stirrings of amysterious power which bade him hope and aspireand strive for excellence So whatever picture orengraving pleased his fancy he endeavoured to imitate it and his skilful hands were constantly busyin fashioning busts and models in clay Every hourhe could spare every coin he could procure hedevoted to his darling pursuit until his enthusiastictoil in due time fitted him for higher labours andhe entered the studio of the sculptor LemoineHis progress was so rapid that in 1745 his statueof Milo of Crotona received the high approval of theFrench Academy and nine years afterwards he wasadmitted a member of that illustrious body Commissions flowed in upon him from every countryand in 1766 he was invited to Russia by theEmpress Catherine II to execute the noble monument which will hand down his fame to the latestposterity Thus from the wig block to the colossalstatue of the Russian hero had Falconet s passionatelove of Art elevated his geniusLet the mind follow its own bias and no obstaclesseem able to resist its powers of intense volitionI will be marshal of France said a young soldierand before he died he had won the glittering batonI am sure writes Fowell Buxton that a youngman may be very much what he pleases It remains with us to command by deserving success


54 THE FOREST ASTRONOMERand to have it said as was said of the British troopsat Waterloo They do not know when they arebeaten Valentine Jameray IDuval may serve us asan example At the time of his death he waskeeper of the Imperial Medals at Vienna and preceptor to the Royal Prince afterwards the EmperorJoseph II He was born at Artonay a village ofChampagne in the year 1695 His parents wereexceedingly poor and his father died when he wasten years old He was then taken by a farmer tokeep his poultry but being soon dismissed for somechildish error he resolved on leaving home ratherthan becoming a burden to his mother In thewinter of 1709 he set out on his wanderings Aftersuffering hunger fatigue and bodily pain he arrivedat Morglut where a compassionate shepherd engaged him to tend his flock When the worst ofthe winter had passed he again resumed his wanderings and at length was received by the inhabitantsof a hermitage at St Anne s near Luneville whogave him the charge of their five or six cows andtaught him writing and arithmetic Eagerly desirous of knowledge he spent his nights in studyingthe heavens constructing an observatory of osiers inthe summit of a lofty oak With his scanty earnings he purchased a few books and instruments andto increase his store he hunted and killed the vildanimals of the forest for their skins which he disposed of at a cheap rate and with the produceadded to his little library He read all kinds of


A STRANGE RENCONTRE 55books with the ut1 most avidity storingup the information heS acquired in a memorye of singular retentivenessWhile seated one dayS u n d e r th e s h a d e o f a f o r e s tSf t r e e w it h h is b o o k s a n dSs a papers around him he wasaccosted by some members of the royal family ontheir way to a hunting expedition who were naturally surprised at the sight of this rural philosopherThe result of the interview was that they becamehis patrons and placed him in the Jesuits Collegeat Pont a Mousson where he made a rapid progressin geography history and the study of antiquitiesIn all his after life he displayed the same eminentqualities of fervent love of knowledge and dauntlessperseverance until he was universally recognized asone of the chief of European scholars0


56 NIL TETIGITWho has not heard of Leonardo da Vinci a manof almost universal learning as well as a painter ofsurpassing powers Language has been taxed tothe uttermost for his eulogiums There was in himwe are told a grace beyond expression which wasrendered manifest without thought or effort inevery act and deed Extraordinary power was inhis case conjoined with extraordinary facility Towhatever subject he turned his attention it matterednot what might be its difficulties he was able byhis rare capacity to make himself absolute masterof itHe scanned the heavens and mysteries thereGrew patent to his eagle kenWhile beauteous things from earth and airLike new creations smiled on menHe seized his pencil all was graceHis chisel marble seemed to liveAll Nature s glories he could traceAnd ravishments to mortals giveHe was the son of a Florentine notary and bornat the Castle of Vinci in the Val d Arno not farfrom the old Tuscan capital in the year 1452Even as a child he manifested a great love of drawing and painting of form and colour and executednumerous little sketches which displayed considerable promise His father convinced that they exceeded in talent the average productions of boys ofhis age showed them to a painter Andrea del Vervechio He immediately offered to receive the


IN VERVECHIO S STUDIO 57i Ni ItillCt R11 It W Eiyoung Leonardo as his pupil and in Vervechio sstudio the boy artist s productions excited generaladmiration At the same time his wonderful pre


58 THE CHARMS OF STUDYcocity was conspicuous in other branches he acquired rapidly and retained firmlyAn incident is recorded of his boyish life whichseems worth relating His master was covering ayard of canvas with a design of Christ being baptized in the Jordan by John and Leonardo wasappointed to paint in one of the figures that of anangel But he executed his task with so muchdelicacy of expression and finish of manipulationand his work so far surpassed his master s thatthenceforth the latter abandoned painting and restricted himself to sculpture and other departmentsof art being hugely displeased to find that a merechild could do more than himselfThe Boy made the Man Leonardo was not onlyfamous in his later career for his genius as an artistof which the Last Supper will ever be a gloriousmemorial but for his knowledge of poetry astronomy architecture sculpture engineering musicbotany mechanics and anatomy Nor was hemerely a superficial universalist he learned nothingby rote but whatever he studied masteredthoroughly As a man he was no less eager in thepursuit of knowledge than he had been as a boyHe never wearied in the acquisition of informationStudy had for him such infinite charms that hecounted all time wasted which was not devoted to itHis work was distinguished by the same thoroughness Every leaf and flower in his landscapes wasdrawn with microscopic minuteness In painting a


YOUNG DAVY WILKIE 59countenance he individualized every hair on the eyebrows in painting woven cloth he particularizedeach separate thread And this almost painfulfidelity was accompanied with an exquisite grace ofexpression and tenderness of feeling So that wemay accept the panegyric of Vasari as in no caseexceeding the truth when he says that Leonardowas in all things so highly favoured by naturethat to whatever he turned his thoughts mind andspirit he gave proof in all of such admirable powerand perfection that whatever he did bore an impress of harmony truthfulness goodness sweetnessand grace wherein no other man could ever equalhimSir David Wilkie the greatest name in ScotchArt was the son of the Rev David Wilkie ministerof Cults in Fifeshire where he was born on the 18thof November 1785 Young David was not one ofthose boys whose precocity makes them the oracle oftheir aunts and the terror of their household Hewas even supposed to be miserably dull and irradicably stolid and his master the dominie of thevillage school reported that when he should havebeen studying grammar arithmetic and the use ofthe globes he was covering his slate or whatchance bits of paper he could get hold of with strangedesigns in pencil or colours But this reproach wasremoved from him when he was placed in 1797 inthe school at Keith then under the charge of DrStrachan afterwards Bishop of Toronto though his


60 WHAT HE STUDIEDartistic propensities continued to manifest themselvesin his leisure hours He loved to lie on the greensward and watch the play of light and shadow onthe distant hills or the deepening hues of heavenas the sun went down into the western main orthose changing effects of mist and rain and sunshinewhich make the glory of the Scottish dales Hisquick eye also delighted in the lurid glow of thesmithy its masses of darkness and the weird glarehovering about the persons of its sturdy inmatesHe was never weary of drawing he sketched everything men and women with those bold markedfeatures generally observable in the Scotch peasantryboys and girls the village donkey the village dogtramps with their wallets soldiers in resplendentuniforms the elders of the kirk the eccentricbodies of the neighbouring hamlets nothingcharacteristic humorous or sharply defined escapedhis notice and what he observed he reproduced withwonderful fidelity He was not particular about hismaterials A burnt stick and a barn door oftenserved him instead of brush and canvas He wouldcover with his sketches the walls of the manse orthe smooth sand by the river side So that despitehis father s aversion to a profession which seemed tohim a flagrant contradiction of the second commandment it was evident that David could only be anartist that it was his special vocation and in noother would his talents have free play or his heartsatisfy its aspirations


HOW HE STRUGGLED 61On applying for admission to the Scottish Academy at Edinburgh he was at first rejected on account of the roughness of his introductory specimensBut he persevered he accomplished somethingbetter and was eventually enrolled as a studentModest and self contained doubtful of his owngenius he endeavoured to supply the want of innate power by steadfast toil The single elementhe says in all the progressive movements of mypencil was persevering industry With admirabletenacity he clung to his fixed purpose and labouredday and night in the acquisition of knowledge Removing to London he took lodgings in NortonStreet and having obtained employment at eighteen


62 AN INBORN IMPULSEshillings a week devoted his leisure to the executionof his first great picture The Village Politicianswhich displays all his peculiar humour and keen insight into character It was purchased by LordMansfield exhibited at the Royal Academy andcrowned its creator with fame Thenceforward theartist s career was one of unwavering success a success due to his industry no less than his naturalcapacity and the just reward of a self reliant andadmirable lifeWhile indulging in these recollections of art andartists we may enforce the truth of our dictum thatthe pursuit embraced by the boy is the only pursuitin which excellence is ever attained by the man bya reference to the early amusements of the great English painter Sir Joshua Reynolds He was the tenthchild in a family of eleven and the son of the RevSamuel Reynolds of Plympton Devonshire wherehe was born on the 16th of July 1723 That loveof art which he manifested in his earliest childhoodseemed to the grave clergyman a vain and worthlessthing he considered it indeed an excuse for slothfulness and on the back of one of Joshua s youthfulattempts scrawled the severe censure Done byJoshua out of pure idleness But the parental discouragement could not crush the inborn impulseThe boy copied every print or drawing he could obtain studied Richardson s Treatise on Paintingand the Points of Perspective and at twelveyears of age attempted portraits with no small de


A TURNING POINT 63IIKi igree of success He made a drawing of his father sschool with so much accuracy of outline and in suchcorrect perspective that the grave clergyman could


64 A PURE AND HAPPY LIFEno longer maintain his severity He saw that hisson would be must be a painter and wisely resolved to aid him in following the strong bias of hisgenius To what fame and prosperity Reynolds attained it is needless for us to state He became thefounder in effect of the English school of paintingand his portraits are deservedly prized as almost invaluable chefs d oeuvres To the last he preservedhis enthusiastic love of art and cultivated his divinegift with the most sedulous care His life was apure and happy one If his genius was brilliant hisvirtues were many and he well deserved the warmencomium of the poetHis pencil was striking resistless and grandHis manners were gentle complying and blandStill born to improve us in every partHis pencil our faces his manners our heartsThe childhood of Goethe the greatest Germansince Luther was in admirable harmony with hislater life Pope said of himself thatHe lisped in numbers and the numbers cameIn like manner Goethe was a poet a novelist anessayist from his earliest years The love of beautywhich coloured his genius and dominated over histastes was so speedily manifested that when butthree years old he could be induced to play withnone but pretty or becoming children He listenedto his mother s stories with the keenest interest andwould interrupt them when half told that he mightthink out for them a denouement of his own He


GOETHE S PRECOCITY 65was in fact a precocious child but the precocity wasnot in his case any sign of diseased brain Theblossoms came early butSd were not nipped by an untimely frost He loved toi frequent the ateliers of emia nent painters and teasedthem into explanations oftheir works He studiedall the pictures that camewithin his reach a processwhich so stimulated hisiitimagination that in his tenth or eleventh year hewrote a description of twelve possible pictures onthe history of Joseph and some of his conceptionswere deemed worthy of execution by renownedartists He mused for hours in solitudeLone sitting on the shores of old Romanceand there shaped little fictions which he afterwardsfilled up for the amusement of his play fellows While3055 5


66 HIS INCESSANT ACTIVITYyet a child says his English biographer Mr Leweshe had read the Orbis Pictus Ovid s Metamorphoses Homer s Iliad in prose Virgil in theoriginal Telemachus Robinson Crusoe Anson sVoyages with such books as Fortunatus TheWandering Jew The Four Sons of Aymon cHe also read and learned by heart most of the poetsof that day Canitz Hagedorn Drottinger GellertHaller c writers then much beloved now slumbering upon dusty shelves unvisited except by anoccasional historian and by spiders of an inquiringmindHe studied with amazing energy and unfailingvigour Before he was eight he wrote GermanFrench Italian Latin and Greek with more or lessfacility To these when about fifteen he addedEnglish and soon afterwards he undertook Hebrewcommitting to memory various parts of the Bible inthe original tongue Seldom remarks Mr Leweshas a boy exhibited such completeness of humanfaculties The multiplied activity of his life wasforeshadowed by the varied tendencies of his childhood The man Goethe may be seen in the boyGoethe he remained to the last the same inquiringreasoning deliberative spirit rich in imaginationbold in invention free and unrestrained in thoughtever acquiring open to all influences but completelyand absolutely master of himselfJoubert remarks that a small talent if it keepswithin its limits and rightly fulfils its task may reach


THE TRUE VALUE OF A SMALL TALENT 67the goal just as well as a greater one All that it needsis earnestness of aim and directness of purpose nevermoving to the one side nor the other never attempting flights for which it has not sufficient strength ofwing Did you ever read the history of the Spanishpainter Juan de Pareja His powers were limitedhe enjoyed not the force and inspiration of geniusthe vivida vis animi his abilities were moderateyet he reached the goal at lastHe was a Spanish American a half blood born ofa Spanish father and an Indian mother Childrenof this parentage were doomed by the cruel Spanishlaw to slavery and Pareja transported to Spain hadthe good fortune to find a just though severe masterin the great painter Don Diego Velasquez In histhirteenth year he accompanied him to Madrid andwas employed to mix his colours and prepare hispalette A noble ambition now fired the soul of theslave He resolved to win both fame and freedomHe would break his chains and join the illustriousbrotherhood of Art He had pointed the arrowsof Apollo he would learn to bend the livinebowEvery secret opportunity in the absence of Velasquez he employed in imitating his master s picturesHe painted and he obliterated and he painted againuntil his copy bore some tolerable resemblance to theoriginal He devoted the hours of the night to assiduous study until by ungrudging labour andnatural force of talent he attained a respectable de


68 NOBLY WORKING FOR A NOBLE PURPOSEgree of excellence These stolen tasks were notaccomplished without a sickening anxiety and aconstant degree of apprehension Pareja well knewthe haughtiness of the Spanish character and theindignation with which the attempt of a slave toqualify himself for the exercise of an art favoured bynobles and encouraged by kings would be regardedHe especially shrunk from attracting the attention ofhis master whose pride would have been shocked athis bondsman s astounding presumption Yet hehungered for renown and liberty which he couldnever secure by working in stealth He felt that hemust reveal himself he longed in his loneliness forhuman praise and something of human sympathyPareja therefore resolved on the daring projectof bringing his clandestine performances before theking Philip IV was no incompetent judge andhis heart was by no means incapable of generous impulses It was his custom to visit Velasquez satelier frequently and Pareja had observed that onsuch occasions the king invariably ordered the pictures which were placed with their faces to the wallto be turned for his inspection Among these therefore he resolved to place one of his own compositionand to trust the issue to the royal clemencyAll fell out as he had supposed On the nextvisit of the king he observed the picture turned andordered it to be shown him Velasquez Bxclaimed Philip this is no work of thine Beforethe great painter could reply Pareja flung himself


THE NOBLE PURPOSE NOBLY WON 69con his knees and told his story told of his nightvigils his secret toils his long cherished aspirationsThe sons of Art said the king should be freeand in compliance with his sovereign s will no lessthan in accordance with his own wishes Velasquezimmediately emancipated his slaveIt is pleasant to record that the grateful heart ofPareja induced him to remain in the service ofVelasquez until his death and after that event ofhis daughter He rose to some eminence in portraitpainting and also accomplished various historical


70 THE WEAVER S SONsubjects in a meritorious manner He died agedsixty in 1670 a felicitous example of the successwhich rewards the well directed application of evenmoderate talentsIt would be easy to crowd the page with similar instances Take the story of John Kupetzki the Bohemian painter Thesonof apoor weaver he was destinedto take his place at his father s loom weaving woofand warp until he was fifteen years old An innateconsciousness that he was capable of higher aimsthen induced him to fare forth into the world withno very certain knowledge of the goal to which hiswandering steps would lead him He enduredmuch contumely opprobrium hunger sicknessand at length starving and penniless presented himself at the gate of a German nobleman to solicitalms The noble took compassion on his youth anddestitution and allowed him to find shelter in hiscastle where a Swiss painter named Claus was atthat time engaged in ornamenting some apartmentsThe young Kupetzki gazed with unbounded delighton the grace of form and beauty of colour now firstrevealed to his admiring eyes A strange inspirationtook possession of him In the painter s absence heseized the brushes and studied to imitate the attractive designs After a while he succeeded and withso much exactness that his protector discovering hissecret employment and ascertaining that he hadnever received a lesson or suggestion was induced toplace him under Claus as a pupil The lad wrought


WITH BRAINS SIR 71early and late never missing an opportunity of gaining information and visiting Italy devoted himselfwith absorbing interest to the study of the famousold masters Fame and fortune flowed in upon himHe was employed by princes and kings and finallyappointed painter to the Emperor Joseph A longand prosperous career was terminated by his deathin 1740 and the poor weaver s son left behind hima name to point a moral and adorn a taleWhen Opie was asked by a coxcombical amateurwhat he mixed his colours with as if hinting thathe possessed some magical talismanic secret hegruffly replied With brains sir Throughouthis career he made good use of this admirableamalgam Born in a rank of life says his biographer in which the road to eminence is renderedeminently difficult unassisted by partial patronagescorning with virtuous pride all slavery and dependence he trusted alone for his reward to the force ofhis natural powers and to well directed and unremitting study and he demonstrated by his workshow highly he was endowed by nature with strengthof judgment and originality of conception Thetoils and difficulties of his profession were by himconsidered as matter of honourable and delightfulcontest and it might be said of him that he didnot so much paint to live as live to paintOpie however was not a great artist and I referto him as an example of what may be accomplishedby moderate powers rather than as an illustration of


72 A ROMANTIC STORYthe overmastering energy of genius He was supported by no adventitious circumstances The sonof a working carpenter in Cornwall himself bred upin the sawpit and the workshop compelled to rise atthree in the morning to indulge his strong artistictendencies with rude board for his canvas and a lumpof charcoal instead of a well filled palette one canconceive of few positions less adapted to foster theimagination and discipline the judgment As myreaders doubtlessly know his rough but vigorouscompositions were accidentally seen by Dr Wolcotbetter known as Peter Pindar and their meritsinduced him to present the artist with pencilscolours canvas and a few useful hints Of thesethe lad availed himself so well that he soon becamepopular as a portrait painter and removing toLondon obtained a very considerable amount ofpatronage Eventually he became professor of painting at the Royal Academy and taught others to doas he had done to mix their colours with brainsThe life of James Barry I am still retainedwithin the world of Art was from dawn to night apathetic romance It was not a happy life it waschequered by poverty and suffering it was nothappy in the usual sense of the word yet I doubtwhether the artist himself rapt in the fearful joy of hisfierce enthusiasm was often sensible of the extent ofhis sorrow Art is a generous mistress and consolesher servants for all they suffer in her cause with thebravest dreams and the brightest imaginable visions


HOW GENIUS IS FED 73And Barry absorbed in realizing upon the glowingcanvas his gorgeous fancies heeded little I take itthat his purse was often empty and his cupboard bareJames Barry was born atSCork His father owned aSi s o r t o f h a lf h o o k e r h a lf fishing boat that coasted fromnot t a Cork to Kinsale and somefor AZ times stretched across Steorge s Channel to the English coast His crew consistedZQof himself a man and a couple of boys one ot themhis own son who early fed his genius with contemplation of the beauties of the Irish shore and soughtto copy them with a charred stick on the deck of hisfather s vessel It was speedily evident that he hadnot the making of a sailor in him He cared nothingfor sail or rope for tacking or reefing for larboard


74 PICTURES FROM POETSor starboard but he was well pleased to lie alongthe deck in silent meditation sketching with rudeenergy the lovely scenes that greeted his boyisheyesHis father did not understand him Women havekeener perceptions and a deeper insight so hismother did It is you who have ruined him hiefather exclaimed as you brew so you may bakeKeep him at home and make a scholar of him he sfit for nothing else He was kept at home andsent to school He profited largely by the instruction he received For classical lore he evinced adecided partiality and the stirring incidents of theAEneid sank deeply in his mind He occupied hisleisure hours in designing upon the doors and wallsrude but spirited illustrations of the more poeticalas perhaps the royal agony of Priam whoWhen he sees his town o erthrownGreeks bursting through his palace gateAnd thronging chambers once his ownHis ancient armour long laid byAround his palsied shoulders throwsGirds with a useless sword his thighAnd totters forth to meet his foesor the picture of Dido on the lonely shore watchingthe departure of the false Trojan chiefThe queen from off her turret heightPerceives the first dim streak of lightThe fleet careering on its wayAnd void and sailless shore and bayShe smites her breast all snowy fairAnd rends her golden length of hair


THE SOUL OF ART 75His mother discerning her son s intellectual promise but disregarding its evident bias now formedthe ambitious hope of making him a priest ButBarry felt he had no call to the service of the altarHis soul was Art and to Art he must devote hislife his brain his mind His father sternly opposedhim His mother afraid that he would injure hishealth by intense application stole away his candleHe had no money to buy books the few he couldborrow he transcribed with his own hand But henever despaired The brave soul never faltered heworked and studied and mused and painted andin the fulness of time an abundant reward came areward which might well compensate for some ofthe sorrows of his later life At a public exhibitionof pictures in Dublin was hung his first maturedproduction St Patrick s Arrival on the Coast ofCashel When the exhibition opened Barry withbeating aching heart penetrated into the crowdTo his infinite delight it quickly gathered aroundhis picture and murmurs of approval arose on everyside Suddenly the throng made way for one whosejudgment none might dispute the orator statesmanand philosopher Edmund Burke He examined thecomposition closely while all were hushed and theblood seemed to stand still in its artist s veins Hepraised it warmly ungrudgingly Who was thepainter Where was he Then says a writerthe youth felt the hot blood rushing to his browHe the unknown stranger the ill dressed pallid boy


76 I AM THE PAINTERsmall of stature and whose expressive features weremarked by that which destroys beauty could containhis fierce delight no longer I am the painter heexclaimed from amid the crowd You a boyimpossible was the reply from many lips It ismy picture he added and I can paint a betterBut when Edmund Burke advanced to congratulatehim he was overpowered the mob s congratulationsand astonishment gratified his pride but the praiseof Edmund Burke shook his heart He burst intoa sudden gush of tears covered his face with hishands and rushed from the roomOh those tears Oh the luxury of sheddingthem They repaid Barry I wot for many an hourof deferred hope and burning despairing anxietyI have met with critics to whom Tennyson s beautifullineTears idle tears I know not what they meanhas been a vanity and nothingness Had they shedsuch tears as Barry shed they would have comprehended the poet s inmost meaningDante in his Purgatorio has a striking remarkon the vanity of dreams of fame He puts it intothe mouth of Omberto Aldebrandeschi0 thou vain glory of the human powersHow little green upon thy summit lingersIf t be not followed by an age of grossnessIn painting Cimabue thought that heShould hold the field now Giotto has the crySo that the other s fame is growing dim


THE SHEPHERD ARTIST 77Giotto is a name not to be omitted from thesepages His father was called Bondone a simplehusbandman says Vasari who reared the childwith such decency as his condition permitted Theboy was early remarkable for extraordinary promptitude of intelligence and all the neighbouring gossipsregarded him as a lusus naturce When about tenyears old he was entrusted by his father with thecare of a few sheep and with these he wanderedabout the vicinity wherever his fancy prompted himAnd induced by Nature herself to the art of designhe was perpetually drawing on the stones the earthor the sand any natural object that attracted hisattention or fantasy that presented itself to his livelyimagination Now it chanced one day that theaffairs of Cimabue the illustrious Florentine artisttook him from Florence to Vespignano when heperceived the young Giotto with his sheep pasturing around him drawing one of them from the lifeon a smooth clean piece of rock and with a sharppointed stone and that without any teachingwhatever but such as Nature herself had impartedCimabue halting in astonishment inquired of theheaven born artist if he would accompany him to hishome The boy replied yea willingly if his fatherwere content to permit it The consent of Bondonehaving been obfained Giotto was soon conducted toFlorence where he profited so well by the lessons ofCimabue that the pupil was held by many to havesurpassed his master It is said that while still a


78 GIOTTO S CIRCLEboy ana studying with Cimabue he on one occasionpainted a fly on the nose of a figure which the artistwas sketching and this so naturally that when thelatter returned to his work he believed the insect tobe real and twice or thrice lifted his hand to brushit away before he should go on with his paintingVasari relates a curious anecdote of Giotto PopeBenedict the Ninth having heard of his renown sentone of his courtiers to Florence with the object otcommissioning the artist to execute certain paintingsfor St Peter s Church Entering the master s studiohe explained the Pope s desire and requested tohave a drawing that he might send it to his HolinessGiotto who possessed a shrewd subtle humour of hisown took a sheet of paper and a pencil dipped in ared colour then resting his elbow on his side toform a sort of compass with one motion of his handhe drew a circle so perfect and exact that it was amarvel to behold This done he turned to thecourtier saying Here is your drawingAm I to have nothing more than this inquiredthe latter conceiving himself to be the subject of asorry jestEnough and to spare said Giotto Send itwith the designs of whatsoever other artists youhave seen and I fear not but it will be recognizedSo the messenger went away very ill satisfied inthe belief that the artist had greatly fooled himNevertheless having despatched the drawings hehad collected to the Pope with the names of those


JOHN LEECH 79who had done them he sent that of Giotto also relating the manner in which he had made the circlewithout compass or motion of his arm from whichfact the Pope and such of the courtiers as were wellversed in the subject perceived how far Giotto surpassed all the other painters of his timeThe natural bias and bent of a man s genius cannever be wholly repressed and it is unwise to wasteour powers on a career to which they are notnaturally adapted What a loss would have beenthe world s had John Leech continued in the medicalprofession for which he was originally intendedHow much wit and tender wisdom and felicitoussatire of vulgar and vicious pretension shquld we havemissed had he felt pulses and examined tonguesinstead of noting the ways and manners of his timeand criticising the follies of his fellows The inclination of his genius towards art was early manifested While attending the medical lectures at StBartholomew s Hospital he was wont to cover hisnote book with happy caricatures of his professorsand fellow students He came before the publicwhen he was only eighteen and was not five andtwenty when he commenced that fortunate connection with Punch which has ensured his own fameand which did so much for the success of that popularperiodicalBut again I say we must be careful that we do notmistake the direction of our talents Not every ladthat scribbles caricatures of his schoolfellows has in


80 THACKERAY THE NOVELISThim the making of a great artist The late eminentnovelist Thackeray whose mastery over the humanheart was so profound whose fictions are so full oftruth and tenderness and manly wisdom was in thehabit while a boy at the Charterhouse School ofillustrating the blank leaves and title pages of hisGrammars and Dictionaries in this pictorial fashionBut had he embraced the profession of the artist hewould assuredly never have attained to any supremeexcellence and we should have had a mediocrepainter instead of a second Fielding Ia


IIIEi ampes of SBfn ians plivaftn0 blessed letters that combine in oneAll ages past and make one live with allBy you we do confer with who are goneAnd the dead living unto council callGEORGE DANIELTUDIES says Lord Bacon serve fordelight for ornament and for abilityTheir chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring for ornament is in discourse andfor ability is in the judgment and disposition ofbusiness For expert men can execute and perhapsjudge of particulars one by one but the generalcounsels and the plots and marshalling of affairscome best from those that are learnedFrom those that are learned yes but a studiousyouth is the necessary preliminary to a learned manhood A youth spent in well directed and wellconsidered study not in mere plodding since thefood must be digested if it is to strengthen our355 6


82 THE PURSUIT REPAYS ITSELFmuscles and purify our blood And oh what apleasure there is in the pursuit of Knowledge Nolabour so surely repays itself no toil that I knowof earns so glorious and enduring a reward It isnot to be acquired without arduous pains and constant application for as an old writer says it istroublesome and deep digging for pure waters butwhen once the spring is reached how the draughtrefreshes our soul and recruits our energies It isthe true Elixir Vitce and secures for its possessorthe joys of immortal youth It is the Open Sesameof the Oriental fable which unlocks for us the inexhaustible treasures of the Past It is the magician sspell which evokes for our special communion thespirits of the illustrious dead It is the wing toborrow Shakspeare s fine expression with which wefly to heaven on which with soaring flight werise above the sordid earth and roam among thestarsThe value of knowledge has been appreciated byall great minds and Mr Craik in a charming littlework has shown us that they have suffered noobstacles to daunt them in its attainment Povertymight be supposed to operate as an insuperablebarrier for it deprives the student of the means ofstudy of the implements of his work while depressing his energies and chilling his very soul Butno severity of fortune can oppress the fervent scholarto whom his mind a kingdom is and who finds inhimself a sufficient resource when winds blow bleak


MEDIEVAL SCHOLARS 83without When the great Erasmus was at Parisa poor and penniless seeker after truth he sometimeslonged for a little money but not to expend uponthose objects which generally excite the wishes ofyouth As soon as I get money he wrote Iwill buy first Greek books and then clothesIt is related of the German scholar Schaeffer thatwhen he entered the University of Halle his wholeexpenditure for the first six months of his attendancedid not exceed a few halfpence daily a little breadand a few vegetables boiled in water were his onlynourishment and in the severest winter his apartment was without a fire This heroism has beencommon among thesizars of our Englishuniversities no lessthan among the German students Who Mdoes not remember thehardships endured byDr Johnson both inhis collegiate careerand in the days of hisearly literary enterprise when he was gladto dine off the scrapsfrom his publisher stable In the medi3val times it was thecustom of the German


84 LUTHER TRE SINGERscholars while pursuing their studies at the universities to earn their daily bread by singing before thehouses of the rich and charitable and it was thusthat Luther supported himself during his residenceat Eisenach Let no one he writes in mypresence speak contemptuously of the poor fellowswho go from door to door singing and beggingbread propter Deum You know the psalm saysPrinces and Kings have sung I myself was once apoor mendicant seeking my bread at people s housesparticularly at Eisenach my own dear Eisenach IIt was while pursuing this wandering life that heattracted the attention of Dame Ursula Cotta whowas charmed by his sweet and gentle manner as hestood beneath her window singing his favouritepsalmGod is my refuge and my strengthShe took him into her house and provided him withthe means of support for a considerable periodLuther himself may be quoted as an example ofstudious application in youth He was fourteenyears old when he went to Eisenach where he studiedgrammar rhetoric and poetry He afterwards readmost of the classics and the writings of the schoolmen Occam Duns Scotus and Thomas AquinasAt the age of twenty he obtained the degree ofMaster of Arts In the monastery at Erfurt heexcited general admiration in the public exercises bythe facility with which he extricated himself from


A MARVEL OF INDUSTRY 85the labyrinths of dialectics He read assiduouslythe prophets and the apostles then the books of StAugustine his Explanation of the Psalms andhis book on the Spirit and the Letter He almostgot by heart the treatises of Gabriel Biel and Pierred Andilly Bishops of Cambray he also read a greatdeal of the writings of Gerson And this laboriousstudy he continued to the last providing himselfwith the weapons which served him so well in hisgreat fight against the corruptions and iniquities ofthe Roman ChurchMr Craik in his Pursuit of Knowledge relates the history of a work entitled A System ofDivinity by the Rev William Davy which affordsperhaps the most extraordinary instance on recordof literary industry and labour Mr Davy was bornin 1743 near Chudleigh in Devonshire where hisfather resided on a small farm his own freeholdFrom a very early age he gave proofs of a mechanicalgenius and when only eight years old cut out witha knife and put together the parts of a small millafter the model of one then building in the neighbourhood whose gradual construction he observednarrowly every day while proceeding with equalregularity to the completion of his own task Whenthe large mill was finished it was found to workimperfectly and yet the builder could discern noactual defect It is said that while he was endeavouring to elucidate the mystery the young self taughtarchitect presented himself and observing that hia


86 ONE S HEART IN ONE S WORKown mill went perfectly well pointed out after arapid examination both the fault and the remedyBeing intended for the Church he was placed atthe Exeter Grammar School where he distinguishedhimself by his rapid acquisition of knowledge whilestill retaining his attachment to mechanical pursuitsAt the age of eighteen he entered at Oxford wherehe took the degree of B A and first conceived theidea of compiling a System of Divinity to consistof selections from the best writers For this purposehe began to collect in a common place book suchpassages as he thought would suit his purposeOn leaving college he received the curacies ofMoreton and Lastleigh the latter bringing him ayearly stipend of 40 In the year 1786 he published by subscription six volumes of sermons as aspecies of introduction to his proposed work but asmany of the subscribers never paid for their copieshe found himself indebted to his printer upwards of100 This disaster did not discourage him heproceeded with his magnum opus but when thevoluminous manuscript was finished discovered thatthe cost of printing it would exceed 2000 Heattempted to obtain subscribers for it but failed inthe attempt and then with characteristic perseverance resolved on becoming his own printer Heaccordingly constructed a press and from an Exeterprinter purchased a quantity of old and worn outtypes With infinite labour and astonishing energyhe pursued his self imposed task as pressman and


OPUS FECIT 87compositor and after thirteen years of such toil asthe mind can hardly realize brought his extraordinary undertaking to a conclusion The industriousyouth had grown into the resolute man and thesame energy that had constructed the little mill completed the gigantic task of printing fourteen copiesof a book in twenty six volumes octavo each of fivehundred pages He afterwards bound them with hisown hand and deposited a copy at the principalpublic librariesOur readers know what Macaulay accomplished ashistorian essayist statesman orator and poet Hisknowledge was apparently inexhaustible and descended to the minutest details of the most trivialsubjects He was a multifarious reader a hard and


88 THE ENDS OF LIFEenergetic student In his youth he had formed thehabit of studious application and he retained it tohis latest manhood As a boy he was a completehelluo librorum a glutton of books only what heread he digested and methodically stored up in hisretentive memory for future use His chief relaxation was penning and reciting verses Hannah Morecalls him a jewel of a boy who joined a livelyyet tractable temper to a fine capacity Attwelve he was placed under the care of a clergymannamed Preston and soon dived deeply into theCastalian waters of classic literature At eighteenhe went to Trinity College Cambridge where heread perseveringly distinguished himself as anorator at the famous Union Club and twice carriedoff the Chancellor s Medal for the best Englishpoem Such was the youth of the illustrious historian who has invested the historic page with asplendour of interest and a brilliancy of colouringpreviously unknown or at least conceived to beimpossibleAn essayist in a popular periodical recently putforward some pregnant remarks on the ends of lifeon the objects for which men should live and toilon the definite purpose that should inspire theirstudious youth and direct the efforts of their matureryears Why do we spend our days and nights instudy Why do we give up to continual labour thebright sunny hours of our too brief spring This isa question my readers will do well to ask themselves


A RESPECTABLE POSITION 89For what end do they work What is the motivethat inspires them To what goal are they directingtheir steps I have no sympathy with the manwhose only ambition is to secure a respectableposition who leaves out of sight the grand excellence of knowledge and disregards the sublimevirtues of self denial patience and resolution It isthe struggle that ennobles us and not the prizeHe who thinks only of the prize will probably failin the struggle for animated by no elevating motivehis heart will yield before the obstacles that Fortunethrows in the athlete s path It is the heroic effortfor which I reservemy admiration andwhen I recognize thatit has been or is beingmade I do 1 ot wait ifor its failure or success if the crown iwere mine I would atonce bestow it on thecourageous workerYou have heardsays the writer I referto of Bernard Palissy the Huguenotpotter You know ofhis struggles for manymany years of povertyand sorrow to discover


90 HEROIC EFFORTthe enamel You know he made furnace fuel ofthe chairs the tables the house flooring Domestictrouble did not stop him his children died sixof them his wife complained and scolded theneighbours abused him His trade he pursuedonly by fits and starts when the needs of his homecompelled him he sweated at the furnace till thegarters used to slide off his dwindled legs All mencondemned him and tried to make him give upIt is the way of the world you know But in spiteof what people say with their tongues in spite ofthe gossip of society men and women cannot helphaving at the bottom of their souls a little spark ofsympathy with heroic effort The meanest of themmay be at times quickened into a suspicion thatthere is more in the case than they quite seeWhatever wrong there was in the noble persistenceof Job the wrath of God was kindled not againsthim but against the friends who had misunderstoodand slandered him as well as impeached by theimplications of their blunders the whole spirit ofthe Divine policy Human beings mostly stop attalk in cases of unintelligible heroism and Palissywent on with his furnace work My credit wastaken from me and I was regarded as a madmanUnder these scandals I pined away and slipped withbowed head through the streets like a man put toshame I was in debt in several places and had twochildren at nurse unable to pay the nurses Mensaid It is right for him to die of hunger seeing he


REGARDED AS A MADMAN 91Aji Ij II fII Utri ik 4f Ileft off following his trade Bgut when I had dweltwith my regrets a little because there was no onewho had pity upon me I said to my soul WhereMill i IlWiIIT4111 3 ilI r alllef of flloin hi tade Btwen hd delwho had pity upon meI11 iI sai tomy oul Whre


92 LABOUR HAS A BITTER ROOT BUT SWEET FRUITfore art thou saddened Labour now and thedefamers will live to be ashamed Yes youall know that marvellous story and how at thelast Palissy won and the defamers were at lastsilenced by the successes in which the struggleendedPalissy found the enamel and the enamel securedhim fame and fortune But it was not for the fameand fortune that Palissy had striven his object hadbeen the enamel that is the crown and completionof his work and in his labours he had tasted theexquisite enjoyment of deserving success His Endof Life was no sham respectability no statelymansion and retinue of lackeys but to win thesecrets of Science by resolute and persistent studyAn heroic youth was crowned by an heroic manhood For Palissy the potter though not a heroafter the world s pattern was sincere and earnest inhis life work he saw the end to be accomplished byCthe passionate patience of genius Success heknew was in the will of One who is mighty to buildup and to cast down but towards the End he atleast could resolutely march with soul never wearyAnd such a man be he peasant or middle class Philistine is to my mind a HeroStudious was the youth and learned the manhoodof a very different man from Palissy John Knoxthe Scottish Reformer but Knox too saw fromthe first the End of Life and resolutely labouredto achieve it He was the son of poor parents


DO THINE OWN WORK AND KNOW THYSELF 93received a college education studied deeply andwidely became a priest soon wearied of the falsehoods of Popery and gave himself up heart andsoul to the principles of the Reformation Thinking believing hoping he went on his way in allcalmness and peace and it was thus his life wasspent or spent itself until he had reached the age offorty When one day in the Reformers Chapelthe preacher said suddenly That there ought to beother speakers that all men who had a priest sheart and gift in them ought now to speak whichgifts and heart one of their own number saysCarlyle John Knox by name had had he notcried the preacher appealing to all the audienceWhat then is his duty The people answeredaffirmatively it was a criminal forsaking of his postif such a man held the word that was in him silentPoor Knox was obliged to stand up he attemptedto reply he could say no word burst into a floodof tears and ran out It was worth rememberingthat scene He was in grievous trouble for somedays He felt what a small faculty was his for thisgreat work He felt what a baptism he was calledto be baptized withal He burst into tearsIn what manner thenceforward he did his workhistory tells us and not only history but thepresent time for the influences of his life andcharacter are still active in our fatherland for goodand ill but mostly for good His earnest manhoodwas the natural development of a grave and earnest


94 THE VALUE OF METHODyouth and obscurely as he passed his forty yearsthose elements of character which made him theApostle of the Scottish Reformation were as visiblein him then as in the days when he rebuked a queenand inspired a peopleWhat more need I say Apply your youth tostudy and let your study be so directed as to securethe end of a noble life It matters not if yourlabour obtain no immediate results for whethergrowing richer or not you will be certainly growinga wiser man which I take to be far betterWhile dwelling upon the advantages of studiousapplication in youth let me impress upon my youngreaders the value of method The difference between the man of capacity and of no capacity ismainly a question of method of orderly and systematic arrangement of the information gained byintelligent labour Coleridge remarks that thepeculiar distinction of a man of education consistsin this the unpremeditated and evidently habitualarrangement of his words grounded on the habit offoreseeing in each integral part or more plainly inevery sentence the whole that he then intends tocommunicate This method in his words springsfrom the method and orderliness of his thoughtsand the man of methodical thought will also be aman of methodical lifeI speak here however of method as employed inthe formation of the understanding and in theassiduous pursuit of science and literature It


EVERYTHING SHOULD BE IN ITS PLACE 95would indeed be unnecessary to attempt any proofof its importance in our domestic or business relations In the peasant s cottage or the artisan sworkshop as in the palace or the chemist s laboratory the first merit and one which admits neithersubstitute nor equivalent is that everything shouldbe in its place When this charm is wantingsays Coleridge every other merit either loses itsname or becomes an additional ground of accusationand regret Of one by whom it is eminently possessedwe say proverbially he is like clockwork The resemblance extends beyond the point of regularityand yet falls short of the truth Both do indeedat once divide and announce the silent and otherwiseindistinguishable lapse of time But the man ofmethodical industry and honourable pursuits doesmore he realizes its ideal divisions and gives acharacter and individuality to its moments If theidle are described as killing time he may be justlysaid to call it into life and moral being while hemakes it the distinct object not only of the consciousness but of the conscience He organizes the hoursand gives them a soul and that the very essence ofwhich is to fleet away and evermore to have beenhe takes up into his own permanence and communicates to it the imperishableness of a spiritual natureOf the good and faithful servant whose energies thusdirected are thus methodized it is less truly affirmedthat he lives in time than that time lives in himHis days months and years as the stops and punctual


96 DO GOOD IF YOU EXPECT TO RECEIVE ANYmarks in the records of duties performed will survivethe wreck of worlds and remain extant when Timeitself shall be no moreLet me commend another quotation to the reader snotice It is from Archbishop Tillotson and designed to enforce upon each of us the need andadvantage of being diligent in our calling of strivingwith resolute persistence after the ends of life Itis a great mistake he says to think any man iswithout a calling and that God does not expect thatevery one of us should employ himself in doing goodin one kind or other Those who are in a low andprivate condition can only shine to a few but theythat are advanced a great height above others maylike the heavenly bodies dispense a general light andinfluence and scatter happiness and blessings amongall that are below them But let no man of whatbirth rank or quality soever think it beneath himto serve God and to be useful to the benefit and advantage of men In doing good to our fellows weare truly serving GodA stout heart to a steep brae says the oldScotch proverb and it is certain that the studentWho would climb the hill of Difficulty must learn tohope to strive to believe and to be strong Thisis the lesson taught by the poetry of Longfellowwhich possesses such an attraction for the youngand it informs the pages of the earlier works ofCarlyle stimulating the mind to a nobler enthusiasmand a more earnest labour Work is dignity says


LABORARE EST ORARE 97the modern preacher work is honour work issuccess not that worldly success which mean spiritslong to attain but the fruition of the mental powersthe ripening and blossoming of the higher facultiesThe great end of a true life is work that by Workwe may gain KnowledgeThe world of God above us and belowIs here for man to work in and to knowBut like a ghost on Time s funereal brinkFlits the pale reason uininspired to thinkSpread free your wings and soar to Truth s great starNor be your thoughts less than your birthrights areIt matters not how trivial or apparently commonmay be your daily task your ordinary vocation itrests with you to ennoble it by aspiring after higherthings Every one remarks John Sterling whotries to connect his daily task however mean withthe highest thoughts he can apprehend therebysecures the rightfulness of his work and is raisinghis own existence to its utmost perfection Let uslearn in such measure as our faculties and opportunities permit that nature and mankind are a greatwhole of which the individual is but a small atomicpart and which only when conceived if not thoroughly understood as a whole exalts and warms usout of the petty selfishness that unfits us for ournoblest duties and dwarfs us to the stature of ourconsciousnessBe careful therefore what life work you take up0 reader in your youthful years be careful what355 7


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x9tmnapIs of 6ronrage, idterpris, anb Whose high endeavours are an inward light That make the path before him always bright; Who, with a natural instinct to discern What knowledge can perform, is diligent to learn. WORDSWORT.I "He dares much, And to that dauntless temper of his mind, He has a wisdom that still guides his valour To act in safety." SHAKSPEAR E. OURAGE is a term of very general application, and yet, in common use, it is too often restricted to that contempt of physical danger which animates the soldier to seek the bubble reputation even in the cannon's mouth. I shall understand it in a wider sense, and mean by it that high moral virtue which inspires us to dare all and suffer all when conscious that we are in the right. This is sometimes called moral courage, and I



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'S The Baldwin Library University of __B



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14 A PLACE FOR EVERYBODY. bute to swell the sum of human happiness and human good. To take a familiar illustration from the playground. At cricket it is not needful that every player should be a brilliant batsman or a firstrate bowler; we want good long-stops, cautious wicket-keepers, and dexterous cover-points. For each man, on this beautiful earth of ours, God has indubitably provided a vocation, if he will but earnestly seek to discover it, and afterwards to labour in it with diligence and devoutness, as in the sight of Heaven:"They also serve who only stand and wait; and God's blessing rests on the rank and file, as surely as on the leaders of the host, if rank and file do but fulfil their duty. When Giardini was asked how long it would take to learn the violin, he replied, Twelve hours a day for twenty years together." Alas, too many of us think to play our fiddles by a species of inspiration I I knew a brilliant pianiste, who assured me that for years she had practised seven hours daily. These Blondins and Leotards, whose gymnastic achievements attract admiring crowds-what labour they must have undergone-what perseverance they must have displayed-an energy and a purpose that, directed into better channels, might have made them benefactors of mankind. Inquire of Grisi, or Mario; of Charles Kean, or Macready; of Hunt, Millais, or Sir Edwin Landseer; how they have risen into fame



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144 A REMARKABLE MAN. unjust to others, rather than by any sense of personal wrong; somewhat too little deferential to authority, yet without any real inconsistency; loving what was great and good in antiquity the more ardently and reverently because it was ancient; in heart, devout and pure, simple, sincere, affectionate, and faithful." Admiral Lord Exmouth was, in many respects, a remarkable man-a man of high courage, calm resolution, and indomitable character. His capture of the French frigate Cljopatre; his rescue of the shipwrecked crew and passengers of the Dutton; his ten hours' action with the Indefatigable; his prompt repression of a threatened mutiny on board his own frigate, at a time when the whole of the British navy was more or less tainted with disaffection; are episodes in our naval history which cannot be read without the liveliest interest and admiration. The qualities which raised him to a peerage and entitled him to his country's gratitude were conspicuous in his earliest years. He was left an orphan when yet a child, and had but few friends or kinsmen to watch over his early struggles and protect him from rude collisions with the world. Thus accustomed from his boyhood to Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control," he formed those habits of prompt action and independent thought which distinguished his latter career. On one occasion a house containing a store of gunpowder caught fire, and a terrible explosion .was



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62 AN INBORN IMPULSE. shillings a week, devoted his leisure to the execution of his first great picture, The Village Politicians," which displays all his peculiar humour and keen insight into character. It was purchased by Lord Mansfield; exhibited at the Royal Academy; and crowned its creator with fame. Thenceforward the artist's career was one of unwavering success; a success due to his industry no less than his natural capacity, and the just reward of a self-reliant and admirable life. While indulging in these recollections of art and artists, we may enforce the truth of our dictum, that the pursuit embraced by the boy is the only pursuit in which excellence is ever attained by the man, by a reference to the early amusements of the great English painter, Sir Joshua Reynolds .He was the tenth child in a family of eleven, and the son of the Rev. Samuel Reynolds of Plympton, Devonshire, where he was born on the 16th of July 1723. That love of art which he manifested in his earliest childhood seemed to the grave clergyman a vain and worthless thing; he considered it, indeed, an excuse for slothfulness, and on the back of one of Joshua's youthful attempts scrawled the severe censure, Done by Joshua out of pure idleness." But the parental discouragement could not crush the inborn impulse. The boy copied every print or drawing he could obtain; studied Richardson's Treatise on Painting" and the "Points of Perspective;" and at twelve years of age attempted portraits, with no small de-



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SEBASTIAN GOMEZ. 15 and theyr will tell you, by hard work-by unflagging resolution. Dr. Young used to say that "any man can do what any other man has done;" a maxim not wholly true, yet resting on a basis of probability. He endeavoured to prove its truth, however, by his own example. The following story is told of him: ", The first time he mounted a horse, he was accompanied by the grandson of Mr. Barclay of Ury, a distinguished equestrian. His companion having leaped a high fence, Young proceeded to follow his example, but in the attempt was thrown off his horse. He immediately remounted; made a second effort, and was again unsuccessful. Most men would have been deterred from another venture; but'not so Dr. Young, and at the third trial he had the satisfaction of clearing the fence." The early career of the great Spanish painter, Sebastian Gomez, affords an extraordinary example of successful application. He was a mulatto, and a slave of Murillo's, employed to wait upon the pupils of that illustrious master. Heaven had gifted him with a passionate love of art; but none of the young Spaniards who amused their idle hours by laughing at his dark complexion and uncouth features, suspected how daring a soul that ungainly form enshrined. He received no lessons; from none did he ever gain a hint or suggestion; but he watchedoh, how vigorously !-every movement of the students, and scrutinized the daily progress of their



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58 THE CHARMS OF STUDY. cocity was conspicuous in other branches; he acquired rapidly and retained firmly. An incident is recorded of his boyish life which seems worth relating. His master was covering a yard of canvas with a design of Christ being baptized in the Jordan by John," and Leonardo was appointed to paint in one of the figures, that of an angel. But he executed his task with so much delicacy of expression and finish of manipulation, and his work so far surpassed his master's, that thenceforth the latter abandoned painting, and restricted himself to sculpture and other departments of art, being hugely displeased to find that a mere child could do more than himself." The Boy made the Man. Leonardo was not only famous in his later career for his genius as an artist, of which the Last Supper will ever be a glorious memorial, but for his knowledge of poetry, astronomy, architecture, sculpture, engineering, music, botany, mechanics, and anatomy. Nor was he merely a superficial universalist; he learned nothing "by rote;" but whatever he studied, mastered thoroughly. As a man he was no less eager in the pursuit of knowledge than he had been as a boy. He never wearied in the acquisition of information. Study had for him such infinite charms that he counted all time wasted which was not devoted to it. His work was distinguished by the same thoroughness. Every leaf and flower in his landscapes was drawn with microscopic minuteness. In painting a



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128 PHYSICAL VERSUS MORAL COURAGE. amidst all the cares of war, finance, and legislation, still pointed to Daylesford. And when his long public life, so singularly chequered with good and evil, with glory and obloquy, had at length closed for ever, it was to Daylesford that he retired to die." This force of will is a distinctive quality of genius, but it is as essential to the good man as to the great man, to the philanthropist as to the soldier, to the man of letters as to the man of business. Without it we are rudderless ships, tossed about by every wind of passion-shuttlecocks which Circumstance bandies to and fro at its pleasure. It is the mental qualification which Horace notes as characteristic of a successful statesman-tenax propositi; it is the quality which secured fame for an Alexander the Great, and immortal renown for a John Howard. "Whatever you wish, that you are; for such is the force of our will, joined to the Divine, that whatever we wish to be, seriously, and with a true intention. that we become." Without a determined will, moral courage cannot exist; and of mere physical courage we say nothing, for after all it is but the virtue of the beasts. Physical courage may animate the rank and file to rush on a line of glittering bayonets, but it is moral courage that enables a Wellington to win a Waterloo. It is that force of will" which inspires and directs every true heroic life. There are few more striking examples of the truth of our oft-repeated adage than the late Sir Charles James Napier, the conqueror of Scinde, the hero of



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12 GENIUS VERSUS TALENT. other never attained to eminence, and is wholly forgotten. And why ? Because he lacked perseverance; that power of application which develops the mental faculties, and trains them to the successful performance of their allotted task. When the natural genius is of an inferior order, perseverance will frequently supply the deficiency; and the boy, ridiculed for his slowness, if constant in application and earnest in his work, will outstrip more brilliant but less industrious competitors. It is pleasant to see this want of ready talent compensated by vigorous and well-directed labour. It was surely a greater achievement for the Egyptian bondsmen to raise the Pyramids, than for our English artisans, with all the appliances of modern machinery, to throw a tubular bridge across the Straits of Menai. "If there be one thing on earth," says Dr. Arnold, "which is truly admirable, it is to see God's wisdom blessing an inferiority of natural powers, where they have been honestly, zealously, and truly cultivated." We rejoice w-hen the weak win in their struggle with the strong, and' in the race between the tortoise and the hare, our sympathies are with the tortoise. Ben Jonson says, in one of his plays, When I take the humour of a thing once, I am like your tailor's needle--I go through." This should be the maxim of every brave English youth: like that of Strafford the great minister-Thorough. Until a thing is done, keep doing. Let no obstacles daunt you, and let repeated failure spur you to repeated effort.



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186 THE CHRISTIAN S WEAPON. ing time to go 'into his chamber three times a day, that he might pray and give thanks to God.' Think of* Alfred, with the cares of monarchy; of Luther, buffeted by the storms of Papal wrath; of Thornton, encompassed with a thousand mercantile engagements-yet never allowing the hurry of business to intrude on their regular hours of devotion." Prayer," says Jeremy Taylor, "if made in the spirit of gentleness and dove-like simplicity, as the issue of a quiet mind and of untroubled thoughts, ascends to heaven upon the wings of the holy dove, and returns laden with a blessing. With submission, yet with assured confidence, must we kneel before God's footstool; and prayer, uttered in such a spirit, will not be lost upon the winds." Daily prayer, daily meditation, a daily summing up of the labours, thoughts, and associations of the day, will preserve the mind in spiritual health and vigour, pure, undefiled, and elastic, from youth to age. This is the counsel which George Herbert gives us, and which we would have our young readers in all truth and soberness adopt:"Sum up at night what thou hast done by day, And in the morning what thou hast to do: Dress and undress thy soul; mark the decay And growth of it ; if with thy watch that too Be down, then wind up both : since we shall be Most surely judged, make thy accounts agree." To keep the mind free from evil thoughts and the heart from evil passions, no talisman, let me add, is



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TIE GOLDEN HIND D A SQUIRREL." 173 -.-• ....-----L --~---_--------_ "4. claimed, "the few and brave comrades with whom I have shared so many storms and perils." He and ;-!F.---; !--==-I? ____'__ F ,._. have shared so many storms and perils." He and



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MURILLO S MULATTO. 17 It t ? • .* --.*^ // )\ ,T truth and depth of expression, their warmth and softness of colouring. He is best known in art-history as Murillo's mulatto, and only survived his illustrious master a few years, dying about 1689 or 1690. (3.51) 4



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II. E*amnps of an bter-mastring Caste lnflxatning an c nbibrtual's arm.' In every man there is a magnet; in that thing which the man can do best, there is a loadstone." "This above all,-To thine own self be true, And it must follow, as the night the day, Thou canst not then be false to any man." SHAKSPEARE. N no sense, perhaps, is it more true that the Boy makes the Man than in the bias of his youthful genius. The future Mozart, Landseer, or Faraday, shows himself-reveals his talents and inclination-in his earliest years, and Thorvaldsen carving figure-heads in a ship-builder's yard, foreshadows the future sculptor of Jason" and other poems in marble." Few artists, for instance, have been born in circumstances favourable to the development of the artistic faculty; their genius has struggled to the light in spite of every difficulty,-poverty, sickness, parental disapproval.



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A FINE CHARACTER. 143 Perplext in faith, but pure in deeds, At last he beat his music out. There lives more faith in honest doubt. Believe me, than in half the creeds. "He fought his doubts and gathered strength : He would not make his judgment blind ; He faced the spectres of the mind And laid them : thus he came at length "To find a stronger faith his own ; And Power was with him in the night, Which makes the darkness and the light, And dwells not in the light alone, But in the darkness and the cloud,As over Sinai's peaks of old, While Israel made their gods of gold, Although the, trumpet blew so loud." And now, to sum up the character of Dr. Arnold, Boy and Man, in the words of one who knew him well:"" At the commencement of his university career, a boy, and at the close retaining, not ungracefully, much of boyish spirits, frolic, and simplicity; in mind, vigorous, active, clear-sighted, industrious, and daily accumulating and assimilating treasures of knowledge; not averse to poetry, but delighting rather in dialectics, philosophy, and history, with less of imagination than reasoning power; in argument, bold almost to presumption, and vehement; in temper, easily roused to indignation, yet more easily appeased, and entirely free from bitternessfired, indeed, by what he deemed ungenerous or



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^-0 ----------------" HE Child is father of the Man." So says .! the poet; and it is the object of these I unpretending pages to prove the truth of the thesis, and by examples borrowed from modern biography to show the importance of cultivating the mind and disciplining the heart in youth, with a view to a noble, generous, and truthful manhood. The Boy makes the Man! If this be true--and the exceptions to the rule are neither numerous nor important-how incumbent it is upon both parents and instructors to watch every movement of the young with gentle but vigilant eyes, and carefully--without over-strictness, but with all needful firmness -to train them up to habits of thought, devotion, and manly rectitude. In accomplishing such an object, it is hoped this little volume may prove of some assistance, from the wise maxims it collects, and the inspiring examples it brings together. The dignity of work, the value of perseverance, the excellence of truthfulness, the pleasures of knowledge, the benefits of prayer and scriptural study-these are the topics enforced and illustrated, chiefly by anecdote and quotation, in the following pages. /



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THE TRUE COURAGE OF TRUE TALENT. 123 confess that I know of no quality that more adorns a man-that is, more valuable, or less common. The fear of What will Mrs. Grundy say? What will the world think ? too often paralyzes our arms when raised to strike down a falsehood or a calumny. The fear of "What will Mrs. Grundy say?" is often fatal to men of talent who have not sufficient selfSreliance or self-assertion to hold their own among a striving, pushing, and boastful crowd. "On their own merits modest men are dumb;" but modesty may degenerate into a cowardly fear of the world's censure. I agree with Sidney Smith that a great deal of talent is lost for want of a little courage. Every day, he says, sends to their graves a number of obscure men, who have only remained in obscurity because their timidity has prevented them from making a first effort; and who, if they could have been induced to begin, would in all probability have gone great lengths in the career of fame. "The fact is," continues our witty moralist, "that to do anything in this world worth doing, we must not stand back shivering and thinking of the cold and danger, but jump in and scramble through as well as we can. It will not do to be -perpetually calculating risks and adjusting nice chances. It did very well before the flood, when a man could consult his friends upon an intended publication for a hundred and fifty years, and then live to see its success afterwards; but at present a man waits, and doubts,



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EARNEST PRAYER. 185 beaty in the mead dappled over with blossoms, in the hedgerow wreathed with honeysuckle, in the green lane that winds among the golden corn-fields? Is there no music in the clear, fresh song of the mavis, or the murmur of the brook as it falls over the rocky ledge ? Is there not sublimity in the roar sof the ocean waters? and tenderness in the cooing of the ring-doves? and hopefulness in the budding of the happy spring? And does not all Nature attest the power, and compassion, and wisdom of Him who made ? Does it not fill the mind with awe and wonder? Does it not fill the soul with love and thankfulness ? Is it not a revelation which ,unfolds to us the mysterious workings of the creative mind, so that "the invisible things of Him from -the creation of the world are clearly seen, 'being understood by the things that are made ?" Boy or man, thou wilt never be worthy of thy inheritance until thou lovest nature with' a passionate love, and learnest to read in its glorious pages the lessons written there by a hand Divine. 6th, Cultivate the habit of earnest prayer. It was -a saying of the excellent and pious Doddridge, "that he never advanced well in human learning without prayer, and that he always made the most proficiency in his studies when he prayed with the greatest fervency." Think of Daniel," says a popular writer, prime Iminister of Persia, with the affairs of one hundred and twenty provinces resting on his mind, yet find-



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SELF-RELIANCE. 147 his father observed him walking leisurely homeward, across a long dangerous embankment which penned in the waters of a loch in Ayrshire. His father went to meet him, and anxiously inquired: "Where have you been, Jamie ?" Well," replied the boy, "I just thought rd like to take a long walk and look at all things as I went on, sir, and see whether I would get home by myself! And I have done it," he added proudly; "and now I am to have no more nursery-maids running after me-I can manage myself !" His father said that he was right, and withdrew him, from that day, from the surveillance of nurses. It was felt that Jamie might safely be left to look after himself. The name of Neill reminds one of a kindred spirit -of another Indian hero, the gallant Nicholsonthan whom, says Mr. Kaye, no man was more trusted in life, no man more lamented in death. His courage was not inferior to his gentleness; his honour was as bright as his sword; his spirit, with all its resolution and intrepidity, tender as a woman's. During one of his vacations, he was playing with gunpowder, when a large quantity of it exploded in his face, and blinded him. He covered his face with his hands, and running to hismother, exclaimed: "Mamma, the gunpowder has blown up in my face." On removing his hands, it was seen that his face was a blackened mass; his eyes were completely closed, and the blood was streaming downhis cheeks. For ten days, during which he never murmured or



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THE BOY MAKES THE MAN. ------------------------------ I. mteles of |t in gau,, anb its J u its. "A divine benediction is always invisibly breathed on painful and lawful diligence."-THOMAS FULLER. T is related of Richard Burke that when found in a deep meditation after listening -to one of his brother's splendid harangues in Parliament, he excused himself by saying, I have been wondering how Ned has contrived to monopolize all the talents of the family; but now I remember, when we were at play, he was always at work." The natural talents of Richard Burke were scarcely inferior to those of the great statesman; but while the one sleeps in Westminster Abbey, and is held in grateful remembrance by his country, the i



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26 THE MAN AND HIS WORK. had him enter the Church; but he felt it was not his vocation, and he dared not minister at .God's altar unless his whole heart was in the holy work. lie tried a medical career, but with just as little satisfaction. Then he essayed the study of art, but was unable to obtain admission into the school of the Royal Academy. Circumstances as well as inclination combined, in his case, to force him into the profession for which he was best adapted, and Forbes became a naturalist. In this capacity he was eminently fitted to excel by his quick powers of observation, and his rare faculty of analysis, no less than by the measureless love he felt for the wonders and glories of nature. Heart and soul he was a naturalist. No scholar poring over the corrupted text of a Greek author, and alighting upon some happy emendation, felt so keen a joy as Forbes, when he discovered a new Chemnitzia rufescens, or a fine specimen of a Holothuria squamata Thus, then, his industry, his enthusiasm, his natural and acquired gifts raised him in a few years to a foremost position among men of science, and though he died at the early age of thirty-nine, he had achieved a reputation which will transmit his name to the latest posterity. What boy or girl but has hung enraptured over the exquisite fairy tales-so wise, so kindly, so humorous-of Hans Christian Andersen? Denmark has not produced his equal as a poet, nor Europe, I think, as a fairy story-teller. His fancies are as pure as they are sparkling; his lightest



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GOETHE'S PRECOCITY. 65 was, in fact, a precocious child, but the precocity was. not, in his case, any sign of diseased brain. The blossoms came early, but Sd were not nipped by an untimely frost. He loved to ""i frequent the ateliers of emia nent painters, and teased them into explanations. of their works. He studied all the pictures that came within his reach, a process which so stimulated his iit. imagination that, in his tenth or eleventh year, he wrote a description of twelve possible pictures on the history of Joseph, and some of his conceptions were deemed worthy of execution by renowned artists. He mused for hours in solitude"Lone sitting on the shores of old Romance;" and there shaped little fictions which he afterwards filled up for the amusement of his play-fellows. While (3055) 5



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18 A CALCULATING BOY. Bidder, the eminent civil engineer, well known in his youth as the Calculating Boy," has publicly attributed his successful career to his early habit of persevering application. Just as Luther's maxim, when translating the Psalms into German, was"Nulla dies sine linea," No day without a line," so Bidder's seems to have been, "No day without something done." His father was a working-mason at Moreton-Hampstead in Devonshire, and he received his first lessons in arithmetic from his brother, who was of the same calling. He taught him to count up to one hundred, which he did by counting the tens almost incessantly, until every numeral became like a playmate and old familiar companion. He then addressed himself to the Multiplication Table-that bete noir and bugbear of young students-and mastered its intricacies in a very ingenious manner. Having obtained a small bag of shot, he arranged them into squares, each line containing an equal number, and, by reckoning their sides, he learned to multiply up to ten times ten. Thus,* .0 .* 0 0 0 6 %" 0 0 6 0 S* .4 times 3= 12 ...4 times 4=16 0 0 0 0 0 Opposite his father's cottage lived a blacksmith, a worthy old bachelor, who had taken a nephew into apprenticeship, and with this excellent graybeard Bidder became a favourite, was allowed to blow the bellows, and, seated on the hearth, to listen to his



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IS THE CROWN OF LAUREL. 41 wards, and really makes no progress on the smoothest road; a man of steady will advances on the roughest, in spite of rock and pitfall, and will gain his end if it have but a little wisdom in it! Thus passed the months; the man Heyne, like the boy Heyne, unconquerable, resolute, hopeful. By good fortune, or rather through that Providence which smiles on the industrious, he procured some employment in private teaching to help him through the winter, but when this ceased, he was again without resources. He tried working for the booksellers, and translated a French romance, and a Greek one, Chariton's Loves of Chareas and Callirhoe; however, the recompense was scarcely sufficient to find him with salt, not to speak of victuals. He sold his few books. A licentiate in divinity, one Sonntag, took pity on his homelessness, and shared a garret with him; where, as there was no unoccupied bed, Heyne slept on the floor, with a few folios for his pillow. Such was his lodging; in regard to board, he gathered empty pease-cods, and had them boiled; this was not unfrequently his only meal. Through such privations Heyne nevertheless pressed forward, gaining eventually, not only a position of competence and comfort, but the reputation of being one of the soundest scholars which Germany has ever produced. This is another of the proofs," says Carlyle, "which minds like his are from time to time sent i-ther to give, that the man is not the product of



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THE NOBLE PURPOSE NOBLY WON. 69 -~ c-_-'-on his knees, and told his story-told of his nightvigils, his secret toils, his long-cherished aspirations. The sons of Art," said the king, should be free;" and in compliance with his sovereign's will, no less than in accordance with his own wishes, Velasquez immediately emancipated his slave. It is pleasant to record that the grateful heart of Pareja induced him to remain in the service of Velasquez until his death, and after that event, of his daughter. He rose to some eminence in portraitpainting, and also accomplished various historical



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i GUJITEDTS '-0-----CHAPTER I. EXAMPLES OF PERSEVERANCE IN YOUTH AND ITS RESULTS. Anecdote of Richard Burke and his brother, the great oratorDifference in their careers-To what cause attributablePerseverance as the handmaid of talent--The secret of success is thoroughness--Illustrations-For every man there is a vocation-All work honourable-Sebastian Gomez -The Zombi in the studio-The Calculating Boy-Direct results of unflinching energy-Illustration from the career of David Roberts-How he bided his time, and how his time came at last-Early struggles of heroic souls-Lord Lytton on the value of energy-Professor Forbes in his youth--Hans Christian Andersen-A succession of disappointments-The caged bird beats against the bars -A silver lining to the cloudLatin versus ditching-Work while it is yet day-An old poet's counsel-Illustrations of the potency of knowledgeChristian Gottlieb Heyne-Moving in advance-A ray of hope-Sorrows come in battalions-Strength comes out of suffering-A lesson for learners-Put your shoulder to the wheel-What youth may accomplish shown by the life of Gaston de Foix-Further examples from biography-Importance of acquiring virtuous habits.................. .. 11



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192 INDEX. Resolution, its influence and Thornton, allusion to, 186. value, 174. Thorvaldsen, anecdote of, 46. Reynolds, Sir Joshua, quoted, 33; Tillotson, Archbishop, quoted, 96, story of, 62-64. 174. Rienzi, Cola di, 157, 158. Time, chief good of, 102. Roberts, David, his early struggles, Truth, loveliness and potency of, 19-24. 179-181. Romney, the artist, alluded to, 47. Truths, trite, value of, 101. Roscoe quoted, 43. Vasari, quoted, 77. Scoresby, Dr. William, anecdotes Vaughan, Dr., quoted, 115. of, 151-154. Vinci, Leonardo da, 56-59. Scott, Sir W., quoted, 106. Virgil, Conington's translation, 74. Schaeffer, the scholar, story of, 83. Vocation, each man has his own, Shakspeare, quoted, 46, 122, 179. 13, 14. Sidney, Sir Philip, referred to, Watt, James, referred to, 110. 180. Webster quoted, 32. Smith, Sydney, quoted, 123. Wellington, Duke of, anecdotes Smith, William, in his boyhood, of, 177, 180; quoted, 180. -171. White, Henry Kirke, referred to, Stanfield, Clarkson, adventures of, 117. 21, 47. Wilkie, Sir David, anecdotes of, Stanley, Dean, quoted, 140, 176. 59-62. Stephenson, George, story of, 51. Will, on energy of, 44; value of, Sterling, John, quoted, 97, 182. 126. Studies, their importance, 81. Wilson, Dr. George, quoted, 154. Study, advisability of well-diWilson, Professor, boyhood of, rected, 114. 159-166. Suffering, the heroism of, 155. Wisdom, power of, 105. Talent, usefulness of a small, 66. Wordsworth quoted, 42, 44, 65, Taylor, Jeremy, quoted, 186. 122, 166. Tears, sacredness of, 76. Work, thoroughness in, 32; work Tennyson quoted, 76, 143, 159, and prayer, 97; dignity of, 187. 180, 181. Wrong-doing, cowardice of, 101. Thackeray, notice of, 80. Young, Dr., anecdote of, 15. -FI NIS.



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108 THE TRUE SOUL CANNOT REST. him to relax in his application to study, it was in vain. He used, when unable to sit upright, to prop himself up with pillows, and continue his translations. One -day that I was sitting by his bedside the surgeon came in. 'I am glad you are here,' said Mr. Anderson, addressing himself to me; 'you will be able to persuade Leyden to attend to my advice. I have told him before, and now I repeat, that he will die if he does not leave off his studies, and remain quiet.' 'Very well, doctor,' exclaimed Leyden; 'you have done your duty, but you must now hear me : I cannot beidle, and whether I die or live, the wheel must go round till the last;' and he actually continued, under the depression of a fever and a liver-complaint, to study more than ten hours each day." Such an example of studious application and heroic pursuit of knowledge is very precious. Cold must be the heart and dull the brain in which it awakens no response! It bids us never weary, never falter; it shows us what may be accomplished by a resolute spirit. It teaches us that little is done till all is done, and that to move on is not sufficient -we must accomplish. The work that our hands find to do must be fairly wrought. So says Ben Jonson"'Tis the last keystone That makes the arch; the rest that there were put Are nothing till that comes to bind and shut. Then stands it a triumphal mark! Then men Observe the strength, the height, the why, the where,



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176 MODERN INSTANCES. of Latin Christianity. Keble, the poet of the 'Christian Year,' took a high degree, and immediately obtained an Oriel fellowship. Dr. Arnold did the same. Dr. Newman took only a 'double second;' but, on standing afterwards for an Oriel fellowship, was instantly recognized by the examiners as a man of unusual powers. To these add Dr. Stanley, now Dean of Westminster and the historian of the Jewish Church, and Mr. Jowett, Greek Professor at Oxford, and we have a very large proportion of the men who have contributed most powerfully to the formation of English politics and English thought as they exist at the present time. Put together the legislative influence of Peel and Gladstone, the school influence of Arnold, the theological influences ot Milman, Newman, Stanley, and Jowett, and the religious influence of Keble, and we have a group of men who have modified the whole current of our national existence in a degree which it would be difficult to parallel." And these men, let the reader remember, gave promise of their future fame in their early career. Those who watched their growing powers, exclaimed, Such an one, and such an one, will rise to greatness, will accomplish something notable for the welfare of his country and the good of his time." In the resolute, persevering, undaunted Boy, they recognized the courageous and high-principled Manthe man of noble resolve, of earnest purpose, of intense sincerity, of enlightened sympathies. The



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BLIGHTED PROSPECTS. 29 singer, and gave him a few lessons in music. He obtained an introduction to Siboni, an Italian maestro, than director of the Royal Musical Conservatory, and the boy-he was not yet fifteen years old--so interested him and his friends, by his artless manners, evident genius, and soaring aspirations, that they subscribed a small sum to support him during his course of education as a singer. Alas! before he had enjoyed his improved prospects for many months, his voice broke, owing to a sudden illness, and its musical qualities disappeared. Siboni would fain have had the dispirited youth return to his humble home and learn a trade, but he found other and warmer patrons-especially Guld-



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148 SIR JOHN MALCOLM. expressed any concern except for his mother, he lay in a state of total blindness; but when at the end of that time the bandages were removed, it was found that God in his mercy had spared the sight of the boy, and preserved him to do great things." So much for his resolute intrepidity; now for an instance of his gentle, loving nature. His mother had five sons to bring up on a slender and precarious income, and her anxieties respecting their future often depressed her spirits and clouded her countenance. On one of these occasions John would say, Don't fret, mamma dear, when I'm a big man I'll make plenty of money, and I'll give it all to you." The promise was religiously fulfilled. From Mr. Kaye's sketches of our Indian Heroes we shall borrow yet another illustration. In consolidating our power in India, and establishing our supremacy, Sir John Malcolm, both as soldier and diplomatist, rendered important services. He was distinguished by his generosity, valour, frankness, and determination-qualities which secured him the love and admiration of all who came in contact with him. As a boy he was prone to lively and mischievous tricks, so that his schoolmaster, when any wild pranks of mysterious origin had been committed, would exclaim: "Jock's at the bottom of it." In his twelfth year he was sent up to the India House to pass the usual examination for a cadetship ; though it was supposed that his youth would be a



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152 A SON OF THE SEA. scarcely less terrible; of its stern, abrupt, and precipitous cliffs of rock, its long, low, sandy beaches, its floating masses of shining ice. "Let me be a sailor l" was his constant cry; "let me go down to the deep in ships, and gaze upon its wonders His parents trained his early youth with commendable care; he was taught to fear God, to respect the Sabbath, to love truth; and so great was his conscientiousness, that he could not understand how any mind could conceive a lie, or how a person could appropriate to himself aught that belonged, or might belong, to another. His first voyage was made to Greenland, when he was ten years old. It was an act of his own strong will, and not designed by his father. He had gone aboard to look at his father's vessel, and return with the pilot; but he hid himself between decks, and when summoned made no reply. His father's voice, however, drew him from his concealment, when he pleaded so urgently for permission to remain, that his father could no longer refuse his consent, and the boy was duly rigged out as a sailor. On his return he was sent to school again, and it was not until his sixteenth year that he regularly entered on a maritime life. He soon rose to the rank of first officer, and employed such leisure as his duties permitted him in the study of mathematics and the acquisition of general knowledge. As a whaler he distinguished himself by his promptitude, courage, and perseverance-he was always foremost



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.1 THE BOY MAKES THE MAN: A BOOK OF EXAMPLE AND ENCOURAGEMENT FOR THE YOUNG. BY THE A UTHOR OF "S UNSHINE OF DOMEST1C LIFE," RECORDS OF NOBLE LIVES," ETC. ...... Childhood shows the man, As morning shows the day." MILTON. LONDON: T. NELSON AND SONS, PATERNOSTER ROW; EDINBURGH; AND NEW YORK. 1872.



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172 AN ENGLISH SEA-KING. and resolute spirits, throve. The scientific world still honours the memory of William Smith, the father of English geology. Of Sir Humphrey Gilbert, that illustrious Elizabethan worthy and immortal sea-king, it has been said that the large volume of his virtues may best be read in his noble enterprises." It was his maxim -we quote his own manly words-that He is not worthy to live at all who, for fear or danger of death, shunneth his country's service or his own honour, since death is inevitable, and the fame of virtue immortal." His life was a practical interpretation, a brilliant realization, of this lofty sentiment. As a boy he was remarked for his high sense of honour, his sedulous discharge of duty, his calm serene courage, his exalted standard of conduct; and these qualities introduced him to high official employment at an unusually early age. His after-career did not belie the promise of his youth, and his death splendidly and appropriately closed an heroic life. He was despatched, in 1583, on a voyage of arctic exploration. His ships were five in number; but, .by various accidents, he found himself reduced to two-the Squirrel and the Golden Hind. In the former, a frail bark of only ten tons, he carried his flag. Returning homewards, his followers besought him to embark on board the larger vessel, as the Squirrel was in a notoriously dangerous condition. But his noble heart rejected a proposal so unworthy of an English sea-captain. I will not forsake," he ex-



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30 THE SILVER LINING OF THE CLOUD. berg the poet, and Weyse the composer-who, perceiving the defectiveness of his education, gave him or procured him lessons in Latin, Danish, and German. Another subscription was started on his behalf, though' the sum realized barely kept him from starvation. Yet the' dependent, feeble, and forlorn lad worked on steadily, devoting himself by day and night to the acquisition of knowledge, and finding a sweet consolation in the radiant visions which illuminated his wretched solitude. He now contrived to obtain the publication of a few poems, whose fresh and vigorous inspiration attracted the attention of the eminent poets, (Ehlenschlager and Ingemann, and they, in conjunction with the councillor Collin, interceded with the king on his behalf. Frederick VI. was moved by the tale of the young man's sufferings; he allowed him a yearly stipend for his maintenance; and ordered him to be admitted into the Gymnasium, or College, of Slagelse. Thenceforth his career was one of moderate prosperity, and he repaid the bounty of his friends, and the munificence of his sovereign, by the production of those exquisite poems and fables"Eventyr," as he styles them-which have made his name a "household word" in every European country. John Adams, one of the ablest of the presidents of the United States, was accustomed to relate the "following story:"When I was a boy," he said, "I had to study



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HOW HE STRUGGLED. 61 On applying for admission to the Scottish Academy at Edinburgh, he was at first rejected, on account of the roughness of his introductory specimens. But he persevered; he accomplished something better; and was eventually enrolled as a student. Modest and self-contained -doubtful of his own genius-he endeavoured to supply the want of innate power by steadfast toil. The single element, he says, in all the progressive movements of my pencil, was persevering industry. With admirable tenacity he clung to his fixed purpose, and laboured day and night in the acquisition of knowledge. Removing to London, he took lodgings 'in Norton "Street, and having obtained employment at eighteen



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146 FIGHTING CLIVE." tional intrepidity which sometimes seemed hardly compatible with soundness of mind, had attracted the attention of his family. "Fighting," says one of his uncles, "to which he is out of measure addicted, gives his temper such a fierceness and imperiousness, that he flies out on every trifling occasion." One time he climbed to the summit of the lofty steeple of Market-Drayton, and seated himself on a stone spout, to the terror of all who beheld him. He formed all the boys of the town into a kind of predatory banditti, and compelled the shopkeepers to purchase exemption from their attacks by paying a tribute of apples and halfpence. In such feats as these we recognize the daring of the future soldierstatesman, and also those ill-regulated passions which brought his successful career to a disastrous termination. Among illustrious Indian soldiers, foremost stands General Neill; whose career was short, but not too short for his fame, and whose enterprise at the outbreak of the great mutiny helped to save the empire. A story is told of his childhood, which furnishes an admirable illustration of our thesis-the Boy makes the Man-for it describes an exploit of a fearless and self-reliant character, eminently in harmony with the fearlessness and independence of his future career. He was not yet five years old when he absented himself one morning from home, and excited considerable alarm in his family by his disappearance. He had been absent many hours, when



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V. (gamRUnt of larkl "i d "Prayer is an armoury of light; Let constant use but keep it bright, You'll find it yields To holy hands and humble hearts More swords and shields, Than sin hath snares, or hell hath darts." CRASHA.W. N the preceding chapters we have dwelt upon those qualities of a manly character whose cultivation is needful to ensure that our life-work shall be fairly and honestly done. We have endeavoured to show that habits of studious application, the choice of an apt vocation in life, diligence, resolution, energy, and moral courage, are absolutely essential to every man who would not cumber the ground, but contribute, as far as in him lies, to the great sum of human progress and human happiness; and that in our youth we must lay the foundation on which to rear the superstructure of an honourable and useful manhood. We have now



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BE A GENTLEMAN 181 that neither in his word nor in his oath could the nation believe. "Truth is the hiest thing that man may keep," says Chaucer, and assuredly it is a pearl of great price, which adorns its wearer with a surpassing lustre. It is the cement which holds together our social relations; for all law and order, all justice, well-being, and human security rests on this one basis-man's confidence in man, our trust in one another's truthfulness. Truth is so lovely, that verily we may well love her for herself; but we may also remember that without her aid, our career in life will assuredly be a failure. It has well been said that a man's truth is his livelihood, his recommendation, his letters of credit. 3rd, Be generous-generous in the old sense of the word generosus-considerate of the feelings of others, just and kindly in your interpretation of motives, forbearing and forgiving, patient under injury, gentle, mild, tender, and humane. In other words, Be a gentleman / That is the very perfection and completeness of manhood; for no one can be a gentleman who is not a Christian at heart, of refined taste, gentle manners, cultivated mind, and noble aspirations. Tennyson, speaking of his lamented friend and. brother, Arthur Henry Hallam, says of him,"He seemed the thing he was, and joined Each office of the social hour To noble manners, as the flower And native growth of noble mind;



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38 ETUDIANT NEGLIGEANT. genius, and which still animated him to heroic efforts of perseverance, Heyne, in this dreary stage of his career, would have broken down. Just at this crisis he obtained a situation as tutor in a family, where he was kindly treated; and though the remuneration was small, it enabled him, with the aid of what he obtained from private lessons, to increase his parents' scanty resources. Heyne was now destined to taste all the miseries of a poor scholar's life. Ill-clad, wholly destitute of books, with five shillings in his purse, he found himself planted in the University of Leipzig, and on the threshold of the temple of Knowledge. At first his spirits shrunk from a prospect apparently so hopeless, and he sank into a sore illness, from which he recovered only to fall into conditions of life where he became the prey of desperation. How he contrived to live-much more to study-is scarcely apparent from his own narrative. At length, his godfather, old Sebastian Seydel, sent him a paltry pittance, and at infrequent intervals doled out a little money, though not until after "unspeakable solicitations;" in quantities that were consumed by inextinguishable debt, and coupled with disagreeable admonitions; nay, on one occasion, addressed externally, "A Mr. Heyne, Etudiant Negligeant (Idle Scholar)! " For half a year," says Carlyle, "he would leave him without all help; then promise to come and see what he was doing; came accordingly, and return without leaving him a penny; neither could the destitute



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"LABORARE EST ORARE. 97 the modern preacher; work is honour; work is success-not that worldly success which mean spirits long to attain, but the fruition of the mental powers, the ripening and blossoming of the higher faculties The great end of a true life is work, that by Work we may gain Knowledge. The world of God above us and below Is here for man to work in and to know ; But, like a ghost on Time's funereal brink, Flits the pale reason uininspired to think. Spread free your wings and soar to Truth's great star, Nor be your thoughts less than your birthrights are." It matters not how trivial or apparently common may be your daily task, your ordinary vocation; it rests with you to ennoble it by aspiring after higher things. Every .one, remarks John Sterling, who tries to connect his daily task, however mean, with the highest thoughts he can apprehend, thereby secures the rightfulness of his work, and is raising his own existence to its utmost perfection. Let us learn, in such measure as our faculties and opportunities permit, that nature and, mankind are a great whole, of which the individual is but a small atomic part, and which only, when conceived, if not thoroughly understood as a whole, exalts and warms us out -of the petty selfishness that unfits us for our noblest duties, and dwarfs us to the stature of our consciousness. Be careful, therefore, what life-work you take up, 0 reader, in your youthful years; be careful what (355) 7



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72 A ROMANTIC STORY. the overmastering energy of genius. He was supported by no adventitious circumstances. The son of a working carpenter in Cornwall, himself bred up in the sawpit and the workshop, compelled to rise at three in the morning to indulge his strong artistic tendencies, with rude board for his canvas and a lump of charcoal instead of a well-filled palette, one can conceive of few positions less adapted to foster the imagination and discipline the judgment. As my readers doubtlessly know, his rough but vigorous compositions were accidentally seen by Dr. Wolcot (better known as Peter Pindar), and their merits induced him to present the artist with pencils, colours, canvas, and a few useful hints. Of these the lad availed himself so well that he soon became popular as a portrait painter; and removing to London, obtained a very considerable amount of patronage. Eventually he became professor of painting at the Royal Academy, and taught others to do as he had done-to mix their colours with brains. The life of James Barry-I am still retained within the world of Art-was from dawn to night a pathetic romance. It was not a happy life; it was chequered by poverty and suffering; it was not happy in the usual sense of the word, yet I doubt whether the artist himself, rapt in the fearful joy of his fierce enthusiasm, was often sensible of the extent of his sorrow. Art is a generous mistress, and consoles her servants for all they suffer in her cause with the bravest dreams and the brightest imaginable visions.



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A MYSTERIOUS STRONGHOLD. 139 them, when for a moment they wavered., by his personal. example, and riding carelessly into the very whirl and tumult of the fight. The Beloochees fought with desperate courage; but after a struggle which rolled to and fro with varying fortune for three hours and a half, they were defeated with the most terrible slaughter, not less than six thousand of their choicest soldiers "cumbering" the field. The killed and wounded of the British forces amounted to only two hundred and seventy. Hyderabad, the capital Qf Scinde, immediately surrendered to the conqueror, and the whole territory was shortly afterwards annexed to our Indian empire. But perhaps a still more characteristic exploit was his capture of the-famous stronghold of Emaun Ghur. Situated in the midst of a dreary desert, it was believed to be inaccessible; and it afforded to every discontented spirit a secure asylum, from whence bands of marauders issued at their pleasure, to burn, kill, and destroy. Napier, however, determined to attack it. After a march of eight dayr through the wilderness-the last twenty-five miles in deep sand, over a regular succession of hills; and without a drop of water-at the head of only three hundred and fifty men, he arrived before the mysterious fortification to find it evacuated. The enemy had not dared to wait the attack of a man who evidently laughed at impossibilities. He immediately set to work, mined and blew up Emaun Ghur, and retraced his march across the desert without the loss



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OPUS FECIT. 87 compositor, and, after thirteen years of such toil as the mind can hardly realize, brought his extraordinary undertaking to a conclusion. The industrious youth had grown into the resolute man, and the same energy that had constructed the little mill completed the gigantic task of printing fourteen copies of a book, in twenty-six volumes octavo, each of five hundred pages. He afterwards bound them with his own hand, and deposited a copy at the principal public libraries. Our readers know what Macaulay accomplished as historian, essayist, statesman, orator, and poet. His knowledge was apparently inexhaustible, and descended to the minutest details of the most trivial subjects. He was a multifarious reader; a hard and



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104 EVERY FAILURE A STEP TO SUCCESS. apology. Leyden remained stationary beside him the whole day, till the lad, softened, or wearied out by such incomprehensible pertinacity, actually made him a present of his volume, and the successful wayfarer returned home at sunset, exhausted by hunger and fatigue, but richer than Alexander with all the wealth of Babylon! The reader will not wonder that a lad of such determination succeeded, in defiance of every obstacle, in gaining some knowledge of Greek and Latin; and his parents, proud of their son's abilities, resolved upon bringing him up for the Church of Scotland. The late worthy and learned Professor Andrew Dalzell (we are told) would describe, with some humour, the astonishment and amusement excited in the Greek class when John Leyden first joined the Edinburgh University, and was called upon to recite his Greek exercise. His rustic, uncouth, yet courageous manner; his humble peasant-dress; his loud harsh voice; his broad provincial accent;-all combined to try the professor's gravity, and totally routed that of the students. But Leyden probably said to himself what the present Chancellor of the Exchequer said to the House of Commons, when its members greeted his early oration with laughter"You may laugh now, but the time will come when you shall hear me." He persevered; he won the professor's friendship, and secured his fellow-students' respect. He not only became one of the first classical scholars in Scotland, but each new conquest



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156 PILGRIMS OF KNOWLEDGE. hungry themselves that they would fight with the dogs for a bone. The Bacchant claimed all their earnings, and compelled them to give up even what had been bestowed on them for their own use, Singing salves and requiems; whimpering false stories to the tradesmen's wives; thieving, if there was a chance; sleeping in the winter on the school-hearth, and in summer in the churchyard, 'like pigs in straw;' assisting at mass; chanting the responsoria; frozen in the cold churches till they were crippled; trying to get by heart a clumsy Latin syntax; and wandering, vagabond-like, from school to school, would sum up the life of thousands." A curious picture of scholastic life is presented by one Thomas Platter, a Swiss from the valley of the Wisp, who eventually became rector of the grammar-school at Basle. In Dresden," he says, there was no good school; and the rooms for strange scholars were full of vermin, so that at night we heard them crawl in the straw." The city of Breslau," he continues, has. seven parishes, and each has its school. No scholar of one parish dared sing in another; if he did, the cry of Ad idem, Ad idem, was raised, and the Schutzen assembled and fought." It is said there were at the time thousands of Bacchanten and Schutzen who all lived on alms; it is also said that some of the Bacchanten who were twenty or thirty years old, or more, had their Schutzen who supported them! Yet, in spite of such difficulties as these, men



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STUDENT AND MARINER. 153 in the pursuit of the fish; while, as a student at the University of Edinburgh, when the whaling season was over, he showed equal tenacity of purpose and a like unconquerable resolution. We cannot recapitulate-all the events of his busy career. As the boy, so was the man. Always in quest of knowledge, always ready in the most sudden emergency, always foremost where danger was to be braved! In his voyages he sought every opportunity of accumulating information; and we owe to his welldirected industry and powers of observation a rich store of facts in reference to the phenomena of the Polar Seas. We may add, that the love of truth which had marked his early years coloured all his later life, and he searched the Scriptures daily. He prayed with his men, and he preached to them / he taught them by example as well as precept; he forbade all work on board his ships on Sundays; and those who sailed with Scoresby learned many a lesson of wisdom and love and charity which could not fail to promote their future happiness. Having acquired a moderate competence, he looked forward to an old age of tranquil enjoyment, when the death of a beloved wife determined him to assume a priest's responsibilities. He entered college, studied the classics with vigorous assiduity, passed his examinations successfully, and was ordained a minister of the Church of England in July 1825, when he was thirty-six years old. At Exeter, and afterwards at Bradford, he laboured with equal zeal



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* ** / II s ":*l~ f3 '^



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LOST ON THE MOORLAND. 161 himself hanging over his snoulder, and held him prisoner for many hours within its shifting walls, frail, indeed, and opposing no resistance to the hand, yet impenetrable to the feet of fear as the stone dungeon's thraldom. If the mist had remained, that would have been nothing-only a still, cold, wet seat on a stone; but as a trot becomes a gallop soon, in spite of curb and rein, so a Scotch mist becomes a shower-and a shower a flood-and a flood a storm -and a storm a tempest-and a tempest thunder and lightning-and thunder and lightning heavenquake and earthquake-till the heart of poor wee Kit quaked, and almost died within him in the desert. In this age of confessions need we be ashamed to own, in the face of the whole world, that we sat us down and cried! The small brown moorland bird, as dry as a toast, hopped out of his heather hole, and cheerfully cheeped comfort. With crest just a thought lowered by the rain, the green-backed, white-breasted peasweep, walked close by us in the mist; and, sight of wonder, that made, even in that quandary by the quagmire, our heart beat with joy -lo! never seen before, and seldom since-three wee peasweeps, not three days old, little bigger than shrew-mice, all covered with blackish down interspersed with long white hair, running after their mother! But the large hazel eye of the she peasweep, restless even in the most utter solitude, soon spied us glowering at her and her young ones through our tears; and not for a moment doubting (Heaven (355) 11



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88 THE ENDS OF LIFE. energetic student. In his youth he had formed the habit of studious application, and he retained it to his latest manhood. As a boy he was a complete helluo librorum-a glutton of books; only, what he read he digested and methodically stored up in his retentive memory for future use. His chief relaxation was penning and reciting verses. Hannah More calls him a jewel of a boy," who joined a lively yet tractable temper" to a fine capacity." At twelve he was placed under the care of a clergyman named Preston, and soon dived deeply into the Castalian waters of classic literature. At eighteen he went to Trinity College, Cambridge, where he read perseveringly -distinguished himself as an orator at the famous Union Club, and twice carried 'off the Chancellor's Medal for the best English poem. Such was the youth of the illustrious historian, who has invested the historic page with a splendour of interest and a brilliancy of colouring previously unknown, or, at least, conceived to be impossible. An essayist in a popular periodical recently put forward some pregnant remarks on the ends of life; on the objects for which men should live and toil; on the definite purpose that should inspire their studious youth, and direct the efforts of their maturer years. Why do we spend our days and nights in study ? Why do we give up to continual labour the bright sunny hours of our too brief spring ? This is a question my readers will do well to ask themselves.



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90 HEROIC EFFORT. the enamel. You know he made furnace-fuel of the chairs, the tables, the house-flooring. Domestic trouble did not stop him; his children died (six of them); his wife complained and scolded; the neighbours abused him. His trade he pursued only by fits and starts, when the needs of his home compelled him; he sweated at the furnace till the garters used to slide off his dwindled legs. All men condemned him, and tried to make him give up. It is the way of the world, you know! But, in spite of what people say with their tongues, in spite of the gossip of society, men and women cannot help having, at the bottom of their souls, a little spark of sympathy with heroic effort. The meanest of them may be, at times, quickened into a suspicion that there is more in the case than they quite see. Whatever wrong there was in the noble persistence of Job, the wrath of -God was kindled, not against him, but against the friends who had misunderstood and slandered him, as well as impeached, by the implications of their blunders, the whole spirit of the Divine policy. Human beings mostly stop at talk in cases of unintelligible heroism-and Palissy went on with his furnace-work. 'My credit was taken from me, and I was regarded as a madman. Under these scandals I pined away, and slipped with bowed head through the streets, like a man put to shame. I was in debt in several places, and had two children at nurse, unable to pay the nurses. Men said, It is right for him to die of hunger, seeing he



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142 THROUGH DOUBT, TO FAITH. with which he had gone through the stories connected with the portraits and pictures of the successive reigns. And at the same age he used to sit at his aunt's table arranging his geographical cards, and recognizing by their shape at a glance the different counties of the dissected map of England. In like manner, the earnest piety, the mental composure, and the unwavering devotion to truth and duty which characterized his later years, were conspicuous in his early life. His manhood, says Justice Coleridge, had all the tastes and feelings of his youth, only more developed and better regulated. The same passion for the sea and shipping, and his favourite Isle of Wight; the same love for external nature; the same readiness in viewing the characteristic features of a country, and its marked positions, or the most beautiful points of a prospect-for all which he was remarkable in afterlife-were noticed in him when a student at Oxford. At one time, indeed, his mind wavered in its religious opinions, and was perplexed by some distressing doubts; but help and light were vouchsafed to him from above, and he passed through the valley of the shadow into the land of promise. Most earnest spirits, at some point or other of their career, undergo the same trial, and, with God's blessing, achieve the same victory. So Tennyson sings of the lamented Arthur Henry Hallam:-



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80 THACKERAY THE NOVELIST. him the making of a great artist. The late eminent novelist Thackeray, whose mastery over the human heart was so profound, whose fictions are so full of truth and tenderness and manly wisdom, was in the habit, while a boy at the Charterhouse School, of illustrating the blank leaves and title pages of his Grammars and Dictionaries in this pictorial fashion. But had he embraced the profession of the artist, he would assuredly never have attained to any supreme excellence; and we should have had a mediocre painter, instead of a second Fielding I a



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120 FRIENDS OF MANKIND. lated by the examples here brought forward, we shail be as lamps to light the steps of after-comers, who will be cheered, consoled, and encouraged by our divine ardour. Then to us, perhaps, may be applied the noble lines which Matthew Arnold has addressed to other fervent and devoted souls-helpers and friends of mankind in their exalted, pure, and arduous toil -and it will be our reward that men shall say of us: "Languor is not in your heart ; Weakness is not in your word ; Wearinessnot on your brow. Ye alight in our van ; at your voice, Pain, despair, flee away. Ye move through the ranks, recall The stragglers, refresh the outworn, Praise, re-inspire the brave. Order, courage, return. Eyes rekindling, and prayers, Follow your steps as ye go. Ye fill up the gaps in our files, Strengthen the wavering line,' 'Stablish, continue our march, On to the bound of the waste, On to the City of God." We commend these remarks, not less than these examples, to the careful consideration and imitation of our youthful readers. They cannot be too heedful of the necessity of constant but well-guided application. "Men fail in their schemes," says Carlyle, "not so much from the want of strength as from the ill direction of it. The weakest living creature, by concentrating his powers on a single object, can



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40 FOR HIM WHO ENDURES to himself, and he flung his whole soul into his studies with an enthusiasm that threatened to devour him. No pressure of poverty or hunger, no want of books or lack of advisers, could daunt his heroic perseverance. What books he could aim at he borrowed; and he read with such excessive ardour, that for a whole half-year he allowed himself only two nights of sleep in a week, till compelled to moderation by a severe fever. His diligence, says an acute English critic, might have been undirected, or ill-directed, but it never rested, never paused, and must at length prevail. "Fortune had cast him into a cavern, and he was groping darkly round; but the prisoner was a giant, and would at length burst forth as a giant into the light of day. Heyne, without any clear aim, almost without any hope, had set his heart on attaining knowledge; a force, as of instinct drove him on, and no promise and no threat could turn him back. It was at the very depth of his destitution, when he had not 'three groschen for a loaf to dine on,' that he refused a tutorship, with handsome enough appointments, but which was to have removed him from the university." One of the professors sent for him one morning, and made him the proposal. "There arose a violent struggle within me," he says, which drove me to and fro for several days; to this hour it is incomprehensible to me where I found resolution to determine on renouncing the offer, and pursuing my object in Leipzig." A man of unsteady purpose goes backwards and for-



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A FORTUNE WROUGHT. 19t stories of old times and old friends. On one of these occasions a village gossip chanced to propose a sum --say nine times eleven-which young Bidder answered correctly. His readiness excited the surprise of the village circle, and he was tested by other questions, while the blacksmith's nephew worked out the answers with chalk on a board to see if his solutions were accurate. The boy was soon talked of as a prodigy, and as gifts of halfpence rewarded his exertions, he became more warmly attached to his arithmetical studies, arriving at such really wonderful results, that the "Extraordinary Calculating Boy" was eventually regarded as one of the phenomena of the day. He was then received as a clerk into a respectable assurance office, which he left to study as an articled pupil under Palmer the engineer. In his new pursuits he found the habits of perseverance which he had gained in his youth of invaluable service, and rapidly rose into a position of honour and influence. At the blacksmith's forge he had learned'the lesson which, according to the poet, it is well adapted to teach:"Thus at the flaming forge of life Our fortunes must be wrought; Thus on its sounding anvil shaped Each burning deed and thought !" One can hardly fail to derive encouragement from. the remarkable career of David Roberts. There is. an inspiration in his life, as in the glowing canvas which he covered with such forms of beauty. Art



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166 THE HILL OF KNOWLEDGE. poet-after Milton and Dryden--has told them, that'The boy is father of the man,' and thus libelling the author of their existence. Not only are the foundations dug band laid in boyhood of all the knowledge and the feelings of our prime, but the ground-flat, too, built, and often the entire second story of the superstructure, from the windows of which the soul, looking out, beholds nature in her state, and leaps down, unafraid of a fall on the green or white bosom of earth, to join with hymns the front of the procession. The soul afterwards perfects her palace-building up tier after tier of all imaginable orders of architecture, till the shadowy roof, gleaming with golden cupolas, like the cloud-region of the setting sun, sets the heavens ablaze." Animated, encouraged, guided by such examples, the reader may surely learn to climb the Hill of Knowledge-that hill which Coleridge has described in melodious verse:"The Hill of Knowledge I essayed to trace ; That verdurous hill with many a resting-place And many a stream, whose warbling waters pour. To glad and fertilize the subject plains; That hill with secret springs, and nooks untrod, And many a fancy-blest and holy sod Where Inspiration, his diviner strains Low murmuring, lay; and, starting from the rocks, Stiff evergreens, whose spreading foliage mocks Want's barren soil, and the bleak frosts of age, And Bigotry's mad fire-invoking rage, We will climb, Cheering and cheered, this lovely hill sublime !"



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ALWAYS A PAINTER. 51 of men and animals of imaginary landscapes. His mother, necessarily ignorant of art, but perceiving that her son's talents surpassed those of ordinary boys, did what she conceived to be the best for him, and apprenticed him to a printer. But you may as well seek to divert the mountain-torrent into a leaden water-spout as to crib, cabin, and confine the natural enthusiasm of genius. You cannot make a pack-horse out of the high-mettled Arabian racer. All Etty's leisure moments were devoted to the study of drawing, and as soon as he was free from his apprenticeship, he resolved to be an artist, and nothing but an artist. In this new vocation he was generously assisted by his uncle and elder brother, who supplied him with the means of entering as a pupil at the Royal Academy. Thenceforward his path was comparatively smooth; his progress rapid; and he realized his youthful dream by becoming a great painter. What shall we say of George Stephenson, who, from a colliery boy, rose to the position of leading engineer in this land of great engineers? In his case, as in so many others, did not -the Boy make the Man? Or shall we tell the tale of Chantrey's early struggles -of the famous sculptor whose monument of the Sleeping Children" in Lichfield Cathedral is, verily, a poem in marble? He was the son of a poor man, and born at Norton, near Sheffield. His youthful occupation was an ignoble one; that of driving an ass laden with milk-cans into the



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190 INDEX. Coleridge, S. T., quoted, 95, 166. Gifford, reference to, 44. Collingwood, Lord, quoted, 183. Gilbert, Sir Humphrey, story of, Columbus, reference to, 44. 172-174. Conscience, cultivation of, 179. Giotto, anecdotes of, 77-79. Courage, on true moral, 122. Gladstone, Rt.-Hon. W. Ewart, reCrashaw, Richard, quoted, 178. ferred to, 175. Daniel, the poet, quoted, 71. Goethe, precocity of, 64-66. Daniel, the prophet, referred to, Goldsmith quoted, 64. 185. Gomez, Sebastian, story of, 15-17. Dante, the poet, quoted, 76. Goschen, Rt.-Hon. G., referred to, Davies, Sir J., quoted, 101. 175. Davy, Rev. William, story of, Habits, their nature and import85-87. ance, 45. Defoe, Daniel, allusion to, 44. Halley, the astronomer, referred Dekker, Thomas, the poet, quoted, to, 45. 182. Hastings, Warren, career of, 126Demosthenes, anecdote of, 32. 128. Dryden, John, the poet, 45. Heart, discipline of the, 179. Duval, Valentine, story of, 54, 55. Herbert, George, quoted, 186. Eldon, Lord, anecdote of, 33. Heroism, lessons of, 187. Energy, importance of, 24. Heyne, Christian Gottlieb, adven. Ennui, the capacity of, 114. tures of, 34-41. Erasmus, an'ecdote of, 83. Homer referred to, 44. Etty, William, the artist, story of, Horace quoted, 31. 47, 50, 51. Impressions, powerfulness of early, Exmouth, Lord Viscount, 144, 145. 187. Faculties, proper use of the, 32. Industry, importance of, 113. Falconet, Etienne, early career of, Ingres, the artist, reference to, 47. 52, 53. Jackson, the artist, reference to, Faraday, Michael, early career of, 47. 112. Johnson, Dr. Samuel, anecdote Ferguson, the astronomer, 13. of, 83. Foix, Gaston de, the hero-boy, Jones, Inigo, allusion to, 47. 43, 44. Jonson, Ben, quoted, 12, 108, 109; Forbes, Professor Edward, youth referred to, 44. of, 25, 26. Joubert quoted, 66. Frederick VI., patron of AnderJowett, Professor, referred to, sen, 30. 176. Friends, on the choice of, 182. Keble, Rev. John, referred to, Fuller, Thomas, quoted, 11. 176. Gainsborough, reference to, 47. Knowledge, flower of, 33; value Galileo, early life of, 109. of, 82. Gay, the poet, reference to, 44. Knox, John, anecdote of, 92-94. Giardini, anecdote of, 14. Kupetzki, John, vicissitudes of, Generosity, quality of, 181. 70, 71. Genius compared with talent, 12, Labour, valuable when well-di13. rected, 12, 14. Gentleman, character of the true, Lawrence, Sir Thomas, anecdote 181. of, 47.



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GUTTA CAVAT LAPIDEM. 121 accomplish something; the strongest, by dispersing his over many, may fail to accomplish anything. The drop, by continual falling, bores its passage through the hardest rock;. the hasty torrent rushes over it with hideous uproar, and leaves no trace behind." a"f~S~



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134 LEAVES FROM A SOLDIER'S LIFE. first thoughts; indeed my agony was great, and strong doses of the laudanum were necessary to keep down the terrible spasms which fractures of large bones produce. "The doctors set my leg crooked, and at the end of a month, when standing up, my feet would not go together: one leg went in pleasant harmony with the other half-way between knee and ankle, but then flew off in a huff, at a tangent. This made me very unhappy; and the doctors said if I would bear the pain they would break it again, or bend it straight. My answer was, 'I will bear anything but a crooked leg.' However, they gave me one night for consideration. The night passed with many a queer feel about the doctors coming like imps to torture me. 'Be quick,' quoth I, as they entered; 'make the most of my courage while it lasts.' It took all that day and part of next to bend the leg with bandages, which were tied to a wooden bar, and tightened every hour day and night. I fainted several times; and when the two tormentors arrived next day, after breakfast, struck my flag, saying, 'Take away your bandages, for I can bear no more.' They were taken off, and I felt in heaven; not the less so that the leg was.straight." If we trace this brave soldier's career a little further, we meet with fresh instances of the vigour of his character. He was a man who would not bow even to Fate-of that order of mortals who make



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EVERYTHING SHOULD BE IN ITS PLACE. 95 would indeed be unnecessary to attempt any proof of its importance in our domestic or business relations. In the peasant's cottage or the artisan's workshop, as in the palace or the chemist's laboratory, the first merit, and one which admits neither substitute nor equivalent, is, that everything should be in its place. "When this charm is wanting," says Coleridge, "every other merit either loses its name or becomes an additional ground of accusation and regret. Of one by whom it is eminently possessed we say, proverbially, he is like clockwork. The resemblance extends beyond the point of regularity, and yet falls short of the truth. Both do, indeed, at once divide and announce the silent and otherwise indistinguishable lapse of time. But the man of methodical industry and honourable pursuits does more; he realizes its ideal divisions, and gives a character and individuality to its moments. If the idle are described as killing time,.he may be justly said to call it into life and moral being, while he makes it the distinct object not only of the consciousness, but of the conscience. He organizes the hours, and gives them a soul; and that, the very essence of which is to fleet away, and evermore to have been, he takes up into his own permanence, and communicates to it the imperishableness of a spiritual nature. Of the good and faithful servant whose energies, thus directed, are thus methodized, it is less truly affirmed that he lives in time than that time lives in him. His days, months, and years, as the stops and punctual



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A STRANGE RENCONTRE. 55 "books with the ut1 most avidity, storing "" up the information he S. a c q u ir e d i n a m e m o r y e of singular retentiveness. While seated one day S, u n d e r th e s h a d e o f a f o r e s t Sf t r e e w it h h is b o o k s a n d Ss a papers around him, he was accosted by some members of the royal family on their way to a hunting expedition, who were naturally surprised at the sight of this rural philosopher. The result of the interview was, that they became his patrons, and placed him in the Jesuits' College at Pont a Mousson, where he made a rapid progress in geography, history, and the study of antiquities. In all his after-life he displayed the same eminent qualities of fervent love of knowledge and dauntless perseverance, until he was universally recognized as one of the chief of European scholars. 0



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SYMPATHY WITH NATURE. 159 over burning ploughshares at the voice of duty-that unquenching intrepidity which, Antaeus-like, derives fresh strength from its contact with difficulties-was a marked feature of Professor Wilson's character. His was a buoyant, resolute, vigorous, healthy nature, which knew no such think as fear, and was superior to the timid whisperings of doubt. Boy and man he was the same energetic and daring spirit, foremost in skirmish and in fight; like the Ulysses of the poet," Strong in will To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield." In all things his youth prefigured, as it were, his manhood; in his exultant love of Nature, in his passionate devotion to poetry, in his fervid capacity of study; even in his keen enjoyment of physical sports. Happy the boy who develops into such a man,who trains both mind and body to emulate the nobler achievements of immortal Christopher North! How deep, how earnest, was his sympathy with all the sights and sounds of this beautiful world! The still, lonely glen, haunted only by the mysterious shadows of the clouds and the strange voices of the struggling, foaming, restless brook; the keen mountain-tops, where in the calm summer night comes the serene presence of the stars, as of old to the worshipping Chaldean; the slumbering loch, folded in a close embrace by lofty heather-clad hills, which only suffer the winds to break through now and then, with a gust and a sough, to rouse their darling



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36 MOVING IN ADVANCE. and adopt the calling of his progenitors. It was not unnatural that his father should wish for an assistant in his toilsome occupation, and that Heyne's aversion to it should excite his displeasure. The boy, conscious of more than ordinary powers, and inspired with a passiohate love of learning, was anxious to continue his studies at a grammar-school; but the means were totally wanting. Heyne's second godfather was a minister in the suburbs, and hearing a glowing account of the lad's capacity and perseverance, he sent for him, and after a close examination decided to place him in the grammar-school at his own expense. Words could not express Heyne's ecstasy of delight. He was referred to the second master, examined, and placed, with commendation, in the second class. Of a weakly frame, oppressed with want and misery, cut off from all the sports and enjoyments of childhood, he was very small for his age, and his schoolfellows conceived an unfavourable opinion of him from his diminutive appearance. Though placed at school, Heyne had found no royal road to learning. His godfather paid for his instruction grudgingly, and refused to provide the necessary books, so that he was compelled to borrow them as best he could from the other boys. The instruction imparted, moreover, was of a very inferior class, and even Heyne's perseverance might have given way before so many obstacles, had he not been encouraged by a curious incident. One of the super-



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IMPORTANCE OF HABTTS. 45 nomer, the son of a soap-boiler. Poverty-obscure birth-lack of the appliances of knowledge-hunger -want of friends-such are the obstacles which perseverance overcomes, when the trained and disciplined mind of the boy is developed into the resolute and sagacious man. Hence may the youthful reader infer the vast importance of acquiring in his early time those habits of application and diligence which alone can ensure the success of his after-career. Habits, be it remembered, are like iron fetters, which the captive seldom succeeds in shaking off. They creep upon us unawares, and, if not on the watch, we may find ourselves thralls and slaves when boasting most of our freedom. As Dryden says,"All habits gather, by unseen degrees, As brooks make rivers, rivers run to seas." Let us take care that the masters to which, as boys, we surrender ourselves, are not masters which, as men, we shall be ashamed of. As the snow accumulates, says Jeremy Bentham, so are our habits formed. No single flake that is added to the pile produces a sensible change; no single action creates, however it may exhibit, a man's character; but as the tempest hurls the avalanche down the mountain, and overwhelms the inhabitant and his habitation, so passion, acting upon the elements of mischief, which pernicious habits have brought together by imperceptible accumulation, may overthrow the edifice of truth and virtue. Remember, the Boy, for evil as well as for good, makes the Man.



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42 PUT YOUR SHOULDER TO THE WHEEL, his circumstances, but that, in a far higher degree, the circumstances are the product of the man. While beneficed clerks, and other sleek philosophers, reclining on their cushions of velvet, are demonstrating that to make a scholar and man of taste, there must be co-operation of the upper classes, society of gentlemen-commoners, and an income of four hundred a-year-arises the son of a Chemnitz weaver, and with the very wind of his stroke sweeps them from the scene. Let no man doubt the omnipotence of Nature, doubt the majesty of man's soul; let no lonely unfriended son of genius despair! Let him not despair; if he have the will, the right will, then the power also has not been denied him. It is but the artichoke that will not grow except in gardens. The acorn is cast carelessly abroad into the wilderness, yet it rises to be an oak; on the wild soil it nourishes itself, it defies the tempest, and lives for a thousand years." Ay, the Way is always open to the determined Will. For every treasure-cave there is an Open Sesame," if you will only persevere; but, boy or man, you must put your own shoulder to the wheel, before you can expect any assistance from celestial Jove I The ancient maxim that "the gods help those who help themselves has a fine truth in it for all men and at all times; it is only by "Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control,"



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112 HOW KNOWLEDGE MAY PROFIT.MAN. manner this boldness of inquiry may be sanctified and utilized. "Sometimes," says Lord Bacon, in his stately phrase, "men have entered into a desire of learning and knowledge upon a natural curiosity and inquisitive appetite; sometimes to entertain their minds with variety and delight; sometimes for ornament and reputation; and sometimes to enable them to obtain the victory of wit and contradiction; and sometimes for lucre and possession: but seldom sincerely to give a true account of their gift of reason for the benefit and use of man. As if there were sought in knowledge a couch whereupon to rest a searching and restless spirit, a shop for profit and sale, and not a rich storehouse for the glory of the Creator and the relief of man's estate." A remarkable instance of that vivida vis which exists in studious application, was seen in the great natural philosopher, Michael Faraday, whom the world of science has but recently lost and deeply regrets. While yet a boy, he was apprenticed to a bookbinder in the neighbourhood of Baker Street, London. This was no brilliant starting-point for an illustrious career. Hundreds of boys have been apprenticed to bookbinders; many have done well, many have done ill; but none have risen, with this one exception, to the post of chemical lecturer at the Royal Institution; none have secured a world-wide renown as foremost among those teachers of truth and interpreters of nature who have toiled to make clear the ways of God to man. But Faraday availed



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100 A VOW AND ITS FULFILMENT. his knees, and vowed to devote him to the service of his country. The vow was solemnly kept. All the education and home-training of the youthful Robert were designed with a view to his debut in the House of Commons, and the career of a patriot, an orator, and a statesman. His father was wont retain. At Harrow school he distinguished himself -M 1 to set him up at table to practise extemporaneous speaking; and he was made to repeat every Sunday as much of the sermon as his memory could retain. At Harrow school he distinguished himself as a declaimer and actor; and he lived to become not only first minister and the leading politician of



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16 THE ZOMBI IN THE STUDIO. labours. At length he attempted to imitate what he saw, devoting to his secret toil the hours of the silent night, until, growing bolder and more confident, he ventured to correct the errors of outline and colouring which his keen eye observed in the drawings of Murillo's pupils. So when the young Spaniards came in the morning, they saw with surprise that an arm had been added here, a leg there; that inharmonious proportions had been adjusted; that woolly and fleecy skies had been toned and softened into summer-lighted heavens; and patches of ultramarine converted into sweet woodland lakes. With the superstitious feeling of the age, they accredited these improvements to some mysterious nocturnal visitor, and Gomez, to escape suspicion, confirmed their folly by declaring it must be the Zombi-a spirit of whom the negroes are tremblingly afraid. But a finely-painted head of the Virgin having attracted Murillo's attention, the great master, convinced that Zombis would not paint Madonnas, instituted a rigid investigation, and discovered with surprise and admiration that it was the work of his mulatto-boy. He summoned Gomez to the studio, and when the poor slave flung himself on his knees and confessed the secret of his nightly vigils, he raised him up with words of encouragement, promised him his liberty, and adopted him as his pupil and successor. Gomez rose to a high position as a painter, and finished many admirable works, remarkable for their (355)



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FINIS CORONAT OPUS. 169 complied. After a full explanation between the great statesman and the ambitious neophyte of the opinions of each on all important public questions then ripe for discussion or settlement, the result was, on Mr. Canning's part, the determination to connect himself politically with Mr. Pitt; and, on Mr. Pitt's part, the offer of a seat in Parliament. Thus, in 1793, at the age of three and twenty, the son of an actress and a broken-down gentleman entered the British House of Commons as member for the borough of Newport, in the Isle of Wight. His after-life is a portion of the history of England. Our readers will remember how his oratory shook an admiring senate-how his genius secured the admiration of the country-how he founded a system of foreign policy which is still in existenceand how, in spite of apparently insuperable obstacles, he rose to the brilliant position of Prime Minister of Great Britain. We cannot all be Cannings, it is true, so far as worldly success is concerned; but still, for each of us his career may be a warning and an encouragement, as illustrative of the great truthnot less important because so trite-that Fortune invariably rewards the resolute mind and heroic heart. The Boy makes the Man. Charles Pratt, as a boy, displayed that independence of character, fixity of purpose, clearness of moral sense, and lucidity of judgment which marked him in after-life. At school, at Eton, and at Cambridge, he distinguished



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MODESTY AND MERIT. 23 carmine, or experiments in colouring on his sister's doll, can become a Royal Academician, however. great his energy or untiring his toil; but sure I am that he may do good service in his generation, niay accomplish much honourable and useful labour, and earn the crown of a contented conscience. If his work wins no brilliant recompense from the outside world, it will prove its own exceeding great reward by the happy thoughts and pleasant fancies which all honest work cannot fail to suggest. It is pleasant to know that Roberts was not spoiled -by prosperity, but retained to the last a loyal and generous soul. On one occasion a poor artist waited on him with some of his sketches. He wanted encouragement, advice, -employment. Perhaps he betrayed too much of the self-pride of youth, for Roberts received him with scant cordiality, and exclaimed:" You intend to set the Thames a-fire, I suppose, like most young fellows from the North. Not so easy; there are clever young men here too, and you'll find it hard work to keep abreast of them. It's the old story; but you will not find London streets paved with gold." The poor artist, astonished and wounded, and with tearful eyes, stammered out an apology, lifted up his portfolio, and prepared to withdraw. Roberts noticed his distress; immediately dropped his mask; bade the young man be seated; and, taking up his sketches, examinedthem carefully. At the



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THE POTENCY OF KNOWLEDGE. 33 Action! In like manner, if we were called upon to express the three principal requisites for an honourable and successful career, we should say, firstly, Perseverance; secondly, Perseverance; thirdly, Perseverance. It is the magic gift that utilizes every other gift. Or, as Clarendon quaintly says, It is the philosopher's stone, that turns all metals, and even stones, into gold, and suffers no want to break into its dwelling. It is the north-west passage that brings the merchant's ships as soon to him as he can desire. In a word, it conquers all enemies, and makes fortune itself pay contribution. Was it not Reynolds who said, "If you have great talents, industry will improve them; if you have but moderate abilities, industry will supply their deficiency ? Nothing is denied to well-directed labour; nothing is to be obtained without it." And the youthful reader cannot be too often reminded that on the formation of industrious and persevering habits in his early years depends his well-being in late& life. As the twig is bent, the tree is inclined. We have never yet known an idle boy become a hard-working man; we have never seen a boy of industrious habits deteriorate into idleness and sluggish indifference when arrived at manhood. Lord Palmerston worked as hard at eighty as he had done in the flush of his young career. Scott, the laborious lawyer's clerk, was not less laborious as Eldon, the Lord Chancellor. It is said of Henry Bickersteth, afterwards Lord Langdale, and Master of the Rolls, that when a (355) 3



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MODERN INSTANCES. 175s forcing a Papist on the Oxford college, he wasobstinate: when Napoleon led his soldiers across the Alps, he was resolute. For obstinacy perseveres in the wrong path, resolution never turns aside from the right one. A few examples of the results of courageous application and resolute industry in early life have been adduced from contemporary biography, by a writer of reputation. Thus:" Mr. Gladstone, now so famous as an orator anda statesman, was, beyond compare, the most distinguished young man of his time while an undergraduate at Christ Church; and he left Oxford with the highest reputation for ability, sincerity, and oratorical gifts. Sir Roundell Palmer, a lawyer of the highest eminence, was one of the best men of: his year at Oxford, and, like Mr. Lowe, was pointed out by university opinion as a man who must undoubtedly win a high place in life. The same was. the case with Mr. Goschen-a Cabinet minister at the comparatively early age of thirty-six-who took his degree with unusual distinction. Let us take next the theological world, and set down the names of 'those who will have left their mark upon the thoughts and lives of their generation.' Each of these men was highly distinguished in his university career. First in order stands the venerable Dean of St. Paul's-the Rev. Dr. Milman-who was illustrious for his scholarship while yet a youth, and who has since won laurels as a poet, and as the historian



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THE DISCIPLINE OF THE HEART. 179 a few words to say on a higher object-on the preparation of the soul for the life after death, on the training which must be undergone by every one of us who seeks to secure the prize of his high calling," the crown of a glorious immortality. We hqve devoted sufficient space to the Culture of the Mind; let us be permitted a hint or two on the Discipline of the Heart. The child is father of the man, and the fitting preparation for a devout and God-fearing manhood is a devout and God-fearing youth. 1st, Be careful to cultivate your conscience. We must shun sin at the outset, and refuse to let it come anigh us, lest we grow too familiar with its aspect, and in time lose our horror of its enormities. We must keep a watch upon our tongue, nor stoop to the ungeneroust sarcasm or the ribald jest. We must avoid all over-reaching conduct, and subdue the prickings of ambition, pride, and envy. Moral discipline must be our daily care; and in all things should be remembered the poet's noble saying," I dare do all that does become a man; Who dares do more, is none." And. we must take heed that'we are not tempted to do more by our fear of the silly ridicule of the unthinking. 2nd, Never palter with the truth. When the Duke of Wellington was eulogising the late Sir Robert Peel, the chief feature of the statesman's character



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74 PICTURES FROM POETS. or starboard; but he was well pleased to lie along the deck in silent meditation, sketching with rude energy the lovely scenes that greeted his boyish eyes. His father did not understand him. Women have keener perceptions and a deeper insight; so his mother did. It is you who have ruined him," hie father exclaimed; "as you brew, so you may bake. Keep him at home, and make a scholar of him; he's fit for nothing else." He was kept at home, and sent to school. He profited largely by the instruction he received. For classical lore he evinced a decided partiality, and the stirring incidents of the AEneid sank deeply in his mind. He occupied his leisure hours in designing upon the doors and walls rude but spirited illustrations of the more poetical; as, perhaps, the royal agony of Priam, who, "When he sees his town o'erthrown, Greeks bursting through his palace-gate And thronging chambers once his own, His ancient armour, long laid by, Around his palsied shoulders, throws, Girds with a useless sword his thigh, And totters forth to meet his foes;" or the picture of Dido on the lonely shore, watching the departure of the false Trojan chief," The queen from off her turret height Perceives the first dim streak of light, The fleet careering on its way, And void and sailless shore and bay; She smites her breast, all snowy fair, And rends her golden length of hair."



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32 WORK WHILE IT IS YET DAY. the massive pyramid or stately column. The constant dropping of water, says the proverb, hollows out the stone; or, to use an Italian adage, Che va piano, va longano, e va lontano,-Who goes slowly, goes long, and goes far. We must train ourselves for continuous labour, like the athlete, accustoming the mind to systematic exertion. No work is well done that is done by fits and starts. The irregularities of genius, on which some writers enlarge, are not its necessary concomitants, but its blemishes, its imperfections; and while the world may wonder at and pity an Edgar Allan Poe, it will bless and reverence a Walter Scott. The faculties we possess were given us for cultivation. Whoever suffers one of them to lie dormant or but partly developed, sins against Him who gave. We must work while it is yet day, for the night cometh when no man can work, and life is not long enough for idleness. The old poet finely says :"The chiefest action for a man of spirit, Is never to be out of action; we should think The soul was never put into the body, Which has so many rare and curious pieces Of mathematical motion, to stand still. Virtue is ever sowing of her seeds,In the trenches for the soldier; in the wakeful study For the scholar; in the furrows of the sea For men of that profession; of all which Arise and spring up honour."-WEBSTER. When .Demosthenes was asked the three great qualities that were needful to a successful orator, he replied, firstly, Action; secondly, Action; thirdly,



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TRY, TRY, TRY AGAIN. 13 It is in such a spirit as this that the workman should address himself to his work; should refuse to flinch before any, the greatest disaster; should learn, by persistent labour, to grow into strength and completeness:"See first that the design is wise and just; That ascertained, pursue it resolutely. Do not for one repulse forego the purpose That you resolved to effect." Ferguson, the boy-astronomer, calculating the positions of the stars by the help of a string of beads; Murray, afterwards the great Oriental scholar, teaching himself to write with a charred brand on a whitened wall;-these are examples which the young should ever keep before their eyes. The entire secret of success in life-at school, in the study, or in the busy world-is comprised in the burden of the old song, "Try, try, try again." A distinguished Italian author has started the theory that all men may become poets and orators, as if the only difference between genius and mediocrity lies in the power of application. To such a theory we are not disposed to subscribe. No amount of labour, however persistent, or however welldirected, can convert a Stephen Duck into a Milton or a Shakspeare. But the fallacy lies in this, that the world does not require of all of us that we should be Miltons and Shakspeares; only that we should do our best in whatsoever position the will of Providence shall have placed us, and, by so doing, contri-



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68 NOBLY WORKING FOR A NOBLE PURPOSE. gree of excellence. These stolen tasks were not accomplished without a sickening anxiety, and a constant degree of apprehension. Pareja well knew the haughtiness of the Spanish character, and the indignation with which the attempt of a slave to qualify himself for the exercise of an art favoured by nobles and encouraged by kings would be regarded. He especially shrunk from attracting the attention of his master, whose pride would have been shocked at his bondsman's astounding presumption. Yet he hungered for renown and liberty, which he could never secure by working in stealth. He felt that he must reveal himself; he longed, in his loneliness, for human praise and something of human sympathy. Pareja, therefore, resolved on the daring project of bringing his clandestine performances before the king. Philip IV. was no incompetent judge, and his heart was by no means incapable of generous impulses. It was his custom to visit Velasquez's atelier frequently, and Pareja had observed that on such occasions the king invariably ordered the pictures which were placed with their faces to the wall to be turned for his inspection. Among these, therefore, he resolved to place one of his own composition, and to trust the issue to the royal clemency. All fell out as he had supposed. On the next visit of the king, he observed the picture turned, and ordered it to be shown him. "Velasquez!" Bxclaimed Philip, this is no work of thine !" Before the great painter could reply, Pareja flung himself



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66 HIS INCESSANT ACTIVITY. yet a child, says his English biographer, Mr. Lewes, he had read the Orbis Pictus,' Ovid's Metamorphoses,' Homer's Iliad' in prose, Virgil' in the original, Telemachus,' Robinson Crusoe,' Anson's 'Voyages,' with such books as Fortunatus,' The Wandering Jew,' The Four Sons of Aymon,' &c. He also read and learned by heart most of the poets of that day-Canitz, Hagedorn, Drottinger, Gellert, Haller, &c.-writers then much beloved, now slumbering upon dusty shelves, unvisited except by an occasional historian, and by spiders of an inquiring mind." He studied with amazing energy and unfailing vigour. Before he was eight, he wrote German, French, Italian, Latin, and Greek, with more or less facility. To these, when about fifteen, he added English, and soon afterwards he undertook Hebrew, committing to memory various parts of the Bible in the original tongue. Seldom, remarks Mr. Lewes, has a boy exhibited such completeness of human faculties. The multiplied activity of his life was foreshadowed by the varied tendencies of his childhood The man Goethe may be seen in the boy Goethe; he remained to the last the same inquiring, reasoning, deliberative spirit; rich in imagination; bold in invention; free and unrestrained in thought, ever acquiring; open to all influences, but completely and absolutely master of himself. Joubert remarks, that a small talent, if it keeps within its limits and rightly fulfils its task, may reach



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110 THE REAL USE OF KNOWLEDGE. year (1589) he was able to accept the professorship of mathematics at Pisa; whence, three years later, he removed to the more important chair connected with the same science in the university of Padua. His popularity rose so high that his audience could not be accommodated in his lecture-room; and even when he had assembled them in the school of medicine, which contained 1000 persons, he was frequently obliged to adjourn to the open air." In 1609, Galileo invented the telescope, which revealed to the curiosity of man the star-sown realms of space, and enabled him to discover the laws which regulate the economy of the universe. It is thus that the diligence of the one often proves a blessing and a benefit to the many; .wherefore we are all concerned in the well-doing and well-living of every individual. Whether we employ or misuse our powers is not a merely private and personal question; it concerns society at large, which will be as surely injured by our negligence of tha duties imposed upon us by our position in the World as advantaged by their diligent and honourdble discharge. The student labouring over "the midnight-oil," labours, though unwittingly, for the good of posterity, and he cannot foresee the infinite results that may eventually flow from his apparently unprofitable toil. Had not Watt devoted his energies to studying the properties and capabilities of steam, Stephenson and his successors would never have covered the land with its wonderful network of railways;nor commerce, and the



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THE TRUE VALUE OF A SMALL TALENT. 67 the goal just as well as a greater one. All that it-needs. is earnestness of aim and directness. of purpose; never moving to the one side nor the other; never attempting flights for which it has not sufficient strength of wing. Did you ever read the history of the Spanish painter, Juan de Pareja ? His powers were limited;. he enjoyed not the force and inspiration of genius, the vivida vis animi; his abilities were moderate,, yet he reached the goal at last. He was a Spanish-American, a half-blood, born of a Spanish father and an Indian mother. Children of this parentage were doomed by the cruel Spanish law to slavery, and Pareja, transported to Spain, had. the good fortune to find a just, though severe, master in the great painter, Don Diego Velasquez. In his thirteenth year he accompanied him to Madrid, and was employed to mix his colours and prepare his. palette. A noble ambition now fired the soul of the slave. He resolved to win both fame and freedom. He would break his chains, and join the illustrious. brotherhood of Art. He had "pointed the arrows. of Apollo;" he would learn to bend the livine bow. Every secret opportunity, in the absence of Velasquez, he employed in imitating his master's pictures.. He painted and he obliterated, and he painted again, until his copy bore some tolerable resemblance to the original. He devoted the hours of the night to assiduous study, until by ungrudging labour and natural force of talent, he attained a respectable de-



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A MASTER-PASSION. 129 half a hundred battles-a man scarcely less distinguished for his political sagacity than his military genius; and, whether as soldier or administrator, remarkable for his decision of character, fixity of purpose, untiring energy, and brilliant courage. He was made of the stuff of which heroes are made, and resembled in many respects the Paladins of the old chivalrous song. As a child, says his biographer, he was demure and thoughtful, and his expressions generally had a touch of greatness. Thus, when only ten years old, he rejoiced to find he was shortsighted, because a portrait of Frederick the Great suspended in his father's room had strange eyes; and because Plutarch said Philip, Sertorius, and Hannibal were one-eyed, and Alexander's eyes of different colours. He even wished to lose one of his own, as the token of a great general; unknowing then that none of God's gifts can be lost with satisfaction. "But a longing for fame was with him a master-passion, and in his childhood he looked to war for it with an intense eagerness. Yet nothing savage ever entered his mind-his compassionate sensibility was that of a girl; it was displayed early, and continued till death. When he could but just speak, hearing the caw of a single crow, probably a melancholy, one which infancy could detect, he stretched forth his little hands, and weeping exclaimed, with broken, infantine accents, 'What matter, poor bird? what matter? And only by repeated assurances that the bird was not unhappy, could he be pacified." (355) 9



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98 A CALICO-SPINNER standard you erect before your aspiring eyes; for the boy makes the man, and as is the dawn of life so will be its full noon and declining years. A striking illustration of this trite truth is afforded by the career of Robert Peel, the father of the great statesman, and the first baronet of the name. When a lad of fourteen he declared it to be his ambition to establish the fame of his family on a broad basis, an ambition which he lived to fulfil. -At the age of eighteen, informing his father that the Peels were too numerous in Blackburn, he solicited a sum of £500, with which to go forth and work out his own fortunes. His request was not granted, but a situation was procured for him in the establishment of Haworth and Yates at Bury. Calico-spinning being his vocation in life, he addressed himself to this vocation with all his energies, not forgetting to ennoble it, however, by linking his thoughts to "higher things." He became a partner in, and soon the head of, the firm which had employed him as a clerk; extended its operations, it may fairly be said, throughout the civilized world; and so enlarged its factories that soon they monopolized the whole town of Bury, and employed upwards of 15,000 persons. The ambition of his youth remained the ambition of his manhood. It was not a high, but it was a useful ambition; and he succeeded in founding a family which now takes its place among the territorial magnates of England. c, He was an ambitious



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44 A BEVY OF EXAMPLES. withstand his persevering, resolute spirit. No labourcould tire out his unconquerable energy. His manhood, like his youth, displayed the most signal powers of endurance, and showed him possessed of all those qualities which make up the successful commander. A soldier he was, from his childhood upwards. He breathed of arms while yet a boy; as a stripling, mounted the fierce war-steed, and clothed his limbs in glittering mail;" and as a soldier, he fell in battle-harness, to be the theme of many a poet's song. Biography is full of examples of what may be accomplished by a resolute will. Most great men have risen to greatness under peculiarly unfavourable conditions. Thus, Columbus, who opened to commerce and civilization a New World, was in early life a'weaver. Niebuhr, the Roman historian, was a peasant. Sextus V. commenced his career as a swine-herd; 2Esop was a slave; Homer, "The blind old man of Scio's rocky isle," a beggar; and Demosthenes, the son of a swordmaker. Take some instances from our British hagiology. Daniel Defoe was apprenticed to a hosier; Gay to a silk-mercer. Rare Ben Jonson" handled the bricklayer's trowel, and Prideaux was employed to sweep Exeter College. Burns, who walked '" In glory and in joy, Behind his plough, upon the mountain side," was a poor cotter's son; Gifford, the critic, a cobbler; Richard Arkwright a barber; and Halley, the astro-



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34 THE BEGINNING OF A CAREER. student at Edinburgh, he was distinguished for his assiduity, energy, and diligence; and when in large practice as a successful lawyer, he evinced the same grand qualities of character-qualities which eventually secured him a foremost position among his contemporaries. An instructive lesson may be derived from the life of the great German scholar, Christian Gottlieb Heyne. He was born and educated-to use his own pathetic language-in the deepest poverty. Want was the handmaid of his infancy; Distress the companion of his childish years.. His earliest impressions were sorrowful ones, for they were received from the tears of his mother, who knew not where to find bread for her children. Often did he see her on a Saturday with streaming eyes, wringing her hands, when she had failed in disposing of the produce of her husband's labour. Nevertheless his parents appreciated the value of knowledge, and did what they could to provide him with the elements of education by sending him to a small school in the suburbs. Here he acquired a reputation for quickness, and evinced great pleasure in learning. So early as his tenth year, in order to pay for his own schooling, he instructed a neighbour's child in reading and writing. He speedily mastered all that could be acquired in the ordinary routine of the school; and Latin was taught only in private lessons, for which a whole groschen (about three halfpence) was the weekly charge; a sum beyond his



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KNOWLEDGE ALWAYS DESIRES INCREASE. 113 himself of the books he. bound to gather knowledge in his leisure hours. After a hard day's work, he sat himself down to unaided and unbefriended study, and contrived to gain a general acquaintance with the rudiments of science. Mrs. Marcet's "Conversations on Chemistry gave his latent genius the stimulus he stood in need of; and the youth began a series of experiments and investigations. In 1812, a friend placed in his hands a ticket of admission to Sir Humphrey Davy's lectures at the Royal Institution. You may fancy how eagerly the young chemist accepted the gift, and how patiently he sat at the feet of the great master! He took copious notes of the lectures, and, burning to be freed from the trammels of manual labour-to apply himself and all his energies to the service of science-he ventured upon submitting them to Sir Humphrey, with a modest explanation of his wants and wishes. The notes exhibited so much ability, and were in, themselves such conclusive testimony to the young man's diligence, that Davy engaged him as his assistant in the laboratory of the Royal Institution; and on his retirement from the lectureship, Faradaywas, omnium consensu, appointed in his place. Thenceforward he was justly regarded as the first among living English philosophers, a title to which his important discoveries in electricity and magnetism established his claim. The advantages of studious application, in a moral point of view, are almost inestimable. An earnest laborious life can never be a luxurious or a vicious (355) 8



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182 A MAN IS KNOWN BY HIS FRIENDS. "And thus he bore without abuse The grand old name of Gentleman !" Dekker, the old Elizabethan poet, says of our Lord and Saviour, with a not irreverent boldness,"He was the truest gentleman that ever lived;" and if we would realize all the bright and beautiful excellences of a gentleman's character, we must shape our life after the life of Christ-we must imitate, as best we can, His charity, His patience, His sublime tranquillity, and His resignation to the Divine will. Cultivate, as John Sterling says, cultivate at the bottom of your heart a spirit of piety, benevolence, and purity; and do not keep these for the great occasions, and what are called the serious affairs or life; but let the presence of reason and religion in you be like that of the sun itself, which, while it lights up the great regions of nature, sends the same radiance even through chinks and key-holes. 4th, Keep good company-that is, the company of the good. The companions of our boyhood will exercise a potent influence throughout our career on our character, feelings, thoughts, and desires. You cannot associate with other minds, and not receive an impress of good or evil. If the clay lie near the rose, it will gain a reflex of its odour. It is for this reason essential that we should be wary in our choice of companions, and select only those who can teach, improve, ennoble, or elevate us. "Hold it as a



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118 HARD WORKERS, LONG LIVERS. naturally of a feeble constitution, and marked from a very early age as a victim to consumption. But most hard workers have been long livers. The .crown of gray hairs has been worn by nearly all our greatest thinkers and scholars. Newton, Leibnitz, Malebranche, Locke-these eminent philosophers all lived to a good old age. Sydenham, one of the .ablest of our earlier English physicians, and a man who never knew what leisure was, died at sixty-five. Lord Plunket, the Irish orator and statesman, was upwards of ninety when he passed away. Few men have worked harder than Lord Brougham, who entered, a few days ago, upon his ninety-first year (1867). A laborious career was that of Thurlow, the LordChancellor, yet at the time of his decease he was ninety-four years old. Titian, one of the greatest painters that ever lived, attained the extreme age of ninety-nine. Galileo, when he died, was seventy.eight; Dr. Halley, eighty-four; Sir Hans Sloane, ninety-two; Dr. Priestley, seventy-one; Bentley, the erudite classical critic, eighty; Samuel Johnson, seventy-five; Playfair, the mathematician, seventyone; Dugald Stewart, seventy-five; James Watt, eighty-four; Sir William: Herschel, the astronomer, *eighty-four; Hutton, the geologist, seventy-one; Pennant, the naturalist, seventy-two; Black, the chemist, seventy-one; Benjamin Franklin, eightyfour; Flamsteed, the astronomer, seventy-three. But why lengthen the list? Enough has been said to prove that there is a magic in intellectual



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rr -4 ca /~ o4 /c rI a tc /r rS rt U



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THE YOUNG NATURALIST. 25 --that fine, delicate,rich, and brilliant spirit. He was afflicted in early childhood with a serious pulmonary disorder, which debarred him from sharing in the sports and pastimes common to boys of his age. He found, however, an ample compensation in his love of natural history. He was but eight years old when, at his urgent prompting, his father built for him a small museum. He set to work to arrange it on a scientific system of classification, and appointed his sister to act as its curator. Every flower, or weed, or strange pebble, or unusual shell that his playmates brought to amuse the invalid on his sick couch was duly examined, named, and consigned to its proper shelf. As he grew older, he grew stronger; but his passion for the natural sciences grew with his growth. His parents would fain have



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A JUVENILE GEOM-ETRICIAN. 49 11 i i t iS' and with such imperfect appliances, his acute intellect contrived to analyze and comprehend the purport of one of Euclid's propositions. (355) 4



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56 NIL TETIGIT Who has not heard of Leonardo da Vinci, a man of almost universal learning as well as a painter of surpassing powers? Language has been taxed to the uttermost for his eulogiums. There was in him, we are told, a grace beyond expression, which was rendered manifest, without thought or effort, in every act and deed. Extraordinary power was, in his case, conjoined with extraordinary facility. To whatever subject he turned his attention, it mattered not what might be its difficulties, he was able, by his rare capacity, to make himself absolute master of it. "He scanned the heavens, and mysteries there Grew patent to his eagle ken, While beauteous things from earth and air, Like new creations, smiled on men. "He seized his pencil-all was grace; His chisel-marble seemed to live; All Nature's glories he could trace, And ravishments to mortals give." He was the son of a Florentine notary, and born at the Castle of Vinci, in the Val d' Arno, not far from the old Tuscan capital, in the year 1452. Even as a child he manifested a great love of drawing and painting, of form and colour, and executed numerous little sketches, which displayed considerable promise. His father, convinced that they exceeded in talent the average productions of boys of his age, showed them to a painter, Andrea del Vervechio. He immediately offered to receive the



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INDEX. 191 Leech, John, character of the Peel, Sir Robert, industry and genius of, 79. success of the first, 98-100. Leyden, John, story of, 102-108. Peel, Sir Robert, the statesman, Life, as a struggle, 177. boyhood of, 99, 100. Life, on the ends of, 88, 89, 119. Perseverance, power of, 12; exLongevity in hard workers, inamples of, 11-45. stances of, 117, 118. Persistency in work, 13. Longfellow, H. W., quoted, 19, Pope quoted, 64, 123. 188. Pottinger, Maj or Eldred, anecdote Low, Rt.-Hon. James, referred to, of, 149. 175. Pratt, Lord Camden, anecdote of, Luther, Martin, anecdotes of, 84, 169. 85, 186. Prayer, on the habit of daily, 185. Lytton, Lord, quoted, 24. Prideaux, Dr., reference to, 44. Macaulay, Lord, industry of, 87, 88. Proctor, Adelaide Anne, early life Maclise, Daniel, alluded to, 47. of, 116; quoted, 117. Malcolm, Sir John, boyhood of, Proverb, Italian, 32; Scotch, 96. 148. Quotations: from Matthew ArMeditation, value of, 186. nold, 120; Byron, 43, 157 ; JereMethod, on the importance of, 94. my Bentham, 45; Sir Fowell Milman, Dean, reference to, 175. Buxton, 53; Lord Bacon, 81; Milton quoted, 14, 44. Lord Clarendon, 33 ; Thomas Murray, Dr., anecdote of, 13. Carlyle, 38, 40, 41, 101; S. T. Napier, Sir Charles James, stories Coleridge, 95, 166; Justice Coleof, 128-140. ridge, 142; Richard Crashaw, Napoleon Bonaparte, anecdote of, 178; Chaucer, 181; Lord Col180. lingwood, 183; Dante, 76; Daniel, Nature, on sympathy with, 159; 81; Sir J. Davies, 101; Dekker, study of, 184, 185. 182; John Dryden, 45; Fuller, Neill, General, his early years, 146. 11; Oliver Goldsmitlr,64; Horace, Nelson, Lord, youth of, 124-126. 31; George Herbert, 186; Ben Newman, Dr. J. H., referred to, Jonson, 12, 108, 109; Joubert, 176. 66 ; Longfellow, 19, 188; 'Lord Nicholson, General, anecdote of, Lytton, 24; Milton, 14, 44: 147. Pope, 64,123; Sir Lawrence Peel, Niebuhr, the historian, reference -99; Sir Joshua Reynolds, 33; to, 44. F. W. Robertson, 114; Thomas Northcote, James, the artist, alRoscoe, 43; Sir W. Scott, 106; lusion to, 47. 1 Shakspeare, 46, 122, 180; John Opie, James, reference to and Sterling, 97, 183; Sydney Smith, anecdotes of, 47, 71, 72. 123; Dean Stanley, 140; TennyPalissy, Bernard, trials of, 89-92. son, 76, 143, 159, 181; ArchPalmer, Sir Roundell, reference bishop Tillotson, 96, 174; Jeremy to, 175. Taylor, 186; Dr. Vaughan,'115 ; Palmerston, Lord, reference to, 53. Virgil, translated by ProfesPareja, Juan di, romance of, 67-70. sor Conington, 74; Vasari, 77; Pascal, Blaise, early years of, Webster, 32; Wordsworth, 42, 47-50. 44, 65, 122, 166; George Wilson, Peel Sir Lawrence, quoted, 98, 99 15 4; Duke of Wellington, 180.



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ALERE FLAMMAM. 157 arose who kept alight the torch of knowledge, and handed it down to a more fortunate generation; men whose heroism seems to me as worthy of our admiration as the courage of the knights or men-at-arms, their contemporaries, who rode gallantly into a "plump of spears," for love of fame or greed of conquest. Turning once more from the man of letters to the man of action, we find in Cola di Rienzi, the last ot the Roman tribunes, a notable example of youthful courage triumphing over apparently insuperable difficulties. Who among our readers but knows the story of his wondrous career? How he became,"Redeemer of dark centuries of shameThe friend of Petrarch-hope of ItalyRienzi, last of Romans !" Last, that is, of the brave men of old," of the true masterful Romans, the iron-handed warriors who had brought within the circle of Roman supremacy almost all the known world. He was born in a mean house in a mean street of the Eternal City, about 1310-his father an inn-keeper, his mother a Roman woman of humble condition. Displaying extraordinary talents at an early age, his parents gave him the best education they could afford or procure, so that from his youth upwards he was nourished, says one of his biographers, with the milk of eloquence, and became a good grammarian, a better rhetorician, and was well versed in the works of the true writers. From their pages his powerful



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HOW GENIUS IS FED. 73 And Barry, absorbed in realizing upon the glowing canvas his gorgeous fancies, heeded little, I take it, that his purse was often empty and his cupboard bare. James Barry was born at SCork. His father owned a Si s o r t o f h a lf h o o k e r h a lf fish __ ing-boat, that coasted from not_ t--a Cork to Kinsale, and somefor.AZ times stretched across St. eorge s Channel to the English coast. His crew consisted -=-ZQ of himself, a man, and a couple of boys-one ot them his own son, who early fed his genius with contemplation of the beauties of the Irish shore, and sought to copy them with a charred stick on the deck of his father's vessel. It was speedily evident that he had not the making of a sailor in him. He cared nothing for sail or rope, for tacking orreefing, for larboard



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THE BOY MAKES THE MAN.



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138 AS THE BOY, SO THE MAN. the deepest of all Irish brogues. 'Because there are at least twenty men upon you'-there were five or six with us at the time. Well, if I must surrender, there!' said he, dashing down his firelock across their legs, and making them jump; 'there's my firelock for yez!' Then, coming close up, he threw his arms round me, and giving Guibert a push that sent him and one or two more reeling against the wall, shouted out: Stand away, ye spalpeens I'll carry him myself, bad luck to the whole of yez !' And so the prisoners went on their way to the French camp. Napier was soon afterwards exchanged; but neither wounds nor imprisonment could daunt his ardent spirit. He continued to serve with his regiment throughout the Peninsular war, and was foremost in every engagement. Such was Napier at the outset of his career. Let us see him next, when his fame was world-wide, and, at the head of a British army, he was marching victoriously in the track of the Macedonian hero. We shall find him displaying a courage as chivalrous, and a resolution as unconquerable, a fortitude as stern, and a daring as brilliant. At the battle of Meeanee he had but 2000 men against 36,000 admirable soldiers-the veterans of Scinde-men inspired by fanaticism, love of country, and hatred of the aggressive Feringhees. But his "genius took no count of numbers, and he led his troops against their powerful enemies, encouraging



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24 AN UNEXPECTED JOY. 4 same time he plied him with cunning inquiries as to his wishes, hopes, prospects; ascertained that he was without resources; that he could neither pay the rent of his mean lodgings, nor earn enough to keep the wolf from the door. So, after showing him one of his own pictures, and letting drop some valuable advice, he handed him a letter to an eminent firm of picture-dealers. Then, the young man went his way rejoicing. The firm purchased all his sketches, and commissioned him to execute some more. With money ringing in his pocket, and glad hopes throbbing on his brain, he left the shop. To walk was impossible. He ran: he ran rapidly; light Camilla never skimmed the plain more swiftly than he the hard London pavement; he paid his debts; and entered at once on a career which has led to more than ordinary distinction. I could not refrain from repeating this anecdote, though it is a digression from my text. Let us return to the early struggles of heroic souls, and profit by what we read of them. "One difference," says Lord Lytton, "between i boy and boy, or man and man, no doubt, is energy; but for great achievements or fame there must be also application-namely, every energy concentrated I on one definite point, and disciplined to strain towards it by patient habit." This I take to be the true secret of success; the magician's spell which converts lead into gold. It was the spell with which Edward Forbes wrought



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76 I AM THE PAINTER !" small of stature, and whose expressive features were marked by that which destroys beauty, could contain his fierce delight no longer. 'I am the painter!' he exclaimed from amid the crowd. 'You, a boy; impossible!' was the reply from many lips. 'It is my picture,' he added; 'and I can paint a better !' But when Edmund Burke advanced to congratulate him, he was overpowered: the mob's congratulations and astonishment gratified his pride, but the praise of Edmund Burke shook his heart. He burst into a sudden gush of tears, covered his face with his hands, and rushed from the room." Oh, those tears Oh, the luxury of shedding them! They repaid Barry, I wot, for many an hour of deferred hope, and burning, despairing anxiety. I have met with critics to whom Tennyson's beautiful line. Tears, idle tears I know not what they mean," has been a vanity and nothingness. Had they shed such tears as Barry shed, they would have comprehended the poet's inmost meaning. Dante, in his Purgatorio," has a striking remark on the vanity of dreams of fame. He puts it into the mouth of Omberto Aldebrandeschi:" 0 thou vain glory of the human powers, How little green upon thy summit lingers, If't be not followed by an age of grossness! In painting Cimabue thought that he Should hold the field; now Giotto has the cry, So that the other's fame is growing dim."



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LESSONS OF HEROIC LIVES. 187 so effectual as Work. Idle moments are Satan's opportunities. There is always something to be done, however, by an active spirit; some book to be read-some object to be investigated-some task to oe fulfilled. The old legend relates, that a certain powerful magician could only secure himself from the attacks of the demons he had rashly fnvoked by providing them with constant employment. The story has an excellent moral in it. Maniy a youth falls a victim to error, vice, and passion, because he gives them time to obtain a mastery over him. If you have no other occupation at hand, you can always read. Read history, which enlarges the mind by teaching you to compare and contrast the great currents of the thought and action of the present with those of the past. And, especially, read biographythe lives of the good and great-that you may take warning from their failures, and benefit by their example. Every heroic life is an eloquent sermon. It shows us how poor and commonplace a thing will be our existence, if not ennobled by worthy deeds or inspired by generous thoughts. The pictures," says Emerson, which fill the imagination in reading the actions of Pericles, Xenophon, Columbus, Bayard, Sidney, Hampden, teach us how needlessly meani our life is-that we, by the depth of our living, should deck it with more than regal or national splendour, and act on principles that should interest man and nature in the length of our days." But, you will say, we cannot all be Bayards, Sidneys, and Hamp-



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GENEROUS FIDELITY. 145 every moment expected. While the crowd looked on in expectant horror, the boy-hero acted. He dashed headlong through the flames, and contrived, at no little hazard, to remove the dangerous combustibles. When he was fourteen he went to sea. His guardians entered him as a midshipman on board the Juno frigate, under the command of a Captain Stott, a severe disciplinarian and arbitrary taskmaster, totally unfitted for the control of highspirited and impetuous youth. It happened that this tyrannical gentleman was so angered by an indiscretion on the part of a midshipman named Francis Cole-a boy about twelve years of age-that he ordered him to quit the frigate, then off Marseilles; and bade a boat be got ready to convey him ashore. Pellew immediately declared that Cole should not go alone. "If you turn him out of the ship, sir, please to turn me out also." Captain Stott professed himself delighted to get rid of them both. and consented to Pellew's discharge. The two boys were therefore put ashore, and might have starved, penniless and friendless, in a foreign country, had not one of the lieutenants taken compassion upon them, and provided them with a supply of money. The impetuous heroism and dauntless resolution of Lord Clive were clearly foreshadowed by his youthful exploits, which exhibited a surprising amount of daring. As early as his seventh year, his strong will and his fiery passions, sustained by a constitu(355) 10



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Vlii CONTENTS. Page CHAPTER II. EXAMPLES OF AN OVER-MASTERING TASTE IIFLUENCING AN INDIVIDUAL'S CAREER. The bias of youthful GeniusAs the boy, so the man-Early career of artists proving the potency of a love of artJuvenile studies of Blaise Pascal-Once a painter, always a painter-William Etty-George Stephinson, a colliery boyChantrey, a wood-carver's apprentice -An example from abroad-The forest astronomer Duval-Leonardo da VinciYoung Davie Wilkie-What he studied, how he struggled, and why he succeeded-Sir Joshua Reynolds-The childhood of Goethe-On the true value of a small talent-Story of Juan de Pareja-A noble purpose nobly won-Kupetzki, the weaver's son-Mixing one's colours with one's brains-Opie, the Cornish artist-The struggles of James Barry-Pictures from poets-The soul of art-The shepherd artist-Giotto's circle-John Leech-Thackeray...................... 46 CHAPTER III. EXAMPLES OF STUDIOUS APPLICATION. Lord Bacon on Studies-The value and manifold uses of knowledge-Its power as a mental stimulant-Heroism of poor schelars -Schaeffer-Dr. Johnson-Luther-A marvel of industry-One's heart in one's *ork-Story of the Rev. William Davy-Macaulay's prodigious industry-On prizing knowledge for knowledge's sake-The ends of life-The moral of Bernard Palissy's life-romance-Knox and his workGrow wiser in order to grow better-Coleridge on the value of method-Archbishop Tillotson on being diligent in one's calling-The hill of difficultyLaborare est orare -Soar to truth's great star-One's work may be ennobled by one's aspirations-The first Sir Robert Peel-A calico-spinner and a gentleman-The second Sir Robert-A word of counsel from Carlyle-The true importance of Biography--The in-



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92 LABOUR HAS A BITTER ROOT, BUT SWEET FRUIT. fore art thou saddened! Labour now, and the defamers will live to be ashamed."'. ...Yes, you all know that marvellous story, and how, at the last, Palissy won, and the defamers were at last silenced by the successes in which the struggle ended." Palissy found the enamel, and the enamel secured him fame and fortune. But it was not for the fame and fortune that Palissy had striven; his object had been the enamel; that is, the crown and completion of his work; and in his labours he had tasted the exquisite enjoyment of deserving success. His "End of Life" was no sham respectability-no stately mansion and retinue of lackeys--but to win the secrets of Science by resolute and persistent study. An heroic youth was crowned by an heroic manhood. For Palissy the potter, though not a hero after the world's pattern, was sincere and earnest in his life-work; he saw the end to be accomplished by "Cthe passionate patience of genius." Success, he knew, was in the will of One who is mighty to build up and to cast down; but towards the End he at least could resolutely march with soul never weary. And such a man, be he peasant or middle-class Philistine, is to my mind a Hero. Studious was the youth and learned the manhood of a very different man from Palissy-John Knox, the Scottish Reformer: but Knox, too, saw from the first the End of Life, and resolutely laboured to achieve it. He was the son of poor parents;



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94 THE VALUE OF METHOD. youth, and obscurely as he passed his forty years, those elements of character which made him the Apostle of the Scottish Reformation were as visible in him then, as in the days when he rebuked a queen and inspired a people. What more need I say? Apply your youth to study, and let your study be so directed as to secure the end of a noble life. It matters not if your labour obtain no immediate results, for whether growing richer or not, you will be certainly growing a wiser man, which I take to be far better. While dwelling upon the advantages of studious application in youth, let me impress upon my young readers the value of method. The difference between the man of capacity and of no capacity is mainly a question of method-of orderly and systematic arrangement of the information gained by intelligent labour. Coleridge remarks that the peculiar distinction of a man of education consists in this: the unpremeditated and evidently habitual arrangement of his words, grounded on the habit of foreseeing, in each integral part, or (more plainly) in every sentence, the whole that he then intends to communicate. This method in his words springs from the method and orderliness of his thoughts; and the man of methodical thought will also be a man of methodical life. I speak here, however, of method as employed in the formation of the understanding and in the assiduous pursuit of science and literature. It



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EARLY INFLUENCES. 165 variably mingles with memory. All minds, even the dullest-as he himself observes-remember the days of their youth; but all cannot bring back the indescribable brightness of that blessed season. Would you know what you once were, it is not enough to recollect the hills and the valleys where your childhood ran out its golden sands. You must collect from many vanished hours the power of your untamed heart, and perhaps transfuse also something of your maturer mind into these dreams of your former being, thus linking the past with the present by a continuous chain, which, though often invisible, is never broken. Wilson was fortunate in the influences that surrounded his early years. His mother was a woman of rare intellect, wit, humour, and grace; his father a man of grave good sense and upright character. His instructors-Mr. Peddie, of Paisley; and, afterwards, the Rev. George M'Latchie, of Mearnsmoulded his youthful mind with admirable skill, and developed its finest faculties with discriminating care. Wilson was not insensible to the value of this early training, and has forcibly depicted the importance of boyhood as a preliminary to and preparation for manhood. Some men," he remarks, "are boys all life long, and carry with them their puerility to the grave. 'Twould be well for the world were there in it more such men. By way of proving their manhood, we have heard grown-up people abuse their own boyhood, forgetting what our great philosophical



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A DARING LIFE: 167 A resolute, a courageous, emphatically a daring life, was that of George Canning; and a surprising instance of the success which frequently attends a strong will combined with a strong intellect. He was born in London, on the 11th of April 1770, and descended from a family of antiquity and good re-* put'e; but his father died in the first year of his. infancy, leaving his widow and children in a condition of distressful poverty. Mrs. Canning was a woman of considerable mental powers and personal attractions, whose courage rose as her prospects grew gloomier. To provide for the education of her infant son, she went on the stage, and made her debfit at Drury Lane Theatre in November 1773. Soon afterwards, she was unfortunately beguiled into a marriage with an actor named Reddish, whose life was not less infamous than his personal address was fascinating. She had to en'dure the burden of a union with a man who was mad when he was not drunk, and drunk when he was not mad, until relieved by his death in 1785. Those who understand the aristocratic character of the British legislature and government will conceive that more unfavourable conditions could not possibly clog the youth of any aspiring spirit, but would seem to have presented an insuperable barrier to Canning's entrance upon a political career. The boy, however, displayed a quick wit and precocious capacity; and his uncle, Stratford Canning, a banker of great respectability, was induced to take



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188 LAST WORDS. dens. Not in your relation to the outer world and to history, perhaps; but in your own homes you may be. You may practise Hampden's virtues in ever so small a social circle. You may be sans peur et sans reproche, though the days of chivalry are past Sidney's high sense of honour may be yours, though not his eminent fortunes. We have not wings-we cannot soar ; But we have feet to scale and climb, By slow degrees, by more and more, The cloudy summits of our time." LONGFELLOW. It is thus, let me say in conclusion, that the impressions formed in youth-the habits adopted in youth-the modes of thought cultivated in youthremain with us in our manhood, cling to us in our latest years, are never wholly thrown off or forgotten. Take heed, therefore, 0 reader, how your youth is regulated, and what theory of conduct inspires it; for all biography proves-at least the exceptions are so few as to confirm the rule-that e€e 30o.ma&ei the fan,



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116 STUDIOUS APPLICATION AND CHRISTIAN FEELING. when at last the fulness of the time was come, and He emerged from that profound obscurity to exercise the glorious office of the Prophet and the Revealer of God amongst men, was there any difference then in this particular? Was life then for Him a period of greater ease, or refinement, or repose? Nay, it was a life without rest: when He rested at all, it was not so much for sleep as for prayer."-In this, too, may we humbly imitate our Great Exemplar: diligent in business, serving the Lord. A graceful poetess, who has but recently passed from amongst us-Miss Adelaide Anne Proctorsupplies me with another illustration to point and enforce my remarks. Her life was a beautiful example of studious application and Christian feeling. At so early an age was her love of poetry conspicuous, that she formed a tiny album of small note-paper, into which her favourite passages were transcribed by her mother's hand before she herself could write. It looks, says Charles Dickens, as if she had carried it about, as another little girl might have carried a doll. She soon displayed a strongly retentive memory and great quickness of apprehension. When she was quite a young child, she learnt very easily several of the problems of Euclid. As she grew older, she acquired the French, Italian, and German languages, became a clever pianoforte player, and showed a true taste and sentiment in drawing. While her mental resources were being trained, it was not at all suspected in her family that she had



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48 A JUVENILE GEOMETRICIAN. however, every indication of his partiality for mathematical studies, and directed his attention rather to the general discipline of his mind than to the fostering of any particular tendency. But genius will not be denied, and though all mathematical books were rigidly excluded from his studies, the peculiar bias of Pascal's mind speedily developed itself. He implored his father to teach him mathematics; he dreamed of circles, triangles, and parallelograms; and when his father persisted in his opposition, he resolved to master the science by his own unaided labours. Shutting himself up in his play-room, he began a series of rude but marvellous experiments, /-" i ,4I i\i Nij to assist him in his investigations. He covered the floor with figures drawn in charcoal; squares, circles, triangles, cubes, cones, and other mathematical forms. He did not know even the name for a circle, but called it "a round," or of a line, but called it a bar." Yet, in this state of ignorance,



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S .THREEFOLD CROWNS. 117 any gift of authorship, or any ambition to become a writer. Her father had no idea of her having ever attempted to turn a rhyme, until her first little poem saw the light in print. When she attained to womanhood, she had read an extraordinary number of books, and throughout her life she was always largely adding to the number." She has told us in one of her earnest lyrics the great objects which she set before herself :" Threefold were the dreams of honour That absorbed my heart and brain; Threefold crowns the Angel promised, Each one to be bought by pain: "While he spoke, a threefold blessing Fell upon my soul like rain. Helper of the poor and suffering; Victor in a glorious strife; Singer of a noble poem: Such the honours of my life." I must not be supposed to recommend such an extreme of studious application as would endanger the student's health. It is a duty we owe to the Giver of life to be careful of it, and not to fling it away recklessly, like an unregarded toy. But hard work is not necessarily unwholesome. I believe that, on the contrary, it is in most cases, and except under very peculiar conditions, a sovereign remedy against disease. The case of Henry Kirke White is frequently used to point a moral, but it seems to me very doubtful whether the Nottinghamshire poet would have been blessed with length of years even if he had never applied himself to study. He was



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168 GEORGE CANNING THE STATESMAN. upon himself the charge of his education, and he introduced his brilliant nephew to the leading Whig politicians. From Hyde Abbey School, Winchester, where his ready skill as a verse-maker had already obtained recognition, he was removed to Eton, between the age of twelve and thirteen, by the advice of Mr. Fox. Here he displayed his extraordinary abilities and ardent love of knowledge; and here, too, he first formed those high ambitious projects which he afterwards realized by dint of courageous exertion and unquailing moral heroism. A success equally distinguished attended him at Oxford, and he left the university with a brilliant reputation for capacity and scholarship, almost the only recommendation which he bore with him into the active world. In the ambitious career he had marked out for himself he lacked the advantages of wealth, lineage, and aristocratic connections; but his self-reliance, his courage, and his genius were fully equal to the task which he had resolved to undertake. Canning, on leaving Oxford, says Sir Edward Creasy, had entered at Lincoln's Inn; but his legal studies were soon abandoned for the brilliant political career that suddenly opened to him. Mr. Pitt, then Prime Minister, had heard of Canning's talents, and especially of the high powers of oratory which he had displayed in debating societies at Oxford, and afterwards in London. Mr. Pitt, through a private channel, communicated his desire to see Mr. Canning. With this requisition Mr. Canning, of course, readily



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LATIN AND DITCHING. 31 the Latin grammar; but it was'dull, and I hated it. My father was anxious to send me to college, and therefore I studied the grammar, till I could bear it no longer;, and going to my father, I told him I did not like study, and asked for some other employment. It was opposing his wishes, and he was quick in his answer. 'Well, John, if Latin grammar does not suit you, you may try ditching; perhaps that will; my meadow yonder needs a ditch, and you. may put by Latin and try that!' "This seemed a delightful change, and to the meadow I went. But I soon found ditching harder than Latin, and the first forenoon was the longest I ever experienced. That day I ate the bread of labour, and glad was I when night came on. That night I made some comparison between Latin grammar and ditching, but said not a word about. it. I dug next forenoon, and wanted to return to Latin at dinner; but it was humiliating, and I would not do it. At night toil conquered pride; and though it was one of the severest trials I ever had in my life, I told my father that, if he chose, I would go back to Latin grammar. He was glad of it; and if I have since gained any distinction, it has been owing to the twodays' labour in that abominable ditch." John Adams found that perseverance in an honourable pursuit brings with it its own reward. It is by slow stages that we raise heavenwards, ".M onumentunm ere perennins."



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CONTENTS. ix Page centive afforded by the record of a noble life-Quotation froim Sir John Davies-The lessons which we learn-Quotation from Shakspeare-John Leyden, an example of studious application-His eagerness to acquire knowledge-How and where he studied-Quotation from Spenser-Success of his unremitting industry -Quotation from Sir John MalcolmThe value of such an exam ple-Quotation from Ben Jonson -Galileo, and his labours-The connection between the one and the many-Michael Faraday-Moral advantages of studious application-Quotation from Robertson-A Divine Exemplar-Quotation from Dr. Vaughan-Adelaide Anne Proctor-Her studious youth-The objects she set before herself-Work and health-Hard workers have been long livers -Examples -General summary -Quotation from M atthew Arnold.......... ............ ..... ... ... .... .81 CHAPTER IV. EXAMPLES OF COURAGE, ENTERPRISE, AND THE MANLY VIRTUES. On the meaning of the word Courage-The true courage of true talent-Sidney Smith on the want of moral resolutionNelson's heroic boyhood-Fixedness of purpose illustrated by the life of Warren Hastings-Force of will a distinctive quality of genius--Physical versus moral courage-Singular intrepidity of Charles James Napier, the "hero of Scinde" -His childhood-The eagle-A school-boy corps-The capacity of command-An heroic spirit-Leaves from a scholar's life-" Ne te qusesiveris extra "-Napier at Corunna-A narrow escape-Twice saved-The battle of Meeanee-Emaun Ghur-Another hero-Dr. Arnold, of Rugby-His boyhood described by Dean Stanley-His manhood, by Justice Coleridge-Through doubt to faith-Tennyson on Arthur Henry Hallam-A fine character-Anecdote of Lord ExmouthLord Clive's daring-A leaf from Neil's historyThe gallant Nicholson-"Jock Malcolm" and Hyder Ali-Eldred Pottinger-A son of the sea-Dr. Scoresby-Measuring the Atlantic waves-Lesson of a life-Bacchanten and Schutzen: a page from the past-Rienzi, the last of the Romans -Chris



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184 THE BOOK OF NATURE. matter. It should be read and studied, so that its lessons may be brought to bear in all the relations of our daily life. For there is no possible worldly circumstance or condition in which it will not prove either an inspiration, a guide, or a consolation. In hours of agony you may wander with Christ in the garden, or at the foot of the cross learn to exclaim, "Thy will be done;" or you may turn to David for expressions of joy and gratitude, when the world has gone well with you, and you have cause to acknowledge the mercy of Heaven. And read, too, that other Bible-that other Book of God-the revelation made in earth, and sea, and sky. Learn to contemplate Nature, and to delight in Nature's beauties; in the bowery glade and the bubbling stream, in the kindling star and the full glories of the noontide heaven! It is not enough for you, when a bright landscape is revealed to your gaze, to praise it in commonplace terms of admiration; you must endeavour to arrive at some comprehension of its meaning, and to consider what truths it illustrates, what lessons it conveys. The meanest flower that blows inspires the poet with thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears;" and if we study Nature rightly-if we study her earnestly and prayerfully-we shall find in every phase an inspiration, an encouragement, and a warning. Let me beseech you not to go abroad among God's glories with eyes shut that they may not see, and ears closed that they may not hear! Is there no



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28 AN IGNOBLE OCCUPATION. Christian should earn a livelihood, and his mother had no means of starting him in any career adapted to develop his rare mental powers. He was, therefore, placed in a manufactory, but his health could not endure the labour. Then he was apprenticed to a tailor, but his soul loathed the ignoble occupation. His genius, like a bird in, a cage, was restlessly beating against the bars, and longing for air and freedom. What was to be done with the useless, incorrigible lad? Well: he had once seen a theatrical exhibition, and, to his poetic spirit, the glories ot tinsel and colour and fine dresses had seemed so dazzling, when contrasted with the mean poverty of his daily life, that he had ever since felt within him a keen desire to be an actor, to live in the ideal world of the stage. His mother had long opposed the desire, having the old Puritanic and not altogether baseless prejudice against theatrical life, but deeming further opposition useless, she consented to his 'departure from Odense. With scarcely a coin in his pocket he made his way to Copenhagen, and presented himself before the manager of the Royal Theatre. A lank, pallid, careworn youth, he found no favour in that potentate's eyes, and was pronounced unfit for sock or buskin. The disappointment was severe, and Andersen's heart almost gave way. He possessed, however, the gift of a sweet voice, and some of the musicians taking pity upon his forlorn destitute condition encouraged him to hope he might be successful as a



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MUCKLE-MOU'D MEG. 163 Growing older and taller, we find him armed with a formidable piece of artillery-as dangerous to friends as to foes-which was euphoniously christened Muckle-mou'd Meg. He describes it in his own inimitable language:" There had been from time immemorial, it was understood, itt the manse, a duck-gun of very great length, and a musket that, according to an old tradition, had been out both in the Fifteen and Forty-five [the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1745]. There were ten boys of us, and we succeeded by rotation to gun or musket, each boy retaining possession for a single day only; but then the shooting season continued all the year. They must have been of admirable materials and workmanship; for neither of them so much as once burst during the Seven Years' War. The musket, who, we have often since thought, must surely rather have been a blunderbuss in disguise, was a perfect devil for kicking irhen she received her -discharge; so much so, indeed, that it was reckoned creditable for the smaller boys not to be knocked down by the recoil. She had a very wide mouth, and was thought by us 'an awfu' scatterer;' a qualification which we considered of the very highest merit. She carried anything we chose to put into herthere still being of all her performances a loud and favourable report-balls, buttons, chuckystanes, slugs, or hail. She had but two faults: she had got addicted, probably in early life, to one bad habit of



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REGARDED AS A MADMAN. 91 Aji~Ij II fII Utri' ik 4f I left off following his trade." But when I had dwelt with my regrets a little, because there was no one who had pity upon me, I said to my soul, WhereMill i Il Wi !IIT 411 .il ~all lef of flloin hi tade" Btwen hd del who had pity upon me, Isaid to my soul, Where



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A MARVEL OF INDUSTRY. 85 the labyrinths of dialectics. He read assiduously the prophets and the apostles, then the books of St. Augustine, his 'Explanation of the Psalms,' and his book on the Spirit and the Letter.' He almost got by heart the treatises of Gabriel Biel and Pierre d'Andilly, Bishops of Cambray: he also read a great deal of the writings of Gerson." And this laborious study he continued to the last, providing himself with the weapons which served him so well in his great fight against the corruptions and iniquities of the Roman Church. Mr. Craik, in his Pursuit of Knowledge," relates the history of a work entitled A System of Divinity," by the Rev. William Davy, which affords, perhaps, the most extraordinary instance on record of literary industry and labour. Mr. Davy was born in 1743, near Chudleigh, in Devonshire, where his father resided on a small farm, his own freehold. From a very early age he gave proofs of a mechanical genius, and when only eight years old, cut out with a knife and put together the parts of a small mill, after the model of one then building in the neighbourhood, whose gradual construction he observed narrowly every day, while proceeding with equal regularity to the completion of his own task. When the large mill was finished, it was found to work imperfectly, and yet the builder could discern no. actual defect. It is said that while he was endeavouring to elucidate the mystery, the young self-taught. architect presented himself, and observing that hia&



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IQI



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TIE POWER OF NATIVE GENIUS. 107 of depression. Or if further stimulus be required, let me quote another anecdote of this enthusiastic scholar. It is recorded by Sir John Malcolm, who made his acquaintance in India, where he held a high official capacity. "It will remain," he says, "with those who are better qualified than I am to do justice to his memory. I only know that he rose, by the power of native genius, from the humblest origin to a very distinguished rank in the literary world. His studies included almost every branch of human-science, and he was alike ardent in the pursuit of all. It is not easy to convey an idea of the method which he used in his studies, or to describe the unconquerable ardour with which these were pursued. During his early residence in India I had a particular opportunity of observing both. When he read a lesson in Persian, a person near him, whom he had taught, wrote down each word on a long slip of paper, which was afterwards divided into as many pieces as there were words, and pasted in alphabetical order, under different heads of verbs, nouns, &c., into a blank book that formed a vocabulary of each day's lesson. All this he had in a few hours instructed a very ignorant native to do; and this man h'e used, in his broad accent, to call 'one of his mechanical aids.' He was so ill at Mysore, soon after his arrival from England, that Mr. Anderson, the surgeon who attended him, despaired of his life; but though all his friends endeavoured at this period to prevail upon



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THE MEDICINE OF LIFE. 183 maxim," says Lord Collingwood, "that you had better be alone than in mean company." Let your companions be such as yourself, or superior; for the worth of a man will always be rated by that of his company. The friends of John Sterling were accustomed to say of him, that it was impossible to come in contact with his noble nature without being in some measure ennobled, and lifted up into a higher region of objects and aims than that in which men are ordinarily content to dwell. Haydn became a musician by listening to Handel; it was the genius of Perugino that inspired the mind of Raphael. So from the example or encouragement of a fit companion our minds may receive the impulse which will force them forward-forward to the light and glory of a purified humanity. If thou wouldst get a friend, prove him first, and oe not hasty to credit him; for some man is a friend for his own occasion, and will not abide in the day of thy trouble. Separate thyself from thine enemies, and take heed to thy friends. A faithful friend is a strong defence; and he that hath found such an o4e, hath found a treasure. A faithful friend is the medicine of life." 5th, Read the Bible with devout attention. The perusal of the Scriptures soothes the temper, consoles the heart, and elevates the mind. Therein, as Locke said, are contained the words of eternal life. The Bible has God for its Author, salvation for its end, and truth, without any mixture of error, for its



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54 THE FOREST-ASTRONOMER. and to have it said, as was said of the British troops at Waterloo, They do not know when they are beaten. Valentine Jameray IDuval may serve us as an example. At the time of his death he was keeper of the Imperial Medals at Vienna, and preceptor to the Royal Prince, afterwards the Emperor Joseph II. He was born at Artonay, a village of Champagne, in the year 1695. His parents were exceedingly poor, and his father died when he was ten years old. He was then taken by a farmer to keep his poultry, but being soon dismissed for some childish error, he resolved on leaving home, rather than becoming a burden to his mother. In the winter of 1709 he set out on his wanderings. After suffering hunger, fatigue, and bodily pain, he arrived at Morglut, where a compassionate shepherd engaged him to tend his flock. When the worst of the winter had passed, he again resumed his wanderings, and at length was received by the inhabitants of a hermitage at St. Anne's, near Luneville, who ;gave him the charge of their five or six cows, and taught him writing and arithmetic. Eagerly desirous of knowledge, he spent his nights in studying the heavens, constructing an observatory of osiers in the summit of a lofty oak. With his scanty earnings he purchased a few books and instruments, and to increase his store he hunted and killed the vild .animals of the forest for their skins, which he disposed of at a cheap rate, and with the produce added to his little library. He read all kinds of



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TRIAL UPON TRIAL. 35 parents' capabilities to afford. But Heyne had a godfather, a baker, in good circumstances, to whom, one Saturday, he was sent for a loaf. He entered the shop, his face bathed in tears. His godfather inquired the cause of his distress, and ascertaining that it was the inability to pay for the Latin lessons, promised to furnish the weekly groschen if Heyne would visit him every Sunday, and repeat all that he had learned by heart out of the Bible. Intoxicated with joy, Heyne ran off with his loaf, and leaping as he went, and tossing his loaf to and fro into the air, unhappily tumbled it into a puddle. This misfortune sobered him. His mother rejoiced at the good news which \ he brought, though his Vfather was less pleased, probably thinking that Latin was not so profitable as manual labour for .the son of a linen :7 weaver. Two years passed away, and his -schoolmaster was constrained to acknowledge he had taught him all he knew. The time was now come for him to leave school



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THE UNRESTING MARCH. 101 England, but the best debater in the House of Commons-the result of his early training, The value of biography lies in the lessons which we are able to derive from its pages. We are all apt to grow faint-hearted on a long march; but the trumpeter rings out a stirring blast, and straightway we gird up our loins, and press forward with renewed vigour, as if a fresh life had flowed into our veins. So, if we feel aweary, or our strength fails us, or our energies need an additional stimulus, let us turn to the history of some great and. good man, and gather inspiration from the record of what he in his time suffered, conquered, and achieved. Assuredly we cannot afford to halt at many resting-places. The days are not ours to do with them what we will. As the old poet, Sir John Davies, says very finely,"Our bodies every footstep that they take March towards death, until at last they die; Whether we work or play, or sleep or wake, Our life doth pass, and with Time's wings doth fly." Oh, these trite truths, how we love to neglect them! So the hours sweep past, and the opportunities vanish, while we rest on our arms, spent, overcome, and despairing. In such moods it is well, I say, to take up the biography of some heroic labourer in "life's battle." .and by its perusal to nerve oneself anew to the struggle. Thence shall we learn the lesson of true fortitude and sublime patience-to hate, as Milton says, the cowardice of doing wrong "-to keep our face steadfastly set



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AN EXAMPLE FROM ABROAD. 53 seems to have been making wig-blocks. Young Etienne could not content himself with this for his life-work. He felt within him the stirrings of a mysterious power, which bade him hope, and aspire, and strive for excellence. So whatever picture or engraving pleased his fancy, he endeavoured to imitate it; and his skilful hands were constantly busy in fashioning busts and models in clay. Every hour he could spare-every coin he could procure-he devoted to his darling pursuit, until his enthusiastic toil in due time fitted him for higher labours, and he entered the studio of the sculptor Lemoine. His progress was so rapid, that in 1745 his statue of Milo of Crotona received the high approval of the French Academy, and nine years afterwards he was admitted a member of that illustrious body. Commissions flowed in upon him from every country; and in 1766 he was invited to Russia by the Empress Catherine II. to execute the noble monument which will hand down his fame to the latest posterity. Thus from the wig-block to the colossal statue of the Russian hero had Falconet's passionate love of Art elevated his genius. Let the mind follow its own bias, and no obstacles seem able to resist its powers of intense volition. I will be marshal of France," said a young soldier; and before he died he had won the glittering baton. I am sure," writes Fowell Buxton, "that a young man may be very much what he pleases." It remains with us to command, by deserving success;



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A RAY OF HOPE. 37 intendents, at an examination of the pupils, suddenly demanded what anagram could be formed out of the word Austria. None of them knew what an anagram was, but as soon as the necessary explanation had been given, Heyne produced the word Vastari. The superintendent's surprise at so appropriate a rendering was increased when he found that it was the work of a little urchin on the lowest form of the second class, and he overwhelmed him with commendations. Heyne, after relating what he calls this pedantic adventure," continues, It gave, however, the first impulse to my powers. I began to feel a greater confidence in myself, and to raise my head in spite of all the contempt and hardship under which I languished." He complains, not the less, that on leaving school he was a perfect novice in classical literature, having read but a few chapters of Livy, and knowing nothing of chronology, history, or geography. During the last year the star of hope had, indeed, partly risen above the horizon. A better master took the management of the school; and had Heyne's circumstances permitted him to avail himself of some private lessons, he felt he might have accomplished much. But the murmurs of his father-the niggardliness of his pseudo-patron-the chilling want and carking misery that surrounded him, overwhelmed his young spirit, and shrouded the future with unutterable darkness. But for that innate desire of truth and beauty which is ever the companion of



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THE SHEPHERD-ARTIST. 77 Giotto is a name not to be omitted from these pages. His father was called Bondone; "a simple husbandman," says Vasari, who reared the child with such decency as his condition permitted." The boy was early remarkable for extraordinary promptitude of intelligence, and all the neighbouring gossips regarded him as a lusus naturce. When about ten years old, he was entrusted by his father with the care of a few sheep, and with these he wandered about the vicinity, wherever -his fancy prompted him. And induced by Nature herself to the art of design, he was perpetually drawing on the stones, the earth, or the sand, any natural object that attracted his attention, or fantasy that presented itself to his lively imagination. Now it chanced one day that the affairs of Cimabue-the illustrious Florentine artist' -took him from Florence to Vespignano, when he perceived the young Giotto, with his sheep pasturing around him, drawing one of them from the life on a smooth, clean piece of rock, and with a sharppointed stone; "and that without any teaching whatever but such as Nature herself had imparted." Cimabue, halting in astonishment, inquired of the heaven-born artist if he would accompany him to his home. The boy replied, yea, willingly, if his father were content to permit it. The consent of Bondone having been obfained, Giotto was soon conducted to Florence, where he profited so well by the lessons of Cimabue, that the pupil was held by many to have surpassed his master. It is said that while still a



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106 A STRANGE STUDY. place of study," says Sir Walter Scott, "usually locked during week-days, Leyden made entrance by means of a window, read there for many hours in the day, and deposited his books and specimens in a retired pew. It was a well-chosen spot of seclusion; for the kirk (excepting during divine service) was then a place of terror to the Scottish rustic, and that of Cavers was rendered more so by many a tale of ghosts and witchcraft of which it was the supposed scene." By degrees Leyden's reputation as a scholar extended beyond his own immediate circle. He was encouraged by the leading literary men of Edinburgh, and placed in a position which raised him above pecuniary want. The renown of Mungo Park then attracted his attention to the history of Africa, in which his imagination found "ample room and verge enough" to disport itself. He pursued his researches with characteristic ardour, and gave their result to the public in 1799-when he was twenty-four years old-in his "Historical Sketch of the European Discoveries and Settlements in Africa." About the same. time he began to contribute poetical translations from the Greek, the Norse, the Hebrew, the Arabic, the Syriac, and the Persian, to the Edinburgh Magazine;" each successive effort widening his circle of friends. But with his later life it is not my province to deal. I have said enough to prove that the biography of such a man cannot but reanimate the student when suffering under a cloud



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" A RESPECTABLE POSITION." 89 For what end do they work? What is the motive that inspires them? To what goal are they directing their steps? I have no sympathy with the man whose only ambition is to secure "a respectable position,"-who leaves out of sight the grand excellence of knowledge,and disregards the sublime virtues of self-denial, patience, and resolution. It is "the struggle" that ennobles us, and not '"the prize." He who thinks only of the prize will probably fail in the struggle, for, animated by no elevating motive, his heart will yield before the obstacles that Fortune throws in the athlete's path. It is the heroic effort for which I reserve my admiration, and when I recognize that it has been or is being made, I do 1-ot wait i for its failure or success; if the crown i were mine, I would at once bestow it on the courageous worker. "You have heard," says the writer I refer to, of Bernard Palissy, the Huguenot _ potter. You know of his struggles for many, many years of poverty and sorrow to discover



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160 A BOYISH ESCAPADE. the wide, open moor, where the wayfarer crushes with elastic foot the balmy mosses, till he sends up all about him an odour like the breath of sweet music; the wimpling burn, whose waters yield to the persevering rod the choicest of the finny tribes; the rising mist of the morning, which, as it rolls up the valleys and winds about the higher lands, reveals to the admiring eye a landscape as fresh and beautiful as early love; the glowing influence of summer noon; the unutterable glories of purple sunsets; the winter snow, lying like the fearful stillness of death upon all the land; and the wondrous sea, which has a poetry, a mystery, and a sublimity of its ownwhich to every heart speaks, as it were, a different language, and yet to every heart tells one sublime and awful truth of the omnipotence of Him who bade its tides flow and its currents roll;-these were a joy and an inspiration to Wilson from his earliest days to his last lingering hours. He revelled in these beauties of exuberant nature as a boy; as a man they fired his imagination, they warmed his soul, they interpenetrated with a subtle sense of love and wonder his very being. He draws a pleasant picture of one of his boyish escapades in his matchless Recreations:-" Once," he says, it was feared that poor wee Kit was lost; for having set off all by himself at sunrise, to draw a night-line from the distant Black Loch, and look at a trap set for a glede, a mist overtook him on the moor on his homeward way, with an eel as long as



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78 GIOTTO'S CIRCLE. boy, ana studying with Cimabue, he on one occasion painted a fly on the nose of a figure which the artist was sketching, and this so naturally, that when the latter returned to his work, he believed the insect to be real, and twice or thrice lifted his hand to brush it away before he should go on with his painting. Vasari relates a curious anecdote of Giotto. Pope Benedict the Ninth, having heard of his renown, sent one of his courtiers to Florence, with the object ot commissioning the artist to execute certain paintings for St. Peter's Church. Entering the master's studio, he explained the Pope's desire, and requested to have a drawing that he might send it to his Holiness. Giotto, who possessed a shrewd, subtle humour of his own, took a sheet of paper and a pencil dipped in a red colour; then, resting his elbow on his side, to form a sort of compass, with one motion of his hand he drew a circle so perfect and exact that it was a marvel to behold. This done, he turned to the courtier, saying, Here is your drawing." "Am I to have nothing more than this ?" inquired the latter, conceiving himself to be the subject of a sorry jest. Enough and to spare," said Giotto. Send it with the designs of whatsoever other artists you have seen, and I fear not but it will be recognized." So the messenger went away very ill satisfied, in the belief that the artist had greatly fooled him. Nevertheless, having despatched the drawings he had collected to the Pope, with the names of those



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MEDIEVAL SCHOLARS. 83 without." When the great Erasmus was at Paris, a poor and penniless seeker after truth, he sometimes longed for a little money, but not to expend upon those objects which generally excite the wishes of youth. As soon as I get money," he wrote, "I will buy, first Greek books, and then clothes." It is related of the German scholar Schaeffer, that when he entered the University of Halle, his whole expenditure for the first six months of his attendance did not exceed a few halfpence daily; a little bread and a few vegetables boiled in water were his only nourishment; and in the severest winter his apartment was without a fire. This heroism has been common among the sizars of our English universities no less than among the German students. Who M does not remember the hardships endured by' Dr. Johnson, both in his collegiate career, and in the days of his early literary enterprise, when he was glad to dine off the scraps from his publisher's table ? In the medi3val times it was the custom of the German



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DO THINE OWN WORK, AND KNOW THYSELF. 93 received a college education; studied deeply and widely; became a priest; soon wearied of the falsehoods of Popery, and gave himself up, heart and soul, to the principles of the Reformation. Thinking, believing, hoping, he went on his way in all calmness and peace; and it was thus his life was spent, or spent itself, until he had reached the age of forty. When, one day, in the Reformers' Chapel, the preacher said suddenly, That there ought to be other speakers -that all men who had a priest's heart and gift in them ought now to speak-which gifts and heart one of their own number -says Carlyle-John Knox by name, had; had he not? cried the preacher, appealing to all the audience. What then is his duty? "The people answered affirmatively; it was a criminal forsaking of his post, if such a man held the word that was in him silent, Poor Knox was obliged to stand up; he attempted to reply; he could say no word; burst into a flood of tears, and ran out. It was worth remembering that scene. He was in grievous trouble for some days. He felt what a small faculty was his for this. great work. He felt what a baptism he was called to be baptized withal. He 'burst into tears.' In what manner thenceforward he did his work history tells us; and not only history, but the present time, for the influences of his life and character are still active in our fatherland, for good and -ill, but mostly for good. His earnest manhood was the natural development of a grave and earnest



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96 DO GOOD IF YOU EXPECT TO RECEIVE ANY. marks in the records of .duties performed, will survive the wreck of worlds, and remain extant when Time itself shall be no more." Let me commend another quotation to the reader's notice. It is from Archbishop Tillotson, and designed to enforce upon each of us the need and advantage of being diligent in our calling, of striving with resolute persistence after the ends of life. It is a great mistake," he says, to think any man is without a calling, and that God does not expect that every one of us should employ himself in doing good in one kind or other. Those who are in a low and private condition can only shine to a few, but they that are advanced a great height above others may, like the heavenly bodies, dispense a general light and influence, and scatter happiness and blessings among all that are below them. But let no man, of what birth, rank, or quality soever, think it beneath him to serve God and to be useful to the benefit and advantage of men." In doing good to our fellows, we are truly serving God. "A stout heart to a steep brae," says the old Scotch proverb, and it is certain that the student "Who would climb the hill of Difficulty, must learn to hope, to strive, to believe, and to be strong. This is the lesson taught by the poetry of Longfellow, which possesses such an attraction for the young; and it informs the pages of the earlier works of Carlyle, stimulating the mind to a nobler enthusiasm and a more earnest labour. Work is dignity, says



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"( WITH BRAINS, SIR." 71 early and late, never missing an opportunity of gaining information; and visiting Italy, devoted himself with absorbing interest to the study of the famous old masters. Fame and fortune flowed in upon him. He was employed by princes and kings, and finally appointed painter to the Emperor Joseph. A long and prosperous career was terminated .by his death, in 1740, and the poor weaver's son left behind him a name "to point a moral and adorn a tale." When Opie was asked by a coxcombical amateur what he mixed his colours with, as if hinting that he possessed some magical talismanic secret, he gruffly replied, "With brains, sir." Throughout his career he made good use of this admirable amalgam. "Born in a rank of life,' says his biographer, in which the road to eminence is rendered eminently difficult, unassisted by partial patronage, scorning with virtuous pride all slavery and dependence, he trusted alone for his reward to the force of his natural powers and to well-directed and unremitting study; and he demonstrated by his works how highly he was endowed by nature with strength of judgment and originality of conception. The toils and difficulties of his profession were by him considered as matter of honourable and delightful contest; and it might be said of him, that he did not so much paint to live as live to paint." Opie, however, was not a great artist, and I refer to him as an example of what may be accomplished by moderate powers, rather than as an illustration of



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FOR ACTIVE MINDS AN ACTIVE CAREER. 151 point of discipline or learning; and was threatened with personal chastisement. This the lad's high spirit could not brook, and he declared that if the menace were carried out, he would run. away andseek his fortune in some distant place. The time, indeed, had passed for home-teaching. All young Eldred's impulses urged him towards foreign travel and military adventure. He loved to peruse the records of great battles, and it is recorded that one of the books which fascinated him most was Drinkwater's "History of the Siege of Gibraltar." Eor such a mind only an active career could be of use, and Eldred Pottinger accordingly was sent to Addiscombe, preparatory to entering the Indian army. A life of courage, enterprise, and the truest daring, was that of William Scoresby, the Arctic whaler, and afterwards the energetic clergyman. Every page of his life is a record of the activity and resolution of a vigorous mind. His father was engaged in the Greenland fishery, and at a very early age the son showed a passionate inclination towards a seafaring career. All his dreams were of the sea; of its grandeur, sublimity, and marvellous beauty; of its lone, palm-fringed islands, whose sacred solitudes have never been disturbed by human foot; of its hungry breakers, ever ready to devour the stormdriven vessel; of its broad leagues of flashing emerald, weltering in the unutterable glory of a tropic sun; of its alternations of terrible unrest, and of a repose



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HOW TO SETTLE HYDER ALI. 149 fatal objection. The directors were pleased by his juvenile appearance and good looks; and one of them said, My little man, what would you do if you were to meet Hyder All?" "Do," said the boy, why, sir, I would out with my sword, and cut off his head!" The directors immediately "passed him. Every reader knows the story of Napoleon Bonaparte's military pastimes at the Brienne School; how he loved to muster his companions in mimic martial array, and in the winter time, when the snow was deep, to raise fortifications with that unpromising material, which one party defended with heroic intrepidity, and another attacked with brilliant valour. Here is a pendant picture from the boyhood of Major Eldred Pottinger, one of the heroes of Cabul, whose glorious career was cut short by fever in his thirty-third year. lie was very fond, as a boy, of playing with gunpowder; and once very nearly blew himself up, together with his brother John. His military instincts were developed at an early age, for nothing delighted him more in his play-hours than to throw up sham fortifications, and to enact little dramas of warlike attack and defence. One of these last, says our authority, had nearly a tragic termination; for having, in execution of some warlike project or other, heaped up a number of heavy stones on the edge of the garden wall, some of them fell upon and nearly killed an old man who was seated on the other side. But though ever forward in active adventure, and



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A TURNING-POINT. 63 -II ,K i i -----gree of success. He made a drawing of his father's school with so much accuracy of outline and in such correct perspective that the grave clergyman could



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TWICE SAVED. 137 musket. Recovering himself in a moment, he again leaped to his feet, and saw a florid handsome young French drummer holding the arm of the dark Italian, who was in the act of repeating his blow. Napier now obtained quarter, but was plundered of everything about him. The drummer, who was named Guibert, ordered the Italian to take him to the rear. "When we began to move," says Napier, I resting on him because hardly able to walk, I saw him look back over his shoulder to see if Guibert was gone; and so did I, for his rascally face made me suspect him. Guibert's back was towards us-he was walking off-and the Italian again drew his sword, which he had before sheathed. I called out to the drumnAer: This rascal is going to kill me! brave Frenchmen don't kill prisoners. Guibert ran back, swore furiously at the Italian, shoved him away, almost down, and putting his arm round my waist, supported me himself. Thus this generous Frenchman saved me twice, for the Italian was bent upon slaying. "We had not proceeded far up the old lane when we met a soldier of the 50th walking down at a rapid pace. He instantly halted, recovered his arms, and cocked his piece, looking fiercely at us to make out what it was. My recollection is, that he levelled at Guibert, and I threw up his musket, calling out, For Heaven's sake, don't fire; I am a prisoner, badly wounded, and pan't help you-surrender "For why would I surrender ?' he cried aloud, with



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114 A CURE FOR MELANCHOLY. one. A life of hard work can never be a life of gloom or despondency. Fed by the fountains of knowledge, the soul is ever healthy and alert; and while reaping the full harvest which other men have sown, or sowing in our turn that other men may reap, we have no time to fold our hands and indulge in vain doubts or empty griefs. "Be up and doing," says Robertson; "fill up every hour, leaving no crevice or craving for a remorse or a repentance to creep through afterwards. Let not the mind brood on self : save it from speculation, from those stagnant moments in which the awful teachings of the spirit grope into the unfathomable unknown, and the heart torments itself with questions which are insoluable except to an active life. ....The fact is, that the capacity of ennui is one of the signatures of man's immortality. It is his very greatness which makes inaction misery. If God had made us only to be insects, with no nobler care incumbent on us than the preservation of our lives or the. pursuit of happiness, we might be content to flutter from sweetness to sweetness, and from bud to flower. But if men with souls live only to eat and drink and be amused, is it any wonder if life be darkened with despondency ?" Therefore, I recommend to my young readers diligent and well-directed study as a cure for melancholy, listlessness, internal gloom, and that craving for excitement which inevitably steals upon an unoccupied mind. I recommend it as-next to, and in conjunction with, religion-a panacea against all



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THE JUVENILE COMMANDER. 131 bridge was Roman Catholic. It was situated in a noble park, which the Liffey bounded on one side, and a high wall, overhanging the main road, on all others. Charles Napier, faithful to his military instincts, had organized his schoolfellows into a volunteer corps, with uniforms, drums, colours, and wooden muskets-a well-equipped military force, of which he took the supreme command. Longing to test their prowess and prove their discipline, he mounted one evening his little Arabian mare, and led them forth on a marching expedition. As they passed St. Wulstans, the boys of that academy swarmed to the top'of the wall, mocked the Albridge volunteers with disparaging inuendos, and finally, from their post of vantage, hurled upon them a storm of stones. The volunteers wanted to scale the wall, but their young commander forbade them to break the ranks, and composedly continued the march amidst volleys of dirt. Soon the road crossed the great gates of the park, which were suddenly flung open, and a crowd of the irregulars rushed out, on martial deeds intent. The volunteers faced to the right with levelled bayonets, and a serious contest might have ensued-for on both sides were lads of eighteen and nineteen years of age-but now Charles Napier displayed his imperturbable temper. Riding between the two bodies, he reminded his soldiers that it was cowardly to charge an unarmed mob, and ordered them to resume the column of march. This was effectual, the levelled bayonet having



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SORROWS COME IN BATTALIONS. 39 youth ever obtain any public furtherance, for the German universities, unlike Oxford and Cambridge, have few exhibitions or bursaries for the assistance of poor scholars." Many times Heyne had no regular meal; often not three-halfpence for a loaf at midday. He longed for death-for the dove's wings which should bear him to endless rest. One good heart alone," says he, I found, and that in the servant girl of the house where I lodged. She laid out money for my most pressing necessities, and risked almost all she had, seeing nie in such frightful want. Could I but find thee in the world even now, thou good pious soul, that I might repay thee what thou then didst for me!" Heyne, in his curious autobiography, declares it to be a mystery to him how he bore so much. What carried me forward," continues he, "was not ambition; any youthful dream of one day taking a place, or aiming to take one, among the learned. It is true, the bitter feeling of debasement, of deficiency in education and external polish, the consciousness of awkwardness in social life, incessantly accompanied me. But my chief strength lay in a certain defiance of Fate. This gave me courage not to yield, everywhere to try to the uttermost whether I was doomed without remedy never to rise from this degradation." From his teachers he derived but little assistance, for they were men of very inferior capacity, and wholly unable to satisfy an intellect so craving and eager as that of Heyne's. He was compelled to trust



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AND A TRUE GENTLEMAN. 99 man,' says his nephew, Sir Lawrence Peel, "he loved money; but he loved it principally as an instrument of power. He was the very reverse of a selfish man. He possessed a genial, generous nature; he loved young people, and loved to see all around him happy. He was eager to diffuse happiness; he was at all times bountiful and munificent in his gifts. As his possessions were great, it was his duty to give largely; but still, even so viewed, his was a bountiful hand. He dealt with money as one who, if he knew its value, with how much toil and anxiety it had been won by him, felt also that God has impressed wealth with a trust, and that the trustee must pass his accounts. He gave much, and by preference he gave in secret. He gave also with delicacy of manner, and the nice feelings of a gentleman. His was no narrow or one-sided beneficence; he knew no distinction of politics or creed when a man needed help. He was a moral and religious man. He was grave in exterior, yet a humorous man, .with a quiet relish of fun. He had small respect for a man of idle life-for any one, in short, who was not useful; and neither fashion nor rank, without good service of some sort, won any allegiance from him. He was. the true child of commerce; the productive industry of England, its value and its power-these were his abiding themes." Emphatically did the boy make the man in the case of Robert Peel's eldest son, the illustrious statesman. When-he was born, his father, fell on



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60 WHAT HE STUDIED. artistic propensities continued to manifest themselves in his leisure hours. He loved to lie on the greensward, and watch the play of light and shadow on the distant hills; or the deepening hues of heaven, as the sun went down into the western main; or those changing effects of mist and rain and sunshine, which make the glory of the Scottish dales. His quick eye also delighted in the lurid glow of the smithy, its masses of darkness, and the weird glare hovering about the persons of its sturdy inmates. He was never weary of drawing; he sketched everything; men and women, with those bold marked features generally observable in the Scotch peasantry; boys and girls; the village-donkey;, the village-dog; tramps with their wallets; soldiers in resplendent uniforms; the elders of the kirk; the eccentric bodies" of the neighbouring hamlets; nothing characteristic, humorous, or sharply defined, escaped his notice, and what he observed he reproduced with wonderful fidelity. He was not particular about his materials. A burnt stick and a barn-door often served him instead of brush and canvas. He would cover with his sketches the walls of the manse, or the smooth sand by the river-side. So that, despite his father's aversion to a profession which seemed to him a flagrant contradiction of the second commandment, it was evident that David could only be an artist, that it was his special vocation, and in no other would his talents have free play or his heart satisfy its aspirations.



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102 JOHN LEYDEN. towards a noble purpose-to scorn delights, and live laborious days-to reverence truth and honour as the standard of our every action-to persevere in well-doing, even unto the end. "What is a man," says Shakspeare,"What is a man If his chief good and market of his time Be but to sleep and feed ? A beast, no more Sure, he that made us with such large discourse, Looking before, and after, gave us not That capability and God-like reason To rust unused." John Leyden, the author of Scenes of Infancy," -was not the man to let his weapons rust unused;" and in a season of faint-heartedness the young will find an encouragement in the story of his brave ,earnest life. It is fresh and wholesome; like a mountain breeze, or the breath of the rolling ocean. He was the son of a shepherd in Roxburghshire, and taught to read by his grandmother. Under her care his progress was rapid, and the insatiable love of knowledge, which burned in him like a consuming fire, showed itself at a very early period. His attention was soon attracted by the historical books of the Old Testament, whose perusal led him to read the Bible with ever-increasing interest. One or two popular books on Scottish history next fell into his hands, and he read with enthusiasm of the gallant deeds done in the old time by gallant men. Having exhausted the few volumes which made up his father's library, he went further afield, and rifled the



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JOHN LEECH. 79 who had done them, he sent that of Giotto also, relating the manner in which he had made the circle, without compass or motion of his arm; from which fact the Pope, and such of the courtiers as were well versed in the subject, perceived how far Giotto surpassed all the other painters of his time. The natural bias and bent of a man's genius can never be wholly repressed; and it is unwise to waste our powers on a career to which they are not naturally adapted. What a loss would have been the world's had John Leech continued in the medical profession, for which he was originally intended! How much wit, and tender wisdom, and felicitous satire of vulgar and vicious pretension shquld we have missed, had he felt pulses and examined tongues, instead of noting the ways and manners of his time, and criticising the follies of his fellows! The inclination of his genius towards art was early manifested. While attending the medical lectures at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, he was wont to cover his note-book with happy caricatures of his professors and fellow-students. He came before the public whenhe was only eighteen, and was not five and twenty when he commenced that fortunate connection with Punch which has ensured his own fame, and which did so much for the success of that popular periodical. But again I say, we must be careful that we do not mistake the direction of our talents. Not every lad that scribbles caricatures of his schoolfellows has in



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LEARN TO SUFFER AND BE STRONG. 155 Highly to be commended is that moral courage which triumphs over the cares and anxieties of the world, over calumny and detraction, over want and poverty-the last one of the sorest ills which can beset the aspiring student. When contrasting the educational appliances of modern times with the lack of all utilities and the plenitude of miseries which hampered the scholars of the medieval period, I am astonished that the latter could accomplish so much, and regard with reverent admiration the labours of those pioneers of knowledge. It has been justly said that before the Reformation a schoolin Germany, for instance-was rather a place of punishment than of education. "It was the worst house in the town; the walls and floors were filthy; wind, rain, and snow beat in through the doorways and unglazed window-spaces; the children were covered with vermin, and half-naked. There were few books, and the scholar had frequently to write out his own copy. The Latin was monkish and barbarous; the grammar no better; the teacher often worse than either. There was no system, but a scramble for learning, where the strongest came off best. A lad was often twenty before he understood his grammar, or could speak a word or two of such Latin, as was then in vogue. The elder boys, or Bacchanten, tyrannized over the younger, or Schutzen -an elaborate and cruel system of fagging. A Bacchant would have three or four fags, who .begged and stole for him, though they were sometimes so



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THE 1REAL USE OF KNOWLEDGE. 111 national wealth, and the general social prosperity have attained to those colossal proportions which now excite the wonder of every thoughtful observer. Mind is so closely knitted to mind, that the theories of the philosopher are built upon the facts-accumulated by the experimentalist. We cannot always trace, the links of the electric chain, but we know that they are, or the fire of heaven would never have flashed from end to end. Without a Galileo and a Tycho Brahe there would be no Kepler. Had Homer never sung of Troy, what glorious poets would probably have gone silent to the grave 1 In this light it will be well that the student should frequently regard his occupation. The thought will take him out of his selfish solitude, and put him into communion with his fellows. It will widen his sympathies and ennoble his aspirations. He will feel that he is no unregarded unit in the great mass ot humanity, but connected with it by ties which are imperishable, because designed and sanctified by God. He will then appreciate 'the true uses of knowledge; will understand for what high object and in what exalted spirit it should be sought. He knows the restlessness of our ever-seeking intellects; that the world tempts our eye,"And we would know it all. We map the starry sky, We mine this earthen ball, We measure the sea-tides, we number the sea-sands:" and for the first time be will comprehend in what



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170 SEIZING FORTUNE BY THE FORELOCK. himself by his perseverance in the pursuit of knowledge, and his strict discharge of any duties or re.sponsibilities that devolved upon him. When he left the university he removed to London, and in due time began to practise as a "lawyer. And here he must have failed, and his future career become a blank, had he not possessed the highest moral courage and the most resolute -will. For many years he was without a client. He attended daily in the Court of King's Bench, but it was only to make a silent bow when called on 'to move.' He sat patiently at chambers, but no knock came to the door except that of a dun, or of .a companion as briefless, and more volatile. He Lchose the Western Circuit, which his father used to ride, and where it might have been expected that hiis name might be an introduction to him; but spring and summer, year after year, did he journey from Hampshire to Cornwall, without receiving fees to pay the tolls demanded of him at the turnpikeogates." This struggle with fortune continued for nine years. But Pratt's courage never gave way, -and at last the opportunity comes-that opportunity of which the Latin proverb says, If you seize her by the forelock, you may hold her; but if suffered to -escape, not Jupiter himself can catch her again.'' Pratt did not let it go by. A brief was offered him in a difficult case. He applied all his energies to the task, and profiting by the training and culture .of his youth, won a verdict, and established his



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IN VERVECHIO' S STUDIO. 57 ,i Ni I"till' -, 'C' < t,~ ~ R11 It W-E i' \ ... --... ... young Leonardo as his pupil, and in Vervechio's studio the boy-artist's productions excited general admiration. At the same time his wonderful pre-



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126 WE SHALL HAVE HIM." Nelson's comrade besought him to obey it, but in vain; his musket had flashed in the pan, their ammunition was expended, and a.chasm in the ice, which divided him from the bear, probably preserved his life. Never mind," he cried; do but let me get a blow at this brute with the butt-end of my musket, and we shall have him." The captain, however, seeing their danger, fired a gun from the ship, which had the effect of frightening the bear; and Nelson then returned, somewhat doubtful of the reception that would be accorded to him. He was severely reprimanded for his breach of discipline, and his commander then inquired what motive he could have for hunting a bear. Sir," said he, pouting his lip, as he was wont to do when agitated, "I wished to kill the beast that I might carry home his skin to my father." Nelson's own words afford the best commentary on his career: Thus," he says, "may be exemplified by my life that perseverance in any profession will most probably meet its reward. Without having any inheritance, or been fortunate in prizemoney, I have received all the honours of my profession, been created a peer of Great Britain; and I may say to the reader, Go thou and do likewise." One of the most illustrious of the many illustrious men whom Great Britain has sent forth to govern her Indian possessions was Warren Hastings. His life, as told by Macaulay, reads like the gorgeous fiction of a romancist rather than the story of a quiet



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124 WHAT IS FEAR? and consults his brother and his particular friends, till one fine day he finds that he is sixty years of age-that he has lost so much time in consulting his first cousins and particular friends, that he has no more time to follow their advice!" .In the following pages I intend to bring together some illustrations of courage, resolution, and heroic daring, in confirmation of the leading thesis of this little book--that as is our youth so is our manhood -that the Boy makes the Man. Every one knows the anecdotes of Nelson's early heroism. When a mere child, he strayed a-birds'nesting from his grandmother's home in company with a cow-boy. The dinner-hour elapsed; he was absent, and could not be found; and the alarm of the family became intense, for they feared he might have been carried off by the gipsies. At length, after a rigorous search, he was discovered alone, sitting composedly by the side of a brook which he could not cross. "I wonder, child," said the old lady when she saw him, that hunger and fear did not drive you home." "Fear, grandmamma," replied the future hero, "I never saw fear: what is it ?" Once, after the winter holidays, when he and his brother William had set off on horseback to return to school, they were driven back by a heavy snow-fall, and William, who did not relish the journey, said it was too deep for them to venture. "If that be the case," said their father, you certainly shall not go; but make another attempt, and





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132 THE CAPACITY TO COMMAND. made a great impression on the St. Wulstans irregulars. At another time two of the volunteers-one or them being the captain's own brother-being insubordinate under arms, were by his orders seized, tried by a drum-head court-martial, and sentenced. As the brothei' refused to submit to punishment, the commander, with Brutus-like sternness, ordered that he should be drummed out of the corps. This was instantly done, but in a disorderly manner, and with much jarring and hooting, so that the offender, tormented beyond endurance, suddenly whirled a large bag of marbles like a sling, cast Ihem into the crowd, and then charging, broke the drum, and forced one conspicuous bully to single combat: the fight was not interrupted, but the lad was overmatched, and so severely punished that the bystanders withdrew him, and, as he still refused to yield, generously restored him to the ranks. During these stirring proceedings Napier had maintained the dignity of command unmoved; but at home, in the evening, he anxiously sought to soothe his brother's wounded feelings, offering him all his most cherished possessions. This was an epitome, as his biographer remarks, of his whole life: stern in duty, compassionate in feeling, generous in temper, in all things unselfish. The control thus exercised over his schoolfellows cannot be regarded as an ordinary matter. Many of them verged on manhood, all were precocious in



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158 RIENZI THE ROMAN. imagination derived an extraordinary aliment. In the glowing records of Livy and Suetonius, Sallust and Tacitus, he found a magnificent picture of Olden Rome as she was under the Consulate-as she was under the Caesars-when her legions shook Europe with their triumphal tread-and her eagles flew victorious, from the Indus to the Seine. It was natural that his vivid fancy should contrast the past with the present, the Rome of Augustus with that of the Popes; the city of ruined palaces and shattered temples with the glorious capital which had echoed to the clang of triumphing warriors and blazed with the splendour of imperial pomp. From regretting the past he turned to dreaming of the future, and a bold conception took possession of his brain; he determined to restore to Rome her liberty and her glory. He, the son of an inn-keeper, aspired to rank in history with a Marius, a Sylla, a Julius, and an Augustus! And to this goal he pressed forward with dauntless resolution -never faltering, never doubting, never despairing-until the dream of the youth was realized by the man, and th6 shouts of the Roman multitude hailed him as their Deliverer and their Chief. I doubt whether the annals of historians record a more surprising instance of heroic enterprise. Thus it is that in all time the Boy makes the Man; and the inn-keeper's son gave full promise of the daring genius and inflexible will of Rienzi the Tribune. Courage-that moral courage which would walk



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64 A PURE AND HAPPY LIFE. no longer maintain his severity. He saw that his son would be-must be-a painter, and wisely resolved to aid him in following the strong bias of his genius. To what fame and prosperity Reynolds attained it is needless for us to state. He became the founder, in effect, of the English school of painting, and his portraits are deservedly prized as almost invaluable chefs-d'oeuvres. To the last he preserved his enthusiastic love of art, and cultivated his divine gift with the most sedulous care. His life was a pure and happy one. If his genius was brilliant, his virtues were many; and he well deserved the warm encomium of the poet :"His pencil was striking, resistless, and grand; His manners were gentle, complying, and bland; Still born to improve us in every part, His pencil our faces, his manners our hearts." The childhood of Goethe, the greatest German since Luther, was in admirable harmony with his later life. Pope said of himself, that"He lisped in numbers, and the numbers came." In like manner Goethe was a poet, a novelist, an essayist, from his earliest years. The love of beauty which coloured his genius and dominated over his tastes was so speedily manifested, that when but three years old he could be induced to play with none but pretty or becoming children. He listened to his mother's stories with the keenest interest, and would interrupt them when half told, that he might think out for them a denouement of his own. He



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"HE LISPS IN NUMBERS." 141 garden, or acting the battles of the Homeric heroes with whatever implements he could use as spear and shield, and reciting their several speeches from Pope's translation of the Iliad. He was from his earliest years exceedingly fond of ballad poetry, which his Winchester schoolfellows used to learn from his repetition before they had seen it in print; and his own compositions as a boy all ran in the same direction. A play of this kind, in which his schoolfellows were introduced as the dramatis personca, and a long poem of Simon de Montfort,' in imitation of Scott's 'Marmion,' procured for him at school, by way of distinction from another boy of the same name, the appellation of Poet Arnold. And the earliest specimen of. his composition which has been preserved is a little tragedy, written before he was seven years old, on 'Percy, Earl of Northumberland,' suggested apparently by Home's play of (Douglas.'" But he was most distinguished by his partiality for those studies-history and geography-which in after-life mainly occupied his attention. His remarkable powers of memory, extending to the exact state of the weather on particular days, or the exact words and position of passages which he had not seen for twenty years, showed itself very early, and chiefly on these subjects. One of the few recollections which he retained of his father was, that he received from him at three years old a present of Smollett's History of England," as a reward for the accuracy



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22 A ROYAL ACADEMICIAN. Passing rapidly, as I must do, over his eventful career, I find him, in 1822, scene-painter at Drury Lane Theatre, London, with an income which has risen to £250 per annum. Here his bold and faithiul efforts secured the applause of the public, while his pictures at the exhibitions attracted the admiration of connoisseurs. Year by year they grew in greater demand. Year by year he painted with greater force and faithfulness. He was able, in due time, to devote himself entirely to the higher branches of his art, and travelling in France and Spain, in Egypt, Syria, and the Holy Land, transferred his impressions of their wondrous beauty to -canvas which has surely become imperishable. It matters not with what materials genius works; it infuses into them something of its own immortal -spirit. You may grind a block of marble into dust; but give it into the sculptor's hands, and let him fashion out of it a Venus de Medicis! Thenceforth it is indestructible. Roberts in 1854 was elected a Royal Academician. He had thus attained to the foremost rank of his profession; he, the shoemaker's son, the housepainter's apprentice, the scene-painter to a travelling tcircus! Such a career seems to me replete with counsel and encouragement for the young. Not that all possess the genius of David Roberts, but that all may imitate his steady devotion to work, his courageous patience, his unflinching persistency. Not every lad who daubs his fingers with sepia and



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82 THE PURSUIT REPAYS ITSELF. muscles and purify our blood. And, oh, what a pleasure there is in the pursuit of Knowledge! No labour so surely repays itself; no toil that I know of earns so glorious and enduring a reward. It is not to be acquired without arduous pains and constant application, for, as an old writer says, it is troublesome and deep digging for pure waters; but when once the spring is reached, how the draught refreshes our soul and recruits our energies! It is the true Elixir Vitce, and secures for its possessor the joys of immortal youth. It is the Open Sesame of the Oriental fable, which unlocks for us the inexhaustible treasures of the Past. It is the magician's spell, which evokes for our special communion the spirits of the illustrious dead. It is the wing-to borrow Shakspeare's fine expression-with which we fly to heaven; on which, with soaring flight, we rise above the sordid earth, and roam among the stars. The value of knowledge has been appreciated by all great minds; and Mr. Craik, in a charming little work, has shown us that they have suffered no obstacles to daunt them in its attainment. Poverty might be supposed to operate as an insuperable barrier, for it deprives the student of the means of study-of the implements of his work-while depressing his energies and chilling his very soul. But no severity of fortune can oppress the fervent scholar, to whom his mind a kingdom is, and who finds in himself a sufficient resource when winds blow bleak



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X CONTENTS. Page topher North and his early years-Lost on the moorlandThe lost one found-Muckle Mou'd Meg-Influences which surrounded his boyhood-Coleridge's description of the Hill of Knowledge-Canning, the statesman-Finis coronat opus -Camden, the Lord Chancellor-Seizing fortune by the forelock-William Smith, the father of English geology-An old sea-king-How Sir Humphrey Gilbert met his deathWise laws and modern instances-The blade and the full corn in the ear....... ..... ...... ******** ** .122 CHAPTER V. EXAMPLES OF EARLY PIETY. The Culture of the Mind and the Discipline of the Heart-What is needed for a devout manhood-Cultivate your conscience -Never palter with the truth-The Duke of Wellington on truth-speaking-Sir Philip Sidney-Infinite value of truthfulness-Be generous-That is, Be a gentleman-A grand old name-What John Sterling counsels us-Keep good company-A man is known by his friendsA faithful friend is the medicine of life-The Book of books-Locke's saying -The book of Nature-How it should be read-" Is it so small a thing to have enjoyed the sun?"--Cultivate the habit of earnest Prayer-Examples of Doddridge, Luther, and others-Golden words from Jeremy Taylor-George Herbert's counsel-Lessons of heroic lives-Last Words ........ 178



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84 LUTHER TRE SINGER. scholars, while pursuing their studies at the universities, to earn their daily bread by singing before the houses of the rich and charitable; and it was thus that Luther supported himself during his residence at Eisenach. Let no one," he writes, "in my presence speak contemptuously of the poor fellows who go from door to door, singing and begging bread propter Deum. You know the psalm says, Princes and Kings have sung. I myself was once a poor mendicant, seeking my bread at people's houses, particularly at Eisenach, my own dear Eisenach I" It was while pursuing this wandering life that he attracted the attention of Dame Ursula Cotta, who was charmed by his sweet and gentle manner, as he stood beneath her window, singing his favourite psalm," God is my refuge and my strength." She took him into her house, and provided him with the means of support for a considerable period. Luther himself may be quoted as an example of studious application in youth. He was fourteen years old when he went to Eisenach, where he studied grammar, rhetoric, and poetry. He afterwards read most of the classics, and the writings of the schoolmen, Occam, Duns Scotus, and Thomas Aquinas. At the age of twenty, he obtained the degree of Master of Arts. In the monastery at Erfurt he excited general admiration in the public exercises by the facility with which he extricated himself from



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" YOUNG DAVY WILKIE." 59 countenance he individualized every hair on the eyebrows; in painting woven cloth he particularized each separate thread. And this almost painful fidelity was accompanied with an exquisite grace of expression and tenderness of feeling. So that we may accept the panegyric of Vasari as in no case exceeding the truth, when he says that Leonardo was in all things so highly favoured by nature, that to whatever he turned his thoughts, mind, and spirit, he gave proof in all of such admirable power and perfection that whatever he did bore an impress of harmony, truthfulness, goodness, sweetness, and grace, wherein no other man could ever equal him." Sir David Wilkie, the greatest name in Scotch Art, was the son of the Rev. David Wilkie, minister of Cults, in Fifeshire, where he was born on the 18th of November 1785. Young David was not one of those boys whose precocity makes them the oracle of their aunts and the terror of their household. He was even supposed to be miserably dull and irradicably stolid, and his master-the dominie of the village-school-reported that when he should have been studying grammar, arithmetic, and the use of the globes," he was covering his slate, or what chance bits of paper he could get hold of, with strange designs in pencil or colours. But this reproach was removed from him when he was placed, in 1797, in the school at Keith, then under the charge of Dr. Strachan, afterwards Bishop of Toronto; though his



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130 OMENS AND PREMONITIONS. He displayed his inflexible resolution at a very early age. A wandering showman, a wild-looking, ogre-like creature, short cf stature but huge of limb, semi-nude, with thick-matted red hair and beard, and a voice loud as Stentor's, was exhibiting his feats of skill and strength on the esplanade at Castleton. A crowd of people having gathered, the man, balancing a ladder on his chin, invited some of the bystanders to mount to the summit; but none consented. Charles Napier, then six years old, was asked by his father if he would venture. The brave boy immediately said, Yes," and was borne aloft to the sound of enthusiastic cheers. Again, at ten years of age, having caught a fish when angling, the boy was surprised by the sudden swoop .of a half-tamed eagle of great size and fierceness, which, whirling down from a tree, settled upon his shoulders, covered him with its huge dark wings, and snatched the fish from his hands. He .showed no fear, however, but on catching another fish held it up, inviting the eagle to try again, and at the same time menacing the formidable bird with the spearend of the rod. Plutarch, says Sir William Napier, who has written in eloquent language the biography of his gallant brother-would 'have drawn an omen from so singular an event. In the vicinity of the school at Albridge, where he was educated, existed another academy, called St. Wulstans, of higher pretensions as to learning and gentility, and essentially Protestant, as that of Al-



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A ROMANTIC SCHEME. 127 English-statesman, so startling are its incidents, so deep its shadows, and so vivid its contrasts. Enough for us, however, to point out those particulars in which the boy made the man, in which the village schoolboy of Daylesford shadowed forth the great Indian viceroy, who built up by his genius a mighty .empire. In youth, as in manhood, b4 displayed the same fixedness of purpose, the same steadiness of will, the same "equal temper of heroic hearts," which regarded the smiles of Fortune or her frowns with a cold and calm indifference. His family had long held possession of Daylesford, and its traditions had a peculiar charm for his imagination. He loved to hear stories of the wealth and splendour of his ancestors, of their magnificent housekeeping, their loyalty, and their valour. On one bright summer day," says Lord Macaulay, "the boy, then just seven years old, lay on the bank of the rivulet which flows through the old domain of his house to join the Isis. There, as threescore and ten years later he told the tale, rose in his mind a scheme which, through all the time of his eventful career, was never abandoned. He would recover the estate which had belonged to his fathers. He would be Hastings of Daylesford. This purpose, formed in infancy and poverty, grew stronger as his intellect expanded and as his fortune rose. He pursued his plan with that calm but indomitable force of will which was the most striking peculiarity of his character. When, under a tropical sun, he ruled fifty millions of Asiatics, his hopes,



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"70 THE WEAVER'S SON. subjects in a meritorious manner. He died, aged ,sixty, in 1670-a felicitous example of the success which rewards the well-directed application of even moderate talents. It would be easy to crowd the page with similar instances. Take the story of John Kupetzki, the Bohemian painter. Thesonof apoor weaver, he was destined to take his place at his father's loom, weaving woof -and warp, until he was fifteen years old. An innate consciousness that he was capable of higher aims then induced him to fare forth into the world, with no very certain knowledge of the goal to which his wandering steps would lead him. He endured much-contumely, opprobrium, hunger, sickness-and at length, starving and penniless, presented himself at the gate of a German nobleman to solicit alms. The noble took compassion on his youth and destitution, and allowed him to find shelter in his castle, where a Swiss painter named Claus was at "that time engaged in ornamenting some apartments. The young Kupetzki gazed with unbounded delight on the grace of form and beauty of colour now first revealed to his admiring eyes. A strange inspiration took possession of him. In the painter's absence he seized the brushes, and studied to imitate the attractive designs. After a while he succeeded, and with so much exactness, that his protector, discovering his secret employment, and ascertaining that he had never received a lesson or suggestion, was induced to place him under Claus as a pupil. The lad wrought



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THE BATTLE OF LIFE. 177 Duke of Wellington, when he looked at the Eton play-ground, saw there the training-place of the soldiers who won at Waterloo. Would that in every play -ground in the United Kingdom might be witnessed the arena of development of future heroes! Not to win Waterloo alone, but to contend successfully with error-to wage war against class prejudices-to battle with evil influences, and thus, by honest thought and earnest work, to diminish the mass of human suffering, sin, and sorrow! Boys!as boys be brave, and honourable, and true, that as men you may also be distinguished by Christian courage, chivalrous self-denial, and unquailing truthfulness; and aim, by noble living, to prove yourselves faithful followers of Him who was, indeed, without guile I A



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BIDING IIS TIME. 21 The visitor thought well enough of the caulkings to advise the apprenticeship of our laddie David to an ornamental house-painter, who employed him in grinding colours for twelve hours a-day at the munificent wage of two shillings weekly, raised in the following year to half-a-crown. He was harshly treated by his passionate master, and his energies were taxed to the uttermost; yet he continued to cultivate his artistic genius, devoting many an hour of the night to his lonely labours. When his apprenticeship was concluded, he joined a travelling circus as scene-painter, at a weekly salary of twenty-five shillings, but the proprietor failed, and Roberts again turned house-painter. He was conscious of powers which only required development to secure renown; but he was too wise to muse over useless ambition, and, turning to the work that lay nearest his hand, he did it with all his might, contented to bide his time." To some the time never comes-at least, in this world-but to our persevering patient young Scotchman it came after a weary trial. At Edinburgh he obtained an engagement as theatrical scene-painter, and formed an acquaintance, which ripened into a friendship, with Clarkson Stanfield, the great marine painter. From him he learned many useful artlessons, and at his instigation began to paint some small landscape pictures for exhibition, devoting half the night to this fearful joy after his hard day's work at the theatre.



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A DIVINE EXEMPLAR. 1154 the maladies of the soul. If you feel temptation. whispering in your ear, or beguiling your sight with those fair-seeming Dead Sea fruits which are all ashes and rottenness within, apply yourself instantly and vigorously to-Work. Spread before you the noble volumes which contain the thoughts and reasonings of philosophers, divines, historians, andpoets; endeavour to master the history of your race;. or follow up the subtle processes of scientific investigation; or, examine the wonderful facts which geology records; or drink in the inspiration of Milton or Shakspeare's song. Dr. Vaughan, in an able and beautiful essay, haspointed out that our Lord Jesus Christ was, above4 all men, diligent in business. "He had a calling upon earth, and He followed it earnestly. In early years, yes, until the age of thirty years, He worked as a carpenter in a shop at Nazareth. His own hands contributed to the support of an earthly homeand a human family. Oh, the depth of that condescension! 'Being in the form of God, He madehimself empty' of that glory, 'and took upon Him the form of a servant, and was made in the likeness. of men;' yes, made'in all points like as we are, save only. sin! Who can complain, after this, of the humility of his position, or of the irksomeness of his work on earth? The Saviour, who was also the Creator, occupied a mean village dwelling, and wrought in a workshop with His own hands, duringthirty precious years of that precious life. And



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154 THE LESSON OF A LIFE. and honour. His health becoming impaired, he paid a visit to the United States, occupying himself on the voyage with scientific inquiries. His object was to determine the height of the Atlantic waves. For this purpose he went on deck in the stormiest weather, and his apparently eccentric movements excited general surprise. For sometimes he stood on tiptoe on the paddle-box, sometimes he scrambled on the cuddy, sometimes he clung to the rigging; but his energy triumphed over every obstacle, and obtained the following results: that the height of the Atlantic waves is 43 feet; mean distance between each wave, 559 feet; width from crest to crest, 600 feet; interval of time between each wave, 16 seconds; swiftness of each wave per hour, 321 miles. After a life of noble industry, Dr. William Scoresby died at Torquay, in Devonshire, on the 21st of March 1857, aged sixty-eight. What lesson, then, may our readers derive from the illustrations we have placed before them? That as is the boy so is the man; and that a courageous, resolute, and energetic manhood can only be secured by cultivating the manly virtues in our youth; whereupon it may be said of us, as George Wilson said of a friend:"Thou wert a daily lesson Of courage, hope, and faith: "Thou wert so meek and reverent, So resolute of will; So bold to bear the uttermost, And yet so calm and still !"



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THE SOUL OF ART. 75 His mother, discerning her son's intellectual promise, but disregarding its evident bias, now formed the' ambitious hope of making him a priest. But Barry felt he had no call to the service of the altar. His soul was Art," and to Art he must devote his life, his brain, his mind. His father sternly opposed him. His mother, afraid that he would injure his health by intense application, stole away his candle. He had no money to buy books; the few he could borrow he transcribed with his own hand. But he never despaired. The brave soul never faltered; he worked, and studied, and mused, and painted; and, in the fulness of time, an abundant reward came-a reward which might well compensate for some of the sorrows of his later life. At a public exhibition of pictures in Dublin was hung his first matured production-" St. Patrick's Arrival on the Coast of Cashel." When the exhibition opened, Barry, with beating, aching heart, penetrated into the crowd. To his infinite delight, it quickly gathered around his picture, and murmurs of approval arose on every side. Suddenly the throng made way for one whose judgment none might dispute-the orator, statesman, and philosopher, Edmund Burke. He examined the composition closely; while all were hushed, and the blood seemed to stand still in its artist's veins. He praised it warmly, ungrudgingly. Who was the painter ? Where was he ? Then," says a writer, the youth felt the hot blood rushing to his brow. He, the unknown stranger, the ill-dressed pallid boy,



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" WISDOM IS MOST RICHES." 105 in the fields of knowledge prompting him to attempt another, he successively mastered French, Spanish, Italian, and German, was familiar with the ancient Icelandic, and studied Hebrew, Arabic, and Persian. .Though thus ambitious as a linguist, there were few departments of science that escaped his notice. He investigated moral philosophy with ardour; he threw himself earnestly into the study of mathematics, natural history, chemistry, mineralogy, and botany. He thought with Spenser"Wisdom is most riches ; fools therefore They are, which fortune do by vows devise, Since each unto himself his life may fortunize." And he sought to fortunize his life by the acquisition of every kind of knowledge. His application was incessant; and a retentive memory enabled him to accumulate and arrange the stores which lhe thus got ptssession of. He 'employed the vacations which he spent at home in methodizing and disposing of the information which he gained during his winter's attendance at college. As his father's cottage afforded little opportunity for studious seclusion, he was constrained to seek accommodation abroad. In a wild leafy hollow, the glen or den which gives name to the village of Denholm, he established a rude kind of furnace for the performance of his chemicaxperiments. His chief place of study, however, was the small parish-church, a gloomy and ancient building, generally reputed to be haunted. To this chosen



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174 THE FATE OF THE SQUIRREL." his companions reached the Azores in safety, but were shortly afterwards overtaken by a terrible tempest, and the tiny frigate-as he loved to call the Squirrel-was nearly overwhelmed by the rolling waves. The Golden Hind kept as close watch upon her as was possible in so fierce a gale, and her commander has recorded in his published narrative that he could observe Sir Humphrey sitting calmly in the stern, reading a book. He was heard to say, Courage, my lads! we are as near heaven by sea as by land." As night came on, the men of the Golden Hind watched with anxious eyes the little bark that still buffeted with the champing billows; but when the rosy morning dawnedon a calmer sea, she was no longer to be discerned, and never again did tidings of her fate come to living ears. Can we give to English boys better counsel than to live like Sir Humphrey Gilbert, that their last end-in its heroic composure-may be like his ? Resolution is the touch-stone of success. There was never a great man yet but was distinguished by an indomitable will. Consider well what step you are about to take, and having decided that it is wise and good, let no obstacle terrify, no blandishment dissuade you. In matters of great concern, says Archbishop Tillotson, and which must be done, there is no surer argument of a weak mind than irresolution. But you must not mistake obstinacy for resolution: this is the mark of a strong intellect, that of a feeble intellect. When James II. persisted in



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AN HEROIC SPIRIT. 133 thought and passion, and, like most boys, were ready to act without reflection, and at the dictate of impulse. The following incident is related in Napier's own graphic words:" When seventeen, I broke my right leg. At the instant there was no pain, but looking down I saw my foot under my knee, and the bones protruding; that turned me sick, and the pain became violent. My gun, a gift from my dear father, was in a ditch, leaping over which had caused the accident; I, scrambled near enough to get it out, but this lacerated the flesh, and produced much extravasated blood. George came to me; he was greatly alarmed, for I was very pale, and we were both young, he but fifteen. Then came Captain Crawford of the Irish Artillery, and I made him hold my foot while I pulled up my knee, and in that manner set my leg myself. The quantity of extravasated blood led the doctors to tell me my leg must come off, but they gave me another day for a chance. Being young, and vain of good legs, the idea of hop and go one, with a timber toe, made me resolve to put myself to death rather than submit to amputation, and I sent the maid out for laudanum, which I hid under my pillow. Luckily the doctors found me better, and so saved me from a contemptible [let us add, a criminal] action. Perhaps, if it had come to the point, I might have had more sense and less courage than I gave myself credit for in the horror of my



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" DEEP DIGGING FOR PURE WATERS." 103 shelves of the neighbouring peasants; thus. lighting upon "Sir David Lindsay's Poems," the ,wondrous Thousand and One Nights," "Milton's Paradise Lost," and Chapman's Translation of Homer." These filled his youthful heart with an impulse which never wholly died out. He was ten years of age before he had an opportunity of attending a public place of education, and even then his studies, were frequently interrupted, and their instructor was scarcely competent to guide so inquiring a mind aright. There was not a source of information within his reach, to which he did not toil to gain access. A companion, for example, says Sir Walter Scott, had met with an odd volume of the Arabian Nights' Entertainments," and gave an account of its contents, which excited Leyden's curiosity. This precious book was in the possession of a blacksmith's apprentice, who lived at several miles' distance from Denholm, and the season was winter. Through the deep snow, however, Leyden perseveringly plodded, and at dawn of day presented himself at the forge-door, requesting a perusal of the treasure in its owner's presence; for an unlimited loan he did not presume to ask. Unfortunately the blacksmith was not at home. He was engaged on some temporary employment at a considerable distance. Nothing daunted, Leyden proceeded thither. : He found the blacksmith; but this "son of Vulcan" was something of a churl, and, indisposed to impart his treasure, put off his youthful inquirer with a cold



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162 LOST ON THE MOORLAND. forgive her for the shrewd but cruel suspicion!) that we were Lord Eglinton's gamekeeper, with a sudden shrill cry, that thrilled to the marrow in our cold back-bone, flapped and fluttered herself away into the mist, while the little black bits of down disappeared into the moss. The croaking of the frogs grew terrible. And worse and worse, close at hand, seeking his lost cows through the mist, the bellow of the notorious red bull! We began saying our prayers-; and just then the sun forced himself out into the open day, and, like the sudden opening of the shutters of a room, the whole world was filled with light. The frogs seemed to sink among the pow-heads; as for the red bull who had tossed the tinker, he was cantering away, with his tail toward us, to a lot of cows on the hill; and hark-a long, a loud, and oft repeated halloo! Rab Roger, honest fellow, and Leizy Muir, honest lass, from the manse, in search of our dead body! Rab pulls our ears lightly, and Leizy kisses us from the one to the other, wrings the rain out of our long yellow hair (a pretty contrast to the small gray sprig now on the crown of our pericranium, and the thin tail acock behind); and by-and-by stepping into Hazel Deenhead for a drap and a chitterin' piece,' by the time we reach the manse we are as dry as a whistle-take our scold and our pawmies from the minister-and, by way of punishment and penance, after a little hot whiskytoddy with brown sugar, and a bit of bun, are toddled off to bed in the day-time."



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136 A CONTEST FOR LIFE. an instant, before the two parties coming up the road reached us: they did so, however, just as my struggle with the man who had wounded me was begun. That was a contest for life; and, being the stronger, I forced him between myself and his comrades, who appeared to be the men whose lives I had formerly saved when they pretended to be dead on our advance through the village. They struck me with their muskets clubbed, and bruised me much; whereupon, seeing no help near, and being overpowered by numbers, and in great pain from my wounded leg, I called out, Je me rend remembering the expression correctly from an old story of a fat officer, whose name being James, called out, 'Jemmy Round !' Finding they had no disposition to spare me, I kept hold of the musket, vigorously defending myself with the body of the little Italian who had first wounded me, but soon grew faint, or rather tired. At that moment a tall dark man came up, seized the end of the musket with his left hand, whirled his brass-hilted sabre round, and struck me a powerful blow on the head, which was bare, for my cocked hat had fallen off." Expecting the blow would kill him, Napier had lowered his head in the hope it might chance to fall on his back, or, at least, on the thickest part of his head, and not on the left temple; and so it happened. The crash, however, smote fire from his eyes, and he fell on his knees, blinded, yet without quite losing his senses, and still clinging to the



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NELSON AND THE BEAR. 125 I will leave it to your honour. If the road is really dangerous, you may return; but remember, boys, I leave it to your honour." The snow was deep enough to have afforded them a reasonable excuse, but Horatio could not be prevailed upon to return. "We must go on," said he; brother, remember it* was left to our honour !" In the schoolmaster's garden grew and ripened some pears of a superior kind, which were in the highest degree inviting, and by the boys regarded as lawful booty. Yet even the boldest among them were afraid to snatch the prize. Horatio volunteered upon the desperate service: his schoolmates lowered him from the bedroom window by some sheets; he plundered the trees; was drawn up, loaded with fruit, and then distributed it among his schoolfellows, without reserving any for himself. I only took them," said he," because every other boy was afraid." Having accompanied Captain Phipps in his expedition to the North Pole, he and a comrade on one occasion were missing from their ship, which at the time lay imbedded among the ice-floes. They started over the ice in pursuit of a bear. A thick fog came on, and the captain and hig officers grew alarmed for the safety of the truants. Between three and four in the, morning the weather dleared, and the two adventurers could be discerned, at a con-siderable distance from the ship, attacking a huge bear. A recall signal was immediately hoisted.



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86 ONE'S HEART IN ONE'S WORK. own mill went perfectly well, pointed out, after a rapid examination, both the fault and the remedy. Being intended for the Church, he was placed at the Exeter Grammar School, where he distinguished himself by his rapid acquisition of knowledge, while still retaining his attachment to mechanical pursuits. At, the age of eighteen he entered at Oxford, where he took the degree of B.A., and first conceived the, idea of compiling a System of Divinity, to consist of selections from the best writers. For this purpose he began to collect, in a common-place book, such passages as he thought would suit his purpose. On leaving college he received the curacies of Moreton and Lastleigh, the latter bringing him a yearly stipend of £40. In the year 1786 he published, by subscription, six volumes of sermons, as a species of introduction to his proposed work; but as many of the subscribers never paid for their copies, he found himself indebted to his printer upwards of £100. This disaster did not discourage him; he proceeded with his magnum opus, but when the voluminous manuscript was finished, discovered that the cost of printing it would exceed £2000. He attempted to obtain subscribers for it, but failed in the attempt, and then, with characteristic perseverance, resolved on becoming his own printer. He accordingly constructed a press, and from an Exeter printer purchased a quantity of old and worn-out types. With infinite labour, and astonishing energy, he pursued his self-imposed task as pressman and



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v i PREFACE. A recent essayist, speaking of what are called Boys' Books," justly condemns the prevalent tendency to overrate and exalt mere worldly success. I trust that no such error will be found to pervade my teaching. I have sought to place before my young readers a purer ideal, and to raise for their guidance a higher standard. My maxim has been, throughout, that all true virtue lies "In the struggle, not the prize;" and that the refinement of mind, the elevation of thought, the inexhaustible store of pleasant fancies, the tenacity of purpose, the strength of will, which result from a life of energetic and well-directed labour, are in themselves the best and most satisfactory rewards of that labour. I have also endeavoured to enforce the truth of the old monkish adage, Laborare est orare-Work is prayer; and to show that he most truly and devoutly does the will of God who honestly, and with all his capacity, fulfils the duties of his particular vocation. In this, I believe, there is a true morality and a wise religion. Thus do I cast my bread upon the waters, in the hope it-will be found by some young and inquiring spirit after many days. W. H. D. A.



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52 CHANTREY THE SCULPTOR. neighbouring town of Sheffield, to serve his mother's customers with milk. When he grew older he was placed in the shop of a Sheffield grocer, but manifested an invincible repugnance to the trade. As yet he had not discovered the secret of his own powers, but happening to pass a carver's shop one day, he was attracted by the graceful handiwork exposed for sale, and implored his friends to apprentice him to a carver. He was accordingly bound for seven years. His genius now developed itself. He devoted all his spare hours to carving, modelling, drawing, and soon acquired a mastery over painting in oils. Betaking himself to London, he hired a room over a stable as a studio, and there modelled his first original work for exhibition. It was a gigantic head of Satan. Flaxman saw it, admired it, and recommended its sculptor to execute four busts of admirals for the Greenwich Hospital. This commission led to others, and the brave strong man saw himself on the highway to fortune. In the Place de St. Izaak, at St. Petersburg, stands an equestrian statue of the famous founder of the city, Peter the Great, which never fails to rivet the attention of the stranger from its air of majesty and grandeur. Its sculptor was Etienne Falconet, a native of Paris, and the son of indigent parents, who could afford him no other education than the mere rudiments of reading and writing. Ere he had half spent his childhood, he was apprenticed to a carver in wood, who.se principal occupation



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164 ONLY TWO FAULTS. burning priming, and to another of hanging fire; habits of which it was impossible, for us at least, to break her by the most assiduous hammering of many a new series of flints; but such was the high place she justly occupied in the affection and admiration ot us all, that faults like these did not in the least detract from her general character. Our delight when she did absolutely and positively and bona fide 'go off,' was in proportion to the comparative rarity of that occurrence; and as to hanging firewhy, we used to let her take her own time, contriving to keep her at the level as long as our strength sufficed, eyes shut, perhaps, teeth clenched, face girning, and head slightly averted over the right shoulder, till 'Muckle-mou'd Meg,' who, like most other Scottish females, took things leisurely, went off at last with an explosion like the blowing up of a rock." If we would see the future poet and critic at a further stage of boyhood, engaged in rougher and more exciting pastime, we must go back to the glorious epoch of the Snow-ball Bicker of Pedmount,' a quite Homeric episode, to which no extract could do aught like justice. Those who would obtain a just idea-a vivid conception-of his boyish life, in all its exuberance of mirth, fancy, feeling, and en ergy, must turn to the graphic pages of the Recreations of Christopher North," few of which but contain some tender and picturesque reminiscences of his early days. Not that they must always be understood quite literally; something of imagination in-



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THE HERO-BOY. 43 that we can conquer circumstance, and wrest the prize from the hands of unwilling Fortune. From the stirring records of chivalry we might borrow many illustrations of our theme, for its heroes were men of muscle, decision, and steadfast will. Such an one was Gaston de Foix, named, for his successes in war, the "Thunderbolt of Italy;" and who, though he perished prematurely on the fatal field of Ravenna, is ranked by all competent judges among the most illustrious European captains. His memory, says Roscoe, has seldom been adverted to, even by the Italians themselves, without the highest admiration and applause. Byron speaks of him as "The hero-boy, Who lived too long for men, but died too soon For human vanity." In his last fight-it was Easter-day, April 11, 1512--this Hero-Boy comported himself like a veteran warrior; and when,. overborne by press of numbers, he was smitten from his horse, and flung to the earth dead, his body was pierced with full twenty wounds! He had led the charge against the hosts of the Spaniard, shouting, He that loves me, follow me!" and his plumed helm shone, like a star, in the thickest of the battle, an encouragement and a rallying-point to his soldiers. He was only twenty-three when he thus met with a hero's death; but in his brief career he had never attempted aught in which he had not succeeded. No obstacle could



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140 ARNOLD OF RUGBY. of a single man. This bold achievement was justly described by the Duke of Wellington as "one ot the most curious military feats which he had ever known to be performed, or ever perused an account of in his life." Such was Sir Charles Napier, the hero of Scinde," "Great in strategy, chivalrous in courage, careful of the soldier's life and prodigal of his own, inflexible in physical endurance, untiring in industry, sagacious in government, beneficent in his aim, stern in his integrity, and strong in his affections, he presents a combination of which there are few such examples in the history of the world." Let us turn to a man whose world-career was very different, but whose resolution was not less, and his moral intrepidity equally remarkable--Dr. Arnold, the Roman historian, and the successful head-master for many years of famous Rugby $chool. He, too, was a striking illustration of the saying that the Boy makes the Man. It is curious, says his biographer, Dean Stanley, to trace the beginnings of some of his later interests in his earliest amusements and occupations. "He never lost the recollection of the impression produced upon him by the excitement of naval and military affairs, of which he naturally saw and heard much by living at the Isle of Wight in the time of the war against Napoleon; and the sports in which he took most pleasure with the few playmates of his childhood were in sailing rival fleets in his father's



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" STARRY GALILEO." 109 It was erected; and, still walking under, Meet some new matter to look up and wonder Such notes are virtuous men They live as fast As they are high ; are rooted, and will last?" The early life of Byron's starry Galileo" is an interesting illustration of industry winging the flight of genius. Owing to his father's straitened circumstances, he was educated under considerable disadvantages; yet his diligence overmastered the difficulties in his path, and besides acquiring the elements of classical literature, he initiated himself into all the learning of his age. Like most great experimental philosophers, he spent what time he could in the construction of instruments and models of machinery, partly for his own amusement, and partly for that of his schoolfellows. Yet his leisure was scanty; for when his regular studies were finished, he devoted himself to the arts of music and painting, and attained to such a considerable degree of proficiency,. that he could play skilfully on several instruments, while "his knowledge of pictures," says Sir David Brewster, "was held in great esteem by some of the best artists of his day." Having commenced the study of geometry, it had such a fascination for him that he counted all time as lost which was not applied to this pursuit. His diligence soon carried him through the elementary works, and then he boldly grappled with the writings of Archimedes. He proceeded step by step with such persistent ardour, that in his twenty-fifth



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AT THE BATTLE OF CORUNNA. 135 Fate their willing slave. His contempt for danger and scorn of pain were heroic; far more heroic than the impassibility of the North American Indian r when tortured by his victorious enemies, because they sprang from no feeling of pride, but from a lofty sense of duty. Let us see what he underwent at the battle of Corunna. It was near the close of that memorable day. Napier had received one wound--a musket-ball having broken the small bone of his leg some inches above the ankle-and, followed by four of his men, was endeavouring to make his way back to the British lines, when intercepted by a small body of the French. "The Frenchmen," he says, "had halted, but now ran on to us; and just as I shouted and sprang to meet them, the wounded leg failed, and I felt a stab in the back: it gave me no pain, but felt cold, and threw me on my face. Turning to rise, I saw the man who had stabbed me making a second thrust; whereupon, letting go my sabre, I caught his bayonet by the socket, turned the thrust, and, raising myself by the exertion, grasped his firelock with both hands, thus in mortal struggle regaining my feet. His companions had now come up, and I heard the dying cries of the four men with me, who were all bayoneted instantly. We had been attacked from behind by men not before seen, as we stood with our backs to a doorway, out of which must have rushed several men, for we were all stabbed in



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20 OUR LADDIE DAVID. is universal; she denies her favours to none; perhaps she is most liberal to those who stand in greatest need of them. At all events, Roberts in his early years was not surrounded by an atmosphere calculated to foster a love of art. In him it was innate, and the artistic bias developed itself under the most unfavourable circumstances. The son of a poor shoemaker, he was born at Stockbridge, a suburb of Edinburgh, in 1796. His first education was received at a dame's school, who charged threepence per week for her instructions, and, it may be, valued them at their just rate. He was next placed under a rough dominie, whose great weapon was a thick cane, and who, by his cruel treatment, gave Roberts'an antipathy to book-learning for the remainder of his life. Meanwhile, he amused his leisure moments by drawing rude figures of lions and snakes, copied from the sketches which he had seen exhibited outside certain travelling menageries. For canvas he used the white-washed kitchen wall, and for brush and colours a lump of red chalk. These gruesome things," however, were touched with so much vigour that a gentleman who called on some errand connected with his father's trade inquired the name of their artist. "Hoot," said Mrs. Roberts, with true maternal pride, "it's just our laddie David. He's been up the Mound seeing a wild beast show, and he's caulked them there to let me see them."



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tnbt x. ACTION, its value, 32. Arnold, Dr., of Rugby, notice of, Adams, President, anecdote of, 140, 143, 176. 30-32. Arnold, Matthew, quoted, 120. Adolphus, Gustavus, reference to, Bacon, Lord, reference to, 48; 189. quoted, 80. lEsop, reference to, 44. Barry, James, early struggles of, Alfred, King, daily prayers of, 189. 72-76. Andersen, Hans Christian, early Bentham, Jeremy, quoted, 45. life of, 26-30. Bias of talents, examples of, 46-80. Anecdotes of Richard Burke, 11; Bible, study of the, 185. James Ferguson, 13; Alexander Bickersteth, ienry, allusion to, 33. Mprray, 13; Giardini, 14; Dr. Bidder, anecdotes of, 18, 19. Young, 15; Sebastian Gomez, Biography, examples from con16; Bidder, 18; David Roberts, temporary, 175; value of, 101. 19-24; Adams, 30; Christian Bonaparte, Napoleon, anecdotes Heyne, 34 ; Thorvaldsen, 46; of, 149. Blaise Pascal, 47; Juan di PaBoy, the Calculating. See Bidder. reja, 68; James Opie, 71; James Burke, Edmund, anecdote of, 76. Barry, 75; Giotto, 77 ; Erasmus, Burke, 'Richard, referred to, 11. 83; Samuel Johnson, 83; Martin Burns, reference to, 44. Luther, 84; Palissy the potter, Buxton, Sir T. Fowell, quoted, 58. 90; John Knox, 93; John LeyByron quoted, 43, 157. den, 102; Lord Nelson, 124-126; Canning, George, early life of, Sir Charles Napier, 129-138; 167-169. Lord Exmouth, 145; Lord Clive, Carlyle quoted, 38, 40, 41, 101. 146; General Neill, 146; General Chantrey, the sculptor, anecdote Nicholson, 147; Sir John Malof, 51. colm, 148; Professor Wilson, 160; Chaucer quoted, 181. Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 172. Clarendon, Lord, quoted, 33. Application, necessity of, 13; its Clive, Lord, in his youth, 145, potency, 24, 94, 112. 146. Arkwright, Sir Richard, reference Coleridge, Justice, quoted, 142, to, 44. 143.



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180 MAGNA EST VERITAS. on which he dwelt was his implicit truthfulness. "In the whole course of my communication with him,". said the Duke, "I never knew an instance in which he did not show the strongest attachment to truth; and I never saw in the whole course of all my life the smallest reason for suspecting that he stated anything which he did not firmly believe to be the fact." And, in like manner, Tennyson, our greatest living poet, when pouring forth a panegyric on Wellington himself, specially extols him as the man Who never sold the truth to serve the hour." Truth-teller," he exclaims,"Truth-teller was our England's Alfred named; Truth-lover was our English Duke; Whatever record leap to light, He never shall be shamed." Sir Philip Sidney, the English Bayard, was also characterized by an ardent love of truth; and hence he was regarded with such honour and such reverence that men esteemed his friendship a priceless guerdon, and Lord Brooke would have no other epitaph than-" Here lieth the friend of Sir Philip Sidney." Almost all great men have been truthful; and the prime element of the first Napoleon's downfal was his lack of this grand virtue. He was false at heart, and no man trusted him. Therefore, when he endeavoured to purchase popular support by making concessions, he utterly failed, because it was felt



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A F AI RY STORY-TELLER. 27 touches have a peculiar refinement and gracefulness; while he conveys a sage counsel or a word of truth with so much wealth of illustration and delicacy of colouting, that one feels charmed and delighted by the form while insensibly bettered by the meaning. My readers may not know his higher efforts-such as The Improvisatore," with its glowing pictures of Italy, and his Only a Fiddler," with its vivid sketches of northern manners-but assuredly they have sympathized with the sorrows of The Ugly Duckling," and laughed at the fun and frolic of Soup on a Sausage Peg." Never was career better calculated than Andersen's to inspire and encourage industrious youth. His life is a record of triumph over apparently insuperable difficulties. He was the son of a poor shoemaker, whose earnings barely sufficed to provide his family with bread. While Hans was yet a child, his father died, and left him to the charge of a sorrow-stricken mother. Surrounded by penury, by wretchedness, by want, the flame of his genius nevertheless burned bright and clear, and the poetry of his soul clothed his mean condition with a certain splendour, as a torch light kindles up the gloom and noisomeness of a mine. He made verses at twelve years of age, and in his native town of Odense -acquired quite a reputation. All his leisure hours he spent in reading, or in those solitary musings which are the poet's happiness. But neither verse-making nor dreaming can keep the wolf from the door. It was requisite that Hans



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BLAISE PASCAL. 47 Through the clay and the rock the fountain bubbles: up into a sunshine. Thus, Gainsborough and Bacon were the sons of' cloth-workers, Ingr6s was a coachpainter, and our own Maclise a banker's apprentice at Cork; Opie and Romney, like Inigo Jones, were carpenters; Clarkson Stanfield painted theatrical scenes for a few shillings weekly; Northcote was. a watchmaker, Jackson a tailor, and Etty a printer; Reynolds, Wilson, and Wilkie, were the sons of clergymen; Lawrence was the son of a publican, and Turner of a barber. Our readers will have heard of Blaise Pascal, the, eminent French mathematician, and author of those famous Lettres Provinciales which so powerfully exposed the corruptions of the Jesuit order. He was born at Clermont, in the province of Auvergne in France, on the 19th. of June 1623. His father, Stephen Pascal, held an important official appointment as President of the Court of Aids in Auvergne. When he was only three years of age he lost his mother, and his father then resolved to retire from public life, and wholly devote himself to his son's education. But he neglected the heart while cultivating the mind, and being himself addicted to scientific pursuits, rejoiced in the proofs which young Pascal gave of precocious talent. Having surrendered his office in Auvergne to a brother, he removed to, Paris when Blaise was in his eighth year, and continuing his sole teacher, fostered with the utmost care his nascent genius. He carefully kept back,.



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WORK IN PRAYER. 119 activity which not only invigorates the mind, but actually gives strength and tone to the physical system. I have thus demonstrated, in the preceding.pages, the infinite value and manifold uses of knowledge. I have shown its true excellence as a mental stimulant, and the inestimable boon it becomes in our days of gloom and weariness. -I have pointed out that the diligence of the individual acts not only for himself but for the many, and that the scholar in his solitary study is connected with society by a thousand mysterious links, which render his welldoing a matter of social importance. I have dwelt oi the true goal of human labour,"Let each one's life aim some one end,"and that end the addition of a stone to the cairn, of a figure to the great sum total of human happiness, "By using all things of our own For others' good, not to ourselves alone." I have sought to impress on the reader's mind the plain truth that work is prayer, that we best serve God by doing whatever our hands find to do with all our might, and that we may ennoble that work by noble aspirations.. Finally, it has been my desire to show that earnest application and laborious diligence are a cure for despondency, a preventative against temptation, a solace for sorrow, and a source of the purest and most lasting pleasure. Acting upon the maxims here laid down, and stimu/



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50 THE END PROVES THE WORK. By accident Stephen Pascal entered his son's playroom. When he discovered what had been the occupation of his leisure hours his admiration was equal to his surprise, and he burst into tears of joyful emotion. The prohibition was immediately removed, and Pascal left to follow the bent of his natural genius. He soon gained a distinguished position among the mathematicians of the age. When scarcely sixteen years old he was admitted a member of a Parisian society for the cultivation of mathematics. And his after-life in all things fulfilled his youthful promise, so that a great authority has pronounced upon him the following eulogy:-" The orator admires in him a model of eloquence, the critic confesses him the most elegant of writers, and the man of science the profoundest of mathematicians." In Blaise Pascal, then, the child was father of the man; and the genius that budded in his youth crowned his manhood with a wreath of imperishable glory. William Etty furnishes another example of the influence which an over-mastering love of a particular pursuit invariably exercises upon a man's life and character. His father was a ginger-bread and spice-maker at York, and his mother, a clever and noble-hearted woman, the daughter of a rope-maker. Young Etty evinced a strong and fervent love of drawing at an early age. With a lump of chalk or a charred stick he covered all the available space on his father's floors, walls, and ceilings with drawings



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III. Ei(ampes of SBfn ians ^ plivaftn. "0 blessed letters that combine in one All ages past, and make one live with all; By you we do confer with who are gone, And the dead living unto council call." GEORGE DANIEL. TUDIES," says Lord Bacon, serve for delight, for ornament, and for ability. Their chief use for delight is in privateness and retiring; for ornament is in discourse; and for ability is in the judgment and disposition of business. For expert men can execute, and, perhaps, judge of particulars, one by one; but the general counsels and the plots and marshalling of affairs come best from those that are learned." From those that are learned,; yes, but a studious youth is the necessary preliminary to a learned manhood. A youth spent in well-directed and wellconsidered study, not in mere plodding; since the food must be digested, if it is to strengthen our (355) 6



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150 MIMIC MARTIAL ARRAY. animated by a spirit of restless enterprise, he was by ERE 7-, no means an inapt or inattentive scholar, and pursued his studies with very praiseworthy success. It happened, however, that on one occasion, when in his fourteenth year, he disagreed with his tutor on some





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A STOUT HEART TO A STEEP BRAE. 171 reputation. This (r first case proved the fruitful parent of a hundred lmore, and opened up to Pratt the road to a peerage it and the woolsack. As Lord Camden he will long be honoured among s British statesmen. There was once an Oxfordshire / boy, brought up f by his uncle, a small farmer, who was continually incurring censure for his wandering habits. He was pronounced by his neighbours little better than an idiot, from his love of collecting pebbles, "poundstones," pundips," and other stony curiosities which lay scattered about the adjoining land. The lad, however, persevered; his observation. was keen and accurate, his memory retentive, and in spite of discouragement and difficulty, he accumulated a considerable store of information. He began to draw, attempted to colour, studied mensuration and surveying, and eventually was engaged as an assistant to a local surveyor of ability and repute. He kept a stout heart to a steep brae, and, like all self-possessed