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 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
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 Addenda














Budgeting costs and returns
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026157/00022
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida citrus production
Budgeting costs and returns for for <sic> Central Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1998
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Title varies slightly: <1992-93>- Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida Citrus Production.
General Note: Description based on: 1978-79; cover title.
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Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000313320
oclc - 08042638
notis - ABU0053
lccn - sn 82000631 /g
System ID: UF00026157:00022

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Reference
        Page 10
    Addenda
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are presented
for the twentieth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central Florida citrus area refers
primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be used by individual growers to
budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: The Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the costs
presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake
and Orange counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers-e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates offertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1998-99 budget costs reflect lower fertilizer and pesticide
materials costs and increased per acre yield due to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas. Therefore, all equipment costs are based on the
average custom rate costs, and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a
mature (10+ years old) Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age, tree density and the grove practices
performed. "Skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches could add $13.85 per acre or
extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the tree replacement
and care costs. Spray applications to control citrus leafminer and nematicide applications of
Temik or Nemacur could increase the total cultural costs per acre above the average costs
shown in the comparative budgets. Also, travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of the
citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.




i

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES














ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are presented
for the twentieth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central Florida citrus area refers
primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be used by individual growers to
budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: The Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the costs
presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake
and Orange counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used by growers-e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates offertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1998-99 budget costs reflect lower fertilizer and pesticide
materials costs and increased per acre yield due to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas. Therefore, all equipment costs are based on the
average custom rate costs, and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a
mature (10+ years old) Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age, tree density and the grove practices
performed. "Skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches could add $13.85 per acre or
extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the tree replacement
and care costs. Spray applications to control citrus leafminer and nematicide applications of
Temik or Nemacur could increase the total cultural costs per acre above the average costs
shown in the comparative budgets. Also, travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of the
citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.




i

UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA LIBRARIES














TABLE OF CONTENTS


Pane

ABSTRACT ..................................... .......... .......... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................... i

LIST OF TABLES .............. ..................................... .......... iii

IN TR O D U CTIO N ........................................ ........... 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ............. ............................... 1

COSTS AND INPUTS ......................................................... 1

THE GROVE SITUATION ................ .................................... 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS ...... ...... ......... .......... .......... 4

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS ................. ............................ 5

REFEREN CES .................................... ................... ........ 10

ADD EN DA ........... .................................... .......... 11


NOTE: The ADDENDA include a Listing of Grove Care Programs for Central
Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and Grapefruit; 1999
custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a citrus grove; etc. Page
11 is a list of the tables included in the ADDENDA.















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida citrus grove,
1998-99 ................... ........ ................. ... .......... 3

2 Calculation of normal production per acre, 1998-99 ............................ 4

3 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove
producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1998-99 ................ 6

4 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown
for the processed juice market under three cultural cost programs, 1998-99 ............. 7

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a
mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida
area, 1994-95--1998-99 ................... ............................. 8

6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1999 dollars) for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus for
processing in the Central Florida area, 1994-95--1998-99 .......................... 9








BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR CENTRAL
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1998-99


Ronald P. Muraro and H. Max Still


INTRODUCTION


Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used to
calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation, and to
determine break-even prices. This report presents a budget constructed from current data and serves as a
format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records. During the 1980's, several
freezes occurred which changed the character of the Central Florida citrus production area. The December
1983 and January 1985 freezes caused extensive tree and acreage losses in the north central counties such
as Lake and Orange counties. The December 1989 freeze resulted in severe tree damage and tree loss in
North and Central Polk County. Thus, Central Florida in this report refers primarily to Polk and Highlands
counties. Budgets for rehabilitating or replanting citrus groves where extensive tree damage or loss has
occurred are presented and discussed in a separate report.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers, growers,
colleagues at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred, and County Extension Citrus
Agents in the Central Florida production region. The survey is conducted annually in February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the average of
the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Growers' costs are shown in
the ADDENDA, Table I-A through 7-A. The custom rate costs are shown in Table 8-A and the various
chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Table 9-A and 10-A in the ADDENDA. The budget costs




RONALD P. MURARO is a Professor of Food and Resource Economics and Extension Farm
Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. H. MAX
STILL is Extension Agent, Citrus in Highlands County, Sebring.







represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove acre" excluding non-productive areas.
Therefore, all equipment costs are based upon the average custom-rate costs and a 10 percent
handling and supervision charge is added to the material cost.
Although brand names are used in many of the tables in the ADDENDA, this does not imply
endorsement by the University of Florida. It is merely an attempt to depict typical production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from a particular grove.
This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.


THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for a Central Florida round orange grove are shown in Table 1 with times during
the year when they would likely be performed. There are two benefits to developing such a table for an
individual grove. First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that operations can be planned well in
advance. Second, it can be helpful if an annual cash flow analysis is developed to plan financing. The
individual grower may benefit from developing a plan for a particular grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical" grove.
Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable yields and
returns. Although the example represents a Valencia orange grove, the cost and return data are designed
to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower, realtor, or land appraiser can substitute individual
grove costs and expected returns into the budget format and develop a budget for a particular grove. A
"your cost" column is appropriately provided for this purpose in subsequent tables.
In the follow ing budget, above average management and cultural practices are assumed. Beyond this
general assumption, the following specifics are assumed.


1. A 10+ year-old, low volume-irrigated grove;

2. Variety is Valencia round orange;

3. Tree loss is 3 percent annually;

4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below

50 percent of cpectcd yield;

5. Production is for processed use;

6. Tree density is 108 trees per acre; and


7. Custom-caretaker is providing grove management.








Table I .-Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida citrus grove, 1998-99'

Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue:


Less: Pick & haul cost

DOC advertisement tax


20%
deposit

X


50%
Partial
payment


Final
payment


x


Grove expenses:

Disc X X

Chop

Mow X X X

Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X

Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X

Spray: Post bloom/nutritional X

Summer oil/greasy spot X

Fall miticide X

Supplemental miticide

Dust

Fertilizer 68# N/A 68# N/A 68# N/A Dolomite

Hedging and topping Hedge

Brush removal/chop brush Chop brush

Tree removal X X

Young tree care X X X X X

Microjet irrigation (times/week) 1 I 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1

Miscellaneous

Grove taxes including water management X

Interest expense X

Annual principal payment on mortgage X

'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.







As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the following
age distribution:


Situation
3% pulled and reset
3% 1 year old
3% 2 years old
3% 3 years old
3% 4 years old
45% 5-19 years old
3% producing 50% of expected yield
37% mature producing


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.9
4.2
3.0
6.0


Calculation of normal production per acre is shown in Table 2. Note that the proportion-of-trees-by-
age column only adds to 91 percent since 9 percent of the trees are non-bearing.



Table 2.--Calculation of normal production per acre, 1998-99
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all aes ea. ae" a.e ..........- No.-..-----

3 years 108 x 0.03 = 3.2 x 0.6 = 1.9
4 years 108 x 0.03 = 3.2 x 0.9 = 2.9
5-19 years 108 x 0.45 = 48.6 x 4.0 = 194.4
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 108 x 0.03 = 3.2 x 3.0 = 9.6
20 years 108 x 0.37 = 40.0 x 6.0 = 240.0
Total boxes = 448.8

"Proportion adds up to 0.91 (91 percent) as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and
reset, I and 2 year old trees).

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for die Central Florida grove situation are shown in Table 3.
The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and were selected from the costs
shown in the ADDENDA tables. The gross revenue estimates are based on the projected yields in







Table 3 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1998-99 season. Historical on-tree prices for
selected Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 14-A of the ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 3, the total revenue for processed-market Valencia oranges is estimated to be
$2,464.00 per acre. Total specified costs are $818.79 and are comprised of grove care costs of $770.79,
plus management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $1,645.21 represents net return above variable
costs. At 300 and 500 boxes per acre, respectively, the break-even price required to cover grove care costs
for Valencia oranges range from $2.57 to $1.54 per box on-tree and $0.69 to $0.54 per pounds solids
delivered-in.
Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes, crop
insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs
vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, variety of fruit, etc. and should be considered in
arriving at net return to land, trees and ownership (total return minus total costs). Harvest costs (pick,
roadside, and hauling costs) also add to the total fruit cost delivered to either a processing plant or fresh fruit
packinghouse. Also, average annual debt payment (principal and interest) may be as high as $440 per acre
($3,750 average debt per acre @ 10 percent interest amortized over 20 years) which would reduce total
available cash for grove expansion or other investment.
An estimated "delivered-in" costs are shown for processed oranges in Table 4. "Delivered-in" costs
include grove care costs (Table 3) plus harvesting, regulatory, and grower assessment costs. The
"delivered-in" cost is presented as a cost per acre, per box, and per pound solids. Three possible budget
cost scenarios are presented (Refer to Table 13-A): 1) Low Cost Processed Cultural Program; 2) Reduced
Cost Cultural Program; and 3) Typical/Historical Cultural Program. Scenarios 1 and 2 represent costs of
two possible cultural programs directed toward reducing the expenditures for fruit grown primarily for the
processed market. The third scenario represents typical costs ofgrove practices which have been performed
for citrus grown for the fresh/processed fruit market. Modified herbicide and/or spray and fertilizer
programs account for the reduced costs. NOTE: Before modifying a grove management program to reduce
costs, an evaluation of the market program (processed or fresh), yield, and specific cultural problems
(nutrition, disease, etc.) for the specific grove site should be made.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS

Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Valencia oranges in the Central Florida
area have been developed and published the past four years. Estimated cost and return histories for 1994-95
through 1997-98 along with 1998-99, and a five-year average are presented in Table 5. To allow
comparisons in current values, these same costs and returns, adjusted to 1999 dollars, are presented in Table
6.








Table 3.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1998-99"

Item Description Amount Your cost
Dollars

I. Revenue 448 boxes @ $5.50b 2,464.00

II. Expenses'

Weed control
Discing 2 times per year 19.48
Mow middles 4 times per year 40.84
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 22.30
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #2 & #7) 121.73 204.35
Spray program (Table 1-A, Programs #2 & #9) 165.67
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #3) 145,71
Dolomite (Table 6-A, Program #2) 8.51
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($353.33/hr. 10 A/hr.) + 2.5 rs. 14.13
Remove brush from trees ($21.48/A + 2.5 vrs.) 8.59
Hedging ($335.00/hr. 10 A/hr.) + 2 Ns. 16.75
Mow/chop brush ($S0.25/A 2 %ms.) 5.13 44.60
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A) (I through 3 years)
Remove trees/stack/bum 3 trees per acre 13.59
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 3 trees per acre 26.19
Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, maintenance,
sprout, etc. Including application 30.24 70.02
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A. Program #4) 131.93
Total grove care expenses 770.79

Ill. Management $4.00 per acre per monthd 48.00

IV. Total specified costs* 818.79

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 1645.21

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses

Boxes per acre Boxes per acre

300 350 400 450 500 300 350 400 450 500
$ On-tree price per box $ Delivered-in price per pound solids!

2.57 2.20 1.93 1.71 1.54 0.69 0.63 0.59 0.56 0.54

'Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a mature Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ
depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $128.12 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza would double the tree replacement and care costs; travel
and set-up costs may vary due to size of citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.
'On-tree price per box is preliminary, assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Assumes material custom applied; therefore, a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added to material cost.
dOther methods to estimate a management cost-e.g., 5% of gross revenue or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and
trees than reported here.
'Other cost items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water
drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of
purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 6.8 pounds solids per box and $1.95 pick and haul cost per box and Department of Citrus advertising assessment of $0.17 per box.








Table 4.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown for the processed market under three cultural cost
programs, 1998-99
Represents a mature (10+ years old) Processed Valencia Oranges Processed Valencia Oranges Fresh/Processed Valencia Oranges
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove Low Cost Reduced Cost Typical/Historical
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
S/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre S/Box $P.S.
Total Production/Cultural Costs $682.72 $1.524 $0.2241 $770.79 $1.721 $0.2530 $808.79 $1.805 $0.2655

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 34.14 0.076 0.0112 38.54 0.086 0.0127 40.44 0.090 0.0133

Management Costs 48.00 0.107 0.0158 48.00 0.107 0.0158 48.00 0.107 0.0158

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management Tax 58.92 0.132 0.0193 58.92 0.132 0.0193 58.92 0.132 0.0193

Total Direct Grower Costs $ 823.78 $1.839 $0.2704 $ 916.25 $2.045 $0.3008 $956.15 $2.134 $0.3139

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 375.85 0.839 $0.1234 375.85 0.839 0.1234 375.85 0.839 0.1234

Total Grower Costs $1,199.63 $2.678 $0.3938 $1,292.10 $2.884 $0.4241 $1,332.00 $2.973 $0.4372

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 873.60 1.950 0.2868 873.60 1.950 0.2868 873.60 1.950 0.2868
DOC Assessment 76.16 0.170 0.0250 76.16 0.170 0.0250 76.16 0.170 0.0250

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 949.76 2.120 0.3118 949.76 2.120 0.3118 949.76 2.120 0.3118

Total Delivered-In Cost $2149.39 $4.798 $0.7055 $2,241.86 $5.004 $0.7359 $2,281.76 $5.093 $0.7490


P.S. = Pound Solids Refer to cultural program shown in Refer to cultural program shown in Refer to cultural program shown on
Yield: 448 boxes/acre @ 6.8 P.S. per box Table 13-A. Table 3. Table 13-A.
108 trees per acre
Only summer oil spray with oil, A Fall Miticide Spray added to the
copper and Agri-mek. cultural program shown in Table 3.












Table 5.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus
for processing in the Central Florida area, 1994-95--1998-99


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box" Yield revenue care expenses costs* trees and ownership
--------------.--------------------------- Dollars -------- -------------------------

1994-95 $4.42 405 1,790.10 755.05 803.05 987.05

1995-96 $5.53 405 2,239.65 789.70d 837.70 1,401.95

1996-97 $4.04 433c 1,749.32 756.93 804.93 944.39

1997-98 $5.17 433c 2,238.61 765.65 813.65 1,424.96

1998-99 $5.50b 448c 2,464.00 770.79 818.79 1,645.21

5-yr. avg. $4.93 425 2,095.25 767.62 815.62 1,279.63

"On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
cHigher per acre yield is due to increased average tree density of Valencia citrus groves in Central Florida.
din 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer materials and the supplemental maintenance costs of resets had increased substantially over previous years.
'A management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.












Table 6.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1999 dollars) for a mature, Valencia
orange grove producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida area, 1994-95--1998-99


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costsb trees, and ownership

------------------------------ Dollars r------------------------
1994-95 101.1 $4.47 405 1,842.75 811.88 1,015.61

1995-96 98.7 $5.46 405 2,353.05 826.81 1,511.16

1996-97 98.8 $3.99 433 1,848.91 795.27 1,039.15

1997-98 101.4 $5.24 433 2,247.27 825.04 1,433.62

1998-99 100.0 $5.50 448 2,464.00 818.79 1,645.21

5-yr. avg. -- $4.93 425 2,095.25 815.56 1,279.69

"Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1999 prices (1999 = 100), with 1999 producer price index estimated to be 126.1. Producer
price index for other years are: 1995 = 124.7; 1996 = 127.7; 1997 = 127.6; and 1998 = 124.4.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.
(Refer to Table 5.)







REFERENCES


1. Citrus Summary 1998-99 (Preliminary Report). Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Florida
Agricultural Statistics. September 1999.

2. Knapp, J. L. (Ed.). 1999 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP
43. Gainesville: Jan. 1999. 76 pp.

3. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Central Florida (Ridge) Citrus Production
Costs Per Acre for 1998-99." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) Report.
Lake Alfred, FL: June 1999.

4. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years of
Age, North Florida Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: March 1990.

5. "Estimated Cost of Planting and Maintaining a Reset Citrus Tree through Three Years of
Age." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: November 1996.

6. "A Listing of 1999 Custom Rates Reported by Thirty-two Ridge Citrus Caretakers." Lake
Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: June 1999.

7. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville: 1960.

8. Tucker, D. P. H., A. K. Alva, L. K. Jackson, and T. A. Wheaton (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus
Trees. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 169. Gainesville: 1995. 61 pp.









ADDENDA: Listing of Grove Care Programs for Central Florida Citrus Production for Both Round
Oranges and Grapefruit"
Page

Table 1-A. Spray programs ................. ............................... 12
Post bloom spray .................. ....................... ......... 12
Summer spray ................... ................................. 13
Fall spray ...................... ......... ................... 14

Table 2-A. Herbicide ............... ....................................... 15

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer ................ ....... .. ................ ......... 17

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ............................... 18

Table 5-A. Nematicides ................. ................................ 18

Table 6-A. Soil amendment ................... ................................ 19

Table 7-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre ................ ...................... 19
Permanent overhead .............. ............................... 19
Microsprinkler .................................................. 19

Table 8-A. A listing of 1999 custom rates reported by thirty-two Ridge citrus caretakers ..... 20

Table 9-A. 1999 summary of average chemical price estimates .................. ...... 22

Table 10-A. 1999 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ........................ 24

Table 11-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years
of age, North Florida area ............... .......................... 26

Table 12-A. Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years
of age, 1996 ................................................... 27

Table 13-A. A listing of estimated comparative Central Florida (Ridge) citrus production
costs per acre for 1998-99 ............... ......................... 28

Table 14-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ............................... 29

Table 15-A. Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity ........... 30

Abbreviations for important chemicals are:
B = Boron Fe = Iron Mn = Manganese Zn = Zinc
Cu = Copper Mg = Magnesium N = Nitrogen

"The costs in the ADDENDA represent a custom managed operation. Therefore, all equipment costs
are based upon the average custom rate costs and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost.








Table I-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2
(Scab/melanose)


Spray Program #3


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+%
Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn
Micromite 25WP
Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


NMaerials lneredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 50WP
Zn
Mn

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$11.20
14.60
3.95
3.40


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$14.60
3.95
3.40
41.33


26.90


$6005


Amount
/Acre

10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
1.25 lbs

150 gals


Amount
/Acre
15 lbs
6 pts

250 gals


Amount
/Acre
2 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs

150 gals


26.90


$90.18


Your
Cost/Acre


=


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$21.90
28.26


30,42


$80.58


Cost/Acre

$32.62
3.95
3.40

26.90


$66.87


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..


---------------------------------r------------------r -----------------


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..








Table I-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5

(Scale insects)


SUMMER SPRAY


Spray Program #6


Spray Program #7


Spray Program #8


Materials/Ingredients

Lorsban 4EC

Ground Application
(engine driven)
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+%
Cu (50% material)
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+%
Agri-Mek
Cu (50% material)

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

S pts
500 gals


Cost/Acre

$31.70
33.08


$64.78


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
7 lbs
6.0 pts

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$11.20
10.22
28.26

30.42


$80.10


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
5 pts

500 gals


Cost/Acre

$11.20
23.55

33.08


$67.83


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 ozs
7 lbs

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$11.20
56.24
10.22

30.42


$108.08


- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --








Table I-A,--Spray programs (cont'd.)

SUMMER SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #9


Spray Program #10


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+%
Agri-Mek
Cu (50% material)
Ground Application
(engine driven)
Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+/o

Ground Application
(engine driven)
Total per Application


FALL SPRAY


Spray Program #11


Spray Program #12


Materials/Ingredients
Dicofol 4EC
Spray Buffer

Ground Application
(engine driven)
Total per Application


Materials Ingredients
Vendex 50WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
5 gals
5 ozs
7 lbs

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$11.20
23.65
10.22

30.42


$75.49


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

7 gals

250 gals


Cost/Acre
$15.68
30.42


$46.10


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
2.5 pts

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$33.84
2.15

26.90


$62.89


Amount
/Acre
2 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$32.62
26.90


$59.52


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..








Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

FALL SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #13


Materi als/Ingredients
Thiolux (Sulfur)

Ground Application
Total per Application


Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Materials
Solicam 80 DF
Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra
Ground Application
(1 time)
Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre
3 lbs
4 lbs
2 qts


Herbicide Program #2
(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Surflan A80 DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra
Ground Application
(1 time)
Total for 1 Application


Materials


Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra
Ground Application
(1 time)
Total for 1 Application


2 qts
4 qts
2 qts


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 ibs
2 qts


Amount
/Acre
15 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$11.10
26.90

$38.00


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"
$24.05
9.22
10.98


12.54


$56.79


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"
$17.82
7.48
10.98
12.54


$48.82


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$9.22
10.98
12.54


$32.74


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--








Table 2-A.-.Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup Ultra
Ammonium Sulfate

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Roundup Ultra
Princep (Caliber 90))

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts

17 lbs


Amount/
Treated Acre


2 qts
4 lbs


Herbicide Program #6
(Strip/band)


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Direx 4L
Solicam
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


3 qts
3 lbs
2 qts


Herbicide Program #7

(Spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth
under trees.)


Materials

Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts

15 gals


*With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does not equal Amount Per Treated Acre shown
on the label as only a strip or band is being treated In this report, it is assumed that only 50% or one-half of a grove
acre is being treated.


Cost/
Grove Acre"
$10.98


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


12.54


$24.57


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$10.98
7.22

12.54


$30.74


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'
$8.10
24.05
10.98


12.54


$55.67


Cost/
Grove Acre'
$10.98

5.14


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


=


$16.12


--------------------...----------------------- --------- ------------------------


--------------------------------------------------- .................


----- --- ---------------- ---- -------------------------------l---C------


... ... ... ..... ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ... ... .. ...I --------- -- -- -- -









Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(162 lbs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #3

(204 lbs N/Acre)


Program #4

(225 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

16-0-16-4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

16-0-16-4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

15-2-15-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Amount
/Acre

1350 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1125 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1275 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Cost/Acre

$109.35

23.31

$132.66


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$108.00

23.31

$131.31


Cost/Acre

$122.40

23.31

$145.71


Cost/Acre

$136.50

23.31

$159.81


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --





18

Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)

Analysis/Material
Program #1 Applied

(180 lbs N/Acre) 10-0-10

Double Boom Application
Total for 3 Applications


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #3

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied
10-2-10

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Amount
/Acre
1800 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre
1800 lbs

3 times


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre
10-0-10 1800 lbs
Solicam 80 DF 3 lbs*
Karmex WP 4 lbs*

Double Boom Application 3 times

Total for 3 Applications

*Treated acre (one herbicide application)


Table 5-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material
Applied
Temik 15G

Application
Total per Application


Amount
!Acre

33 lbs


Cost/Acre

$117.00

40.89
$157.89


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre







Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$126.00
40.89

$166.89


Cost/Acre
$117.00
24.05
9.22

40.89

$191.16


Cost/Acre

$114.51

13.61

$128.12
sssssess


Program #1


--- -- --- -- --- --- --- -- -- -- -- --- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ... .. ..









Table 6-A.--Soil amendment


Program #1
(Every 3 years)


Program #2

(Every 4 years)


Analysis/Material
Applied

Dolomite (Delivered)

Application

Total for 1 Application

(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Analysis/Material
Applied

Dolomite (Delivered)

Application
Total for 1 Application
(Average 1/4 Ton Applied/Yr)


Table 7-A.--Irrigation--annual cost per acre


PERMANENT OVERHEAD


Operating


Maintenance of System

Total Cash Expenses
Fixed Depreciation Expense
Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


MICROSPRINKLER



Operating


Maintenance of System

Total Cash Expenses
Fixed Depreciation Expense
Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


Program #1
(Electric)
$82.61
37.47

$120.08
55.73
$175.81


Program #3

(Electric)
$39.91
39.26

$79.17
52.94
$132.11


Amount
/Acre

1 ton

1 time


Amount
/Acre
1 ton

I time


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$26.10
7.95

$34.32

$11.35


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$26.10

7.95

$34.05

$8.51


Program #2
(Diesel)
$ 68.60
37.47

$106.17
59.54
$165.71


Program #4

(Diesel)
$33.59
41.78

$ 75.37
56.56

$131.93


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- ----'---- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -









Table 8-A.-A listing of 1999 custom rates reported by thirty-two ridge citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments


CULTIVATION AND EQUIPMENT:
Hand HoC/Hand Labor
Tractor/Equipment Operator Labor (Driver)
Mechanic Labor
Rotovate
Disc 7'
Disc 7'
Disc 9'-10'
Disc 9'-10'
Chop
Chop
Mow 5'-7'
Mow 9'-10'
Mow 5'-7'
Mow 9'-10'
Mow 15'-16'
Herbicide (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (StriplBand-Double Boom)
Herbicide (Piggy Back Appl.)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur'
Plow
Deviner
Bush Hog
Pickup Truck with Driver
Flatbed Transport Truck with Driver
Tractor with Driver
Water/Supply Truck

SPRAYING:'
Tree-See Air Blast Sprayer
PTO High Pressure Sprayer


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA

DUSTING:'
Ground Application

FERTILIZE AND SOIL AMENDMENTS:*
Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Liquid Boom Application:
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees:' Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader

IRRIGATION:

Microsprinkler

Microsprinkler
Freeze Protection with Irrigation
ATV with Driver
Ring Young Trees: Hand Labor
Mechanical
Backhoe

REMOVING TREES:
Tree Shearing (Cutting Tree at Ground Level)
Front End Loader
Front End Loader with Tree Spade


Hour $ 9.00-
Hour 11.00-
Hour 27.00-
Hour 26.00-
Hour 23.90-
Acre 7.00-
Hour 24.50-
Acre 6.00-
Hour 22.50-
Acre 6.00-
Hour 24.10-
Hour 25.00-
Acre 10.00-
Acre 9.00-
Acre 10.00-
Hour 25.00-
Acre 11.00-
Acre 11.00-
Acre 12.50-
Acre 5.00-
Hour 25.00-
Acre 12.00-
Hour 24.50-
Hour -
Hour 26.00-
Hour 21.00-
Hour 35.00-
Hour 20.00-
Hour 20.00-


$15.00 $11.15 Plus transportation
18.50 13.33
35.00 30.86 Includes truck
38.25 30.69
32.00 28.03
10.00 8.69 One-way discing
35.00 28.77
10.00 8.12 One-way discing
32.00 27.36
9.00 7.96 One-way chopping; $12/acre two-way
35.00 28.60
35.00 28.82
10.50 10.69
12.50 10.21
11.50 10.69
30.00 27.15
15.00 13.11
14.50 12.54 Plus materials
14.35 13.47 Plus materials
10.00 6.51 Plus materials
30.00 27.38 Plus materials
15.00 13.61 Plus materials
35.00 28.91 Plus materials
25.50 Plus materials
40.00 32.24
30.00 24.35 one reporting; $12/acre
55.00 Avg. miles/year/pickup: 23,300
30.00 24.63 One reporting $1.75/mile; Avg. miles/year: 22,500
32.00 26.52 One reporting $100/day


$24.20/acre @ 100 GPA // Curtec Sprayer $17.60/acre @ 22 GPA
Hour 45.50 Tractor, sprayer plus 2 men

AIR BLAST SPRAYER
Engine Driven PTO Powered

Acre 30.00- 35.75 33.08 25.00- 33.00 29.50
Acre 28.00- 33.50 30.42 22.50- 30.00 26.62
Acre 21.00- 26.90 24.98 19.00- 26.50 21.00
Acre 18.00- 25.00 21.13 18.00- 22.00 19.37


Acre


- $8.00 Plus materials


Hour $25.00- $30.00 $27.32 Truck plus labor
Acre 1.50- 3.50 2.64 Average $62.50/irrigation injection hookup

Acre 11.00- 16.00 13.63
Acre 6.20- 10.50 7.77 Average $27.73/hour
Acre 6.50- 9.50 7.95
Ton 6.50- 9.50 7.78
Hour 9.00- 15.00 11.15 Plus transportation and materials
Hour 25.85- 32.00 29.01 Plus materials; average $7.18/acre



Avg. $2.78/acre; Avg. $25.00/mouth; Start/stop and supervision
Avg. $17.40/trip
Hour 28.00- 35.00 30.75 Start/stop and supervision; truck and driver
$45.00 per night per system; $25.00 per night per system to monitor weather and have employees standing-by
Hour 15.00- 22.50 18.52 Check/repair microsprinkler irrigation system-plus materials
Hour 9.00- 15.00 11.15 Labor plus equipment
Hour 25.00- 29.00 26.12



Hour $ 50.00 Average trees sheared: 10 to 25 trees/hour
Hour $45.00 $55.00 50.73 Average trees removed: 5 to 15 trees/hour
Hour 60.00


(OVER)









Table 8-A.-A listing of 1999 custom rates reported by thirty-two ridge citrus caretakers (conl'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate7 Comments


PRUNING:
General Pruning (Rehab)
Power Saw with Operator
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer (Double Sided)
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Mounted)
Double Side (Tractor Pulled)
Double Side (Tractor Mounted)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Self Propelled Hedger-Topper
Topping:
Tractor Pulled
Self Propelled
Self Propelled
Double Boom (Self Propelled)
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove

Front-end Loader (Push Brush)
Chop/Mow Brush

BANK AND UNBANK TREES:
Hand Labor
Mechanical

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:
Plant Resets
Solid Set Planting
Travel/Setup Charge
Grove Management Charge/Month:
Supervising Grove Care Operations
Handling Fruit Marketing
Supervising/Handling Chemicals/Fertilizer
Consulting


Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to:


Per Tree
Hour
Hour

Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour


$ 3.00- $ 5.00 $ 3.81 Depending upon trees/acre requiring pruning
15.00- 20.95 18.05 Plus transportation; one reporting $35/day
180.00 Cover 9-18 acres one pass

75.00- 80.00 78.33 Cover 2-5 acres/hour
80.00- 82.50 81.25 Cover 3-5 acres/hour
215.00 220.00 217.50
330.00- 345.00 335.00 Cover 10-20 acres/hour depending on wood size
260.00- 285.00 281.25 Cover 4-12 acresbour depending on wood size
$237.50


Hour 90.00- 100.00 95.00 Cover 1-3 acres/hour
Hour 330.00- 380.00 353.33 Cover 5-10 acres/hr (Roof Top); 5-20 acres/hr (Flat Top)
Hour 250.00- 295.00 272.50
Hour 550.00 Cover 2-12 acres/hr (Roof Top); 15-30 acres/hr (Flat Top)

Hour 25.25- 31.70 29.64 Tractor-trailer/truck, driver plus 1 person; plus 2 people
average $47.50/hour
Hour 45.00- 55.00 49.78 2-10 acres/hour
Hour 25.00- 35.00 31.33 3-6 acres/hour; Averaged $10.25/acre


Hour $ 9.00- $ 15.00 $ 11.15 Labor plus transportation; Bank/unbank @ 50C per tree
Hour 25.00- 35.00 28.80 Install wraps; Average 33C per wrap


Per Tree
Per Tree
Hour


$ 2.00- $ 3.00 $ 2.51 Stake, plant and first watering
1.00- 2.00 1.31 Stake, plant and first watering
25.55 Average for those reporting


Acre 2.00- 4.50 2.80 In addition to caretaking charges
Box 0.10- 0.15 0.12 5 % of gross; $40/acre annually
10% to 25% of materials cost
Cultural Management/Horticultural Evaluation/Email Analysis Prospectus Average $50/hour.
One reporting $500/day.


Acre


500- 13,162


2,800 Total acres reporting: 61,604


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, June 1999.


'Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer; supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of caretakers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.







Table 9-A.--1999 summary of average chemical price estimates
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1998-99)


Fungicides: Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Carbamate 76WP
Nu-Cop 50DF
Oil 435 or 455
Ridomil SG
Ridomil (Gold)
Trilogy 70 EC

Insecticides/Nematicides:
Admire
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Bacillus thuringienses
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Cygon 4 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 50WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion 5 E
Metasystox-R
Micromite 25WP
Microthiol SODF
Nemacur 15G
Sevin 80S
Sevin XLR
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Temik 15G
Thiolux 80 DF
Vendex 50W


lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.


gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
ton
lb.
lb.
lb.


9.71
16.00
1.33
1.91
12.50
3.88
2.08
2.04
5.04
667.50
30.07


550.74
628.00
9.70
34.98
82.21
29.60
41.07
34.23
33.33
8.83
34.95
7.47
46.09
1.91
22.70
70.23
30.05
0.67
3.95
4.59
25.09
3.38
305.00
3.15
0.67
14.83


- --


-13~1-







Table 9-A.--1999 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1998-99)


Herbicides:


DeVine
Devrinol 50WP
Direx 4L
Direx 80 DF
Eptam 7-E
Fusilade DX
Goal
Gramoxone (Paraquat)
Hyvar X
Karmex
Krovar I
Princep (Caliber 90)
Princep 4L
Prowl
Rodeo (30 gal drum)
Roundup (30 gal drum)
Roundup Ultra
Simazine 90 DF
Simazine 4L
Solicam 80 DF
Surflan AS
Torpedo IE
Touchdown


pt.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.


Growth Regulators:
Pro-Gibb 3.91%
Tre-Hold
Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%)
Manganese (32%)
Zinc (78%)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Nutritional Spray Mix:
Goemar BM 86
Goemar MZ 63
Dyna Gold MZ
Dyna Gold MZF
KeyPlex 350
KeyPlex 250
KeyPlex 445
NZN


75.00
7.84
19.62
4.12
30.48
123.75
95.25
35.72
17.23
4.19
10.80
3.28
14.30
26.45
88.24
36.80
39.90
3.05
13.62
14.57
64.83
56.04
54.96


45.35
78.84


0.70
0.31
0.72
14.64

28.50
30.58
7.75
7.62
17.00
17.00
17.50
7.25


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1999.







Table 10-A.--1999 summary of average fertilizer price estimates


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1998-99)

FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant)


Slow Release (Young Tree)*
Osmocote: 18-4-12
Sulfur Coated/Polymer Coated Urea (42% N)


Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3N%
17-4-17-2.4hu
16-0-16
16-0-16-4h,
16-2-16-3h
15-2-15-2,4m
12-2-12-2.4&u
8-8-8 w/minors**
8-4-8 w/minors**
8-2-8 w/minors**
6-6-6 w/minors*

Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8
8-4-8
9-3-9
9-4-9
10-0-10
10-2-10
12-0-6
12-3-6


1,386.34

366.00


172.95
181.61
153.48
174.68
175.50
165.85
148.56
138.08
130.92
126.68
123.65



115.84
121.09
124.53
128.93
118.72
127.71
125.79
137.27


*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.
**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 25% higher.






Table 10-A.--1999 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1998-99)

Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk)
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 150.91
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 191.96
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 112.44
Calcium Nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N) ton 214.30
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO3, 36% MgCO3) ton 12.35
High Cal Lime ton 6.40
Muriate of Potash (60% K20) ton 166.10
Potassium Nitrate (14% N; 46% K20) ton 358.84
Sul-Po-Mag (SPM--21.9% K20) ton 176.05
Super Phosphate (20% P2Os) ton 157.99
Triple Superphosphate (48% P205) ton 209.95
Average Delivery Cost ton 12.51

Foliar Macronutrients
Dyna Zone 15-0-10 gal. 7.25
N-Sure 28-0-0 (72% SRN)*** gal. 5.50
K-Phos, 0-18-20
Di-Potassium Phosphate (DKP) gal. 4,00
Trisert-KS 15-0-12-8 S (60% SRN) gal. 7.25
MKP (0-52-34) 0.65
Mono-Potassium Phosphate
Phos Might 0-22-20 gal. 25.00
Nutriphite 0-28-26 gal. 53.00


***SRN, Slow Release Nitrogen

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1999.







Table I1 -A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, North Florida area
Cost Per Acre
Range Average
$ $
Land Cost' 2,500-4,500 3,450
Land Preparation (clearing, disking, leveling) 275- 7002 350
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton 35
Super Phosphate, 400 lbs. 30
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler -- with Well' 850-1,650 1,350
-- without Well 525-1,250 975
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 35- 80 50
Time in Months 3- 8 6
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 90%- 97% 95%
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 10% 5%
North Florida
Year
1 2 3 4

Solidset Planted Trees" --------------- Cost Per Tree --------------
Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance $0.37 $0.45 $0.55 $0.65
Fertilize Tree 0.25 0.40 0.55 0.57
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29
Spray 0.42 0.55 0.65 0.75
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance) 0.25 0,25 0.25 0.00
Sprouting (labor) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00
Cultivation/Mowing 0.40 0,40 0.40 0.40
Herbicide 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Ridomil/Aliette 0.35 0.35 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous 0.43 0.49 0.42 0.47
Total Cost Per Year $3.27 $3.74 $3.57 $3.58
Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs) $2.13 $2.47 $1.84
Cost of Planting Trees' Solidset = $6.75 Reset = $8.05
'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

2Includes fumigation cost of $330 per acre.

'Irrigation costs include distribution s. stem, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported
also included a cost for fertigation equipment.

'The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be
decreased for higher density plantings and increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease
costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

'Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets); and insulated tree wrap
= $2.25.


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, March 1990.







Table 12-A.--Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years of age,
1996

Number of Resets/Replacement Trees Per Acre
1-2 3-5 6-10 11-25 26+
------------------ Cost Per Tree ---------------

Year#1: $ $ $ $ $
Tree Removal 5.21 4.53 3.62 2.93 2.34
Tree Cost (Container Tree) 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75
Site Preparation" 5.12 4.44 3.76 3.48 2.73
Plant Tree and First Watering 2.37 2.05 1.73 1.61 1.26
Total Planting Cost 11.49 10.49 9.24 8.84 7.74

Supplemental Fertilization 4 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.26 1.10 1.01 0.92 0.84
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.45 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.30
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Tree Wrap (Corrugated) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sprouting/Pruning 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.32
Miscellaneous 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13
Supervision & Overhead 0.26 0.24 0.23 0.22 0.20
Total Tree Care Cost Year #1 3.72 3.44 3.25 3.10 2.92
Total Cost Year #1 20.42 18.46 16.11 14.87 13.00
Year #2:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.70 1.51 1.32 1.12 1.02
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.31
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Sprouting/Pruning 0.45 0.45 0.38 0.38 0.34
Miscellaneous 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
Supervision & Overhead 0.23 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14
Total Cost Year #2 3.24 2.93 2.55 2.24 2.03
Year #3:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 2.31 2.06 1.77 1.51 1.28
Miscellaneous 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.06
Supervision & Overhead 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10
Total Cost Year #3 2.61 2.32 2.00 1.71 1.44
Total Three-Year Cumulative Costs 26.27 23.71 20.66 18.82 16.47

"Site preparation for bedded citrus grove; cost of root removal, rotovating/leveling tree planting site.
Fumigate planting site would cost approximately $2.50 per tree.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1996.







Table 13-A.--A listing of estimated comparative Central Florida (Ridge) citrus production costs per acre for 1998-99y

Costs represent a mature (10+ years old) Low Cost Reduced Cost Typical/Historical
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove. Processed Processed/Fresh Fresh Fruit
_________________________ Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program


PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTS:Y
Weed Management/Control:
Discing (2 times per year)
Mechanical Mow Middles (4 times per year)
General Grove Work (2 labor hours per acre)
Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated):
Application (2 applications)
Material
Spot Treatment (material/application)
Total Herbicide Cost
Spray
Post Bloom: Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Post Bloom Cost
Summer Oil: Application (250 GPA)
Material
Total Summer Oil Cost
Supplemental Fall Miticide:
Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Supplemental Fall Miticide Cost
Fertilizer (Bulk): 3 Applications
Material (16-0-16-4 MgO @ 180 lbs N
per acre and 204 lbs N per acre)
Total Fertilizer Cost
Dolomite (one ton applied every 4 years)
Material/Application
Pruning: Topping ($35.33/A+ 2.5 yrs)"
Remove Brush from Trees after Topping
($21.48/A + 2.5 yrs)"
Hedging (S33.50/A + 2 yrs)*
Chop/Mow Brush after Hedging ($10.25/A+2 yrs)"
Total Pruning Cost
Tree Replacement--I thru 3 years of age: (3 trees/acre)
Remove Trees: Pull, Stack & Bur 3 Trees with
Front-end Loader
Prepare Site & Plant Tree (includes 3 reset trees)
Supplemental Fertilizer, Tree Wraps Maintenance,
Sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years)
Total Tree Replacement Cost

Irrigation: Microsprinkler System
IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS

Fall Miticide: Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Fall Miticide Cost

IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS


$ 19.48
40.84
22.30


$25.08
64.45
16.12





30.42
77.66"


105.65






108.08


23.31


108.00



14.13

8.59
16.75
5.13



13.59
26.19

30.24


131.31

8.51


44.60


70.02

631.93
$692 172


$ 19,48
40.84
22,30


$25.08
80.53
16.12


26.90
63.28

30.42
45.07


121.73



90.18


75.49


23.31


122.40



14.13

8.59
16.75
5.13



13.59
26.19

30.24


145.71

8.51





44.60


70.02


26.30
32.62


131.93
5$7790.79



59.52
$830.31


$ 19.48
40.84
22.30


$25.08
80.53
16.12


26.90
63.28

30.42
45.07


26.90
11.10

23.31

122.40



14.13

8.59
16.75
5.13



13.59
26.19

30.24





26.30
32.62


121.73



90.18


75.49



3800


145.71

8.51


44.60


70.02

131.93




59.52
$868.31


rThe listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report Series
entitled:"Budgeting Costs and Returns for Central Florida Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular grove situation
in Central Florida.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida-IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL, July 1999.







Table 14-A.-Historic prices' for selected citrus varieties
Variety
Earlyb and Seedless grapefruit'
mid"-season Late season Temple All
Crop year oranges oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (colored)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91

1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96

1996-97
1997-98
1998-99'


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
1.38
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
5.38

5.44
3.23
3.76
3.25
3.62

3.18
2.81
4.78


$1.81
3.50
4.45
2.28
1.79
1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91

2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63
4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58

6.65
3.88
4.61
4.41
5.57

4.07
4.88
5.71


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
2.22
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
5.34
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.31

6.51
2.99
2.73
3.47
4.44

3.22
3.07
5.21


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
2.37
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45
6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.10

18.00
13.75
9.83
11.98
12.59

7.99
8.49
12.30


$3.36
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
1.39
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
3.29
3.90
2.87
3.92
3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
6.31
5.10
6.11

7.16
3.31
2.38
2.64
3.63

2.19
1.66
4.59


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
1.39

0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
2.27
2.06
1.58
1.55
1.29
1.49
1.47
2.21
3.12
3.46
1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
4.33
5.21
4.59

6.46
2.22
3.23
2.58
2.14

1.12
0.93
2.01


$0.86
1.81
2.54
1.82
1.64

0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
2.53
2.12
2.59
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22
2.80
3.20
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
6.30
6.85

6.87
3.11
3.38
1.66
1.77

1.91
1.50
2.43


'On-tree average price per box (1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul charges.


bNavel and Hamlin
cParson Brown and Pineapple


dValencia
'Marsh (white) or pink


'Preliminary


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.


--


---











Table 15-A.-Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(~ears) 8.0O 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 1./0% 11.5% 12.0% 12.5% 13.0% 13.5% 14.0% 14.5% 15.0(0


926
1,783
2,577
3,312
3,993
4,623

5,206
5,747
6,247
6,710
7,139
7,536

7,904
8,244
8,559
8,851
9,122
9,372

9,603
9,818
10,675
11,258
11,655
11,925


922
1,771
2,554
3,276
3,941
4,554
5,119
5,639
6,119
6,561
6,969
7,345
7,691
8,010
8,304
8,576
8,825
9,056

9,268
9,463
10,234
10,747
11,088
11,315


917
1,759
2,531
3,240
3,890
4,486

5,033
5,535
5,995
6,418
6,805
7,161

7,487
7,786
8,061
8,313
8,543
8,756

8,950
9,129
9,823
10,274
10,567
10,757


913
1,747
2,509
3,204
3,840
4,420

4,950
5,433
5,875
6,279
6,647
6,984

7,291
7,572
7,828
8,062
8,276
8,471

8,650
8,812
9,438
9,835
10,087
10,247


909
1,754
2,487
3,170
3,791
4,355
4,868
5,335
5,759
6,145
6,495
6,814

7,103
7,367
7,606
7,824
8,022
8,201

8,365
8,514
9,077
9,427
9,644
9,779


905
1,724
2,465
3,136
3,743
4,292
4,789
5,239
5,646
6,015
6,348
6,650

6,923
7,170
7,394
7,596
7,779
7,945

8,095
8,231
8,739
9,047
9,234
9,348


901
1,713
2,444
3,102
3,696
4,230

4,712
5,146
5,537
5,889
6,207
6,492

6,750
6,982
7,191
7,379
7,549
7,702

7,839
7,963
8,422
8,868
8,855
8,951


897
1,701
2,423
3,070
3,650
4,170

4,640
5,056
5,431
5,768
6,070
6,341

6,583
6,801
6.997'
7,172
7,329
7,470

7,596
7.710'
8,123
8,364
8,503
8,587


893
1,690
2,402
3,037
3,605
4,111

4,564
4,968
5,328
5,650
5,938
6,194

6,424
6,628
6,811
6,974
7,119
7,250

7,366
7,469
7,843
8,055
8,175
8,244


889
1,679
2,381
3,006
3,561
4,054

4,492
4,882
5,228
5,536
5,810
6,054

6,270
6,462
6,633
6,785
6,920
7,040

7,146
7,241
7,579
7,766
7,870
7,928


885
1,668
2,361
2,974
3,517
3,998

4,423
4,799
5,132
5,426
5,687
5,918

6,122
6,302
6,462
6,604
6,729
6,840

6,938
7,025
7,330
7,496
7,586
7.634


881
1,657
2,341
2,944
3,475
3,942

4,355
4,718
5,038
5,319
5,568
5,787

5,979
6,149
6,299
6,431
6,547
6,649

6,739
6,819
7,095
7,242
7,320
7.361


877
1,647
2,322
2,914
3,433
3,889
4,288
4,639
4,946
5,216
5,453
5,660

5,842
6,002
6,142
6,265
6,373
6,467

6,551
6,623
6,873
7,003
7,070
7,105


873
1,636
2,302
2,884
3,392
3,836

4,224
4,562
4,858
5,116
5,341
5,538

5,710
5,861
5,992
6,106
6,207
6,294

6,370
6,437
6,663
6,778
6,836
6,866


870
1,626
2,283
2,855
3,352
3,784

4,160
4,487
4,772
5,019
5,234
5,421

5,583
5,724
5,847
5,954
6,048
6,128

6,198
6,259
6,464
6,566
6,617
6,642


'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5% interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).


J


f


f


dr