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 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Acknowledgements
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Main
 Reference
 Addenda














Budgeting costs and returns
ALL VOLUMES CITATION SEARCH THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00026157/00017
 Material Information
Title: Budgeting costs and returns
Series Title: Economic information report
Portion of title: Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida citrus production
Budgeting costs and returns for for <sic> Central Florida citrus production
Physical Description: v. : ; 27 cm.
Language: English
Creator: University of Florida -- Food and Resource Economics Dept
Publisher: Food and Resource Economics Dept., Agricultural Experiment Stations and Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Creation Date: 1993
Frequency: annual
regular
 Subjects
Subjects / Keywords: Citrus fruit industry -- Economic aspects -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus fruits -- Marketing -- Periodicals -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: governmental publication   ( marcgt )
serial   ( sobekcm )
 Notes
General Note: Title varies slightly: <1992-93>- Budgeting costs and returns for Central Florida Citrus Production.
General Note: Description based on: 1978-79; cover title.
 Record Information
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000313320
oclc - 08042638
notis - ABU0053
lccn - sn 82000631 /g
System ID: UF00026157:00017

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front cover
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgements
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Reference
        Page 10
    Addenda
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
Full Text































































100
F637fe
1993/9.

















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are
presented for the nineteenth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central
Florida citrus area refers primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be
used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the
costs presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee,
Hillsborough, Lake and Orange counties.

The budget cost items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used
by growers--e.g., chemical mowing, new spray materials, higher rates of fertilization,
microsprinkler irrigation, more reset trees, etc. Therefore, the revised costs shown
may be higher than reported in previous years.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation. Therefore, all
equipment costs are based on the average custom rate costs and a 10 percent handling
and supervision charge added to the material cost.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representa-
tive for a mature Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed. For
example, extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the
tree replacement and care costs; travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of citrus
grove and distance from grove equipment barn and could add as much as $24.37 per
acre; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.













>i .-.. ..: . : j

















ABSTRACT


Estimated costs and returns of growing round oranges in the Central Florida citrus area are
presented for the nineteenth consecutive year. Due to the freezes of the 1980's, the Central
Florida citrus area refers primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. The format presented may be
used by individual growers to budget costs and returns, utilizing individual data on specific groves.

Key words: citrus, Central Florida, budgeting, costs and returns.

NOTE: Central Florida production area refers to Polk and Highlands counties. However, the
costs presented in this report are applicable to other counties such as Hardee,
Hillsborough, Lake and Orange counties.

The budget cost items have been revised to reflect current grove practices being used
by growers--e.g., chemical mowing, new spray materials, higher rates of fertilization,
microsprinkler irrigation, more reset trees, etc. Therefore, the revised costs shown
may be higher than reported in previous years.

The budget costs in this report represent a custom-managed operation. Therefore, all
equipment costs are based on the average custom rate costs and a 10 percent handling
and supervision charge added to the material cost.

Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representa-
tive for a mature Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a
specific grove site may differ depending upon the grove practices performed. For
example, extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza could substantially increase the
tree replacement and care costs; travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of citrus
grove and distance from grove equipment barn and could add as much as $24.37 per
acre; etc.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Appreciation is extended to Mrs. Jane Wilson for typing the final draft of this manuscript.

Appreciation is also extended to the citrus growers and production managers of the Central
Florida citrus production area who provided suggestions for the revision of this manuscript.













>i .-.. ..: . : j

















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ABSTRACT ........................................................ i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................. i

LIST OF TABLES ....................................................... iii

INTRODUCTION .................................. .................... 1

METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION ........................................ 1

COSTS AND INPUTS .................................................... 1

THE GROVE SITUATION ................................................ 2

BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS ......................................... 4

HISTORICAL COST TRENDS ............................................. 6

REFERENCES ........................................ ................. 10

ADDENDA ............................................................ 11


NOTE: The ADDENDA includes a Listing of Grove Care Programs for
Central Florida Citrus Production for Both Round Oranges and
Grapefruit; 1994 custom rate summary report; cost of establishing a
citrus grove; etc. Page 11 is a list of the tables included in the
ADDENDA.



















ii


L

















LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida
citrus grove, 1993-94 ............................................ 3

2 Calculation of normal production per acre, 1993-94 ...................... 4

3 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange
grove producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1993-94 ...... 5

4 Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges
grown for the processed juice market under three cultural cost programs,
1993-94 ....................................................... 7

5 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and
returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus for processing
in the Central Florida area, 1989-90--1993-94 ........................... 8

6 Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns
(adjusted to 1994 dollars) for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing citrus
for processing in the Central Florida area, 1989-90--1993-94 ............... 9










BUDGETING COSTS AND RETURNS FOR CENTRAL
FLORIDA CITRUS PRODUCTION, 1993-94


Ronald P. Muraro, G. Tim Hurner, Jr. and Thomas W. Oswalt


INTRODUCTION


Budget analysis provides the basis for many grower decisions. Budget analysis can be used
to calculate potential profits from an operation, to determine cash requirements for an operation,
and to determine break-even prices. This report presents a budget constructed from current data
and serves as a format for growers to analyze costs and returns from their individual records.
During the 1980's, several freezes occurred which changed the character of the Central Florida
citrus production area. The December 1983 and January 1985 freezes caused extensive tree and
acreage losses in the north central counties such as Lake and Orange counties. The December
1989 freeze resulted in severe tree damage and tree loss in North and Central Polk County. Also,
fruit loss was extensive during the 1989-90 season with approximately 30 percent of the Valencia
fruit crop in Polk and Highlands counties destroyed. Thus, Central Florida in this report refers
primarily to Polk and Highlands counties. Budgets for rehabilitating or replanting citrus groves
where extensive tree damage or loss has occurred are presented and discussed in a separate report.


METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION


The data presented here were developed by surveying custom operators, input suppliers,
growers, and colleagues at the Citrus Research and Education Center in Lake Alfred. The survey
is conducted annually in February and March.


COSTS AND INPUTS


Costs for various production inputs are those collected from citrus growers as well as the
average of the data obtained from annual custom rate, chemical, and fertilizer surveys. Growers'






RONALD P. MURARO is Associate Professor of Food and Resource Economics and
Extension Farm Management Economist stationed at the Citrus Research and Education Center,
Lake Alfred. G. TIM HURNER, JR. is County Extension Director in Highlands County, Sebring.
THOMAS W. OSWALT is Extension Agent, Citrus in Polk County, Bartow.










costs are shown in the ADDENDA, Table 1-A through 8-A. The custom rate costs are shown in
Table 9-A and the various chemical and fertilizer costs are shown in Table 10-A and 11-A in the
ADDENDA. The budget costs represent a custom-managed operation. Therefore, all equipment
costs are based upon the average custom-rate costs and a 10 percent handling and supervision
charge is added to the material cost.
Although brand names are used in many of the tables in the ADDENDA, this does not
imply endorsement by the University of Florida. It is merely an attempt to depict typical
production practices.
All tables have a column reserved for the individual growers to insert data from a particular
grove. This will allow a comparison of the grower's costs with those presented.


THE GROVE SITUATION


Production practices for a Central Florida round orange grove are shown in Table 1 with
times during the year when they would likely be performed. There are two benefits to developing
such a table for an individual grove. First, it shows what work is needed and when, so that
operations can be planned well in advance. Second, it can be helpful if an annual cash flow
analysis is developed to plan financing. The individual grower may benefit from developing a plan
for a particular grove.
Specific production practices vary from grove to grove making it difficult to define a "typical"
grove. Many combinations of practices and various tree variety combinations produce acceptable
yields and returns. Although the example represents a Valencia orange grove, the cost and return
data are designed to be applicable to most grove situations. A grower, realtor, or land appraiser
can substitute individual grove costs and expected returns into the budget format and develop a
budget for a particular grove. A "your cost" column is appropriately provided for this purpose in
subsequent tables.
In the following budget, above noted average management and cultural practices are
assumed. Beyond this general assumption, the following specifics are assumed.


1. A 20+ year-old, permanent overhead-irrigated grove;
2. Variety is Valencia round orange;
3. Tree loss is 3 percent annually;
4. Trees are pulled and replaced when production falls below
50 percent of expected yield;
5. Production is for processed use;
6. Tree density is 78 trees per acre; and
7. Custom-caretaker is providing grove management.









Table I.--Schedule of production practices and budget items for a Central Florida citrus grove, 1993-94'

Month

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec


20%
deposit

X


Total revenue:


Less: Pick & haul cost

DOC advertisement tax

Grove expenses:

Disc


50%
Partial
payment


Final
payment


X


Chop

Mow X X X

Labor, general grove work, pull vines X X

Herbicide (1/2 grove acre equivalent) X X

Spray. Post bloom/nutritional X

Summer oil/greasy spot X

Fall miticide X

Supplemental miticide

Dust

Fertilizer 70# N/A 70# N/A 70# N/A Dolomite

Hedging and topping Hedge

Brush removal/chop brush Chop brush

Tree removal X

Young tree care X X X X X

Microjet irrigation (times/week) 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 1 1

Miscellaneous

Grove taxes including water management X

Interest expense X

Annual principal payment on mortgage X

'This is a suggested schedule of practices. Actual practices would not necessarily be done on the exact schedule shown here.











As a result of tree losses and replacement, the tree ages will vary. The budget reflects the
following age distribution:


3%
3%
3%
3%
3%
45%
3%
37%


Situation
pulled and reset
1 year old
2 years old
3 years old
4 years old
5-19 years old
producing 50% of expected yield
mature producing


Boxes/tree
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.6
0.9
4.6
4.0
8.0


Calculation of normal production per acre is shown in Table 2. Note that the proportion-of-
trees-by-age column only adds to 91 percent since 9 percent of the trees are non-bearing.



Table 2.--Calculation of normal production per acre, 1993-94

Boxes Total
Age of Tree Trees /tree boxes

Total no. Proportion No. ea.
all ages ea. age age ---------- No. --------
3 years 78 x 0.03 = 2.3 x 0.6 = 1.38
4 years 78 x 0.03 = 2.3 x 0.9 = 2.07
5-19 years 78 x 0.45 = 35.1 x 4.6 = 161.46
Prod. 50% of
exp. yield 78 x 0.03 = 2.3 x 4.0 = 9.20
20 years 78 x 0.37 = 28.9 x 8.0 = 231.20
Total boxes = 405.31


'Proportion adds up to 0.91 (91 percent) as 9 percent
and reset, 1 and 2 year old trees; see page 4).


of the trees were non-bearing (pulled


BUDGET COSTS AND RETURNS


The estimated budget costs and returns for the Central Florida grove situation are shown in
Table 3. The budgeted costs represent one possible citrus production program and were selected
from the costs shown in the ADDENDA tables. The gross revenue estimates are based on the







Table 3.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove producing for the processed market, Central Florida area, 1993-94'

Item Description Amount Your cost


405 boxes @ $4.75b


--------------------- Dollars ---- -----------

1,923.75


II. Expenses'

Weed control
Mow middles
General grove work/sprouting
Herbicide (Table 2-A, Program #1, #2 & #8)
Spray program (Table 1-A, Programs #1, #6 & #12)
Fertilizer (Table 3-A, Program #3)
Dolomite (Table 7-A, Program #1)
Pruning (maintenance)
Topping
Remove brush from trees
Hedging
Mow brush
Tree replacement and care
Remove trees/stack/burn
Prepare sites and plant resets
Water resets
Supplemental fertilizer, tree wraps, maintenance,
sprout, Ridomil/Aliette, etc.
Microsprinkler irrigation (Table 8-A, Program #3)
Total grove care expenses

II. Management

IV. Total specified costs'

V. Return to land, trees, and ownership

VI. Break-even price for total grove care expenses

Boxes per acre

300 350 400 450 500

$ On-tree price per box


5 times per year
(2 labor hours per acre)





($356.57/hr. + 10.0 A/hr.) + 2.5 yrs.
(S18.01/A + 2.5 yrs.)
($326.67/hr. + 10.0 A/hr.) + 2 yrs.
($10.75/A + 2 yrs.)
(1 through 3 years)
3 trees per acre
Including 3 trees per acre
(Average 5 waterings)

Including application


47.10
2036
123.98




14.26
7.20
1633
538

17.40
21.25
8.25

24.66


$4.00 per acre per month


191.44
212.23
134.07
1254




43.17






71.71
127.79
792.95

48.00

840.95


Boxes per acre

300 350 400 450 500

$ Delivered-in rice oer oound solids'


0.70 0.64


'Although the estimated annual per acre grove costs shown in Table 3 are representative for a mature Central Florida Valencia orange grove, the grove care costs for a specific grove site may differ depending upon the
grove practices performed; e.g., a Temik application would add $138.87 per acre; extensive tree loss due to blight or tristeza would double the tree replacement and care costs; travel and set-up costs may vary due to size of
citrus grove and distance from grove equipment barn.
'On-tree price per box is preliminary; assumes price for processed oranges only.
'Assumes material custom applied; therefore, a 10 percent handling and supervision charge is added to material cost.
'Other methods to estimate a management cost--e.g., 5% of gross revenue or 10% of total grove care costs-are used in the industry. Other selected methods will give a different return to land and trees than reported
here.
'Other cost items which are not included in the budget are ad valorem taxes and interest on grove investment. In addition to these cost items, overhead and administrative costs, such as water drainage/district taxes, crop
insurance, and other grower assessments, can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs. These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, and time of purchase or grove establishment.
'Assumes 6.5 pounds solids per box and $1.90 pick and haul cost per box.


I. Revenue










projected yields in Table 3 and estimated preliminary on-tree prices for the 1993-94 season.
Historical on-tree prices for selected Florida citrus varieties are shown in Table 13-A of the
ADDENDA.
As shown in Table 3, the total revenue for processed-market Valencia oranges is estimated to
be $1,923.75 per acre. Total specified costs are $840.95 and are comprised of grove care costs of
$792.95, plus management cost of $48.00. Return to land and trees of $1,082.80 represents net return
above variable costs. The break-even price required to cover grove care costs for Valencia oranges
range from $2.64 to $159 per box on-tree and $0.70 to $0.53 per pounds solids delivered-in at 300
and 500 boxes per acre, respectively.
Ad valorem taxes, and overhead and administrative costs (such as water drainage district taxes,
crop insurance, and other grower assessments) can add up to 12 percent to the total grove care costs.
These costs vary from grove to grove depending on age, location, variety of fruit, etc. and should be
considered in arriving at net return to land, trees and ownership (total return minus total costs).
Harvest costs (pick, roadside, and hauling costs) also add to the total fruit cost delivered to either a
processing plant or fresh fruit packinghouse. Also, average annual debt payment (principal and
interest) may be as high as $530 per acre ($4,500 average debt per acre @ 10 percent interest
amortized over 20 years) which would reduce total available cash for grove expansion or other
investment.
An estimated "delivered-in" cost which includes the above mentioned additional costs (cultural/
production costs, management and regulatory costs and harvesting costs) is shown in Table 4. The
"delivered-in" cost is presented as a cost per acre, per box, and per pound solids. Three possible
budget cost scenarios are presented: 1) Typical/Historical Processed/Fresh Cultural Program; 2)
Reduced Cost Processed/Fresh Cultural Program; and 3) Low Cost Processed Cultural Program. The
first scenario represents typical costs of grove practices which have been performed during the 1980's
and early 1990's. Scenarios 2 and 3 represent costs of two possible cultural programs directed toward
reducing the expenditures during a low on-tree fruit price year. Modified spray and fertilizer
programs account for the reduced costs. NOTE: Before modifying a grove management program to
reduce costs, an evaluation of the market program (processed or fresh), yield, and specific cultural
problems (nutrition, disease, etc.) for the specific grove site should be made.


HISTORICAL COST TRENDS


Annual budgets of costs and returns for mature, processed Valencia oranges in the Central
Florida area have been developed and published the past four years. Estimated cost and return
histories for 1989-90 through 1992-93 along with 1993-94, and a five-year average are presented in
Table 5. To allow comparisons in current values, these same costs and returns, adjusted to 1994
dollars, are presented in Table 6.









Table 4.--Estimated total delivered-in cost for Central Florida (Ridge) Valencia oranges grown for the processed juice market under three cultural cost
programs, 1993-94
Processed Valencia Oranges Processed Valencia Oranges Processed Valencia Oranges
Typical/Historical Reduced Cost Low Cost
Cultural Program Cultural Program Cultural Program

$/Acre S/Box $P.S. $/Acre $/Box $/P.S. $/Acre S/Box $/P.S.

Total Production/Cultural Costs $792.95 $1.958 $0.3012 $719.19 $1.776 $0.2732 $650.14 $1.605 $0.2470

Interest on Operating (Cultural) Costs 39.65 0.098 0.0151 35.96 0.089 0.0137 32.51 0.080 0.0123

Management Costs 48.00 0.119 .0.0182 48.00 0.119 0.0182 48.00 0.119 0.0182

Taxes/Regulatory Costs:
Property Tax 68.80 0.170 0.0261 68.80 0.170 0.0261 68.80 0.170 0.0261
Water Drainage 23.88 0.059 0.0091 23.88 0.059 0.0091 23.88 0.059 0.0091

Total Taxes/Regulatory Costs 92.68 0.229 0.0352 92.68 0.229 0.0352 92.68 0.229 0.0352

Total Direct Grower Costs $ 973.28 $2.403 $0.3697 $ 895.83 $2.212 $0.3403 $ 823.33 $2.033 $0.3128

Interest on Average Capital Investment Costs 389.40 0.961 0.1479 389.40 0.961 0.1479 389.40 0.961 $0.1479

Total Grower Costs $1,362.68 $3.365 $0.5176 $1,285.23 $3.173 $0.4882 $1,212.73 $2.994 $0.4607

Harvesting Costs:
Pick, Roadside and Haul 769.50 1.900 0.2923 769.50 1.900 0.2923 769.50 1.900 0.2923

Total Delivered-In Cost 2132.18 5.265 $0.8099 $ 73 5.073 $0.780 $1.982.23 $4.894 $0.7530


P.S. = Pound Solids Refer to cultural program No fall miticide spray; fertilizer Only summer spray with oil,
shown in Table 3. reduced to 180 pounds of copper, and Agri-mek;
Yield: 405 boxes/acre @ 6.5 P.S. per box nitrogen per acre. fertilizer reduced to 150
pounds of nitrogen per acre.










Table 5.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns for a mature, Valencia orange grove
producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida area, 1989-90--1993-94


On-tree Gross Total grove Total specified Net return to land,
Year price/box" Yield revenue care expenses costs trees, and ownership
------------------------------------------ Dollars -------------------------------------

1989-90 $6.34 284c 1,850.56 758.00 806.00 1,044.56

1990-91 $6.99 405 2,830.95 78355 831.55 1,999.40

1991-92 $7.03 405 2,847.15 798.89 846.89 2,000.26

1992-93 $3.30 405 1,336.50 789.21 837.21 499.29

1993-94 $4.75b 405 1,923.75 792.95 840.95 1,082.80

5-yr. avg. $5.68 381 2,164.08 784.52 832.52 1331.56

'On-tree prices for processed oranges only as reported by the Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.
bPreliminary estimate by authors at time of printing and is not a published price.
'Normal expected yield was reduced 30% due to December 1989 freeze.
dA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included.










Table 6.--Estimated annual per acre costs and returns and 5-year average costs and returns (adjusted to 1994 dollars) for a mature,
Valencia orange grove producing citrus for processing in the Central Florida area, 1989-90--1993-94


Inflation On-tree Gross Total specified Net return to land,
Year factor index' price/box Yield revenue costsb trees, and ownership
------------------------------ Dollars ----------------------
1989-90 103.4 $6.56 284c 1,863.04 833.40 1,029.64

1990-91 103.3 $7.22 405 2,924.10 858.99 2,065.11

1991-92 102.6 $7.21 405 2,920.05 868.91 2,051.14

1992-93 101.2 $3.34 405 1,352.70 847.26 505.44

1993-94 100.0 $4.75 405 1,923.75 840.95 1,082.80

5-yr. avg. -- $5.82 381 2,217.42 849.90 1,367.52

'Producer price index for each year adjusted to 1994 prices (1994 = 100), with 1994 consumer price index estimated to be 120.3.
Producer price index for other years are: 1990 = 116.3; 1991 = 116.5; 1992 = 117.2; and 1993 = 118.9.

bA management cost of $4.00 per acre per month is included. Fixed costs such as taxes, debt service, and crop insurance are not
included. (Refer to Table 5.)


cNormal expected yield was reduced 30% due to December 1989 freeze.










REFERENCES


1. Citrus Summary 1992-93. Florida Agricultural Statistics Service. Florida Agricultural Statistics.
Jan. 1994.

2. Florida Citrus Spray Guide 1994. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP 43. Gainesville: Jan. 1994.

3. Koo, R. C. J., editor. Recommended Fertilizers and Nutritional Sprays for Citrus. Univ. of
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 536D. Gainesville: March 1984.

4. Muraro, Ronald P. "A Listing of Estimated Comparative Central Florida (Ridge) Citrus
Production Costs Per Acre for 1993-94." Lake Alfred Citrus Research and Education Center
(CREC) Report. Lake Alfred, FL: May 1994.

5. "Cost for Establishing, Planting, and Maintaining a Citrus Grove through Four Years
of Age, North Florida Area." Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: March 1990.

6. "A Listing of 1994 Custom Rates Reported by Thirty-six Ridge Citrus Caretakers."
Lake Alfred CREC Report. Lake Alfred, FL: May 1994.

7. and John L Jackson. Ten-year Analysis for Rehabilitation of Freeze Damaged Citrus
Groves. Univ. of Fla., Food and Resource Econ. Staff Paper 270. Jan. 1985.

8. and J. Fred Kurras. "Estimating the Damage to Citrus Trees and Resulting Value Loss
Due to the January, 1982 Freeze," Florida Food and Resource Economics No. 39 (Mar.-Apr.
1982). Univ. of Fla.: Gainesville.

9. Savage, Zach. Citrus Yields Per Tree Age. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. 60-8. Gainesville:
1960.

10. Tucker, D. P. H., A. K. Alva and L. K. Jackson (eds.). Nutrition of Florida Citrus Tree
Growth, Fruit Yield and Environmental Considerations. Univ. of Fla. Coop. Ext. Svc. SP _
Gainesville. 1994. In Press.







11



ADDENDA: Listing of Grove Care Programs for Central Florida Citrus Production for Both
Round Oranges and Grapefruit'

Page

Table 1-A. Spray programs ............... ............................... 12

Post bloom spray .................................................. 12
Summer spray .............. ........................... ........ 13
Fall spray .................................................... 14

Table 2-A. Herbicide .................................................... 15

Table 3-A. Dry fertilizer .................................................. 17

Table 4-A. Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application) ........................... 18

Table 5-A. Fertigation ................................................... 19

Table 6-A. Nem aticides ................................................... 19

Table 7-A. Soil amendment ............................................... 20

Table 8-A. Irrigation--annual cost per acre .................................... 20

Permanent overhead ............................................ 20
Microsprinkler ............................................... 20

Table 9-A. A listing of 1994 custom rates reported by thirty-six Ridge citrus caretakers ... 21

Table 10-A. 1994 summary of average chemical price estimates ..................... 23

Table 11-A. 1994 summary of average fertilizer price estimates ...................... 25

Table 12-A. Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four
years of age, North Florida area ................................... 27

Table 13-A. Historic prices for selected citrus varieties ............................ 28

Table 14-A. Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity ....... 29


B = Boron Mg = Magnesium
Cu = Copper Mn = Manganese
Fe = Iron Zn = Zinc


'The costs in the ADDENDA represent a custom managed operation. Therefore, all equipment
costs are based upon the average custom rate costs and a 10 percent handling and supervision charge
is added to the material cost.











Table 1-A.--Spray programs


POST BLOOM SPRAY


Spray Program #1


Spray Program #2


Spray Program #3


Spray Program #4


Materials/Ingredients

Ethion
Cu (50% metallic)
Zn
Mn

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% copper)
Zn
Mn
Kelthane MF
Spray Buffer

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Cu (50% copper)
Morestan 25WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 50WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$27.19
14.79
4.13
3.63

28.11


$77.85


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

10 lbs
5 lbs
10 lbs
6 pts
2.5 pts

250 gals


Cost/Acre

$14.79
4.13
3.63
37.69
1.84

28.11


$90.19


Amount
/Acre

15 lbs
2.5 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$22.11
35.20

28.11


$85.42


Amount
/Acre

2 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$45.94

28.11


$74.05


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

POST BLOOM SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #5
(Scale insects)


SUMMER SPRAY


Spray Program #6


Spray Program #7


Spray Program #8


Materials/Ingredients
Lorsban 4EC

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil 97+%
Cu (50% material)
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Oil
Ethion

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients
Oil 97+%
Agri-Mek
Cu (50% material)

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

7 pts

500 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$41.97

31.25


$73.22


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
7 lbs
6.0 pts

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$11.94
10.32
27.19


28.11


$77.56


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
6 pts

500 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$11.94
27.19

31.25


$70.38


Amount
/Acre

5 gals
10 ozs
7 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$11.94
51.59
10.32

28.11


$101.96


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

SUMMER SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #9


Materials/Ingredients

Kelthane MF
Cu
Oil
Spray Buffer

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


FALL SPRAY


Spray Program #10


Spray Program #11


Spray Program #12


Materials/Ingredients

Dicofol 4EC
Spray Buffer

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Kelthane MF
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Materials/Ingredients

Vendex 50WP

Ground Application
(engine driven)

Total per Application


Your
Cost/Acre


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
7 lbs
5 gals
2.5 pts

500 gals


Cost/Acre

$37.69
10.32
11.94
1.84

31.25


$93.04


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
2.5 pts

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$38.10
1.84

28.11


$68.05


Amount
/Acre

6 pts
1 pt

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$37.69
2.11

28.11


$67.91


Amount
/Acre

1.25 lbs

250 gals


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$28.71

28.11


$56.82


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 1-A.--Spray programs (cont'd.)

FALL SPRAY (cont'd.)


Spray Program #13


Materials/Ingredients

Sulfur (Dust)

Ground Application

Total per Application


Table 2-A.--Herbicide


Herbicide Program #1

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #2

(Strip/band)


Materials

Solicam 80 DF
Karmex WP
Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Surflan A80 DF
Simazine 4L
Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre
3 lbs
4 lbs
2 qts
2 pts


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$22.53
9.52
11.24
2.11

11.69


$57.09


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts
4 qts
2 qts
2 pts


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$15.36
8.14
11.24
2.11

11.69


$48.54


Herbicide Program #3

(Strip/band)


Materials

Karmex WP
Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

4 lbs
2 qts
2 pts


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$ 9.52
11.24
2.11


11.69


$34.56


Amount
/Acre

50 lbs


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 9.08

7.79

$16.87


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #4

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #5

(Strip/band)


Materials

Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Materials

Krovar I
Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts
2 pts

40 gals


Cost/
Grove Acre*

$11.24
2.11

11.69


$25.25


Amount/
Treated Acre

5 lbs
2 qts
2 qts

40 gals


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$25.19
11.24
2.11


11.69


$50.23


Herbicide Program #6

(Strip/band)


Herbicide Program #7

(Strip/band)


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


2 qts
4 lbs
2 pts

40 gals


Roundup
Princep (Caliber 90)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Materials Treated Acre


Direx 4L
Solicam
Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)

Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


3 qts
3 lbs
2 qts
1 qt

50 gals


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$11.24
7.46
2.11

11.69


$32.20


Cost/
Grove Acrea

$8.61
22.52
11.24
2.11


11.69


$56.17


"With respect to herbicide materials, Amount Per Grove Acre does not equal Amount Per Treated
Acre shown on the label as only a strip or band is being treated. In this report, it is assumed that only
50% or one-half of a grove acre is being treated.


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 2-A.--Herbicide (cont'd.)


Herbicide Program #8

(Spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth
under trees.)


Materials

Roundup
Adjuvant (Surfactant)


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 qts
2 pts


15 gals


Cost/
Grove Acre"

$11.24
2.11


5.00


$18.35


Herbicide Program #9

(Spot herbicide for
grass/brush regrowth
under trees.)


Materials

Poast
Crop Oil


Amount/
Treated Acre

2 pts
1 pt


Cost/
Grove Acre*

$14.40
0.34


Ground Application
(1 time)

Total for 1 Application


Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer


Program #1

(162 lbs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #3

(212 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

12-2-12-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

16-0-16-4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


Your Cost/
Grove Acre


15 gals


5.00


$19.74


Cost/Acre

$ 96.53


Your
Cost/Acre


21.84

$118.37


Amount
/Acre

1350 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1325 lbs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$107.25

21.84

$129.09


Cost/Acre

$112.23

21.84

$134.07


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --










Table 3-A.--Dry fertilizer (cont'd.)


Program #4

(225 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

15-2-15-2.4 MgO

Application

Total for 3 Applications


Table 4-A.--Liquid fertilizer (Double boom application)


Program #1

(180 Ibs N/Acre)


Program #2

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Program #3

(180 lbs N/Acre)


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-0-10

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-2-10

Double Boom Application

Total for 3 Applications


Analysis/Material
Applied

10-0-10
Solicam 80 DF
Karmex WP

Double Boom Application

Total for 2 Applications


*Treated acre


Amount
/Acre

1500 lbs

3 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$112.20

21.84

$134.04


Amount
/Acre

1800 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1800 lbs

3 times


Amount
/Acre

1800 lbs
3 lbs*
4 lbs*

2 times


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$ 89.10

30.00

$119.10


Cost/Acre

$106.92

30.00

$136.92


Cost/Acre

$ 89.10
22.52
9.51

20.00

$141.13


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--------------------------------------------------------------------


. -- -- ::3










Table 5-A.--Fertigation


Program #1

(Supplemental)


Program #2

(Supplement







Program #3
(Exclusive)


Analysis/Material
Applied
10-0-10

Application

Total per Application


Analysis/Material
Applied
8-2-8

Application

Total per Application


al)


Amount
/Acre

400 lbs


Amount
/Acre

750 lbs


Cost/Acre
$19.80

8.61

$28.41


Cost/Acre
$37.13

8.61

$45.74


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre
8-2-8 2000 lbs $ 97.90

Application 16.12

Total per Application $114.02


Table 6-A.--Nematicides


Analysis/Material
Applied

Temik 15G

Application

Total per Application


Program #1









Program #2









Program #3


Amount
/Acre
33 lbs


Cost/Acre

$129.95

11.93

$141.88


Analysis/Material Amount
Applied /Acre Cost/Acre

Nemacur 15G 67 lbs $242.54

Application 11.93

Total per Application $254.47


Analysis/Material
Applied

Nemacur 15G

Application
Total per Application


Amount
/Acre

50 lbs


Cost/Acre

$181.00

11.93

$192.93


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre








Your
Cost/Acre


----------------------------------------- -----'-----"----"----------










Table 7-A.--Soil amendment


Program #1

(Every 3 years)


Program #2

(Every year)


Analysis/Material
Applied

Dolomite (Delivered)

Application

Total for 1 Application

(Average 1/3 Ton Applied/Yr)


Analysis/Material
Applied

Dolomite (Delivered)

Application

Total per Application


Table 8-A.--Irrigation--annual cost per acre


PERMANENT OVERHEAD


Operating


Maintenance of System

Total Cash Expenses

Fixed Depreciation Expense

Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


Program #1

$ 66.90
(Electric)

30.85

$ 97.75

55.73

$153.48


Your
Cost/Acre


MICROSPRINKLER


Operating


Maintenance of System

Total Cash Expenses

Fixed Depreciation Expense

Total Cash and Fixed Expenses


Program #3

$ 32.38
(Electric)

42.74

$ 75.12

52.94

$128.06


Your
Cost/Acre Program #4

$ 28.49
(Diesel)

42.74

$ 71.23

56.56

$127.79
.........................................


Amount
/Acre

1 ton

1 time


Amount
/Acre

1000 Ibs


Your
Cost/Acre










Your
Cost/Acre


Cost/Acre

$30.17

7.44

$37.61

$12.54


Cost/Acre

$15.09

7.44

$22.53


Your
Cost/Acre


Program #2

$ 55.82
(Diesel)

30.85

$ 86.67

59.54

$146.21


Your
Cost/Acre


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


--- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --- -- --


----------------------------------------------'-----------------------


,










Table 9-A.-A listing of 1994 custom rates reported by thirty-six Ridge citrus caretakers

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate' Comments


CULTIVATION AND EQUIPMENT:
Hand Hoe/Hand Labor
Tractor/Equipment Operator Labor
Rotovate
Disc 7
Disc 7'
Disc 9-10'
Disc 9-10'
Chop
Chop
Mow 5'-7
Mow 10-11'
Mow
Herbicide' (Strip/Band--Single Boom)
Herbicide" (Strip/Band--Single Boom)
Herbicide' (Strip/Band--Double Boom)
Herbicide' (Trunk-to-Trunk)
Herbicide (Trunk-to-Trunk)
Herbicide' (Chemical Mow)
Temik/Nemacur"
Plow
Deviner
Pickup Truck with Driver
Pickup Truck without Driver
Flatbed Transport Truck
Tractor without Driver
Tractor with Driver
Water/Supply Truck


Hour S &50- $14.95
Hour 9.00- 15.00
Hour 24.50- 35.00
Hour 21.50- 30.00
Acre 850- 9.00
Hour 22.00- 30.00
Acre 625- 9.40
Hour 22.00- 32.10
Acre 7.25- 11.00
Hour 22.00- 30.00
Hour 26.25- 35.00
Acre 6.25- 1125
Hour 22.00- 30.45
Acre 10.00- 15.00
Acre 10.00- 14.00
Hour 27.00- 30.00
Acre 10.00- 15.50
Acre 5.00- 10.00
Acre 10.00- 13.50
Hour 21.60- 30.00
Hour 25.00- 30.00
Hour 14.50- 26.80
Hour 10.50- 17.50
Hour 21.50- 30.00
Hour 12.00- 1800
Hour 21.00- 30.00
Hour 20.50- 30.00


$10.18 Plus transportation
11.51
27.49
24.24
8.33 One-way discing
26.68
7.44 One-way discing; Avg. $1033 two-way discing
26.20
861 One-way chopping; Avg. $10.25 two-way chopping
25.92
28.66
9.42
26.67 Plus materials
11.69 Plus materials
11.50 Plus materials; Avg. $2875/hour
28.68 Plus materials
13.24 Plus materials
7.92 Plus materials
11.93 Plus materials
26.27
26.11
20.76 One reporting 606/mile--Avg. miles/year/pickup: 18,000
13.59 Short trip transportation (10 miles or less) -- $10/day
2636 One reporting $1.00/mile--Avg. miles/year: 18,667
15.65 Tractor rental only
23.86
25.22


Semi-Truck with Driver--$50/hour; Pickup Truck--$50/day; Transport Truck--$75/day


SPRAYINGJ
Tree-See Air Blast Sprayer


-- 87.50 Includes 2 workers and all equipment

AIR BLAST SPRAYER


Engine Driven PTO Powered

Acre 25.00- 38.00 31.25 22.00- 34.00 28.75
Acre 24.00- 33.00 28.11 20.00- 31.00 25.47
Acre 22.00- 27.00 23.80 17.50- 25.00 20.00
Acre -- -- 15.00- 19.50 1733


Aerial (Fixed Wing)

DUSTINGf
Ground Application
Ground Application

FERTILIZE AND SOIL AMENDMENTS?
Inject Liquid Fertilizer into Irrigation System
Liquid Boom Application:
Double Boom
Dry (Bulk)
Lime or Dolomite
Lime or Dolomite
Fertilize Young Trees? Hand Spread
Fert. Spreader

IRRIGATION:

Permanent Overhead
Microsprinkler

3-Wheel ATV
4-Wheel ATV
Ring Young Trees: Hand Labor
Mechanical


Fixed Wing: $3.75/acre @ 5 GPA; $750/acre @ 10 GPA; $10.5/acre @ 15 GPA; $13.00/acre @ 20 GPA


Hour $22.80- $26.00 $ 23.96 Plus materials
Acre 7.50- 8.00 7.79 Plus materials


Acre $3.00- $3.50 $ 3.25

Acre 10.00
Acre 5.50- 12.00 7.28
Acre 6.50- 12.00 7.44
Ton 7.00- 12.00 867 Haul and spread-Average $2850/ton
Hour 8.50- 14.95 10.18 Plus transportation
Hour 20.60- 30.00 25.41 Plus materials


Avg. $2.25/acre; Avg. $11.17/section
Avg. $2.63/acre; Avg. $11.23/section


Start and supervision
Start and supervision


Hour 13.50- 19.00 16.48 Check/repair microsprinkler irrigation system--plus materials
Hour 15.00- 22.50 17.03 Check/repair microsprinkler irrigation system-plus materials; Avg. $75/day
Hour 8.50- 14.95 10.18 Labor plus equipment
Hour 25.00- 37.50 28.78


(OVER)


500 GPA
250 GPA
125 GPA
100 GPA


Hour









Table 9-A.--A listing of 1994 custom rates reported by thirty-six Ridge citrus caretakers (cont'd.)

Range of Rate Average
Grove Practice Unit Reported Rate Comments


REMOVING TREES:
Tree Shearing (Cutting Tree at Ground
Level)
Front End Loader

PRUNING:
General Pruning (Rehab)
Power Saw with Operator
Power Saw without Operator
Hedging:
Single Side (Tractor Pulled)
Single Side (Tractor Mounted)
Double Side (Tractor Pulled)
Double Side (Self Propelled)
Topping:
Tractor Pulled
Self Propelled
Double Boom (Self Propelled)
Removing Brush:
Haul Brush out of Grove
Front-end Loader (Push Brush)
Chop/Mow Brush
Chop/Mow Brush

BANK AND UNBANK TREES:
Hand Labor
Mechanical

OTHER CUSTOM RATES:
Plant Resets
Solid Set Planting
Tree Digger
Rubber Tire--4X4 Backhoe
Mechanic Labor
Grove Management Charge/Month:
Supervising Grove Care Operations
Handling Fruit Marketing
Supervising/Handling Chemicals/Fertilizer

Total Reported Acreage Provided Grove
Service to:


Hour $ 55.00 Average trees sheared: 10 to 25 trees/hour
Hour 37.50- 55.00 46.37 Average trees removed: 5 to 15 trees/hour


Per Tree 3.25- $ 4.00 $ 3.63 Depending upon tree/acre requiring pruning
Hour 13.50- 20.95 15.90 Plus transportation
Hour 5.00- 6.00 535


Hour
Hour
Hour
Hour


-- 40.00 Cover 2-4 acres/hour
55.00- 75.00 65.00 Cover 2-5 acres/hour
55.00- 82.50 70.83 Cover 3-5 acres/bour
310.00- 340.00 326.67 Cover 15-20 acres/hour depending on wood size


Hour 100.00 Cover 1-3 acres/hour
Hour 305.00- 390.00 356.67 Cover 5-10 acres/hour
Hour 495.00 Cover 2-10 acres/hour (Roof Top)

Hour 27.00- 40.00 31.78 Tractor-trailor/truck, driver plus 1 person
Hour 37.50- 50.00 47.05
Hour 23.50- 42.00 29.57 3-6 acres/hour
Acre 9.00- 12.00 10.75


Hour $ 8.50- $ 14.95 $10.18 Labor plus transportation; Bank/unbank @ 600 per tree
Hour 18.60- 25.00 22.73


Per Tree $ 2.00- $ 3.00 $ 2.40 Stake, plant and first watering
Per Tree 1.00- 1.50 1.25 Stake, plant and first watering
Hour -- 25.00
Hour 40.00
Hour 20.00- 35.00 27.56 Includes truck


2.00- 5.00 3.41 In addition to caretaking charges
0.15- 0.25 0.17 4.5% of gross
S 2.00 10% to 15% of materials cost


400- 12,527 2,807 Total acres reporting: 53,342


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, Lake Alfred CREC, May 1994.


"Plus materials. Caretakers reporting rates include labor, tractor and sprayer; supply truck included by most caretakers.

'Calculated by dividing the total number of caretakers reporting a grove practice rate into the sum reported. Unless otherwise stated, labor included with all charges.








Table 10-A.--1994 summary of average chemical price estimates


Average
Item Unit Price


Fungicides:


Aliette 80WP
Benlate
Basic Copper Sulfate (53%)
Cupric Hydroxide (50%)
Copper (50%) (Kocide 101)
Copper (40%) (Kocide 606)
Copper (40%) (Champ)
Oil 435
Oil 455
Ridomil 2E
Ridomil 5G


Insecticides/Nematicides:
Admire
Agri-Mek (0.15EC)
Bacillus thuringienses
Biovector
Carzol 92 SP
Comite 6.55 EC
Cygon 4 EC
Dicofol 4 EC
Eclipse
Ethion
Guthion 2L
Guthion 50WP
Kelthane MF
Logic Bait
Lorsban 4EC
Lorsban 15G
Malathion
Metasystox-R
Methyl Bromide 98/2
Morestan 25WP
Nemacur 3EC
Nemacur 15G
Sevin 80S
Sulphur 6F
Sulphur Dust
Supracide 2 EC
Temik 15G
Thiolux
Vapam
Vendex 50W
Vendex 4L


13.15
16.25
1.34
1.97
1.99
12.57
11.55
2.17
2.22
144.96
4.30


600.00
584.00
18.70
300.00
28.98
76.90
31.82
46.12
52.00
32.97
28.17
7.25
45.71
6.67
43.60
1.82
16.88
47.00
0.92
12.80
62.61
3.29
4.22
3.95
330.00
43.59
3.58
0.68
5.75
20.88
158.48


gal.
gal.
gal.
box
lb.
gal.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
ton
gal.
lb.
lb.
gal.
lb.
gal.


(Continued on Reverse Side)







Table 10-A.--1994 summary of average chemical price estimates (cont'd.)
Average
Item Unit Price


Herbicides:


Devrinol 50WP
Direx 4L
Fusilade 2000 1E
Goal
Gramoxone (Paraquat)
Hyvar X
Karmex
Krovar I
Krovar II
Poast
Princep (Caliber 90)
Princep 4L
Prowl
Rodeo (30 gal drum)
Roundup (30 gal drum)
Simazine 90 DF
Simazine 4L
Solicam
Surflan AS
Torpedo 1E
Touchdown


Growth Regulators:
Citrus Fix
Pro-Gibb 3.91%
Tre-Hold


Other Spray Materials:
Borates (15%)
Manganese (32%)
Zinc (78%)
Adjuvant (Surfactant)
Nutritional Spray Mix
Ferri Plus 138
Goemar
MZF
NutraLeaf (20-20-20)
Sequestrene 138 FE
Peter's 27-15-12 Foliar
Key Plex 350
Dyna Gro Citrate 779


7.51
20.86
69.10
72.85
37.86
14.12
4.32
9.16
10.81
104.71
3.34
14.92
31.00
98.21
40.89
3.57
14.83
13.65
55.80
48.83
60.61


510.22
32.58
74.10


0.64
0.33
0.75
15.38

7.00
29.00
6.58
0.56
10.38
0.61
16.50
7.00


gal.
20 oz.
gal.


University of


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist,
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1994.







Table 11-A.--1994 summary of average fertilizer price estimates


Average
Item Unit Price

FERTILIZER (FOB Price @ Plant) $
Slow Release (Young Tree)*
IBDU: 8-4-8 (N) ton 293.00
10-3-7 (N) ton 410.00
Osmocote: 17-6-9 (NPK) ton 1,949.00
ESCOTE: 19-6-12 (NPK) ton 1,524.00
Nutralene/Hydrolene (N 40%) ton 647.50
Sulfur Coated Urea (30%-40% N) ton 350.00
Dry Mix (Bulk)
17-0-17-3M, ton 149.33
17-4-17-2.4M, ton 157.00
16-0-16 ton 124.50
16-0-16-2.4M, ton 133.00
16-0-16-4mg ton 153.00
16-2-16-11-8Mg ton 138.00
16-2-16-3M ton 152.50
15-2-12-2.4m ton 136.10
12-2-12-2.4,* ton 130.15
8-8-8 w/minors** ton 128.60
8-4-8 w/minors** ton 125.50
8-2-8 w/minors** ton 119.50
6-6-6 w/minors** ton 114.00
Liquid Mix (Bulk)
8-2-8 ton 89.00
8-4-8 ton 104.00
9-3-9 ton 101.00
9-4-9 ton 111.00
10-0-10 ton 90.00
10-2-10 ton 108.00
12-0-6 ton 110.00
12-3-6 ton 125.00

*Slow Release Elements are indicated in parenthesis.

**With organic nitrogen, the price averaged 25% higher.


(Continued on Reserve Side)







Table 11-A.--1994 summary of average fertilizer price estimates (cont'd.)

Average
Item Unit Price

Other Fertilizer Materials (Bulk) $
Ammonium Nitrate (21% N Liquid) ton 105.00
Ammonium Nitrate (33.5% N Dry) ton 146.00
Ammonium Sulfate (21% N) ton 124.33
Calcium Nitrate (19% Ca, 15.5% N) ton (bags) 191.67
Dolomite (at mine--49% CaCO,, ton 18.00
36% MgCO3)
Gypsum (20%-28% Ca) ton 17.75
High Cal Lime (36%-39% Ca) ton 15.50
Muriate of Potash (42% K) ton 117.33
Potassium Nitrate (14% N) ton 273.00
Super Phosphate (8% P) ton 127.00
Triple Superphosphate (19% P) ton 137.67
Average Delivery Cost ton 12.17


SOURCE: Ronald P. Muraro, Extension Farm Management Economist, University of
Florida, IFAS, CREC, Lake Alfred, Florida, May 1994.









Table 12-A.--Cost for establishing, planting and maintaining a citrus grove through four years of age, North Florida area

Cost Per Acre

Range Average
$ $
Land Cost 2,500-4,500 3,450
Land Preparation (clearing, disking, leveling) 275- 7002 350
Soil Amendments: Dolomite 1 ton 35
Super Phosphate, 400 lbs. 30
Cover Crop 9- 16 12
Irrigation System: Microsprinkler -- with Well3 850-1,650 1,350
-- without Well 525-1,250 975
Water Permits, Environmental Studies, and Engineering: Cost 35- 80 50
Time in Months 3- 8 6
Percent Land Utilization: Planted to Citrus 90%- 97% 95%
Roads and Service Areas 3%- 10% 5%
North Florida
Year

1 2 3 4

Solidset Planted Trees -------------- Cost Per Tree -------------
Microsprinkler Irrigation and Ditch Maintenance $0.37 $0.45 $0.55 $0.65
Fertilize Tree 0.25 0.40 0.55 0.57
Supplemental Fertilization thru Irrigation 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.29
Spray 0.42 0.55 0.65 0.75
Insulated Tree Wrap (annual maintenance) 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.00
Sprouting (labor) 0.20 0.20 0.00 0.00
Cultivation/Mowing 0.40 0.40 0.40 0.40
Herbicide 0.45 0.45 0.45 0.45
Ridomil/Aliette 0.35 0.35 0.00 0.00
Miscellaneous 0.43 0.49 0.47 0.47
Total Cost Per Year $3.27 $3.74 $3.57 $3.58
Reset Trees (annual additional grove care costs) $2.13 $2.47 $1.84 --
Cost of Planting Trees5 Solidset = $6.75 Reset = $8.05

'Land cost will vary from one county to another as well as from one parcel to another.

2Includes fumigation cost of $330 per acre.

'Irrigation costs include distribution system, power unit and well (where indicated.) The higher cost ranges reported
also included a cost for fertigation equipment.

*The per tree costs shown are applicable for tree densities of 145 to 165 trees per acre. The per tree costs should be
decreased for higher density plantings and increased for lower density plantings; e.g., at 200 trees per acre decrease
costs by 15%; at 115 trees per acre increase costs by 15%.

'Tree cost (bare root) = $3.25; stake, plant, and water tree = $1.25 (solidset) and $2.55 (resets); and insulated tree wrap
= $2.25.


Source: Ronald P. Muraro, Farm Management Economist, CREC, Lake Alfred, FL, March 1990.









Table 13-A.--Historic prices' for selected citrus varieties

Variety

Earlyb and Late season Seedless grapefruit"
mid'-season oranges Temple
Crop year oranges oranges Tangerines Tangelos (white) (colored)


1961-62
1962-63
1963-64
1964-65
1965-66
1966-67
1967-68
1968-69
1969-70
1970-71
1971-72
1972-73
1973-74
1974-75
1975-76
1976-77
1977-78
1978-79
1979-80
1980-81
1981-82
1982-83
1983-84
1984-85
1985-86
1986-87
1987-88
1988-89
1989-90
1990-91


1991-92
1992-93'


$1.93
2.17
4.43
2.57
1.44
0.81
1.86
1.56
1.15
1.10
1.98
1.43
1.38
1.46
1.69
1.89
3.90
4.44
3.59
3.67
4.27
4.88
5.09
7.30
3.92
4.56
6.72
6.63
6.01
5.38


5.44
2.29


$1.81
350
4.45
2.28
1.79
1.08
2.28
1.83
1.13
1.91
2.11
1.71
1.59
1.82
1.88
2.63
4.40
4.95
3.89
4.63
4.29
5.41
6.72
6.88
3.97
6.02
8.73
8.41
6.53
6.58


6.65
3.26


$2.17
3.09
4.45
2.77
1.80
0.88
2.79
2.22
1.47
1.91
1.95
1.95
1.64
1.68
1.79
2.16
3.92
4.89
2.89
4.21
4.01
3.99
5.34
5.59
3.01
3.60
5.69
5.46
5.64
6.31


6.51
2.00


$2.04
3.02
3.18
2.68
2.14
1.06
4.29
2.55
2.23
1.88
2.97
2.37
2.82
3.05
3.02
3.29
4.79
4.99
4.25
5.45
6.23
7.57
5.93
15.91
12.69
10.92
12.99
12.64
15.28
17.10


18.00
13.61


$3.36
4.66
4.83
4.00
2.85
1.64
3.22
2.47
1.13
1.04
1.69
1.39
1.25
1.45
1.42
1.42
3.29
3.90
2.87
3.92
3.58
4.37
4.28
7.08
4.06
3.72
5.58
6.31
5.10
6.11


7.16
2.85


$0.68
1.29
2.24
1.51
1.39
0.73
2.05
0.98
1.72
1.89
2.27
2.06
1.58
1.55
1.29
1.49
1.47
2.21
3.12
3.46
1.92
1.51
2.08
3.02
3.56
4.45
5.35
4.33
5.21
4.59


6.46
2.06


$0.86
1.81
254
1.82
1.64
0.94
2.48
1.15
1.92
2.15
2.69
2.53
2.12
2.59
2.23
2.04
2.09
3.13
3.80
4.22
2.80
3.20
4.05
4.84
4.98
5.80
5.93
4.71
6.30
6.85


6.87
3.12


'On-tree average price per box (1-3/5 bushel box equivalent) for all methods of sale minus pick and haul
charges.


bNavel and Hamlin
CParson Brown and Pineapple


'Preliminary


"Marsh (white) or pink


Source: Florida Agricultural Statistics Service.












Table 14-A.-Debt which can be supported per $1,000.00 annual payment capacity


Loan Interest rate paid on the loan
term
(years) 8.0% 85% 9.0% 95% 10.0% 105% 11.0% 115% 12.0% 125% 13.0% 135% 14.0% 145% 15.0%


926 922 917
1,783 1,771 1,759
2,577 2,554 2,531
3,312 3,276 3,240
3,993 3,941 3,890
4,623 4,554 4,486

5,206 5,119 5,033
5,747 5,639 5,535
6,247 6,119 5,995
6,710 6,561 6,418
7,139 6,969 6,805
7536 7,345 7,161

7,904 7,691 7,487
8,244 8,010 7,786
8559 8,304 8,061
8,851 8576 8,313
9,122 8,825 8543
9,372 9,056 8,756

9,603 9,268 8,950
9,818 9,463 9,129
10,675 10,234 9,823
11,258 10,747 10,274
11,655 11,088 10567
11,925 11,315 10,757


913
1,747
2,509
3,204
3,840
4,420

4,950
5,433
5,875
6,279
6,647
6,984

7,291
7572
7,828
8,062
8,276
8,471

8,650
8,812
9,438
9,835
10,087
10,247


909 905 901 897
1,754 1,724 1,713 1,701
2,487 2,465 2,444 2,423
3,170 3,136 3,102 3,070
3,791 3,743 3,696 3,650
4,355 4,292 4,230 4,170

4,868 4,789 4,712 4,640
5,335 5,239 5,146 5,056
5,759 5,646 5537 5,431
6,145 6,015 5,889 5,768
6,495 6,348 6,207 6,070
6,814 6,650 6,492 6,341


893
1,690
2,402
3,037
3,605
4,111

4,564
4,968
5,328
5,650
5,938
6,194


7,103 6,923 6,750 6,583 6,424
7,367 7,170 6,982 6,801 6,628
7,606 7,394 7,191 6,997' 6,811
7,824 7596 7,379 7,172 6,974
8,022 7,779 7,549 7,329 7,119
8,201 7,945 7,702 7,470 7,250

8,365 8,095 7,839 7596 7,366
8514 8,231 7,963 7,710' 7,469
9,077 8,739 8,422 8,123 7,843
9,427 9,047 8,868 8,364 8,055
9,644 9,234 8,855 8503 8,175
9,779 9,348 8,951 8,587 8,244


889 885 881 877 873 870
1,679 1,668 1,657 1,647 1,636 1,626
2,381 2,361 2,341 2,322 2,302 2,283
3,006 2,974 2,944 2,914 2,884 2,855
3,561 3,517 3,475 3,433 3,392 3,352
4,054 3,998 3,942 3,889 3,836 3,784

4,492 4,423 4,355 4,288 4,224 4,160
4,882 4,799 4,718 4,639 4562 4,487
5,228 5,132 5,038 4,946 4,858 4,772
5536 5,426 5,319 5,216 5,116 5,019
5,810 5,687 5568 5,453 5,341 5,234
6,054 5,918 5,787 5,660 5538 5,421

6,270 6,122 5,979 5,842 5,710 5,583
6,462 6,302 6,149 6,002 5,861 5,724
6,633 6,462 6,299 6,142 5,992 5,847
6,785 6,604 6,431 6,265 6,106 5,954
6,920 6,729 6,547 6,373 6,207 6,048
7,040 6,840 6,649 6,467 6,294 6,128

7,146 6,938 6,739 6,551 6370 6,198
7,241 7,025 6,819 6,623 6,437 6,259
7,579 7,330 7,095 6,873 6,663 6,464
7,766 7,496 7,242 7,003 6,778 6,566
7,870 7,586 7,320 7,070 6,836 6,617
7,928 7,634 7,361 7,105 6,866 6,642


'Example. Assumes a $10,000 after tax income at 11.5% interest rate and a 15-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $69,970
($6,997 x 10). At 11.5% interest rate and a 20-year term mortgage, the total debt which can be supported is $77,100 ($7,710 x 10).