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 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
 Reference
 Addenda














Budgeting costs and returns
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 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida citrus production
Budgeting costs and returns for for <sic> Central Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1997
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Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
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General Note: Title varies slightly: <1992-93>- Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida Citrus Production.
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Reference
        Page 10
    Addenda
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
Full Text

Ronald P. Muraro
Thomas W. Oswalt
H. Max Still


Economic Information
Report 98-3


EL c~4i3


Budgeting Costs and Returns for
Central Florida Citrus
Production, 1997-98


- UNIVERSITY OF
SFLORIDA
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Food and Resource Economics Department
Florida agricultural Experiment Station
Florida Cooperative Exlension Service
Gamesville, FL 32611


August 1998















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are presented
for the twentieth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central Florida citrus area refers
primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be used by individual growers to
budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: The Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the costs
presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake
and Orange counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised *o reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates offertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1997-98 budget costs reflect lower fertilizer and pesticide
materials costs and increased per acre yield due to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas. Therefore, all equipment costs are based on the
average custom rate costs, and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a
mature (10+ years old) Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age, tree density and the grove practices
performed. "Skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches could add $14.13 per acre or
extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the tree replacement
and care costs. Spray applications to control citrus leafininer and nematicide applications of
Temik or Nemacur could increase the total cultural costs per acre above the average costs
shown in the comparative budgets. Also, travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of the
citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are presented
for the twentieth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central Florida citrus area refers
primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be used by individual growers to
budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: The Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the costs
presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee, Hillsborough, Lake
and Orange counties.

The budgeted cost information presented herein is the most current available. The budget cost
items have been revised *o reflect current grove practices being used by growers--e.g.,
chemical mowing, different spray materials and rates offertilization, microsprinkler irrigation,
more reset trees, etc. Thus, the 1997-98 budget costs reflect lower fertilizer and pesticide
materials costs and increased per acre yield due to higher per acre tree densities.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove
acre" excluding non-productive areas. Therefore, all equipment costs are based on the
average custom rate costs, and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a
mature (10+ years old) Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the tree age, tree density and the grove practices
performed. "Skirting trees" or pruning the lower branches could add $14.13 per acre or
extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the tree replacement
and care costs. Spray applications to control citrus leafininer and nematicide applications of
Temik or Nemacur could increase the total cultural costs per acre above the average costs
shown in the comparative budgets. Also, travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of the
citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ABSTRACT ................. ........................................ ....... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................ ...................................... i

LIST OF TABLES .............................................................. i

INTRODUCTION ......................................................... 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION .............................................. 1

COSTS AND INPUTS .................. ........................................ 1

THE GROVE SITUATION ................ .................................... 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS ............................................. 4

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS .................................................... 5

REFERENCES ........................... .................................. 10

ADDENDA ..................... ..... .............. ........... 11


NOTE: The ADDENDA include a Listing of Grove Care Programs for Central
Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and Grapefruit; 1998
custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a citrus grove; etc. Page
11 is a list of the tables included in the ADDENDA.















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida citrus grove,
1997-98 ............................................................... 3

2 Calculation of normal production per acre, 1997-98 .............................. 4

3 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove
producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1997-98 ................... 6

4 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown
for the processed juice market under three cultural cost programs, 1997-98 ............. 7

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a
mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida
area, 1993-94--1997-98 ........................................ ........... 8

6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus for
processing in the Central Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98 .......................... 9









BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR CENTRAL
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1997-98


Ronald P. Muraro, Thomas W. Oswalt, and H. Max Still


INTRODUCTION


Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used to
calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation, and to
determine break-even prices. This report presents a budget constructed from current data and serves as a
format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records. During the 1980's, several
freezes occurred which changed the character of the Central Florida citrus production area. The December
1983 and January 1985 freezes caused extensive tree and acreage losses in the north central counties such
as Lake and Orange counties. The December 1989 freeze resulted in severe tree damage and tree loss in
North and Central Polk County. Thus, Central Florida in this report refers primarily to Polk and Highlands
counties. Budgets for rehabilitating or replanting citrus groves where extensive tree damage or loss has
occurred are presented and discussed in a separate report.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers, growers,
colleagues at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred, and County Extension Citrus
Agents in the Central Florida production region. The survey is conducted annually in February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the average of
the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Growers' costs are shown in
the ADDENDA, Table I-A through 7-A. The custom rate costs are shown in Table 8-A and the various
chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Table 9-A and 10-A in the ADDENDA. The budget costs




RONALD P. MURARO is a Professor of Food and Resource Economics and Extension Farm
Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred. THOMAS
W. OSWALT is Extension Agent, Citrus in Polk County, Bartow. H. MAX STILL is Extension Agent,
Citrus in Highlands County, Sebring.









represent a custom-managed operation based on a "net grove acre" excluding non-productive areas.
Therefore, all equipment costs are based upon the average custom-rate costs and a 10 percent
handling and supervision charge is added to the material cost.
Although brand names are used in many of the tables in the ADDENDA, this does not imply
endorsement by the University of Florida. It is merely an attempt to depict typical production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from a particular grove.
This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.


THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for a Central Florida round orange grove are shown in Table 1 with times during
the year when they would likely be performed. There are two benefits to developing such a table for an
individual grove. First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that operations can be planned well in
advance. Second, it can be helpful if an annual cash flow analysis is developed to plan financing. The
individual grower may benefit from developing a plan for a particular grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical" grove.
Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable yields and
returns. Although the example represents a Valencia orange grove, the cost and return data are designed
to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower, realtor, or land appraiser can substitute individual
grove costs and expected returns into the budget format and develop a budget for a particular grove. A
"your cost" column is appropriately provided for this purpose in subsequent tables.
In the following budget, above average management and cultural practices are assumed. Beyond this
general assumption, the following specifics are assumed.


1. A 10+ year-old, low volume-irrigated grove;

2. Variety is Valencia round orange;

3. Tree loss is 3 percent annually;

4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below

50 percent of expected yield;

5. Production is for processed use;

6. Tree density is 102 trees per acre; and


7. Custom-caretaker is providing grove management.








Table 1.-Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida citrus grove, 1997-98'

Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


Total revenue:


Less: Pick & haul cost

DOC advertisement tax

Grove expenses:

Disc


20%
deposit


50%
Partial
navment


Final
anvmnmt


X

X
____x______
_______________x________________


Chop

Mow X X X

Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X

Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X

Spray: Post bloom/nutritional X

Summer oil/greasy spot X

Fall miticide X

Supplemental miticide

Dust

Fertilizer 68# N/A 68# N/A 68# N/A Dolomite

Hedging and topping Hedge

Brush removalchop brush Chop brush

Tree removal X X

Young tree care X X X X X

Microjet irrigation (times/week) I 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1

Miscellaneous

Grove taxes including water management X

Interest expense X

Annual principal payment on mortgage X

'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.









As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the following
age distribution:


Situation
3% pulled and reset
3% 1 year old
3% 2 years old
3% 3 years old
3% 4 years old
45% 5-19 years old
3% producing 50% of expected yield
37% mature producing


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.9
4.2
3.0
6.0


Calculation of normal production per acre is shown in Table 2. Note that the proportion-of-trees-by-
age column only adds to 91 percent since 9 percent of the trees are non-bearing.



Table 2.--Calculation of normal production per acre, 1997-98
Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes
Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age ae ---------- No. --------

3 years 102 x 0.03 = 3.1 x 0.6 = 1.9
4 years 102 x 0.03 = 3.1 x 0.9 = 2.8

5-19 years 102 x 0.45 = 45.9 x 4.2 = 192.8
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 102 x 0.03 = 3.1 x 3.0 = 9.3
20 years 102 x 0.37 = 37.7 x 6.0 = 226.2
Total boxes = 433.0

'Proportion adds up to 0.91 (91 percent) as 9 percent of the trees were non-bearing (pulled and
reset, 1 and 2 year old trees; see page 4).

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for the Central Florida grove situation are shown in Table 3.
The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and were selected from the costs
shown in the ADDENDA tables. The gross revenue estimates are based on the projected yields in








Table 3 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1997-98 season. Historical on-tree prices for
selected Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 14-A of the ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 3, the total revenue for processed-market Valencia oranges is estimated to be
$2,247.27 per acre. Total specified costs are $813.65 and are comprised of grove care costs of $765.65,
plus management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $1,433.62 represents net return above variable
costs. At 300 and 500 boxes per acre, respectively, the break-even price required to cover grove care costs
for Valencia oranges range from $2.55 to $1.53 per box on-tree and $0.70 to $0.55 per pounds solids
delivered-in.
Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes, crop
insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs
vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, variety of fruit, etc. and should be considered in
arriving at net return to land, trees and ownership (total return minus total costs). Harvest costs (pick,
roadside, and hauling costs) also add to the total fruit cost delivered to either a processing plant or fresh fruit
packinghouse. Also, average annual debt payment (principal and interest) may be as high as $440 per acre
($3,750 average debt per acre @ 10 percent interest amortized over 20 years) which would reduce total
available cash for grove expansion or other investment.
An estimated "delivered-in" costs are shown for processed oranges in Table 4. "Delivered-in" costs
include grove care costs (Table 3) plus harvesting, regulatory, and grower assessment costs. The
"delivered-in" cost is presented as a cost per acre, per box, and per pound solids. Three possible budget
cost scenarios are presented: 1) Typical/Historical Cultural Program; 2) Reduced Cost Cultural Program;
and 3) Low Cost Processed Cultural Program. The first scenario represents typical costs of grove practices
which have been performed for citrus grown for the fresh fruit market. Scenarios 2 and 3 represent costs
of two possible cultural programs directed toward reducing the expenditures for fruit grown primarily for
the processed market. Modified herbicide and/or spray and fertilizer programs account for the reduced
costs. NOTE: Before modifying a grove management program to reduce costs, an evaluation of the market
program (processed or fresh), yield, and specific cultural problems (nutrition, disease, etc.) for the specific
grove site should be made.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS

Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Valencia oranges in the Central Florida
area have been developed and published the past four years. Estimated cost and return histories for 1993-94
through 1996-97 along with 1997-98, and a five-year average are presented in Table 5. To allow
comparisons in current values, these same costs and returns, adjusted to 1998 dollars, are presented in Table
6.









Table 3.-Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1997-98"

Item Description Amount Your cost

Dollars

I. Revenue 433 boxes @ $5.19' 2,247.27

II. Expenses'

Weed control
Discing 2 times per year 19.00
Mow middles 4 times per year 39.00
General grove work/sprouting (2 labor hours per acre) 20.90
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #2 & #7) 124.67 203.57
Spray program (Table I-A, Programs #2 & #9) 166.33
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #3) 144.92
Dolomite (Table 6-A, Program #2) 8.83
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping ($356.25/hr. + 10 A/hr.)+ 2.5 yrs. 14.25
Remove brush from trees ($20.57/A + 2.5 yrs.) 8.23
Hedging ($312.00/hr. + 10 A/hr.) + 2 yrs. 15.60
Mow/chop brush ($9.96/A + 2 yrs.) 4.98 43.06
Tree replacement and care (Table 12-A) (1 through 3 years)
Remove tres/stack/bum 3 trees per acre 13.59
Prepare sites and plant resets Including 3 trees per acre 25.47
Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, maintenance,
sprout, etc. Including application 29.50 68.56
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 7-A, Program #4) 130.38
Total grove care expenses 765.65 __

III. Management $4.00 per acre per month 48.00

IV. Total specified costs' 813.65

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership 1. 62

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses

Boxes per acre Boxes per acre

300 350 400 450 500 300 350 400 450 500

$ On-tree price per box $ Delivered-in price per pound solids'

2.55 2.19 1.91 1.70 1.53 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.57 0.55

'Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a mature Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ
depending upon the grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $123.13 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza would double the tree replacement and care costs; travel
and set-up costs may vary due to size of citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.
bOn-tree price per box is preliminary, assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Assumes material custom applied; therefore, a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added to material cost.
"Other methods to estimate a management cost-e.g., 5% of gross revenue or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and
trees than reported here.
*Other cost iems which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water
drainage/district taxes, crop insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of
purchase or grove establishment
'Assumes 6.5 pounds solids per box and $1.85 pick and haul cost per box and Department of Citrus advertising assessment of $0.175 per box.



i> 'm








Table 4.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown for the processed market under three cultural cost
programs, 1997-98

Represents a mature (10+ years old) Processed Valencia Oranges Processed Valencia Oranges Processed Valencia Oranges
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program
$/Acre S/Box $P.S. S/Acre $/Box $/P.S. S/Acre S/Box $/P.S.

Total Production/Cultural Costs $802.75 $1.854 $0.2852 $765.65 $1.768 $0.2720 $667.67 $1.542 $0.2372

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 40.14 0.093 0.0143 38.28 0.088 0.0136 33.38 0.077 0.0119

Management Costs 48.00 0.111 0.0171 48.00 0.111 0.0171 48.00 0.111 0.0171

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax and Water Management Tax 58.92 0.136 0.0209 58.92 0.136 0.0209 58.92 0.136 0.0209

Total Direct Grower Costs $949.81 $2.194 $0.3375 $ 910.85 $2.104 $0.3236 $ 807.97 $1.866 $0.2871

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 375.85 0.868 0.1335 375.85 0.868 0.1335 375.85 0.868 $0.1335

Total Grower Costs $1,325.66 $3.062 $0.4710 $1,286.70 $2.972 $0.4572 $1,183.82 $2.734 $0.4206

Harvesting and Assessment Costs:
Pick/Spot Pick, Roadside and Haul 801.05 1.850 0.2846 801.05 1.850 0.2846 801.05 1.850 0.2846
DOC Assessment 75.77 0.175 0.0269 75.77 0.175 0.0269 75.77 0.175 0.0269

Total Harvesting and Assessment Costs 876.83 2.025 0.3115 876.83 2.025 0.3115 876.83 2.025 0.3115

Total Delivered-In Cost $2.202.48 $5.087 $0.7825 $2.163.53 $4.997 $0.7687 $2060.65 $4.759 $0.7322


P.S. = Pound Solids Refer to cultural program shown on Refer to cultural program shown in Refer to cultural program shown in
Yield: 433 boxes/acre @ 6.5 P.S. per box Table 13-A. Table 3. Table 13-A.
102 trees per acre
A Fall Miticide Spray added to the Only summer oil spray with oil,
cultural program shown in Table 3. copper and Agri-mek.












Table 5.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus
for processing in the Central Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box' Yield revenue care expenses costs' trees, and ownership
---------------------------------------- Dollars -----------------------------------

1993-94 $4.63 405 1,875.15 735.53 783.53 1,091.62

1994-95 $4.42 405 1,790.10 755.05 803.05 987.05

1995-96 $5.78 405 2,340.90 789.70d 837.70 1,503.20

1996-97 $4.24 433' 1,835.92 756.93 804.93 1,030.99

1997-98 $5.19b 433c 2,247.27 765.65 813.65 1,433.62

5-yr. avg. $4.85 416 2,017.60 760.57 808.57 1,209.03

"On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
'Higher per acre yield is due to increased average tree density of Valencia citrus groves in Central Florida.
dIn 1995-96, the cost of fertilizer materials and the supplemental maintenance costs of resets had increased substantially over previous years.
"A management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.












Table 6.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1998 dollars) for a mature, Valencia
orange grove producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida area, 1993-94--1997-98


Adjusted
Inflation on-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costs trees, and ownership

------------------------------ Dollars ------------------------
1993-94 106.6 $4.94 405 2,000.70 835.24 1,165.46

1994-95 103.0 $4.55 405 1,842.75 827.14 1,015.61

1995-96 100.5 $5.81 405 2,353.05 841.89 1,511.16

1996-97 100.6 $4.27 433 1,848.91 809.76 1,039.15

1997-98 100.0 $5.19 433 2,247.27 813.65 1,433.62

5-yr. avg. -- $4.95 416 2,059.20 825.54 1,233.66

'Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1998 prices (1998 = 100), with 1998 consumer price index estimated to be 128.3. Producer
price index for other years are: 1994 = 120.4; 1995 = 124.7; 1996 = 127.7; and 1997 = 127.6.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not included.
(Refer to Table 5.)








REFERENCES


1. Citrus Summary 1997-98. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Florida Agricultural Statistics.
Jan. 1998.

2. Knapp, J. L. (Ed.). 1998 Florida Citrus Pest Management Guide. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP
43. Gainesville: Jan. 1998. 76 pp.

3. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Central Florida (Ridge) Citrus Production
Costs Per Acre for 1997-98." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center (CREC) Report.
Lake Alfred, FL: June 1998.

4. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years of
Age, North Florida Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: March 1990.

5. "Estimated Cost of Planting and Maintaining a Reset Citrus Tree through Three Years of
Age." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: November 1996.

6. "A Listing of 1998 Custom Rates Reported by Thirty-two Ridge Citrus Caretakers." Lake
Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: June 1998.

7. and John L. Jackson. Ten-year Analysis for Rehabilitation of Freeze Damaged Citrus
Groves. Univ. of Fla., Food and Resource Econ. Staff Paper 270. Jan. 1985.

8. and J. Fred Kurras. "Estimating the Damage to Citrus Trees and Resulting Value Loss Due
to the January, 1982 Freeze," Florida Food and Resource Economics No. 39 (Mar.-Apr. 1982).
Univ. of Fla.: Gainesville.

9. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville: 1960.

10. Tucker, D. P. H., A. K. Alva, L. K. Jackson, and T. A. Wheaton (Eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus
Trees. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 169. Gainesville: 1995. 61 pp.









ADDENDA: Listing of Grove Care Programs for Central Florida Citrus Production for Both Round
Oranges and Grapefruit'
Page

Table I-A. Spray programs ................................................... 12
Post bloom spray .................................................... 12
Summer spray ...................................................... 13
Fall spray ........................................................ 14

Table 2-A. Herbicide ................................................... 15

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer ..................................................... 17

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ............................... 18

Table 5-A. Nematicides ............................................... .. 18

Table 6-A. Soil amendment .................................... ............. 19

Table 7-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre ......................................... 19
Permanent overhead ................................................ 19
Microsprinkler ............................................... 19

Table 8-A. A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by thirty-two Ridge citrus caretakers ..... 20

Table 9-A. 1998 summary of average chemical price estimates ......................... 22

Table 10-A. 1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ......................... 24

Table I1-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years
of age, North Florida area ............................................. 26

Table 12-A. Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years
ofage, 1996 ..................................................... 27

Table 13-A. A listing of estimated comparative Central Florida (Ridge) citrus production
costs per acre for 1997-98 ........................................... 28

Table 14-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ............................... 29

Table 15-A. Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity ........... 30

Abbreviations for important chemicals are:
B = Boron Fe = Iron Mn = Manganese Zn = Zinc
Cu = Copper Mg = Magnesium N = Nitrogen

'The costs in the ADDENDA represent a custom managed operation. Therefore, all equipment costs
are based upon the average custom rate costs and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added
to the material cost.










Table 1-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2

(Scab/melanose)


Spray Program #3


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn
Micromite 25WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% metallic)
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 50WP
Zn
Mn

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs

150 gals


Amount
/Acre

10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
1.25 lbs

150 gals


Cost/Acre

$10.95
14.40
4.00
3.60


Cost/Acre

$14.40
4.00
3.60
42.99


$91.2


Amount
/Acre

15 lbs
6 pts
250 gals


Amount
/Acre

2 Ibs
5 lbs
10 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$21.60
27.00


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$33.14
4.00
3.60


$67.04


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5

(Scale insects)


SUMMER SPRAY


Spray Program #6


Spray Program #7


Spray Program #8


Materials/Ingredients

Lorsban 4EC

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97 + %
Cu (50% material)
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Agri-Mek
Cu (50% material)

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
5 pts

500 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$30.60

31.L6


$622


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
7 lbs
6.0 pts

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.95
10.08
27.00

30.16


$7.19


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.95
27.00


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
6 pts

500 gals


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 ozs
7 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.95
46.10
10.88


$97.29


--- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

SUMMER SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #9


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97 + %
Agri-Mek
Cu (50% material)

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Spray Program #10


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+ %

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


FALL SPRAY


Spray Program #11


Spray Program #12


Materials/Ingredients

Dicofol 4EC
Spray Buffer

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 50WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
5 ozs
7 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.95
23.05
10.88

30.16


$754


Amount
/Acre

7 gals

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$15.33

30.16


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
2.5 pts
150 gals


Amount
/Acre

2 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$33.60
2.10


26.3


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$33.14

26.30


$59.44


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


.......... ....... --..........---...... ..... --.. .......... ......... .-- .... --.......... .........









Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

FALL SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #13


Materials/Ingredients

Thiolux (Sulfur)

Ground Application

Total per Application


Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Materials

Solicam 80 DF
Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra


Amount/
Treated Acre

3 lbs
4 lbs
2 qts


11.86


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #2

(Strip/band)


Materials

Surflan A80 DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup Ultra


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts
4 qts
2 qts


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Materials

Karmex WP
Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 lbs
2 qts


Total for 1 Application $34.8


Amount
/Acre

15 lbs

150 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$10.80


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$22.55
9.06
13.56


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$16.08
7.52
13.56


11.8


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$ 9.06
13.56


11.8


--- --- -- --- --- -- -- --- -- --- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- --- -- -- -- --- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup Ultra


Ammonium Sulfate

Ground Application
(1 time)
Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2qts

17 lbs


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #6

(Strip/band)


Roundup Ultra
Princep (Caliber 90))

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


2 qts
4 bs


Amount/
Treated Acre


Direx 4L
Solicam
Roundup Ultra


3 qts
3 lbs
2 qts


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$13.56
7.38


Cost/
Grove Acre'


$ 8.16
22.55
13.56


Ground Application 1.86
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application $56


Herbicide Program #7

(Spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth
under trees.)


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Roundup Ultra

Ground Application
(1 time)


2 qts


15 gals


Total for 1 Application $UL&2


'With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does no equal Amount Per Treated Acre
shown on the label as only a strip or band is being treated. In this report, it is assumed that only 50% or one-
half of a grove acre is being treated.


Cost/
Grove Acre'

$13.56


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


1.05


$26.4


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Cost/
Grove Acre'


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


$13.56


--- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(162 lbs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #3

(204 lbs N/Acre)


Program #4
(225 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application
Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied
16-0-16-4 MgO
Application
Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

16-0-16-4 MgO
Application
Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied
15-2-15-2.4 MgO

Application
Total for 3 Applications


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$108.00

23.52

$U131.52


Cost/Acre

$108.00

23.52
$1152


Amount
/Acre

1350 lbs
3 times


Amount
/Acre
1125 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1275 lbs
3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$122.40

.2152
$145.92


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$135.00

23.52
215.852


- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- --- -- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --









Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)


Program #1

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-0-10

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied
10-2-10


Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Program #3

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-0-10
Solicam 80 DF
Karmex WP

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


*Treated acre (one herbicide application)


Table 5-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material
Applied
Temik 15G


Amount
/Acre

33 Ibs


Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$111.54

11.5

$122.1


Total per Application


Amount
/Acre
1800 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1800 lbs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$118.80

35.07

$1053.87


Cost/Acre
$126.00

35.07

$161.07


Amount
/Acre

1800 Ibs
3 lbs*
4 lbs*

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$118.80
22.55
9.06


Program #1


-- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --









Table 6-A.--Soil amendment


Program #1
(Every 3 years)


Program #2
(Every 4 years)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)
Application

Total for 1 Application

(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Analysis/Material
Applied
Dolomite (Delivered)

Application
Total for 1 Application
(Average 1/4 Ton Applied/Yr)


Table 7-A.--Irrigation--annual cost per acre


PERMANENT OVERHEAD


Operating


Maintenance of System
Total Cash Expenses
Fixed Depreciation Expense
Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


Program #1
(Electric)
$ 81.80

36.47
$118.27
55.73
$174.00


MICROSPRINKLER


Operating


Maintenance of System
Total Cash Expenses
Fixed Depreciation Expense
Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


Program #3
(Electric)
$ 39.52
38.11
$ 77.63
52.94
$130.5


Cost/Acre
$27.16

$.16
$35.32

$12


Your
Cost/Acre









Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre
1 ton
1 time


Amount
/Acre
1 ton
1 time


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre
$27.16

8.16
$35.32

$8.8


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #2
(Diesel)
$ 67.93
36.47
$104.40
59.54

$WIA


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #4
(Diesel)
$ 33.26
40.56
$ 73.82
56.56

$130.38


-------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------------------










Table 8-A.-A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by thirty-two ridge citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments


CULTIVATION AND EQUIPMENT:
Hand Hoe/Hand Labor
Tractor/Equipment Operator Labor (Driver)
Mechanic Labor
Rotovate
Disc 7'
Disc 7'
Disc 9'-10'
Disc 9'-10'
Chop
Chop
Mow 5'-7'
Mow 9'-10'
Mow 15'-16'
Mow 5'-7'
Mow 9'-10'
Mow 15'-16'
Ditch Bank Mower (22 ft. reach)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band-Double Boom)
Herbicide (Piggy Back Appl.)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur'
Plow
Deviner
Bush Hog
Pickup Truck with Driver
Pickup Truck without Driver
Flatbed Transport Truck with Driver
Tractor with Driver
Water/Supply Truck

SPRAYING:'
Tree-Sot Air Blast Sprayer
Windmill w/Tree-See
PTO High Pressure Sprayer


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA

Aerial (Fixed Wing)

DUSTING:'
Ground Application

FERTILIZE AND SOIL AMENDMENTS:'
Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Liquid Boom Application:
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees* Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader

IRRIGATION:

Microsprinkler
Microsprinkler
Freeze Protection with Irrigation
ATV with Driver
Ring Young Trees: Hand Labor
Mechanical
Backhoe


$ 9.00-
10.95-
25.00-
24.50-
23.90-
7.00-
25.00-
6.00-
23.90-
6.25-
24.00-
25.00-
28.00-
6.25-
9.00-
10.00-

25.00-
10.50-
10.00-
12.50-
5.00-
25.00-
12.00-
24.50-
25.00-
25.00-
17.00-
10.00-
30.00-
22.50-
20.00-


$15.00 $10.45 Plus transportation
20.00 15.35
35.00 30.07 Includes truck
38.25 30.73
35.00 27.40
10.00 8.13 One-way discing
35.00 28.76
10.00 7.86 One-way discing
35.00 28.12
10.00 7.65 One-way chopping
35.00 28.95
35.00 29.31
35.00 30.52
11.25 9.10
12.00 10.00
11.50 10.46
50.00
30.00 27.15 Plus materials
15.00 12.61 Plus materials
14.50 11.86 Plus materials
15.00 13.41 Plus materials
10.00 6.89 Plus materials
35.00 29.22 Plus materials
15.00 11.59 Plus materials
35.00 29.57
30.00 27.33
40.00 32.40
30.00 22.54 Avg. miles/year/pickup: 23,300
15.00 12.50
50.00 40.13 One reporting $1.75/mile; Avg. miles/year: 22,930
34.50 26.87 One reporting $100/day
34.00 27.62


$25.73/acre @ 100 GPA /I Curtec Sprayer $17.60/acre @ 22 GPA
$22/acre @ 75 GPA; $20/acre @ 50 GPA; $18/acre @ 25 GPA
Hour 45.50 Tractor, sprayer plus 2 men

AIR BLAST SPRAYER
Eneine Driven PTO Powered

Acre 29.25- 35.75 31.67 28.00- 34.50 31.49
Acre 25.00- 33.50 30.16 22.00- 30.00 25.11
Acre 21.00- 26.90 24.41 19.00- 26.50 21.39
Acre 18.00- 25.00 22.03 16.60- 22.00 19.47
$38/ac @ 1000 GPA; $33/ac @ 750 GPA I $18.75/ac @ 50 GPA; $17.00/ac @ 25 GPA
Fixed Wing: $4.00/acre @ 5 GPA; $8.00/acre @ 10 GPA; $10.00/acre @ 15 GPA; $14.00/acre @ 20 GPA


Acre $ 7.50- $ 8.50 $ 7.84 Plus materials


Hour $25.00- $30.00 $28.25
Acre 1.50- 3.50 2.93 One reporting $55.00/hookup; 15c/gal w/$75 minimum

Acre 10.00- 15.00 11.86
Acre 6.50- 10.50 7.84 Average $27.61/hour
Acre 7.00- 10.50 8.16 Average $25.95/hour
Ton 6.50- 9.50 7.42
Hour 9.00- 15.00 10.45 Plus transportation and materials
Hour 22.50- 31.00 26.25 Plus materials; average $7.67/acre



Avg. $3.17/acre; Avg. $25.00/month Start/stop and supervision
Hour 25.00- 35.00 30.79 Start/stop and supervision; truck and driver
$45.00 per night per system; $25.00 per night per system to monitor weather and have employees standing-by
Hour 15.00- 23.25 20.20 Check/repair microsprinkler irrigation system-plus materials
Hour 9.00- 15.00 10.45 Labor plus equipment
Hour 21.60- 29.00 25.20
$45.00/hour used for repairs to mainline, drainage, etc.


(OVER)











Table 8-A.-A listing of 1998 custom rates reported by thirty-two ridge citrus caretakers (cont'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments

REMOVING TREES:
Tree Shearing (Cutting Tree at Ground Level) Hour $42.50- $55.00 $ 50.00 Average trees sheared: 10 to 25 trees/hour
Front End Loader Hour 42.50- 55.00 48.08 Average trees removed: 5 to 15 trees/hour

Bulldozer: Averaged $60/hour, Semi-Tractor and Low Boy Trailer: $55/hour

PRUNING:
General Pruning (Rehab) Per Tree S 3.00- $ 5.00 $ 3.81 Depending upon trees/acre requiring pruning
Power Saw with Operator Hour 15.00- 20.00 16.21 Plus transportation
Power Saw without Operator Hour 5.50- 8.00 6.28 One reporting $35/day
Limb Lifter/Tree Skirt Trimmer (Double Sided) Hour 160.00 Cover 9-18 acres one pass
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Mounted) Hour 55.00- 80.00 70.00 Cover 2-5 acres/hour
Double Side (Tractor Pulled) Hour 80.00- 82.50 81.25 Cover 3-5 acrea/hour
Double Side (Self Propelled) Hour 275.00- 335.00 312.00 Cover 10-20 acres/hour depending on wood size
Double Side (Self Propelled) Hour 200.00- 235.00 212.00 Cover 4-12 acres/hour depending on wood size
Topping:
Tractor Pulled Hour 95.00- 100.00 98.75 Cover 1-3 acres/hour
Self Propelled Hour 315.00- 380.00 356.25 Cover 5-10 acres/hr (Roof Top); 5-20 acres/hr (Flat Top)
Double Boom (Self Propelled) Hour 550.00 Cover 2-12 acret/hr (Roof Top); 15-30 acrea/hr (Flat Top)
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove Hour 25.00- 34.50 29.09 Tractor-trailer/truck, driver plus 1 person
Front-end Loader (Push Brush) Hour 42.50- 55.00 46.75 2-10 acres/hour
Chop/Mow Brush Hour 25.00- 35.00 30.18 3-6 acres/hour

BANK AND UNBANK TREES:
Hand Labor Hour $ 9.00- $15.00 $10.45 Labor plus transportation; Bank/unbank @ 60C per tree
Mechanical Hour 24.50- 28.00 25.61 Install wraps; Average 38C per wrap

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:
Plant Resets Per Tree $ 1.50- $3.00 $ 2.24 Stake, plant and first watering
Solid Set Planting Per Tree 1.00- 1.50 1.25 Stake, plant and first watering
Travel/Setup Charge Hour 25.55 Average for those reporting
Grove Management Charge/Month:
Supervising Grove Care Operations Acre 2.00- 4.50 2.81 In addition to caretaking charges; one reporting $100/month
Handling Fruit Marketing Box 0.10- 0.25 0.14 5% of gross
Supervising/Handling Chemicals/Fertilizer 10% to 20% of materials cost; Average $2.50/acre
One reporting 1% WPS/Environmental Charge on all activities except labor

Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to: Acre 350- 13,036 2,461 Total acres reporting: 59,056


Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer; supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of caretakers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.


SmuF : Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, June 1998.









Table 9-A.--1998 summary of average chemical price estimates
Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


Fungicides:


Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Carbamate 76WP
Copper (Champ)
Nu-Cop 50DF
Oil 435 or 455
Ridomil 5G
Ridomil (Gold)


Insecticides/Nematicides:


Admire
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Bacillus thuringienses
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Cygon 4 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 50WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion 5 E
Metasystox-R
Micromite 25WP
Microthiol 80DF
Nemacur 15G
Nexter 75WP
Sevin 80S
Sevin XLR
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Temik 15G
Thiolux 80 DF
Vendex 50W


9.52
15.91
1.31
1.91
12.54
3.80
1.76
1.84
1.99
4.59
614.36


528.70
603.68
9.25
31.90
77.68
8.85
40.70
32.70
30.83
8.09
36.79
7.16
44.45
1.90
24.08
61.82
31.26
0.67
3.79
7.38
4.26
24.97
3.65
305.00
3.07
0.65
15.06


gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
ton
lb.
lb.
lb.


-------~---------~I








Table 9-A.--1998 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)

Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


Herbicides: DeVine
Devrinol 50WP
Direx 4L
Direx 80 DF
Eptam 7-E
Fusilade DX
Goal
Gramoxone (Paraquat)
Hyvar X
Karmex
Krovar I
Princep (Caliber 90)
Princep 4L
Prowl
Rodeo (30 gal drum)
Roundup (30 gal drum)
Roundup Ultra
Simazine 90 DF
Simazine 4L
Solicam 80 DF
Surflan AS
Torpedo 1E
Touchdown
Treflan
Growth Regulators:
Pro-Gibb 3.91%
Tre-Hold


pt.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
gal.


20 oz.
gal.


Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%)
Manganese (32%)
Zinc (78%)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Nutritional Spray Mix:
Goemar BM 86
Goemar MZ 63
Sequestrene 138 FE
Peter's 20-20-20 Foliar (25 lb bag)
Dyna Gold MZF


lb.
lb.
lb.
gal.

gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.


73.25
7.83
19.76
3.98
31.34
126.77
86.72
36.38
16.35
4.12
10.68
3.35
14.65
27.63
102.33
43.94
49.30
2.85
13.67
13.66
58.45
52.38
71.07
32.90

39.02
74.29


0.74
0.33
0.73
14.82

28.50
30.50
10.45
0.44
7.38


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1998.








Table 10-A.--1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)


FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant)
Slow Release (Young Tree)*
Osmocote: 18-4-12
Meister: 17-6-12
Sulfur Coated/Polymer Coated Urea (42% N)
Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3m
17-4-17-2.4
16-0-16
16-0-16-44,
16-2-16-3
15-2-12-2.4M
12-2-12-2.4
8-8-8 w/minors**
8-4-8 w/minors**
8-2-8 w/minors**
6-6-6 w/minors**
Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8
8-4-8
9-3-9
9-4-9
10-0-10
10-2-10
12-0-6
12-3-6


1,372.67
1,562.00
357.00


182.14
179.92
159.26
174.43
174.89
163.39
145.11
138.28
132.54
127.75
125.70


120.28
121.88
125.38
129.60
120.15
128.54
132.37
138.80


*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.
**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 25% higher.


---------------~1111I







Table 10-A.--1998 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)


Average Your Price
Item Unit Price (1997-98)

Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk)
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 136.12
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 190.88
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 111.71
Calcium Nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N) ton 183.70
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO3, 36% MgCO3) ton 12.65
High Cal Lime ton 6.50
Muriate of Potash (60% K20) ton 154.00
Potassium Nitrate (14% N; 46% K20) ton 363.91
Sul-Po-Mag (SPM--21.9% K20) ton 172.00
Super Phosphate (20% P205) ton 143.27
Triple Superphosphate (48% P205) ton 202.69
Average Delivery Cost ton 12.04


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, June 1998.









Table 11 -A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, North Florida area
Cost Per Acre
Range Average
$ $
Land Cost' 2,500-4,500 3,450
Land Preparation (clearing, disking, leveling) 275- 7002 350
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton 35
Super Phosphate, 400 lbs. 30
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler with Well3 850-1,650 1,350
-- without Well 525-1,250 975
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 35- 80 50
Time in Months 3- 8 6
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 90%- 97% 95%
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 10% 5%
North Florida
Year
1 2 3 4

Solidset Planted Trees4 ---------------- Cost Per Tree ----------------
Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance $0.37 $0.45 $0.55 $0.65
Fertilize Tree 0.25 0.40 0.55 0.57
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29
Spray 0.42 0.55 0.65 0.75
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.00
Sprouting (labor) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00
Cultivation/Mowing 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Herbicide 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Ridomil/Aliette 0.35 0.35 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous 0.43 L0.49 0.47 0.47
Total Cost Per Year $3.27 $3.74 $3.57 $3.58
Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs) $2.13 $2.47 $1.84 --
Cost of Planting Trees5 Solidset = $6.75 Reset = $8.05

'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

21ncludes fumigation cost of $330 per acre.

'Irrigation costs include distribution system, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported
also included a cost for fertigation equipment.

*The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be
decreased for higher density plantings and increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease
costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets); and insulated tree wrap
= $2.25.


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, March 1990.








Table 12-A.--Estimated cost of planting and maintaining a reset citrus tree through three years of age,
1996

Number of Resets/Replacement Trees Per Acre
1-2 3-5 6-10 11-25 26+
------- Cost Per Tree ---------------

Year #1: $ $ $ $ $
Tree Removal 5.21 4.53 3.62 2.93 2.34
Tree Cost (Container Tree) 4.00 4.00 3.75 3.75 3.75
Site Preparation" 5.12 4.44 3.76 3.48 2.73
Plant Tree and First Watering 2.37 2.05 1.73 L.1 L26
Total Planting Cost 11.49 10.49 9.24 8.84 7.74
Supplemental Fertilization 4 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.26 1.10 1.01 0.92 0.84
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.45 0.39 0.36 0.33 0.30
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.21 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Tree Wrap (Corrugated) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Sprouting/Pruning 0.38 0.38 0.35 0.35 0.32
Miscellaneous 0.16 0.15 0.14 0.14 0.13
Supervision & Overhead 0.26 0.24 023 2 0.20
Total Tree Care Cost Year #1 3.72 3.44 3.25 3.10 2.92
Total Cost Year #1 20.42 18.46 16.11 14.87 13.00
Year #2:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 1.70 1.51 1.32 1.12 1.02
Supplemental Spraying (Application & Materials) 0.52 0.46 0.40 0.34 0.31
Spot Herbicide (Application & Materials) 0.20 0.18 0.16 0.14 0.13
Sprouting/Pruning 0.45 0.45 0.38 0.38 0.34
Miscellaneous 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09
Supervision & Overhead 023 020 018 J6 014
Total Cost Year #2 3.24 2.93 2.55 2.24 2.03
Year #3:
Supplemental Fertilization 3 Times
(Application & Materials) 2.31 2.06 1.77 1.51 1.28
Miscellaneous 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.06
Supervision & Overhead Ml 0.16 JAL4 0.J2 0.1
Total Cost Year #3 2.61 2.32 2.00 1.71 1.44
Total Three-Year Cumulative Costs 2627 23.71 20.66 1882 16.47

'Site preparation for bedded citrus grove; cost of root removal, rotovating/leveling tree planting site.
Fumigate planting site would cost approximately $2.50 per tree.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, November 1996.






28

Table 13-A.-A listing of estimated comparative Central Florida (Ridge) citrus production costs per acre for 1997-98'

Costs represent a mature (10+ years old) Low Cost Reduced Cost Typical/Historical
Central Florida (Ridge) Orange Grove. Processed Processed/Fresh Fresh Fruit
S Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program


PRODUCTION/CULTURAL COSTS:
Weed Management/Control:
Discing (2 times per year)
Mechanical Mow Middles (4 times per year)
General Grove Work (2 labor hours per acre)
Herbicide (1/2 tree acre treated):
Application (2 applications)
Material
Spot Treatment (material/application)
Total Herbicide Cost
Spray
Post Bloom: Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Post Bloom Cost
Summer Oil: Application (250 GPA)
Material
Total Summer Oil Cost
Supplemental Fall Miticide:
Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Supplemental Fall Miticide Cost
Fertilizer (Bulk): 3 Applications
Material (16-0-16-4 MgO @ 180 lbs N
per acre and 204 lbs N per acre)
Total Fertilizer Cost
Dolomite (one ton applied every 4 years)
Material/Application
Pruning: Topping ($35.63/A 2.5 yrs)
Remove Brush from Trees after Topping
($20.57/A 2.5 yrs)
Hedging ($31.20/A + 2 yrs)
Chop/Mow Brush after Hedging ($9.96/A-2 yrs)
Total Pruning Cost
Tree Replacement-1 thru 3 years of age: (3 trees/acre)
Remove Trees: Pull, Stack & Burn 3 Trees with
Front-end Loader
Prepare Site & Plant Tree (includes 3 reset trees)
Supplemental Fertilizer, Tree Wraps Maintenance,
Sprout, etc. (Trees 1-3 years)
Total Tree Replacement Cost

Irrigation: Microsprinkler System

IRRIGATED PROCESSED FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS

Fall Miticide: Application (150 GPA)
Material
Total Fall Miticide Cost

IRRIGATED FRESH FRUIT PRODUCTION COSTS


$ 19.00
39.00
20.90


$23.72
67.79
1262





30.16
06.l


110.13


97.29


22.52


130.52

8.83


14.25

8.23
15.60
4.98


13.59
25.47

29.50


43.06


68.56

130.38

$ih~u


$19.00
39.00
20.90


$23.72
82.33
1&62


26.30
64.99

30.16
44.88


124.67



91.29


75.04


22.52

122.40


14.25

8.23
15.60
A4.9



13.59
25.47


26.30
33.14


144.92


43.06






68.56

130.38




59.44
12,AA
$U 2


$ 19.00
39.00
20.90


$23.72
82.33
18.62


26.30
64.99

30.16
44.88


26.30
10.80

22.52

122.4


14.25

8.23
15.60
.98



13.59
25.47

29.5





26.30
33.14


124.67



91.29


75.04



37.10


144.92

8.83


43.06


68.56

130.38





59.44
s$862.1


'The listed estimated comparative costs are for the example grove situation described in the Economic Information Report Series
entitled:"Budgeting Costs and Returns for Central Florida Citrus Production" and may not represent your particular grove situation
in Central Florida.

SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, University of Florida-IFAS, Citrus Research and Education Center, Lake Alfred, FL.








Table 14-A.-Historic prices* for selected citrus varieties
Variety
Early and Seedless grapefruit'
mid'-season Late season Temple All
Crop year oranges oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (colored)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91

1991-92
1992-93
1993-94
1994-95
1995-96
1996-97f


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
1.38
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
5.38

5.44
3.23
3.76
3.25
3.91
3.61


$1.81
3.50
4.45
2.28
1.79
1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91
2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63
4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58
6.65
3.88
4.61
4.41
5.81
4.26


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
2.22
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
5.34
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.31
6.51
2.99
2.73
3.47
4.42
3.06


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
2.37
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45
6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.10
18.00
13.75
9.83
11.98
12.72
7.92


$3.36
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
1.39
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
3.29
3.90
2.87
3.92
3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
6.31
5.10
6.11
7.16
3.31
2.38
2.64
4.01
2.54


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
1.39
0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
2.27
2.06
1.58
1.55
1.29
1.49
1.47
2.21
3.12
3.46
1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
4.33
5.21
4.59

6.46
2.22
3.23
2.58
2.39
0.99


$0.86
1.81
2.54
1.82
1.64
0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
2.53
2.12
2.59
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22
2.80
3.20
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
6.30
6.85

6.87
3.11
3.38
1.66
1.95
1.43


"On-tree average price per box (1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul
charges.


bNavel and Hamlin
"Parson Brown and Pineapple


'Preliminary


'Marsh (white) or pink


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.


r












Table 15-A.--Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(years) 8.0% 8.5% 9.0% 9.5% 10.0% 10.5% 11.0% 11.5% 12.0% 12.5% 13.0% 13.5% 14.0% 14.5% 15.0%

1 926 922 917 913 909 905 901 897 893 889 885 881 877 873 870
2 1,783 1,771 1,759 1,747 1,754 1,724 1,713 1,701 1,690 1,679 1,668 1,657 1,647 1,636 1,626
3 2,577 2,554 2,531 2,509 2,487 2,465 2,444 2,423 2,402 2,381 2,361 2,341 2,322 2,302 2,283
4 3,312 3,276 3,240 3,204 3,170 3,136 3,102 3,070 3,037 3,006 2,974 2,944 2,914 2,884 2,855
5 3,993 3,941 3,890 3,840 3,791 3,743 3,696 3,650 3,605 3,561 3,517 3,475 3,433 3,392 3,352
6 4,623 4,554 4,486 4,420 4,355 4,292 4,230 4,170 4,111 4,054 3,998 3,942 3,889 3,836 3,784
7 5,206 5,119 5,033 4,950 4,868 4,789 4,712 4,640 4,564 4,492 4,423 4,355 4,288 4,224 4,160
8 5,747 5,639 5,535 5,433 5,335 5,239 5,146 5,056 4,968 4,882 4,799 4,718 4,639 4,562 4,487
9 6,247 6,119 5,995 5,875 5,759 5,646 5,537 5,431 5,328 5,228 5,132 5,038 4,946 4,858 4,772
10 6,710 6,561 6,418 6,279 6,145 6,015 5,889 5,768 5,650 5,536 5,426 5,319 5,216 5,116 5,019
11 7,139 6,969 6,805 6,647 6,495 6,348 6,207 6,070 5,938 5,810 5,687 5,568 5,453 5,341 5,234
12 7,536 7,345 7,161 6,984 6,814 6,650 6,492 6,341 6,194 6,054 5,918 5,787 5,660 5,538 5,421 o
13 7,904 7,691 7,487 7,291 7,103 6,923 6,750 6,583 6,424 6,270 6,122 5,979 5,842 5,710 5,583
14 8,244 8,010 7,786 7,572 7,367 7,170 6,982 6,801 6,628 6,462 6,302 6,149 6,002 5,861 5,724
15 8,559 8,304 8,061 7,828 7,606 7,394 7,191 6.997' 6,811 6,633 6,462 6,299 6,142 5,992 5,847
16 8,851 8,576 8,313 8,062 7,824 7,596 7,379 7,172 6,974 6,785 6,604 6,431 6,265 6,106 5,954
17 9,122 8,825 8,543 8,276 8,022 7,779 7,549 7,329 7,119 6,920 6,729 6,547 6,373 6,207 6,048
18 9,372 9,056 8,756 8,471 8,201 7,945 7,702 7,470 7,250 7,040 6,840 6,649 6,467 6,294 6,128
19 9,603 9,268 8,950 8,650 8,365 8,095 7,839 7,596 7,366 7,146 6,938 6,739 6,551 6,370 6,198
20 9,818 9,463 9,129 8,812 8,514 8,231 7,963 7i1,2 7,469 7,241 7,025 6,819 6,623 6,437 6,259
25 10,675 10,234 9,823 9,438 9,077 8,739 8,422 8,123 7,843 7,579 7,330 7,095 6,873 6,663 6,464
30 11,258 10,747 10,274 9,835 9,427 9,047 8,868 8,364 8,055 7,766 7,496 7,242 7,003 6,778 6,566
35 11,655 11,088 10,567 10,087 9,644 9,234 8,855 8,503 8,175 7,870 7,586 7,320 7,070 6,836 6,617
40 11,925 11,315 10,757 10,247 9,779 9,348 8,951 8,587 8,244 7,928 7,634 7,361 7,105 6,866 6,642


'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5% interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).





*