A book of favourite animals

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Material Information

Title:
A book of favourite animals domestic and wild
Uncontrolled:
Favorite animals
Book of favorite animals
Favourite animals
Physical Description:
64 p. : ill. ; 16 cm.
Language:
English
Creator:
Austen, Adelaide
William P. Nimmo & Co ( Publisher )
Morrison and Gibb ( Printer )
Publisher:
William P. Nimmo & Co.
Place of Publication:
Edinburgh
Manufacturer:
Morrison and Gibb
Publication Date:

Subjects

Subjects / Keywords:
Animals -- Anecdotes -- Juvenile literature   ( lcsh )
Juvenile literature -- 1881   ( rbgenr )
Bldn -- 1881
Genre:
Juvenile literature   ( rbgenr )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Spatial Coverage:
Scotland -- Edinburgh

Notes

Statement of Responsibility:
by Adelaide Austen.
General Note:
Cover: Favourite animals.
Funding:
Preservation and Access for American and British Children's Literature, 1870-1889 (NEH PA-50860-00).

Record Information

Source Institution:
University of Florida
Holding Location:
Baldwin Library of Historical Children's Literature in the Department of Special Collections and Area Studies, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management:
All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida.
Resource Identifier:
aleph - 001624931
oclc - 25660844
notis - AHP9606
System ID:
UF00026204:00001

Full Text
This page contains no text.


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--------------------ABook of Favourite Animals,DOMESTIC AND WILD.BY ADELAIDE AUSTEN,Author o/' Noble 7oe,' ,cEDINBURGHWILLIAM P. NIMMO & CO.1881.


MORRISON ANJ GIBE, EDINBURGH,PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.


CONTENTSPAGRPREFACE, 5I. THE HORSE, 7II. THE MULE, 19III. THE ASS, 22IV. THE OX AND THE COW, 25V. THE SHEEP, 29VI THE CAT, 34VII. THE DOG, 42VIII. THE LION, 48IX. THE TIGER, 54X. THE ELEPHANT, 59


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PREFACE.IN compiling this little volume, I have toacknowledge the assistance of various valu-able works on Natural History. Also,Anecdotes of Dogs, by the Rev. CharlesWilliams, M.A., and Mr. Pardon's Storiesabout Animals, to both of which books Iam indebted for many of the anecdoteshere related.A. A.


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THE HORSE.E horse is the pet of all pets,and one of our favourite domesticanimals. Without doubt he is themost useful, noble, and persevering of thelower creation; and anecdotes without num-ber have been recorded of his high qualitiesin all ages. Horses are supposed to havebeen quite unknown in the new world,till introduced by the Spaniards; but theymultiplied rapidly in the vast deserts ofthat continent, where they ran wild ingreat troops of hundreds together. Theinhabitants employed themselves in catch-ing them by nooses made of rope, and,after taming them, forced them to work.Of all countries in the world, Arabia hasproduced the most beautiful breed of horses,and there the art of riding has been carried7


8 l HE HORSE.to great perfection. The Arabs are a wah-dering race, who have no houses, but livein tents, which they shift at pleasure. How-ever poor they may be, they have horses,which they treat as their own family; andthe children may often be seen playing withand caressing the gentle animals. Theynever beat their horses, but speak to themas friends, and never attempt to increasetheir speed with the spur but in cases ofnecessity. The horse is capable of strongattachment to his master; and many anec,dotes are related in proof of this quality,and also of his sagacity.A farmer, living in the neighbourhood ofBedford, was returning home from marketone evening in the year 1828, and beingsomewhat tipsy, rolled off his saddle into themiddle of the road. His horse stood still;but after remaining patiently for some time,and not observing any disposition on thepart of his rider to get up and proceedfurther, he took him by the collar andshook him. This had little or no effect, forthe farmer only gave a grumble of dissatis-faction at having his repose disturbed. The


THE HORSE. 9animal was not to be put off by any such eva-sion, however, and applied his mouth to oneof his master's coat-laps, and after severalattempts, by dragging at it, to raise himupon his feet, the coat-lap gave way. Threeindividuals, who witnessed this extraordinaryproceeding, then went up and assisted theman to mount his horse.The story of Alexander the Great andShis favourite horse Bucephalus, some ofmy young readers may have heard before.Bucephalus was a war-horse of a very highspirit, which had been sent to Philip, Alex-ander's father, when the latter was a boy.This horse was taken out into one of theparks connected with the palace, and theking and many of his courtiers went to seehim. The horse pranced 'about so furiously,that every one was afraid of him; he seemedperfectly unmanageable. No one was willingto risk his life by mounting such an unrulyanimal. Philip, instead of being thankfulfor the present, was inclined to be in ill-humour about it. In the meantime the boyAlexander stood quietly by, watching all themotions of the horse, and seemed to be


10 THE HORSE.studying his character. Philip had decidedthat the horse was useless, and had givenorders to have him sent back to Thessaly,where he came from. Alexander did not muchlike the idea of losing so fine an animal, andbegged his father to allow him to mount thehorse. Philip at first refused, thinking therisk was too great; but he finally consented,after his son had urged him a great while.So Alexander went up to the horse and tookhold of his bridle. He patted him upon theneck, and soothed him with his voice, show-ing him at the same time, by his easy andunconcerned manner, that he was not in theleast afraid of him. Bucephalus was calmedand subdued by the presence of Alexander,and allowed himself to be caressed. Alex-ander turned his head in such a direction asto prevent him seeing his own shadow,which had before appeared to frighten him.Then he threw off his cloak, sprang uponthe back of the horse, and let him go as fastas he pleased. The animal flew across theplain at the top of his speed, while the kingand his courtiers looked on, at first withextreme fear, but afterwards with the great-I


THE HORSE. 11est admiration and pleasure. When Buce-phalus had got tired of running, he waseasily reined in, and Alexander returned tothe king, who praised him very highly.Bucephalus became the favourite horse ofAlexander, and was very tractable anddocile, though full of life and spirit. Hewould kneel upon his fore-legs at the com-mand of his master, in order that he mightmount more easily, and was never willing tohave any one mount him but Alexander.When the horse died, Alexander mournedfor him a great deal. He had him buriedwith great solemnity, and built a small cityupon the spot of his interment, which henamed, in honour of his favourite, Buce-phalus.Racehorses are generally descended fromArabian, being the swiftest of all. This hasalways been a favourite sport of the British;and, to their honour be t said, they haverarely been excelled by any other nation.In the reign of Edward I., the most popularamusement was riding at the ring. But racingwas quite common in the time of QueenElizabeth; and James I. established the race-


12 THE HOBRSBcourse at Newmarket, with a view to im-prove the breed of horses. This course,which is little less than. four miles in length,was traversed in one instance, by the famousChilders, in the marvellous space of sixminutes and forty seconds! We also read ofhunting in this country at an early period;and James I. carried this sport to a tiresomeexcess. The principal education of thehunter is in being taught to leap. TheIrish are indefatigable in their training,and their horses are renowned as leapers;while their Hibernian masters are not lessso for their desperate and reckless couragein riding, which too often results in the ruinof the horse and the fractured bones of therider.Two Irish grooms were drinking at apublic-house door; the one being upon hismaster's hunter, which he had brought outfor exercise, the other betted that the horsecould not clear a neighbouring wall. Theheight, viewed from the horse's back, was tre-mendous; nevertheless, full to the brim withIrish mettle and whisky, Patrick offered theleap to his horse standing, who, after a litt'


TITE IHOSE. 13hesitation, reluctantly refused; on which theirritated rider, turning the horse about, andcantering him to a considerable distance,turned him again, and with his riding switchup about the horse's ears, ran him at thewall. The generous horse would not refusea second time, but made a desperate leap,and, being incapable of overtopping such analtitude, his fore-feet struck against thesummit, yet the violence of his exertioncarrying him over, he grounded on the otherside on his head and fore-quarters, both hisfore-legs being broken in the fall; however,the fellow escaped with only a few con-tusions. Owing to the absence of his pro.prietor, the poor animal was kept severaldays in torture before he was shot.But, notwithstanding the high qualitieswhich have been here recorded of thosenoble animals, it would be injustice to saythat they are entirely without faults. Someof them are vicious and bad-temperedandmust be approached with caution in thestable, and managed with great care uponthe road, of which the following anecdote isan illustration:-


14 THE HORSE.A nobleman, in the early part of the reignof Louis xv., having a very vicious horse,which none of the grooms or servants wouldride-several of them having been thrown,and one killed-asked leave of his Majesty tohave him turned loose into the menagerieagainst one of the largest lions. The kingreadily consented; and the animal, on acertain day, was conducted thither. Soonafter the arrival of the horse, the door ofthe den was drawn up, and the lion, withgreat state and majesty, marched slowly tothe mouth of it, when, seeing his antagonist,he set up a tremendous roar. The horseimmediately started, and fell back; his earswere erected, his mane was raised, his eyessparkled, and something like a general con-vulsion seemed to agitate his whole frame.After the first emotions of fear had subsided,the horse retired to a corner of the menagerie,where, having directed his heels towards thelion, and having reared his head over his leftshoulder, he watched with extreme eagernessthe motions of his enemy. The lion, whopresently quitted his den, sidled about formore than a minute, as if nmeAgiting the


THE HORSE. 15mode of attack, when, having sufficientlyprepared himself for the combat, he made asudden spring at the horse, which defendeditself by striking his adversary a mostviolent blow on the chest.The lion instantly retreated, groaned, andseemed for several minutes inclined to giveup the contest; when, recovering from thepainful effects of the blow, he returned againto the charge with unabated violence. Themode of preparation for the second attackwas the same as the first. He sidled fromone side of the menagerie to the other fora considerable time, seeking a favourableopportunity to seize his prey, during whichtime the horse still preserved the sameposture, and kept his head erect and turnedover his shoulder. The lion at length gavea second spring, with all the strength andvelocity he could exercise, when the horsecaught him with his hoof on the under jaw,which he fractured. Having sustained asecond and more severe repulse than theformer, the lion retreated to-his den as wellas he was able, apparently in the greatestagony, moaning all the way, in the most


16 THE HORSE.lamentable manner. The horse was soonobliged to be shot, as no one ever dared toapproach the ground where he was kept.England is celebrated for the size andstrength of its draught horses, of which thecavalry of this country was formerly com-posed, and their power is truly enormous.The ponies of Wales are greatly admiredfor their beauty and neatness, and few horsesare equal to them for enduring fatigue. TheShetland ponies, which are pretty, shaggylittle animals, but very diminutive, arereared in great numbers in the Hebrides,and islands of Scotland, and are supposedto have been introduced from Scandinavia,They are very hardy, and remarkable fortheir sagacity and faithfulness, and, on ac-count of those qu'iities, are great favour-ites with children learning to ride. Therehave been instances of those animals whoseheight from the foot to the shoulder scarcelyexceeded three feet; and a man of ordinarysize and strength can lift one of them fromthe ground with great ease, which the follow-ing authenticated account will demonstrate:-A countryman, about five feet ten inches


THE HORSE. 17in height, was employed many years ago bythe laird of Coll to ride post upon a Shet-land pony to Glasgow and Edinburgh, theordinary weight it carried being fourteenstone. This postman, being stopped at atoll-bar near Dumbarton, humorously askedwhether he should be obliged to pay thetoll if he passed on foot carrying a burden;and being answered in the negative, he tookup horse and bags in his arms, and carriedthem through the bar.An old Shetland pony was so muchattached to a little boy, his master, that hewould place his fore-feet in the hands ofthe boy like a dog, thrust his head underhis arm to court his caresses, and joinwith him and a little dog in their noisyromping. The same animal daily carriedhis master to school; he would even walkalone from the stable to the school-house,to bring the boy home, and sometimes hewould wait hours for him, having come tooearly.The appetite of hehorse is of the mostsimple kind, their food being entirely com-posed of grass and vegetables. The durationB


18 THE IORSE.of the life of horses is generally from twenty-five to thirty years; and those whose know-ledge is extensive enough are enabled tojudge of their age by their teeth, of whichthey have forty, and which exhibit changesin form and appearance at stated periods.They cast their hair once a year, either inspring or autumn; and as they are weakerat that time than any other, they requireto be more carefully treated and better fed.Horses do not require so much sleep aspen, and, on an average, they do not sleepmore than three or four hours of the twenty-four, which they often do standing. Mostpeople have a very erroneous idea that theflesh of the horse is unpalatable to the taste;but among the Arabs it is considered a greatdelicacy, and the Calmuc Tartars seldom eatany other flesh. It seems now in a fair wayof being introduced into Europe.


THE MULE.HE mule far excels the horse fortravelling in a mountainous coun-try, the former being able to treadvecurely where the latter can hardly stand.their manner of going down the precipicesdf the Alps, the Andes, etc., is very extra-ordinary. In these passages, on one side aresteep eminences, and on the other frightfulabysses, and as they generally follow thedirection of the mountain, the road, insteadof lying on a level, forms at every littledistance deep declivities of several hundredyards downward. These can be descendedonly by mules; and these animals seemsensible of the danger, and the caution thatis to be used in such descents. When theycome to the edge of one of these precipices,


20 THE M ULE.they stop without being checked by therider; and if he inadvertently attempts tospur them on, they continue immovable,npparently ruminating on the danger thatlies before them, and preparing themselvesfor the encounter. But their address in theirrapid descent is truly wonderful; for in theirswiftest motion, when they seem to have lostall government of themselves, they followexactly the different windings of the road,as if they had previously settled in theirminds the route they were to follow, andhad taken every precaution for their safety.Mules bred in cold countries are morehardy and fit for work than those bred inhot ones. The general complaint that wemake against them is that they kick and arestubborn; but this is owing only to neglectin the breeding of them, for they are asgentle as our horses in those countries wherethey are bred with more care. Savoy pro.duces very large mules, but the finest arebred in Spain. They are chiefly used incountries where there are rocky or stonyroads, as about the Alps, Pyrenees, etc.Instead of mild usage, which generally


THE MULE. 21corrects the worst qualities, the mule is inthis country treated with cruelty from thefirst, and is so habituated to blows, that itis seldom mounted or loaded without ex-pectation of ill-treatment. Could we prevailon our countrymen to consider these animalsas their useful qualities merit, and pay dueattention to breaking them in, they mighteasily train them for the saddle, for draught,or for burden. Indeed, it is a wonder thatthese creatures are not more propagated inEngland, as they are so much hardier andstronger than horses, are less subject todiseases, and will live and work to nearlytwice the age of a horse. The Roman ladieshad equipages. drawn by mules, as appearsfrom the medals of Julia and Agrippina;and at this day, in Spain, the carriages ofthe nobility and even of princes are usuallydrawn by lihe.


THE ASS.GLECTED and abused as assesare in the British Islands, theyhave been held in great esteem inother countries, even from the earliestperiods of antiquity. In the sacred writings, and especially in the Old Testament,they are spoken of as in general usethroughout all the Eastern countries, bothfor the saddle, and as animals of draughtand burden. Amongst the Romans, too.they were held in the highest estimation.They appear to have come originally fromArabia, and from thence passed into othercountries; but they become weaker andsmaller in proportion to the coldness of theclimate.The ass is strongly attached to his master,22


THE ASS. 23notwithstanding he is usually ill-treated;he will scent him at a distance, and dis-tinguish him from any other person. Thevoice of these animals is called braying,and it is a most harsh and discordant noise."When an ass begins to bray, it often hap-pens that, if there are others within hearing,they also immediately exert their voices.This habit was, in several instances, aserious inconvenience to our army in Egypt,when much harassed by the siege of Alex-andria. Besides camels and horses, therewere a great number of asses employed inconveying forage for the subsistence of thetroops. During the nights, when thesoldiers, wearied by the fatigues of theday, were enjoying the few hours of reposethat could be allowed them, one of theseanimals would begin to bray, and soon after-wards a serenade of at least a thousand suchvoices would sound through the wholecamp. Vexatious as the noise might be,there was, notwithstanding, something ex-tremely ludicrous in such a concert, inwhich, occasionally, all the numerousanimals around, both birds and beasts,


24 THE ASS.joined their efforts. When the asses wereat last conveyed to Rosetta, it was to thegreat joy of every one belonging to thetroops.As the skin of the ass is extremely hardand very elastic, it is used for different pur-poses, such as to make drums, shoes, andthick parchment for pocket-books, whichlatter is slightly varnished over. Probably,too, the bones of asses are harder than thoseof any other animals, since the ancientsmade their best sounding flutes of them.In proportion to his size, the ass can carrya greater weight than any other animalhe sleeps much less than the horse, andnever lies down for that purpose, unlessvery much tired. The largest breed of assesat this time known in the world is in Spain.


THE OX AND THE COW.BOUT two hundred and fifty yearsago, there was found in Scotlanda race of wild cattle, which wereof a pure white colour, and had manes likelions. There are still herds descended fromthat savage breed to be seen in the woodsof Drumlanrig, Cadzow Forest, and in thepark belonging to Chillingham Castle,Northumberland. These cattle are as wildas any deer; for, on being approached, theyinstantly take to flight, and gallop away atfull speed. When it is necessary to killany of them, they are always shot; and ifthe keeper only wound the beast, he musttake care to keep behind some tree, or hislife would be in danger from the furiousattacks of the animal, which will neverdesist till a period is put to its life.


26 THE OX AND THE CO W.Frequent mention is made of our wildcattle by historians. One relates that RobertBruce was, in chasing these animals, pre-served from the rage of a wild bull by theintrepidity of one of his courtiers, fromwhich he and his lineage acquired the nameof Turnbull. 2In many parts of England, and on theContinent, the ox is used for labour; he isparticularly serviceable for the plough, andin drawing heavy loads. There is scarcelyany part of the ox without its use: theblood, marrow, hide, horns, hair, hoofs, milk,cream, whey, have each their particular usein manufactures, commerce, and medicine.The skin has been of great use in all ages.The ancient Britons, before they knew abetter method, built their boats with osiers,and covered them with the hides of bulls,which served for short coasting voyages.Vessels of this kind were still in use withinthe last half century, on the Irish lakes andon the Dee and Severn.Those animals are capable of great attach-ment to their keepers, and there are plentyof anecdotes to prove that they are fond


THE OX AND THE CO W. 27music. Instances have been known of thefiercest bulls having been subdued andcalmed into gentleness by music of a plain-tive kind.There is a laughable story told of theeffect of music on a bull. A fiddler wasreturning home at three o'clock in the morn-ing with his instrument, from a place wherehe had been engaged in his accustomedvocation. He had occasion to cross a fieldwhere there were some cows, and rather asaucy bull. The latter took it into his headto assault the fiddler, who tried to escape.He did not succeed, however. The bull waswide awake, and could not let the gentle.man off so cheaply. The poor fellow thenattempted to climb a tree, but the enragedanimal would not permit him to do that.The fiddler, who had heard something aboutOrpheus, and the wonderful power of musicin subduing the rage of wild beasts, got be-hind the tree, and commenced playing,literally for his life. Strange as it may ap-pear, the animal was calmed at once, andappeared to be delighted with the music.By and by, the fiddler, finding that his


28 THE OX AND THE CO W.enemy was entirely pacified, stopped play-ing, and started homeward as fast as his legswould carry him; byt the bull would notallow him to escape, and made after him.The poor fellow, fearing he should be killed,stopped, and went on fiddling again. Theanimal was pacified as before. Our herothen plied the bow until his arm ached, andseizing, as he supposed, a favourable oppor-*unity, he made another effort to run away.He was probably not accustomed to fiddlewithout pay, and he was pretty sure thecustomer he was now playing for intendedto get his music for nothing. Well, thefiddler was no more successful this timethan he was before. The fury of the bullreturned as soon as the strains ceased; andat last the poor man surrendered himself tohis fate, and actually played for the bulluntil six o'clock-about three hours in all-when some people came to his rescue.


THE SHEEP.F we are to look for the sheep in itsnoblest state, we must seek for itin the African desert or on theplains of Siberia. In its present domestic con-dition in this country, it is, of all animals,the most defenceless and inoffensive. Withits liberty, it seems to have been deprivedof its swiftness and cunning; and what inthe ass might rather be called patience, inthe sheep appears to be stupidity. Loadedwith a thick fleece, deprived of the defenceof its horns, and rendered heavy, slow, andfeeble, it has no other safety than that whichit finds in the protection afforded it by man.In the selection of their food, few animalsdiscover more sagacity than the sheep; noris their instinct in foreseeing the approach2a


30 THE SHEEP.of a storm less remarkable. Whole flockshave been buried under the snow for manydays, in their endeavours to secure them-selves. under the shelter of some hill, andhave afterwards been taken out withoutmaterial injury.No country produces such sheep asEngland, either with larger fleeces, or betteradapted to the purposes of the clothier.Besides the fleece, there is scarcely anypart of this animal that is not useful tomankind. The flesh is a delicate andwholesome food; the skin, when dressed,forms different parts of our apparel, and isused for covers of books; the entrails, pro-perly prepared and twisted, serve as stringsfor musical instruments; the bones, calcined,form a material for refiners' tests; the milkis thicker than that of cows, and conse-quently yields a greater quantity of butterand cheese; in some places it is so rich,that it will not produce the cheese withouta mixture of water to make it part from thewhey.They perseveringly follow their leadexwherever he goes; but if, in case of sudden


THE SHEEP. 31alarm, any one of the flock runs forward toescape, and thus takes the lead, the resfgenerally follow him, regardless of any obBtruction.Of this singular disposition the followinganecdote is an illustration:-A butcher's boywas driving about twenty fat wedders throughthe town; but they ran down a street alongwhich he did not want them to go. He ob-served a scavenger at work with his brooma little way before them, and called outloudly for him to stop the sheep. The manaccordingly did what he could to turn themback, running from side to side, always op,posing himself to their passage, and bran-dishing his broom with great dexterity; butthe sheep, much agitated, pressed forward,and at last one of them came right up tothe man, who, fearing it was about to jumpover his head while he was stooping, graspedthe short broomstick in both hands, and heldit over his head. He stood for a few secondsin this position, when the sheep made a spring,and jumped fairly over him, without touchingthe broom. The first had no sooner clearedthis impediment, than another followed, and


"12 THE SHEEP.-nother, in such quick succession, that the/nan, perfectly confounded, seemed to lose allrecollection, and stood in the same attitudetill the whole had jumped over him, not oneof them attempting to pass on either side,though the street was quite clear. As thistook place during wet weather, the man wasentirely bespattered over with mud beforethey had all passed, and it is impossible toconceive a more ludicrous appearance thanthe poor fellow made on the occasion.The sheep has scarcely any marked cha-racter save that of natural affection, of whichit possesses a very large share. A man wasonce passing through a lonely part of theHighlands in Scotland, when he perceiveda sheep hurrying towards the road beforehim. She was bleating most piteously atthe time, and as the man approached nearer,she redoubled her cries, looked earnestly intohis face, and seemed to be imploring his as-sistance. He stopped, left his waggon, andfollowed the sheep. She led him quite adistance from the road to a solitary spot,and at length she stopped. When the tra-veller came up, he found a lamb completely


THE SHEEP. sawedged in between two large stones, andstruggling in vain to extricate itself. Thegentleman immediately set the little suffererfree, and placed it on its feet, when themother poured out her thanks and joy in along-continued and animated strain of bleat-I).f,t ~ Y"1~\


THE CAT.HE cat being one of our favouritedomestic animals, its habits andmanners are too well known torequire much description. Even in its do-mesticated state this animal retains muchof its primitive ferocity, perfidy, and cruelty,nor can it be considered as entirely trusty.It is generally stated that cats can see inthe dark; but although this is not absolutelythe case, it is certain that they can see withmuch less light than most other animals.This is owing to the peculiar striicture oftheir eyes, the pupils of which are capableof being greatly contracted and dilated, inproportion to the degree of light by whichthey are affected.The cry of the cat is loud, piercing, and84


THE CAT. 35clamorous; and, whether expressive of loveor anger, is equally unpleasant. Its callscollect the whole fraternity of neighbouringcats; and on some occasions more than ahundred have thus been brought together.Their whiskers appear to increase their senseof smell, and their fur readily yields electricsparks when rubbed. In general, they keepthemselves very clean, washing their facesand behind their ears every time they eat.The sleep of the cat is generally verylight. They dislike to wet their feet, andhave numerous methods of torturing theirprey before destroying it. The averageduration of a cat's life is about fifteenyears; but we have had instances withirour knowledge of their having attained totwenty-five and even thirty years of age.There-are many varieties of the domesticcat, but the most beautiful is the Angora.Its nose, and the edges of the lips, are of afine rose-colour; the eyes, in general, blue oryellow, and of a sparkling brilliancy, andits whole aspect mild and composed. Thehair is of a silvery whiteness, remarkablythick and long, especially about the neck,


36 THE CAT.and the tail, when elevated above the body,forms a beautiful plume.Angora, the place celebrated for thesecats, is in Asia Minor, not far from Smyrna.The camlets manufactured from the hair ofthis animal are celebrated for their finenessand beauty throughout Asia.There have been many instances of strongattachment to the human race in cats; butthis attachment seems to be in generalmore for the house in which they havebeen brought up than for the persons whoinhabit it. Instances are not uncommon ofcats having returned of their own accord tothe place from which they have been carried,though at the distance of many miles, andeven across rivers, where they could not, ap-parently, have had any knowledge either ofthe road or the direction in which it wouldlead them.A cat, which had been brought up in afamily, became extremely attached to theeldest child, a little boy, who was very fondof playing with her. She bore with theutmost patience all the rough treatment ofthe mischievous child, without ever making


THE CAT. 37the least resistance. As the cat grew up,she used to catch mice and bring them aliveinto the room where the little boy was, toamuse him with her prey. If he showed aninclination to take the mouse from her, she't it run, and waited to see if he was able tocatch it. If he did not, she darted at it,caught it, and again laid it before him. Inthis manner the sport continued as long asthe child had any taste for it. At lengththe boy was attacked with the small-pox,ind, during the early stages of his illness, thecat rarely left his bedside; but, as his dangerincreased, it was thought necessary to removethe cat and lock her up. The child died.On the following day, the cat, having escapedfrom her confinement, immediately ran tothe apartment where she hoped to find herplaymate. Disappointed in her expectations,she sought for him with symptoms of greatuneasiness and loud lamentations all overthe house, till she came to the door of theroom where the corpse lay. Here she laydown in silent grief till she was againlocked up. As soon as the child wasburied, and the cat set at liberty, she dis-


38 THE CAT.appeared, and it was not till a fortnightafter that event that she returned to thewell-known apartment, sad and emaciated.She refused to take any nourishment, andsoon ran away with dismal cries. At length,compelled by hunger, she made her appear-ance one day at dinner-time, and continuedto visit the house after that every day atabout the same hour, but always left as soonas she had eaten the food that was givenher. No one knew where she spent therest of her time, until she was found onelay under the wall of the burying-ground,close to the grave of her favourite; and sostrong was the attachment of the cat to herlost master, that, till his parents removedto another place, nearly five years after-wards, she never, except in the seve estwinter weather, passed the night anywhereelse than in the burying-ground, at herlittle friend's grave."A French naturalist gives us an amusingincident connected with a cat in Prussia.This animal was quietly sleeping on thehearth, when one of the children of thefamily in which she lived set up a b, is-


THE CAT. 39terous crying. Puss left the place whereshe was lying, marched up to the child, andgave her such a smart blow with her paw,that it drew blood. Then she walked backwith the greatest composure and gravity,as if satisfied with having punished thechild for crying, and with the hope of in-dulging in a comfortable nap. No doubtshe had often seen the child punished inthis manner for peevishness; and as therewas no one near who seemed disposed toadminister correction in this instance, Pussdetermined to take the law into her ownhands.Cats have sometimes exhibited greataffection for other animals. The celebratedArabian horse, Godolphin, and a black cat,were for many years the warmest friends.When the horse died, the cat sat upon hiscarcase till it was buried; and then, crawl-ing slowly, and apparently reluctantly,away, was never seen again, till her deadbody was found in a hay-loft. There wasalso a hunter in the stables at Windsor, towhich a cat was so attached, that wheneverhe was in the stable, the creature would


40 THE CAT.never quit his back, her favourite seat; andthe horse was so well pleased with the cat'sattentions, that, to accommodate his friend,he slept, as horses often do, standing. Thiswas, however, observed to injure his health,and the cat was removed to a distant partof the country.The cat is possessed of great maternalaffection, and evinces much courage in de-fending her young. A cat, which had afamily of kittens, was playing with themone day in spring near the door of a farm-house, when a hawk darted swiftly down,and caught one of the kittens. The assassinwas endeavouring to rise with his prey,when the mother, seeing the danger of thelittle one, flew at the common enemy, who,to defend himself, let the kitten fall. Thebattle presently became dreadful to bothparties; for the hawk, by the power of hiswings, the sharpness of his talons, and thekeenness of his beak, had for a while thebest of it, cruelly lacerating the poor cat,and actually deprived her of one eye in theconflict. But Puss, not at all daunted bythis accident, strove with all her cunning


THE CAT. 41and strength to protect her little ones, tillshe had broken a wing of her adversary. Inthis state she got him more within thepower of her claws, the hawk still defendinghimself, however, to the best of his ability.The fight continued for a long time. But atlast victory favoured the mother, and, by asudden movement, she laid the hawk mo-tionless beneath her feet, when, as if exult-ing in victory, she tore off the head of hervanquished enemy. Disregarding the lossof her eye, she immediately ran to herbleeding kitten, licked the wounds inflictedby the talons of the hawk, purring, whileshe caressed the little one, with the sameaffection as if nothing had happened toherself.


THE DOG.HE dog may be called the friend ofman, he is so faithful to his in-terests. There are many varietiesof this animal, and he is to be found in allcountries. The sagacity they often displayis wonderful, and their affection for theirmaster is not less so.'i A French work, entitled L'Histoire desChiens Cdtlbres, gives the following incidentsas well attested:-Mustapha, a strong andictive greyhound belonging to a captain ofartillery, raised from its birth in the midstof camps, always accompanied his master,and exhibited no alarm even in a battle. Inthe hottest engagements it remained nearthe cannon, and carried the match in its-mouth. At the memorable battle of Fon-42


THE DOG. 43tenoy, Mustapha's master, the captain ofartillery, received a mortal wound. Aboutto fire on the enemy, he and several of hifcorps were at that instant struck down t(.the earth by a furious firing, when the dog,seeing his master bleeding on the ground,became desperate, and howled piteously.Nor did he merely give way to unavailinggrief; for a body of French soldiers were nowadvancing to gain possession of the piece ofordnance which was aimed at them fromthe top of a rising ground, when Mustapha,as if he would revenge his master's death,seized the lighted match with his paws, andfired the cannon, loaded with case-shot.Seventy men fell on the spot, and the re-mainder took to flight.After this bold and extraordinary stroke,the dog lay down sadly near the dead bodyof his master, tenderly licked his wounds,remained with the corpse without any sus-tenance for twenty-four hours, and was evenremoved with great difficulty by some of thecomrades of the deceased. This gallantgreyhound was taken to London, and pre-sented to the king, George i., who ordered


44 THE DOG.it to be taken care of as a brave and faithfulpublic servant.An English gentleman, incarcerated in aFrench prison, came into possession of alittle dog, to which he was soon stronglyattached. An offer of escape was made himfor a consideration, when he was told thedog must be left behind; but this he de-clared could not be, and assured his jailerthat the animal would fully attend to anyorders he gave it.After a time the jailer agreed to the ex.periment. A large hamper was broughtinto the cell one evening. The gentlemannow addressed the dog very earnestly, espe-cially telling it that it must not make anynoise; he then, with the dog, laid himselfdown in the hamper, which was carefullypacked, and sent to the nearest seaportduring the night. All the next day thilhamper lay about the wharf as if it were ofno value; but at night it was, as previouslyarranged, carefully taken on board a vessel,and a few hours afterwards the gentlemanwas once more safe on English ground, thedog from first to last not having uttered a


THE DOG. 45single sound. The faithful animal was nowmore highly prized than ever, and a placewas assigned it regularly at the table of itsmaster.Anecdotes illustrative of the noble qua-lities of the dog are so numerous, that manyvolumes have already been devoted to thepurpose of recording them. I shall there-fore only relate here an exploit performedby a Newfoundland dog.A man called Wilson, residing near anavigable river, kept a pleasure boat. Oneday he invited a small party to accompanyhim in an excursion on the river. They setout. Among the number were Mr. Wilson'swife and little girl, about three years of age.The child was delighted with the boat, andwith the water-lilies that floated on the sur-face of the river. Meanwhile a fine New-foundland dog trotted along the bank of thestream, looking occasionally at the boat, andthinking, perhaps, that he would like a sailhimself.Pleasantly onward went the boat, and theparty were in the highest spirits, when littleEllen, trying to get a pretty lily, stretched


46 THE DOG.'ut her hand over the side of the boat, andin a moment she lost her balance and fellito the river. What language can describethe agony of those parents, when they sawthe current close over their dear childlThe mother, in her terror, could hardly beprevented from throwing herself into theriver to rescue the drowning girl, and herhusband had to hold her back by force.No one took any notice of Nero, the faith-ful dog; but he had kept his eye on theboat, it seems. He saw all that was goingon; he plunged into the river at the criticalmoment when the child had sunk, and divedbeneath the surface. Suddenly a. strangenoise was heard on the side of the boatopposite to the one toward which the partywere anxiously looking, and somethingseemed to be splashing in the water. Itwas the dog. Nerb had dived to the bottomof that deep river, and found the very spotwhere the poor child had sunk. Seizing herclothes, and holding them fast in his teeth,he brought her up to the surface of thewater, a very little distance from the boat;and, with looks that told his joy, he gave the


THE DOO. 47little girl into the hands of her astonishedfather. Then, swimming back to the shore,he shook the water from his long shaggycoat, and laid himself down panting to re-cover from his fatigue. Ellen seemed fora while to be dead; her face was deadly pale,and hung upon her shoulder; but by and byshe recovered gradually, and in less than aweek she was well. You may be sure thedog is a favourite now.


THE LION.HE lion is an inhabitant of the hotparts of Asia, such as India andPersia. A few are still to be metwith in the deserts between Bagdad andDassorah; but their proper country is Africa,where their size is larger, their numbersgreater, and their rage more tremendous,being inflamed by the influence of a burn-ing sun on a most arid soil.The lion is called the king of animals,on account of his courage, generosity, andstrength. His power is so great, that, asis affirmed, a single stroke of his paw issufficient to break the back of a horse.The roar of the lion is strong and loud;but when he is irritated, his cry is shorter,repeated more suddenly, and is still more48


THE LION. 49teirible than his roaring. At such times,he stamps with his feet, beats his sides withibis tail, agitates the hair of his head andmane, moves the skin.of his face, and showshis teeth.The lurking-place of the lion is generallychosen near a spring, or by the side of ariver, where he has an opportunity of sur-prising such animals as resort to the waterto quench their thirst. When hungry, hewill attack any animal that presents itself;but he is so formidable that all attempt toavoid him, and this circumstance oftenobliges him to conceal himself, and lie inwait, that he may take his victim bysurprise.There is a story told of a poor Hottentot,who was sent to take his master's cattle towater at a pool not far from the house. Whenhe came to the watering-place, he perceivedthat a huge lion was lying there, apparentlybathing himself. He immediately ran, withthe greatest terror, through the midst of theherd of cattle, hoping the lion would besatisfied with one of the cattle, and allowhim to escape. He was mistaken, however.D


50 THE LIONV.The lion dashed through the herd, and madedirectly after the man. Throwing his eyeoover his shoulder, he saw that the furiousanimal had singled him out. Not knowingwhat else to do to get clear of his enemy,he scrambled up an aloe-tree that happenedto be near. At that moment the lion madea spring at him, but unsuccessfully, andfell to thground. There was in the treea cluster of nests of the bird called thesociable grosbeak, and the Hottentot hidhimself among these nests, in hopes thathe could get out 6f the lion's sight, andthat the beast would leave him; so he re-mained silent and motionless for a greatwhile, and then ventured to peep out of hisretreat. To his surprise, he perceived thathe was still watched. In this way he waskept a prisoner for more than twenty-fourhours, when at last, the lion, parched withthirst, went to the pool to drink, and theHottentot embraced the opportunity tocome down, and run home as fast as hislegs could carry him."Where he has never experienced thesagacity of man, or the power of his arms,


THE LTONJ 51the lion disdains and sets him at defianceinstead of betraying fear at his. appioach;but when acquainted with his ingenuity, hefeels sensible of his inferiority, and employsstratagem to overcome him.Many stories are told of the lion's gene-rosity. That his instincts are subdued infavour of weaker animals, particularly dogs,is well known. It was once customary forthose who were unable to pay sixpencefor the sight of the wild beasts in the Towerof London to bring a dog or a cat as a giftto the beasts. Among others, a man hadbrought a pretty black spaniel, which wasthrown into the cage of the great lion.Immediately the little animal trembled andshivered, crouched and threw himself onhis back, put forth his tongue, and held uphis paws, as if praying for mercy. In themeantime, the lion, instead of devouringhim, turned him over first with one paw,and then with the other. He smelled him,and seemed desirous of courting a furtheracquaintance. The keeper, on seeing this,brought a large mess of his own familydinner, but the lion kept aloof, and refused


52 THE LION.to eat, keeping his eye on the dog, andinviting him, as it were, to be his taster.At length, the little animal's fears beingsomewhat abated, and his appetite quick-ened by the smell of the food, he approachedslowly, and, with trembling, ventured to eat.The lion then advanced gently, and beganto partake, and they finished their meal veryquietly together. From this day a strictfriendship commenced between them, con-sisting of great affection and tenderness onthe part of the lion, and the utmost con-fidence and boldness on the part of the dog,insomuch that he would lay himself downto sleep within the fangs and under thejaws of his terrible patron. In about twelvemonths the little spaniel sickened and died.For a time the lion did not appear toconceive otherwise than that his favouritewas asleep. He would continue to smellhim, and then would stir him with hisnose, and turn him over with his paws.But, finding that all his efforts to awakehim were in vain, he would traverse hiscage from end to end at a swift anduneasy pace. He would then stop and


TIHE LION. 53look down upon him with a fixed anddrooping regard, and again lift up his headand roar for several minutes as the soundof distant thunder. They attempted, butin vain, to carry the carcase from him.The keeper then endeavoured to tempt himwith a variety of food, but he turned fromall that was offered with loathing. Theythen put several living dogs in his cage,which he tore in pieces, but left theircarcases on the floor. His passions beingthus inflamed, he would grapple at the barsof his cage, as if enraged at this restraintfrom tearing those around him in pieces.Again, as if quite spent, he would stretchhimself by the remains of his belovedassociate, lay his paws upon him, and takehim to his bosom, and then utter his griefin deep and melancholy roaring for theloss of his little playfellow. For five dayshe thus languished, and gradually declined,without taking any sustenance, or admittingany comfort, till, one morning, he was founddead, with his headreclining on the carcaseof his little friend. They were both interredtogether.


THE TIGER,LL writers upon natural history agreein considering the tiger as the mostbeautiful, but at the same time themost ferocious of quadrupeds; yet it is diffi-cult to arrive at any correct conclusionrespecting the size or beauty of this terror-striking creature from his captivity in thiscountry, as want of exercise and other causestend materially to depress the growth, andrender the skin less brilliant than whenthey roam at large in their native deserts.This animal is peculiar to Asia. He isthe most rapacious and cruel of all the ,carnivorous tribe, his thirst for blood beinginsatiable. Fierce without provocation, andcruel without necessity, he attacks, destroys,and tears in pieces every animal with equal54


THE TIGER.fury and rapacity, never desisting while anobject remains in his sight that he can over-come. His bravery fears neither the opposi-tion of men nor animals; the former he notunfrequently makes his prey, and he is saidby some writers to prefer human flesh to anyother. The roar of this animal is chieflyheard in the night, and is said to be exceed-ingly dreadful.The skin of the tiger is held in great esti-mation throughout the East, more especiallyby the Chinese, who use it as a coveringto the seats for their judges. The generalcolour is an orange-yellow ground, with aseries of transverse bands of a blackish hue.forming a bold and striking contrast. TheIndian physicians attribute several extraordinary medical virtues to many portionsof the tiger's body. The tongue, dried andreduced to powder, they consider as a specificfor nervous diseases; the fat and the eyes, formany disorders incidental to the human frame.The tiger is hunted with great pomp andceremony in the East, and is a favouritediversion in many parts. In the islandof Java, the emperor sometimes makes cri-


"56 THE TIGER.minals who are condemned to death fightwith tigers; but even if he ultimately suc-ceed in killing his ferocious antagonist, hemust suffer death.An officer, who had long been stationed atthe court of Java, related that he was oncewitness to a most extraordinary occurrenceof this kind. A Javanese, who had beencondemned to be torn in pieces by tigers,and for that purpose had been thrown downfrom the top into a large cage, in whichseveral of those, animals were confined, for.tunately fell exactly upon the largest andfiercest of them, across whose back he satastride, without the creature doing him anyharm, but even, on the contrary, appearingintimidated, while the others also, awed bythe unusual posture and appearance whichhe made, did not attempt to destroy him.He could not, however, avoid the punish-ment of death to which he had been con-demned, for the emperor commanded him tobe shot dead in the cage.The tiger is cowardly and easily frightened,as will be seen from the following story:-ABritish officer, who lived in India, was re-


THE TIGER. 57"turning one evening to the house where heresided, after dining with another officer,when he was met by his servants, who weremakinig a great noise in order to frightenaway a tiger which was known to be prowl-ing about in the neighbourhood. Althoughhe had been some years in India, the youngofficer had never seen a tiger, as it happened,except from a distance, and he determinedhe would gratify his curiosity, if possible,and have a good view of the animal. So hedismissed his servants, and seated himselfapposite the jungle where the tiger wassupposed to be, and there looked out for theenemy. It was moonlight, and the ferociousbeast soon discovered the officer. The lattercould distinctly see all the motions of hissavage foe. He approached so slowly asscarcely to make the least noise; then,crouching down, he prepared to make thefatal spring at his victim. At this instant,however, the officer, taking off a bearskincap which he wore, swung it in the air,and shouted as loudly as he could. This sofrightened the tiger, that he made off, andwas soon out of sight among the bushes.


58 THE TIGER.The tigress is very much attached to heryoung, and, although furious at all times,her rage is tremendous when robbed of heroffspring.


THE ELEPHANT.LL naturalists agree in giving theelephant the character of beingthe most sagacious animal nextto man. Yet, were we to form our idea ofhis capacity from his outward appearance,we should be led to conceive very meanlyof his abilities; for, at first view, the elephantpresents the spectator with an enormousmass of flesh that seems scarcely animated.His huge body, covered with an apparentlycallous hide; his misshapen legs, that seemscarcely formed for motion; his small eyes,large ears, and long trunk-all give him an airof stupidity. But our prejudices soon subsidewhen we come to examine his history, andwill serve to increase our surprise when weconsider the various advantages it derives59


00 THE ELEPIHANT.from so apparently clumsy a conformation.Elephants are said not to attain their fullgrowth till they are thirty years old. Theirlongevity is well known: even in a state ofslavery and labour some have been said to livefrom one hundred to one hundred and thirtyyears. Their flesh is eaten by the natives, andthe trunk is said to be a delicious morsel.These animals cannot endure cold, andare averse to an excess of heat. They arefond of marshy places, and love to wallowin the mire like a hog. The ordinary foodof the elephant consists of herbs, the tenderbranches of trees, fruits, and grain: animalfood they abhor. Elephants often sleep stand-ing, but are not incapable of lying down, asis erroneously believed. They are very mildand harmless, except when wounded, andare said never to use their weapons butin self-defence. It is very dangerous tooffer them the least injury, however, forthey run directly at the offender, whomthey either pierce with their tusks, or seizewith their trunk, dart him into the air likea stone, and then trample him under theirfeet.


THE ELEPHANT. 61"When tamed, the elephant is the mostobedient of all animals, and becomes en-tirely attached to his keeper; he readilyunderstands the sound of his master's voice,be it the language of anger, satisfaction,or command. He receives his orders withattention, and lowers his body for the con-venience of those who mount him, andcaresses his friends with his trunk; the latterhe also uses for the purpose of lifting bur-dens, and assists those who are loading him;and when yoked in a waggon or cart, hepulls cheerfully, unless abused by injudiciouschastisement. A tame elephant will do asmuch labour as six or eight horses, but herequires a quantity of food in proportion.These animals were much used in war bythe ancient Indians, and are still so em-ployed in Cochin and other places wherefirearms are little used. Both the Greeksand Romans soon learned to get the betterof these monstrous animals in war: theyopened their ranks, and allowed them to passthrough, only endeavouring to kill theirguides.After being once 'attacked by man, they


62 THE ELEPHANT.are said never to forget the injury, but seekevery opportunity of revenge. In India,an elephant-driver one day had a cocoa-nut given him, which, in order to break,he struck two or three times against theelephant's head. The next day, the animalsaw some cocoa-nuts exposed in the streetfor sale, and, taking one of them up in histrunk, he threw it at the driver's head.A merchant in the East Indies kept atame elephant, which was so exceedinglygentle in his habits, that he was permittedto go at large. This huge animal used towalk about the streets in the most quietand orderly manner, and paid many visitsthrough the city to those who were kindto him. Two cobblers took an ill-will tothis inoffensive creature, and several timespricked him on the proboscis with theirawls. The noble animal did not chastisethem in the manner he might have done,and seemed to think they were too con-temptible to be angry with them. But hetook other means to punish them for theircruelty. He filled his trunk with waterof a dirty quality, and, advancina toward


THE ELEPHANT. 63them in his ordinary manner, spouted thewhole of the puddle over them. The pun-ishment was highly applauded by thosewho witnessed it, and the poor cobblerswere laughed at for their pains.Numerous anecdotes have been related ofthe sagacity of the elephant, of which thefollowing well-authenticated facts are aninstance:-An elephant of Adsmeer, which oftenpassed through the bazaar or market, ashe went by a certain herb-woman alwaysreceived from her a mouthful of greens.At length he was seized with one of hisperiodical fits of rage, broke his fetters,and, running through the market, put thecrowd to flight, among others this woman,who in her haste forgot a little child shehad brought with her. The animal, recol-lecting the spot where his benefactress waswont to sit, took up the infant gently inhis trunk, and placed it in safety in a stallbefore a neighbouring house.Another was once wounded in battle,and rendered so furious by the pain sheendured, that she ran about the field


64 THE ELEPHANTuttering the most hideous cries. One ofthe men was unable, in consequence ofhis wounds, to get out of her way. Theelephant seemed conscious of his situation,and for fear she should trample upon him,took him up with her trunk, placed himwhere he would be more safe, and continuedher route.NNI


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18 THE IORSE. of the life of horses is generally from twentyfive to thirty years; and those whose knowledge is extensive enough are enabled to judge of their age by their teeth, of which they have forty, and which exhibit changes in form and appearance at stated periods. They cast their hair once a year, either in spring or autumn; and as they are weaker at that time than any other, they require to be more carefully treated and better fed. Horses do not require so much sleep as pen, and, on an average, they do not sleep more than three or four hours of the twentyfour, which they often do standing. Most people have a very erroneous idea that the flesh of the horse is unpalatable to the taste; but among the Arabs it is considered a great delicacy, and the Calmuc Tartars seldom eat any other flesh. It seems now in a fair way of being introduced into Europe.





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THE MULE. HE mule far excels the horse for travelling in a mountainous country, the former being able to tread vecurely where the latter can hardly stand. their manner of going down the precipices df the Alps, the Andes, etc., is very extraordinary. In these passages, on one side are steep eminences, and on the other frightful abysses, and as they generally follow the direction of the mountain, the road, instead of lying on a level, forms at every little distance deep declivities of several hundred yards downward. These can be descended only by mules; and these animals seem sensible of the danger, and the caution that is to be used in such descents. When they come to the edge of one of these precipices,



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62 THE ELEPHANT. are said never to forget the injury, but seek every opportunity of revenge. In India, an elephant-driver one day had a cocoanut given him, which, in order to break, he struck two or three times against the elephant's head. The next day, the animal saw some cocoa-nuts exposed in the street for sale, and, taking one of them up in his trunk, he threw it at the driver's head. A merchant in the East Indies kept a tame elephant, which was so exceedingly gentle in his habits, that he was permitted to go at large. This huge animal used to walk about the streets in the most quiet and orderly manner, and paid many visits through the city to those who were kind to him. Two cobblers took an ill-will to this inoffensive creature, and several times pricked him on the proboscis with their awls. The noble animal did not chastise them in the manner he might have done, and seemed to think they were too contemptible to be angry with them. But he took other means to punish them for their cruelty. He filled his trunk with water of a dirty quality, and, advancina toward



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16 THE HORSE. lamentable manner. The horse was soon obliged to be shot, as no one ever dared to approach the ground where he was kept. England is celebrated for the size and strength of its draught horses, of which the cavalry of this country was formerly composed, and their power is truly enormous. The ponies of Wales are greatly admired for their beauty and neatness, and few horses are equal to them for enduring fatigue. The Shetland ponies, which are pretty, shaggy little animals, but very diminutive, are reared in great numbers in the Hebrides, and islands of Scotland, and are supposed to have been introduced from Scandinavia, They are very hardy, and remarkable for their sagacity and faithfulness, and, on account of those qu'iities, are great favourites with children learning to ride. There have been instances of those animals whose height from the foot to the shoulder scarcely exceeded three feet; and a man of ordinary size and strength can lift one of them from the ground with great ease, which the following authenticated account will demonstrate:A countryman, about five feet ten inches



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THE MULE. 21 corrects the worst qualities, the mule is in this country treated with cruelty from the first, and is so habituated to blows, that it is seldom mounted or loaded without expectation of ill-treatment. Could we prevail on our countrymen to consider these animals as their useful qualities merit, and pay due attention to breaking them in, they might easily train them for the saddle, for draught, or for burden. Indeed, it is a wonder that these creatures are not more propagated in England, as they are so much hardier and stronger than horses, are less subject to diseases, and will live and work to nearly twice the age of a horse. The Roman ladies had equipages. drawn by mules, as appears from the medals of Julia and Agrippina; and at this day, in Spain, the carriages of the nobility and even of princes are usually drawn by lihe.



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50 THE LIONV. The lion dashed through the herd, and made directly after the man. Throwing his eyeo over his shoulder, he saw that the furious animal had singled him out. Not knowing what else to do to get clear of his enemy, he scrambled up an aloe-tree that happened to be near. At that moment the lion made a spring at him, but unsuccessfully, and fell to thground. There was in the tree a cluster of nests of the bird called the sociable grosbeak, and the Hottentot hid himself among these nests, in hopes that he could get out 6f the lion's sight, and that the beast would leave him; so he remained silent and motionless for a great while, and then ventured to peep out of his retreat. To his surprise, he perceived that he was still watched. In this way he was kept a prisoner for more than twenty-four hours, when at last, the lion, parched with thirst, went to the pool to drink, and the Hottentot embraced the opportunity to come down, and run home as fast as his legs could carry him. "Where he has never experienced the sagacity of man, or the power of his arms,



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THE HORSE. 9 animal was not to be put off by any such evasion, however, and applied his mouth to one of his master's coat-laps, and after several attempts, by dragging at it, to raise him upon his feet, the coat-lap gave way. Three individuals, who witnessed this extraordinary proceeding, then went up and assisted the man to mount his horse. The story of Alexander the Great and Shis favourite horse Bucephalus, some of my young readers may have heard before. Bucephalus was a war-horse of a very high spirit, which had been sent to Philip, Alexander's father, when the latter was a boy. This horse was taken out into one of the parks connected with the palace, and the king and many of his courtiers went to see him. The horse pranced 'about so furiously, that every one was afraid of him; he seemed perfectly unmanageable. No one was willing to risk his life by mounting such an unruly animal. Philip, instead of being thankful for the present, was inclined to be in illhumour about it. In the meantime the boy Alexander stood quietly by, watching all the motions of the horse, and seemed to be



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PREFACE. IN compiling this little volume, I have to acknowledge the assistance of various valuable works on Natural History. Also, Anecdotes of Dogs, by the Rev. Charles Williams, M.A., and Mr. Pardon's Stories about Animals, to both of which books I am indebted for many of the anecdotes here related. A. A.



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THE HORSE. 15 mode of attack, when, having sufficiently prepared himself for the combat, he made a sudden spring at the horse, which defended itself by striking his adversary a most violent blow on the chest. The lion instantly retreated, groaned, and seemed for several minutes inclined to give up the contest; when, recovering from the painful effects of the blow, he returned again to the charge with unabated violence. The mode of preparation for the second attack was the same as the first. He sidled from one side of the menagerie to the other for a considerable time, seeking a favourable opportunity to seize his prey, during which time the horse still preserved the same posture, and kept his head erect and turned over his shoulder. The lion at length gave a second spring, with all the strength and velocity he could exercise, when the horse caught him with his hoof on the under jaw, which he fractured. Having sustained a second and more severe repulse than the former, the lion retreated to-his den as well as he was able, apparently in the greatest agony, moaning all the way, in the most



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30 THE SHEEP. of a storm less remarkable. Whole flocks have been buried under the snow for many days, in their endeavours to secure themselves. under the shelter of some hill, and have afterwards been taken out without material injury. No country produces such sheep as England, either with larger fleeces, or better adapted to the purposes of the clothier. Besides the fleece, there is scarcely any part of this animal that is not useful to mankind. The flesh is a delicate and wholesome food; the skin, when dressed, forms different parts of our apparel, and is used for covers of books; the entrails, properly prepared and twisted, serve as strings for musical instruments; the bones, calcined, form a material for refiners' tests; the milk is thicker than that of cows, and consequently yields a greater quantity of butter and cheese; in some places it is so rich, that it will not produce the cheese without a mixture of water to make it part from the whey. They perseveringly follow their leadex wherever he goes; but if, in case of sudden



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THE ASS. GLECTED and abused as asses are in the British Islands, they have been held in great esteem in other countries, even from the earliest periods of antiquity. In the sacred writ ings, and especially in the Old Testament, they are spoken of as in general use throughout all the Eastern countries, both for the saddle, and as animals of draught and burden. Amongst the Romans, too. they were held in the highest estimation. They appear to have come originally from Arabia, and from thence passed into other countries; but they become weaker and smaller in proportion to the coldness of the climate. The ass is strongly attached to his master, 22



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THE DOG. 45 single sound. The faithful animal was now more highly prized than ever, and a place was assigned it regularly at the table of its master. Anecdotes illustrative of the noble qualities of the dog are so numerous, that many volumes have already been devoted to the purpose of recording them. I shall therefore only relate here an exploit performed by a Newfoundland dog. A man called Wilson, residing near a navigable river, kept a pleasure boat. One day he invited a small party to accompany him in an excursion on the river. They set out. Among the number were Mr. Wilson's wife and little girl, about three years of age. The child was delighted with the boat, and with the water-lilies that floated on the surface of the river. Meanwhile a fine Newfoundland dog trotted along the bank of the stream, looking occasionally at the boat, and thinking, perhaps, that he would like a sail himself. Pleasantly onward went the boat, and the party were in the highest spirits, when little Ellen, trying to get a pretty lily, stretched



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THE HORSE. 11 est admiration and pleasure. When Bucephalus had got tired of running, he was easily reined in, and Alexander returned to the king, who praised him very highly. Bucephalus became the favourite horse of Alexander, and was very tractable and docile, though full of life and spirit. He would kneel upon his fore-legs at the command of his master, in order that he might mount more easily, and was never willing to have any one mount him but Alexander. When the horse died, Alexander mourned for him a great deal. He had him buried with great solemnity, and built a small city upon the spot of his interment, which he named, in honour of his favourite, Bucephalus. Racehorses are generally descended from Arabian, being the swiftest of all. This has always been a favourite sport of the British; and, to their honour be t said, they have rarely been excelled by any other nation. In the reign of Edward I., the most popular amusement was riding at the ring. But racing was quite common in the time of Queen Elizabeth; and James I. established the race-





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THE SHEEP. sa wedged in between two large stones, and struggling in vain to extricate itself. The gentleman immediately set the little sufferer free, and placed it on its feet, when the mother poured out her thanks and joy in a long-continued and animated strain of bleatI).f ,t ~ Y"1~\





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THE HORSE. E horse is the pet of all pets, and one of our favourite domestic animals. Without doubt he is the most useful, noble, and persevering of the lower creation; and anecdotes without number have been recorded of his high qualities in all ages. Horses are supposed to have been quite unknown in the new world, till introduced by the Spaniards; but they multiplied rapidly in the vast deserts of that continent, where they ran wild in great troops of hundreds together. The inhabitants employed themselves in catching them by nooses made of rope, and, after taming them, forced them to work. Of all countries in the world, Arabia has produced the most beautiful breed of horses, and there the art of riding has been carried 7



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THE CAT. HE cat being one of our favourite domestic animals, its habits and manners are too well known to require much description. Even in its domesticated state this animal retains much of its primitive ferocity, perfidy, and cruelty, nor can it be considered as entirely trusty. It is generally stated that cats can see in the dark; but although this is not absolutely the case, it is certain that they can see with much less light than most other animals. This is owing to the peculiar striicture of their eyes, the pupils of which are capable of being greatly contracted and dilated, in proportion to the degree of light by which they are affected. The cry of the cat is loud, piercing, and 84



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THE DOG. HE dog may be called the friend of man, he is so faithful to his interests. There are many varieties of this animal, and he is to be found in all countries. The sagacity they often display is wonderful, and their affection for their master is not less so. 'i A French work, entitled L'Histoire des Chiens Cdtlbres, gives the following incidents as well attested:-Mustapha, a strong and ictive greyhound belonging to a captain of artillery, raised from its birth in the midst of camps, always accompanied his master, and exhibited no alarm even in a battle. In the hottest engagements it remained near the cannon, and carried the match in itsmouth. At the memorable battle of Fon42



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44 THE DOG. it to be taken care of as a brave and faithful public servant. An English gentleman, incarcerated in a French prison, came into possession of a little dog, to which he was soon strongly attached. An offer of escape was made him for a consideration, when he was told the dog must be left behind; but this he declared could not be, and assured his jailer that the animal would fully attend to any orders he gave it. After a time the jailer agreed to the ex. periment. A large hamper was brought into the cell one evening. The gentleman now addressed the dog very earnestly, especially telling it that it must not make any noise; he then, with the dog, laid himself down in the hamper, which was carefully packed, and sent to the nearest seaport during the night. All the next day thil hamper lay about the wharf as if it were of no value; but at night it was, as previously arranged, carefully taken on board a vessel, and a few hours afterwards the gentleman was once more safe on English ground, the dog from first to last not having uttered a



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THE ASS. 23 notwithstanding he is usually ill-treated; he will scent him at a distance, and distinguish him from any other person. The voice of these animals is called braying, and it is a most harsh and discordant noise. "When an ass begins to bray, it often happens that, if there are others within hearing, they also immediately exert their voices. This habit was, in several instances, a serious inconvenience to our army in Egypt, when much harassed by the siege of Alexandria. Besides camels and horses, there were a great number of asses employed in conveying forage for the subsistence of the troops. During the nights, when the soldiers, wearied by the fatigues of the day, were enjoying the few hours of repose that could be allowed them, one of these animals would begin to bray, and soon afterwards a serenade of at least a thousand such voices would sound through the whole camp. Vexatious as the noise might be, there was, notwithstanding, something extremely ludicrous in such a concert, in which, occasionally, all the numerous animals around, both birds and beasts,



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THE TIGER. fury and rapacity, never desisting while an object remains in his sight that he can overcome. His bravery fears neither the opposition of men nor animals; the former he not unfrequently makes his prey, and he is said by some writers to prefer human flesh to any other. The roar of this animal is chiefly heard in the night, and is said to be exceedingly dreadful. The skin of the tiger is held in great estimation throughout the East, more especially by the Chinese, who use it as a covering to the seats for their judges. The general colour is an orange-yellow ground, with a series of transverse bands of a blackish hue. forming a bold and striking contrast. The Indian physicians attribute several extra ordinary medical virtues to many portions of the tiger's body. The tongue, dried and reduced to powder, they consider as a specific for nervous diseases; the fat and the eyes, for many disorders incidental to the human frame. The tiger is hunted with great pomp and ceremony in the East, and is a favourite diversion in many parts. In the island of Java, the emperor sometimes makes cri-



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THE ELEPHANT. LL naturalists agree in giving the elephant the character of being the most sagacious animal next to man. Yet, were we to form our idea of his capacity from his outward appearance, we should be led to conceive very meanly of his abilities; for, at first view, the elephant presents the spectator with an enormous mass of flesh that seems scarcely animated. His huge body, covered with an apparently callous hide; his misshapen legs, that seem scarcely formed for motion; his small eyes, large ears, and long trunk-all give him an air of stupidity. But our prejudices soon subside when we come to examine his history, and will serve to increase our surprise when we consider the various advantages it derives 59



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40 THE CAT. never quit his back, her favourite seat; and the horse was so well pleased with the cat's attentions, that, to accommodate his friend, he slept, as horses often do, standing. This was, however, observed to injure his health, and the cat was removed to a distant part of the country. The cat is possessed of great maternal affection, and evinces much courage in defending her young. A cat, which had a family of kittens, was playing with them one day in spring near the door of a farmhouse, when a hawk darted swiftly down, and caught one of the kittens. The assassin was endeavouring to rise with his prey, when the mother, seeing the danger of the little one, flew at the common enemy, who, to defend himself, let the kitten fall. The battle presently became dreadful to both parties; for the hawk, by the power of his wings, the sharpness of his talons, and the keenness of his beak, had for a while the best of it, cruelly lacerating the poor cat, and actually deprived her of one eye in the conflict. But Puss, not at all daunted by this accident, strove with all her cunning



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THE LION. 49 teirible than his roaring. At such times, he stamps with his feet, beats his sides with ibis tail, agitates the hair of his head and mane, moves the skin.of his face, and shows his teeth. The lurking-place of the lion is generally chosen near a spring, or by the side of a river, where he has an opportunity of surprising such animals as resort to the water to quench their thirst. When hungry, he will attack any animal that presents itself; but he is so formidable that all attempt to avoid him, and this circumstance often obliges him to conceal himself, and lie in wait, that he may take his victim by surprise. There is a story told of a poor Hottentot, who was sent to take his master's cattle to water at a pool not far from the house. When he came to the watering-place, he perceived that a huge lion was lying there, apparently bathing himself. He immediately ran, with the greatest terror, through the midst of the herd of cattle, hoping the lion would be satisfied with one of the cattle, and allow him to escape. He was mistaken, however. D



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46 THE DOG. 'ut her hand over the side of the boat, and in a moment she lost her balance and fell ito the river. What language can describe the agony of those parents, when they saw the current close over their dear childl The mother, in her terror, could hardly be prevented from throwing herself into the river to rescue the drowning girl, and her husband had to hold her back by force. No one took any notice of Nero, the faithful dog; but he had kept his eye on the boat, it seems. He saw all that was going on; he plunged into the river at the critical moment when the child had sunk, and dived beneath the surface. Suddenly a. strange noise was heard on the side of the boat opposite to the one toward which the party were anxiously looking, and something seemed to be splashing in the water. .It was the dog. Nerb had dived to the bottom of that deep river, and found the very spot where the poor child had sunk. Seizing her clothes, and holding them fast in his teeth, he brought her up to the surface of the water, a very little distance from the boat; and, with looks that told his joy, he gave the



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20 THE M ULE. they stop without being checked by the rider; and if he inadvertently attempts to spur them on, they continue immovable, npparently ruminating on the danger that lies before them, and preparing themselves for the encounter. But their address in their rapid descent is truly wonderful; for in their swiftest motion, when they seem to have lost all government of themselves, they follow exactly the different windings of the road, as if they had previously settled in their minds the route they were to follow, and had taken every precaution for their safety. Mules bred in cold countries are more hardy and fit for work than those bred in hot ones. The general complaint that we make against them is that they kick and are stubborn; but this is owing only to neglect in the breeding of them, for they are as gentle as our horses in those countries where they are bred with more care. Savoy pro. duces very large mules, but the finest are bred in Spain. They are chiefly used in countries where there are rocky or stony roads, as about the Alps, Pyrenees, etc. Instead of mild usage, which generally



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THE OX AND THE CO W. 27 music. Instances have been known of the fiercest bulls having been subdued and calmed into gentleness by music of a plaintive kind. There is a laughable story told of the effect of music on a bull. A fiddler was returning home at three o'clock in the morning with his instrument, from a place where he had been engaged in his accustomed vocation. He had occasion to cross a field where there were some cows, and rather a saucy bull. The latter took it into his head to assault the fiddler, who tried to escape. He did not succeed, however. The bull was wide awake, and could not let the gentle. man off so cheaply. The poor fellow then attempted to climb a tree, but the enraged animal would not permit him to do that. The fiddler, who had heard something about Orpheus, and the wonderful power of music in subduing the rage of wild beasts, got behind the tree, and commenced playing, literally for his life. Strange as it may appear, the animal was calmed at once, and appeared to be delighted with the music. By and by, the fiddler, finding that his



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THE CAT. 37 the least resistance. As the cat grew up, she used to catch mice and bring them alive into the room where the little boy was, to amuse him with her prey. If he showed an inclination to take the mouse from her, she 't it run, and waited to see if he was able to catch it. If he did not, she darted at it, caught it, and again laid it before him. In this manner the sport continued as long as the child had any taste for it. At length the boy was attacked with the small-pox, ind, during the early stages of his illness, the cat rarely left his bedside; but, as his danger increased, it was thought necessary to remove the cat and lock her up. The child died. On the following day, the cat, having escaped from her confinement, immediately ran to the apartment where she hoped to find her playmate. Disappointed in her expectations, she sought for him with symptoms of great uneasiness and loud lamentations all over the house, till she came to the door of the room where the corpse lay. Here she lay down in silent grief till she was again locked up. As soon as the child was buried, and the cat set at liberty, she dis-



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36 THE CAT. and the tail, when elevated above the body, forms a beautiful plume. Angora, the place celebrated for these cats, is in Asia Minor, not far from Smyrna. The camlets manufactured from the hair of this animal are celebrated for their fineness and beauty throughout Asia. There have been many instances of strong attachment to the human race in cats; but this attachment seems to be in general more for the house in which they have been brought up than for the persons who inhabit it. Instances are not uncommon of cats having returned of their own accord to the place from which they have been carried, though at the distance of many miles, and even across rivers, where they could not, apparently, have had any knowledge either of the road or the direction in which it would lead them. A cat, which had been brought up in a family, became extremely attached to the eldest child, a little boy, who was very fond of playing with her. She bore with the utmost patience all the rough treatment of the mischievous child, without ever making



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THE HORSE. 17 in height, was employed many years ago by the laird of Coll to ride post upon a Shetland pony to Glasgow and Edinburgh, the ordinary weight it carried being fourteen stone. This postman, being stopped at a toll-bar near Dumbarton, humorously asked whether he should be obliged to pay the toll if he passed on foot carrying a burden; and being answered in the negative, he took up horse and bags in his arms, and carried them through the bar. An old Shetland pony was so much attached to a little boy, his master, that he would place his fore-feet in the hands of the boy like a dog, thrust his head under his arm to court his caresses, and join with him and a little dog in their noisy romping. The same animal daily carried his master to school; he would even walk alone from the stable to the school-house, to bring the boy home, and sometimes he would wait hours for him, having come too early. The appetite of hehorse is of the most simple kind, their food being entirely composed of grass and vegetables. The duration B



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THE LION. HE lion is an inhabitant of the hot parts of Asia, such as India and Persia. A few are still to be met with in the deserts between Bagdad and Dassorah; but their proper country is Africa, where their size is larger, their numbers greater, and their rage more tremendous, being inflamed by the influence of a burning sun on a most arid soil. The lion is called the king of animals, on account of his courage, generosity, and strength. His power is so great, that, as is affirmed, a single stroke of his paw is sufficient to break the back of a horse. The roar of the lion is strong and loud; but when he is irritated, his cry is shorter, repeated more suddenly, and is still more 48



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38 THE CAT. appeared, and it was not till a fortnight after that event that she returned to the well-known apartment, sad and emaciated. She refused to take any nourishment, and soon ran away with dismal cries. At length, compelled by hunger, she made her appearance one day at dinner-time, and continued to visit the house after that every day at about the same hour, but always left as soon as she had eaten the food that was given her. No one knew where she spent the rest of her time, until she was found one lay under the wall of the burying-ground, close to the grave of her favourite; and so strong was the attachment of the cat to her lost master, that, till his parents removed to another place, nearly five years afterwards, she never, except in the seve est winter weather, passed the night anywhere else than in the burying-ground, at her little friend's grave. "A French naturalist gives us an amusing incident connected with a cat in Prussia. This animal was quietly sleeping on the hearth, when one of the children of the family in which she lived set up a b, is-



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THE SHEEP. F we are to look for the sheep in its noblest state, we must seek for it in the African desert or on the plains of Siberia. In its present domestic condition in this country, it is, of all animals, the most defenceless and inoffensive. With its liberty, it seems to have been deprived of its swiftness and cunning; and what in the ass might rather be called patience, in the sheep appears to be stupidity. Loaded with a thick fleece, deprived of the defence of its horns, and rendered heavy, slow, and feeble, it has no other safety than that which it finds in the protection afforded it by man. In the selection of their food, few animals discover more sagacity than the sheep; nor is their instinct in foreseeing the approach 2a



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CONTENTS PAGR PREFACE, ..5 I. THE HORSE, ....7 II. THE MULE, ....19 III. THE ASS, .....22 IV. THE OX AND THE COW, ..25 V. THE SHEEP, .29 VI THE CAT, .34 VII. THE DOG, ....42 VIII. THE LION, ...48 IX. THE TIGER, ..., .54 X. THE ELEPHANT, , 59



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TIHE LION. 53 look down upon him with a fixed and drooping regard, and again lift up his head and roar for several minutes as the sound of distant thunder. They attempted, but in vain, to carry the carcase from him. The keeper then endeavoured to tempt him with a variety of food, but he turned from all that was offered with loathing. They then put several living dogs in his cage, which he tore in pieces, but left their carcases on the floor. His passions being thus inflamed, he would grapple at the bars of his cage, as if enraged at this restraint from tearing those around him in pieces. Again, as if quite spent, he would stretch himself by the remains of his beloved associate, lay his paws upon him, and take him to his bosom, and then utter his grief in deep and melancholy roaring for the loss of his little playfellow. For five days he thus languished, and gradually declined, without taking any sustenance, or admitting any comfort, till, one morning, he was found dead, with his headreclining on the carcase of his little friend. They were both interred together.



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00 THE ELEPIHANT. from so apparently clumsy a conformation. Elephants are said not to attain their full growth till they are thirty years old. Their longevity is well known: even in a state of slavery and labour some have been said to live from one hundred to one hundred and thirty years. Their flesh is eaten by the natives, and the trunk is said to be a delicious morsel. These animals cannot endure cold, and are averse to an excess of heat. They are fond of marshy places, and love to wallow in the mire like a hog. The ordinary food of the elephant consists of herbs, the tender branches of trees, fruits, and grain: animal food they abhor. Elephants often sleep standing, but are not incapable of lying down, as is erroneously believed. They are very mild and harmless, except when wounded, and are said never to use their weapons but in self-defence. It is very dangerous to offer them the least injury, however, for they run directly at the offender, whom they either pierce with their tusks, or seize with their trunk, dart him into the air like a stone, and then trample him under their feet.



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------------------A Book of Favourite Animals, DOMESTIC AND WILD. BY ADELAIDE AUSTEN, Author o/' Noble 7oe,' ,c EDINBURGH WILLIAM P. NIMMO & CO. 1881.



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28 THE OX AND THE CO W. enemy was entirely pacified, stopped playing, and started homeward as fast as his legs would carry him; byt the bull would not allow him to escape, and made after him. The poor fellow, fearing he should be killed, stopped, and went on fiddling again. The animal was pacified as before. Our hero then plied the bow until his arm ached, and seizing, as he supposed, a favourable oppor*unity, he made another effort to run away. He was probably not accustomed to fiddle without pay, and he was pretty sure the customer he was now playing for intended to get his music for nothing. Well, the fiddler was no more successful this time than he was before. The fury of the bull returned as soon as the strains ceased; and at last the poor man surrendered himself to his fate, and actually played for the bull until six o'clock-about three hours in all -when some people came to his rescue.



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12 THE HOBRSB course at Newmarket, with a view to improve the breed of horses. This course, which is little less than. four miles in length, was traversed in one instance, by the famous Childers, in the marvellous space of six minutes and forty seconds! We also read of hunting in this country at an early period; and James I. carried this sport to a tiresome excess. The principal education of the hunter is in being taught to leap. The Irish are indefatigable in their training, and their horses are renowned as leapers; while their Hibernian masters are not less so for their desperate and reckless courage in riding, which too often results in the ruin of the horse and the fractured bones of the rider. Two Irish grooms were drinking at a public-house door; the one being upon his master's hunter, which he had brought out for exercise, the other betted that the horse could not clear a neighbouring wall. The height, viewed from the horse's back, was tremendous; nevertheless, full to the brim with Irish mettle and whisky, Patrick offered the leap to his horse standing, who, after a litt'



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52 THE LION. to eat, keeping his eye on the dog, and inviting him, as it were, to be his taster. At length, the little animal's fears being somewhat abated, and his appetite quickened by the smell of the food, he approached slowly, and, with trembling, ventured to eat. The lion then advanced gently, and began to partake, and they finished their meal very quietly together. From this day a strict friendship commenced between them, consisting of great affection and tenderness on the part of the lion, and the utmost confidence and boldness on the part of the dog, insomuch that he would lay himself down to sleep within the fangs and under the jaws of his terrible patron. In about twelve months the little spaniel sickened and died. For a time the lion did not appear to conceive otherwise than that his favourite was asleep. He would continue to smell him, and then would stir him with his nose, and turn him over with his paws. But, finding that all his efforts to awake him were in vain, he would traverse his cage from end to end at a swift and uneasy pace. He would then stop and



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THE CAT. 35 clamorous; and, whether expressive of love or anger, is equally unpleasant. Its calls collect the whole fraternity of neighbouring cats; and on some occasions more than a hundred have thus been brought together. Their whiskers appear to increase their sense of smell, and their fur readily yields electric sparks when rubbed. In general, they keep themselves very clean, washing their faces and behind their ears every time they eat. The sleep of the cat is generally very light. They dislike to wet their feet, and have numerous methods of torturing their prey before destroying it. The average duration of a cat's life is about fifteen years; but we have had instances withir our knowledge of their having attained to twenty-five and even thirty years of age. There-are many varieties of the domestic cat, but the most beautiful is the Angora. Its nose, and the edges of the lips, are of a fine rose-colour; the eyes, in general, blue or yellow, and of a sparkling brilliancy, and its whole aspect mild and composed. The hair is of a silvery whiteness, remarkably thick and long, especially about the neck,



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TITE IHOSE. 13 hesitation, reluctantly refused; on which the irritated rider, turning the horse about, and cantering him to a considerable distance, turned him again, and with his riding switch up about the horse's ears, ran him at the wall. The generous horse would not refuse a second time, but made a desperate leap, and, being incapable of overtopping such an altitude, his fore-feet struck against the summit, yet the violence of his exertion carrying him over, he grounded on the other side on his head and fore-quarters, both his fore-legs being broken in the fall; however, the fellow escaped with only a few contusions. Owing to the absence of his pro. prietor, the poor animal was kept several days in torture before he was shot. But, notwithstanding the high qualities which have been here recorded of those noble animals, it would be injustice to say that they are entirely without faults. Some of them are vicious and bad-temperedand must be approached with caution in the stable, and managed with great care upon the road, of which the following anecdote is an illustration:-



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"12 THE SHEEP. -nother, in such quick succession, that the /nan, perfectly confounded, seemed to lose all recollection, and stood in the same attitude till the whole had jumped over him, not one of them attempting to pass on either side, though the street was quite clear. As this took place during wet weather, the man was entirely bespattered over with mud before they had all passed, and it is impossible to conceive a more ludicrous appearance than the poor fellow made on the occasion. The sheep has scarcely any marked character save that of natural affection, of which it possesses a very large share. A man was once passing through a lonely part of the Highlands in Scotland, when he perceived a sheep hurrying towards the road before him. She was bleating most piteously at the time, and as the man approached nearer, she redoubled her cries, looked earnestly into his face, and seemed to be imploring his assistance. He stopped, left his waggon, and followed the sheep. She led him quite a distance from the road to a solitary spot, and at length she stopped. When the traveller came up, he found a lamb completely





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58 THE TIGER. The tigress is very much attached to her young, and, although furious at all times, her rage is tremendous when robbed of her offspring.



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THE CAT. 39 terous crying. Puss left the place where she was lying, marched up to the child, and gave her such a smart blow with her paw, that it drew blood. Then she walked back with the greatest composure and gravity, as if satisfied with having punished the child for crying, and with the hope of indulging in a comfortable nap. No doubt she had often seen the child punished in this manner for peevishness; and as there was no one near who seemed disposed to administer correction in this instance, Puss determined to take the law into her own hands. Cats have sometimes exhibited great affection for other animals. The celebrated Arabian horse, Godolphin, and a black cat, were for many years the warmest friends. When the horse died, the cat sat upon his carcase till it was buried; and then, crawling slowly, and apparently reluctantly, away, was never seen again, till her dead body was found in a hay-loft. There was also a hunter in the stables at Windsor, to which a cat was so attached, that whenever he was in the stable, the creature would



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THE TIGER. 57 "turning one evening to the house where he resided, after dining with another officer, when he was met by his servants, who were makinig a great noise in order to frighten away a tiger which was known to be prowling about in the neighbourhood. Although he had been some years in India, the young officer had never seen a tiger, as it happened, except from a distance, and he determined he would gratify his curiosity, if possible, and have a good view of the animal. So he dismissed his servants, and seated himself apposite the jungle where the tiger was supposed to be, and there looked out for the enemy. It was moonlight, and the ferocious beast soon discovered the officer. The latter could distinctly see all the motions of his savage foe. He approached so slowly as scarcely to make the least noise; then, crouching down, he prepared to make the fatal spring at his victim. At this instant, however, the officer, taking off a bearskin cap which he wore, swung it in the air, and shouted as loudly as he could. This so frightened the tiger, that he made off, and was soon out of sight among the bushes.



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THE CAT. 41 and strength to protect her little ones, till she had broken a wing of her adversary. In this state she got him more within the power of her claws, the hawk still defending himself, however, to the best of his ability. The fight continued for a long time. But at last victory favoured the mother, and, by a sudden movement, she laid the hawk motionless beneath her feet, when, as if exulting in victory, she tore off the head of her vanquished enemy. Disregarding the loss of her eye, she immediately ran to her bleeding kitten, licked the wounds inflicted by the talons of the hawk, purring, while she caressed the little one, with the same affection as if nothing had happened to herself.



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THE DOG. 43 tenoy, Mustapha's master, the captain of artillery, received a mortal wound. About to fire on the enemy, he and several of hif corps were at that instant struck down t(. the earth by a furious firing, when the dog, seeing his master bleeding on the ground, became desperate, and howled piteously. Nor did he merely give way to unavailing grief; for a body of French soldiers were now advancing to gain possession of the piece of ordnance which was aimed at them from the top of a rising ground, when Mustapha, as if he would revenge his master's death, seized the lighted match with his paws, and fired the cannon, loaded with case-shot. Seventy men fell on the spot, and the remainder took to flight. After this bold and extraordinary stroke, the dog lay down sadly near the dead body of his master, tenderly licked his wounds, remained with the corpse without any sustenance for twenty-four hours, and was even removed with great difficulty by some of the comrades of the deceased. This gallant greyhound was taken to London, and presented to the king, George i., who ordered



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64 THE ELEPHANT uttering the most hideous cries. One of the men was unable, in consequence of his wounds, to get out of her way. The elephant seemed conscious of his situation, and for fear she should trample upon him, took him up with her trunk, placed him where he would be more safe, and continued her route. NNI



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THE ELEPHANT. 61 "When tamed, the elephant is the most obedient of all animals, and becomes entirely attached to his keeper; he readily understands the sound of his master's voice, be it the language of anger, satisfaction, or command. He receives his orders with attention, and lowers his body for the convenience of those who mount him, and caresses his friends with his trunk; the latter he also uses for the purpose of lifting burdens, and assists those who are loading him; and when yoked in a waggon or cart, he pulls cheerfully, unless abused by injudicious chastisement. A tame elephant will do as much labour as six or eight horses, but he requires a quantity of food in proportion. These animals were much used in war by the ancient Indians, and are still so employed in Cochin and other places where firearms are little used. Both the Greeks and Romans soon learned to get the better of these monstrous animals in war: they opened their ranks, and allowed them to pass through, only endeavouring to kill their guides. After being once 'attacked by man, they



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26 THE OX AND THE CO W. Frequent mention is made of our wild cattle by historians. One relates that Robert Bruce was, in chasing these animals, preserved from the rage of a wild bull by the intrepidity of one of his courtiers, from which he and his lineage acquired the name of Turnbull. 2 In many parts of England, and on the Continent, the ox is used for labour; he is particularly serviceable for the plough, and in drawing heavy loads. There is scarcely any part of the ox without its use: the blood, marrow, hide, horns, hair, hoofs, milk, cream, whey, have each their particular use in manufactures, commerce, and medicine. The skin has been of great use in all ages. The ancient Britons, before they knew a better method, built their boats with osiers, and covered them with the hides of bulls, which served for short coasting voyages. Vessels of this kind were still in use within the last half century, on the Irish lakes and on the Dee and Severn. Those animals are capable of great attachment to their keepers, and there are plenty of anecdotes to prove that they are fond



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8 lHE HORSE. to great perfection. The Arabs are a wahdering race, who have no houses, but live in tents, which they shift at pleasure. However poor they may be, they have horses, which they treat as their own family; and the children may often be seen playing with and caressing the gentle animals. They never beat their horses, but speak to them as friends, and never attempt to increase their speed with the spur but in cases of necessity. The horse is capable of strong attachment to his master; and many anec, dotes are related in proof of this quality, and also of his sagacity. A farmer, living in the neighbourhood of Bedford, was returning home from market one evening in the year 1828, and being somewhat tipsy, rolled off his saddle into the middle of the road. His horse stood still; but after remaining patiently for some time, and not observing any disposition on the part of his rider to get up and proceed further, he took him by the collar and shook him. This had little or no effect, for the farmer only gave a grumble of dissatisfaction at having his repose disturbed. The



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14 THE HORSE. A nobleman, in the early part of the reign of Louis xv., having a very vicious horse, which none of the grooms or servants would ride-several of them having been thrown, and one killed-asked leave of his Majesty to have him turned loose into the menagerie against one of the largest lions. The king readily consented; and the animal, on a certain day, was conducted thither. Soon after the arrival of the horse, the door of the den was drawn up, and the lion, with great state and majesty, marched slowly to the mouth of it, when, seeing his antagonist, he set up a tremendous roar. The horse immediately started, and fell back; his ears were erected, his mane was raised, his eyes sparkled, and something like a general convulsion seemed to agitate his whole frame. After the first emotions of fear had subsided, the horse retired to a corner of the menagerie, where, having directed his heels towards the lion, and having reared his head over his left shoulder, he watched with extreme eagerness the motions of his enemy. The lion, who presently quitted his den, sidled about for more than a minute, as if nmeAgiting the



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THE ELEPHANT. 63 them in his ordinary manner, spouted the whole of the puddle over them. The punishment was highly applauded by those who witnessed it, and the poor cobblers were laughed at for their pains. Numerous anecdotes have been related of the sagacity of the elephant, of which the following well-authenticated facts are an instance:An elephant of Adsmeer, which often passed through the bazaar or market, as he went by a certain herb-woman always received from her a mouthful of greens. At length he was seized with one of his periodical fits of rage, broke his fetters, and, running through the market, put the crowd to flight, among others this woman, who in her haste forgot a little child she had brought with her. The animal, recollecting the spot where his benefactress was wont to sit, took up the infant gently in his trunk, and placed it in safety in a stall before a neighbouring house. Another was once wounded in battle, and rendered so furious by the pain she endured, that she ran about the field



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THE OX AND THE COW. BOUT two hundred and fifty years ago, there was found in Scotland a race of wild cattle, which were of a pure white colour, and had manes like lions. There are still herds descended from that savage breed to be seen in the woods of Drumlanrig, Cadzow Forest, and in the park belonging to Chillingham Castle, Northumberland. These cattle are as wild as any deer; for, on being approached, they instantly take to flight, and gallop away at full speed. When it is necessary to kill any of them, they are always shot; and if the keeper only wound the beast, he must take care to keep behind some tree, or his life would be in danger from the furious attacks of the animal, which will never desist till a period is put to its life.



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MORRISON ANJ GIBE, EDINBURGH, PRINTERS TO HER MAJESTY'S STATIONERY OFFICE.



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10 THE HORSE. studying his character. Philip had decided that the horse was useless, and had given orders to have him sent back to Thessaly, where he came from. Alexander did not much like the idea of losing so fine an animal, and begged his father to allow him to mount the horse. Philip at first refused, thinking the risk was too great; but he finally consented, after his son had urged him a great while. So Alexander went up to the horse and took hold of his bridle. He patted him upon the neck, and soothed him with his voice, showing him at the same time, by his easy and unconcerned manner, that he was not in the least afraid of him. Bucephalus was calmed and subdued by the presence of Alexander, and allowed himself to be caressed. Alexander turned his head in such a direction as to prevent him seeing his own shadow, which had before appeared to frighten him. Then he threw off his cloak, sprang upon the back of the horse, and let him go as fast as he pleased. The animal flew across the plain at the top of his speed, while the king and his courtiers looked on, at first with extreme fear, but afterwards with the greatI



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"56 THE TIGER. minals who are condemned to death fight with tigers; but even if he ultimately succeed in killing his ferocious antagonist, he must suffer death. An officer, who had long been stationed at the court of Java, related that he was once witness to a most extraordinary occurrence of this kind. A Javanese, who had been condemned to be torn in pieces by tigers, and for that purpose had been thrown down from the top into a large cage, in which several of those, animals were confined, for. tunately fell exactly upon the largest and fiercest of them, across whose back he sat astride, without the creature doing him any harm, but even, on the contrary, appearing intimidated, while the others also, awed by the unusual posture and appearance which he made, did not attempt to destroy him. He could not, however, avoid the punishment of death to which he had been condemned, for the emperor commanded him to be shot dead in the cage. The tiger is cowardly and easily frightened, as will be seen from the following story:-A British officer, who lived in India, was re-



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THE DOO. 47 little girl into the hands of her astonished father. Then, swimming back to the shore, he shook the water from his long shaggy coat, and laid himself down panting to recover from his fatigue. Ellen seemed for a while to be dead; her face was deadly pale, and hung upon her shoulder; but by and by she recovered gradually, and in less than a week she was well. You may be sure the dog is a favourite now.



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"iH ir Ira i-C p



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24 THE ASS. joined their efforts. When the asses were at last conveyed to Rosetta, it was to the great joy of every one belonging to the troops. As the skin of the ass is extremely hard and very elastic, it is used for different purposes, such as to make drums, shoes, and thick parchment for pocket-books, which latter is slightly varnished over. Probably, too, the bones of asses are harder than those of any other animals, since the ancients made their best sounding flutes of them. In proportion to his size, the ass can carry a greater weight than any other animal he sleeps much less than the horse, and never lies down for that purpose, unless very much tired. The largest breed of asses at this time known in the world is in Spain.



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THE SHEEP. 31 alarm, any one of the flock runs forward to escape, and thus takes the lead, the resf generally follow him, regardless of any ob Btruction. Of this singular disposition the following anecdote is an illustration:-A butcher's boy was driving about twenty fat wedders through the town; but they ran down a street along which he did not want them to go. He observed a scavenger at work with his broom a little way before them, and called out loudly for him to stop the sheep. The man accordingly did what he could to turn them back, running from side to side, always op, posing himself to their passage, and brandishing his broom with great dexterity; but the sheep, much agitated, pressed forward, and at last one of them came right up to the man, who, fearing it was about to jump over his head while he was stooping, grasped the short broomstick in both hands, and held it over his head. He stood for a few seconds in this position, when the sheep made a spring, and jumped fairly over him, without touching the broom. The first had no sooner cleared this impediment, than another followed, and



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THE LTONJ 51 the lion disdains and sets him at defiance instead of betraying fear at his. appioach; but when acquainted with his ingenuity, he feels sensible of his inferiority, and employs stratagem to overcome him. Many stories are told of the lion's generosity. That his instincts are subdued in favour of weaker animals, particularly dogs, is well known. It was once customary for those who were unable to pay sixpence for the sight of the wild beasts in the Tower of London to bring a dog or a cat as a gift to the beasts. Among others, a man had brought a pretty black spaniel, which was thrown into the cage of the great lion. Immediately the little animal trembled and shivered, crouched and threw himself on his back, put forth his tongue, and held up his paws, as if praying for mercy. In the meantime, the lion, instead of devouring him, turned him over first with one paw, and then with the other. He smelled him, and seemed desirous of courting a further acquaintance. The keeper, on seeing this, brought a large mess of his own family dinner, but the lion kept aloof, and refused



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THE TIGER, LL writers upon natural history agree in considering the tiger as the most beautiful, but at the same time the most ferocious of quadrupeds; yet it is difficult to arrive at any correct conclusion respecting the size or beauty of this terrorstriking creature from his captivity in this country, as want of exercise and other causes tend materially to depress the growth, and render the skin less brilliant than when they roam at large in their native deserts. This animal is peculiar to Asia. He is the most rapacious and cruel of all the carnivorous tribe, his thirst for blood being insatiable. Fierce without provocation, and cruel without necessity, he attacks, destroys, and tears in pieces every animal with equal 54